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Sample records for africa highland bananas

  1. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    PubMed Central

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  2. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    PubMed

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  3. Multisensor monitoring of deforestation in the Guinea Highlands of West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilruth, Peter T.; Hutchinson, Charles F.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple remote sensing systems were used to assess deforestation in the Guinea Highlands (Fouta Djallon) of West Africa. Sensor systems included: (1) historical (1953) and current (1989) aerial mapping photography; (2) current large-scale, small format (35mm) aerial photography; (3) current aerial video imagery; and (4) historical (1973) and recent (1985) LANDSAT MSS. Photographic and video data were manually interpreted and incorporated in a vector-based geographic information system (GIS). LANDSAT data were digitally classified. General results showed an increase in permanent and shifting agriculture over the past 35 years. This finding is consistent with hypothesized strategies to increase agricultural production through a shortening of the fallow period in areas of shifting cultivation. However, results also show that the total area of both permanent and shifting agriculture had expanded at the expense of natural vegetation and an increase in erosion. Although sequential LANDSAT MSS cannot be used in this region to accurately map land over, the location, direction and magnitude of changes can be detected in relative terms. Historical and current aerial photography can be used to map agricultural land use changes with some accuracy. Video imagery is useful as ancillary data for mapping vegetation. The most prudent approach to mapping deforestation would incorporate a multistage approach based on these sensors.

  4. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Tripathi, Leena; Rusike, Joseph; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Objective To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Data Sources The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA. Analysis We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana. Results On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production. Conclusion The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries. PMID:26414379

  5. The Ecology of Anopheles Mosquitoes under Climate Change: Case Studies from the Effects of Environmental Changes in East Africa Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Afrane, Yaw A.; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa, and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis and O’nyong’nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in the climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area which may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. This experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles. PMID:22320421

  6. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. PMID:21029318

  7. Soils and their distribution on Bambouto volcanic mountain, West Cameroon highland, Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tematio, P.; Kengni, L.; Bitom, D.; Hodson, M.; Fopoussi, J. C.; Leumbe, O.; Mpakam, H. G.; Tsozué, D.

    2004-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical studies were carried out on soils of Mount Bambouto, a volcanic mountain of the West Cameroon highland. These studies show that the soils of this region can be divided into seven groups according to Soils Taxonomy USA [Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soils surveys: USDA Agriculture Handbook 436: Washington, DC, US Government Pronting Office, 1975, 754]: lithic dystrandept soils, typical dystrandept soils, oxic dystrandept soils, typical haplohumox soils, typical kandiudox soils, tropopsamment soils and umbriaquox soils. A soils map of this region at scale 1:50,000 has been drawn up, using the seven soils groups above as soil cartography units. These soils are organised into of three main categories: soils with andic characteristics in the upper region of the mountain (lithic dystrandept soils, typical dystrandept soils and oxic dystrandept soils); ferrallitic soils in the lower part of the mountain (typical haplohumox soils and typical kandiudox soils) and imperfectly developed soils (tropopsamment soils and umbraquox soils).

  8. Optimization of late blight and bacterial wilt management in potato production systems in the highland tropics of Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight and bacterial wilt are two formidable disease constraints on potato and account for significant losses in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).In this chapter, various management techniques for late blight and bacterial wilt diseases are highlighted and discussed with examples drawn from diverse res...

  9. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  10. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  11. Let's Go Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  12. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  13. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  14. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  15. The Banana Genome Hub

    PubMed Central

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  16. I Remember Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  17. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-07

    The content of {sup 40}K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  18. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  19. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  20. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic. PMID:22101927

  1. Highlander prompts pipeline innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Akten, H.T.

    1986-05-05

    Texaco North Sea UK Co.'s Highlander field was developed with innovative subsea engineering which helped bring the field onstream in an 18-month period. Among the engineering challenges met were the design and construction of the Highlander Pipeline System and especially the innovations evident in the first-ever subsea slug catcher and in the retrievable subsea pigging facilities. Located in 420 ft of water in Texaco's North Sea Block 14/20, Highlander is 8 miles west of Texaco's existing Tartan A production platform which stands in approximately 465 ft of water. To bring oil on-stream rapidly, thus maximizing early cash flow, the project was undertaken in two phases. The first phase consisted of one water injector and two producer wells connected to Tartan A via three 8-in. pipelines and associated flexible jumpers/risers. The remaining 4-in. and 12-in. pipelines were flooded with inhibited sea water and left on the seabed for approximately 1 year until commissioning for the project's second phase. All steel pipelines were trenched immediately after laying, and umbilicals were laid into certain of these trenches. Highlander's second phase included an innovative subsea production facility with such unique features as subsea slug catchers and retrievable subsea pigging facilities. Much of the technology involved was developed in Britain and will have worldwide application linking smaller marginal fields to existing platforms swiftly and in a cost effective manner.

  2. Prototheca associated with banana.

    PubMed

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats. PMID:4033739

  3. Creating Highlander Wherever You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan; Mullett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Highlander Research and Education Center serves as a catalyst for grassroots organizing and movement building. This article focuses on an interview with education coordinator Susan Williams who has worked at Highlander for 26 years. We discuss how others can and do create powerful popular education experiences anywhere, whether they have a…

  4. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  5. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  6. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  7. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    PubMed

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm. PMID:26805624

  8. Malaria in the African highlands: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S. W.; Martens, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the first European settlers in Africa sought refuge from the heat and diseases of the plains by moving to the cool and salubrious highlands. Although many of the highlands were originally malaria free, there has been a progressive rise in the incidence of the disease over the last 50 years, largely as a consequence of agroforestry development, and it has been exacerbated by scarce health resources. In these areas of fringe transmission where the malaria pattern is unstable, epidemics may be precipitated by relatively subtle climatic changes. Since there is little immunity against the disease in these communities, outbreaks can be devastating, resulting in a substantial increase in morbidity and death among both children and adults. We present here the results obtained using a mathematical model designed to identify these epidemic-prone regions in the African highlands and the differences expected to occur as a result of projected global climate change. These highlands should be recognized as an area of special concern. We further recommend that a regional modelling approach should be adopted to assess the extent and severity of this problem and help improve disease surveillance and the quality of health care delivered in this unstable ecosystem. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9615495

  9. Highland/Lowland contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The smooth plains of Elysium embay the blocky broken up highlands of Aeolis. The plains have been interpreted by researchers to be possibly mudflows or lava flows.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0.8, Longitude 170.8 East (189.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  10. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  11. 75 FR 60840 - Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application September 27, 2010.... Applicants: Highland Capital Management, L.P. (the ``Adviser'') and Highland Funds I (the ``Trust'' and... request, personally or by mail. Hearing requests should be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m....

  12. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Iyyakkutty; Uma, Subbaraya; Vaganan, Muthu Mayil; Mustaffa, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with “B” genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on “A” genome. In particular, bananas with “ABB” genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. PMID:23443573

  13. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  14. Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of seasonal persistence in highland malaria.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Amir S; Bouma, Menno J; Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K; Rothman, Dale S; Yadeta, Damtew; Sutton, Paul C; Pascual, Mercedes

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these 'unstable' malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected to where in space the disease is able to persist because of pronounced altitudinal gradients. Here, we explore other environmental and demographic factors that may contribute to malaria's highland reservoir. We use an extensive spatio-temporal dataset of confirmed monthly Plasmodium falciparum cases from 1995 to 2005 that finely resolves space in an Ethiopian highland. With a Bayesian approach for parameter estimation and a generalized linear mixed model that includes a spatially structured random effect, we demonstrate that population density is important to disease persistence during the low transmission season. This population effect is not accounted for in typical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease, but is consistent in part with a more complex functional form of the force of infection proposed by theory for vector-borne infections, only during the low season as we discuss. As malaria risk usually decreases in more urban environments with increased human densities, the opposite counterintuitive finding identifies novel control targets during the low transmission season in African highlands. PMID:26631558

  15. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals. PMID:18329185

  16. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  17. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context. PMID:22469234

  18. Generalized banana-drift transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1985-10-01

    The theory of tokamak ripple transport in the banana-drift and ripple-plateau regimes is extended in a number of directions. The theory is valid for small values of the toroidal periodicity number n of the perturbation, as well as for the moderate values (n approx. 10 to 20) previously assumed. It is shown that low-n perturbations can produce much greater transport than the larger-n perturbations usually studied. In addition, the ripple perturbation is allowed arbitrary values of poloidal mode number m and frequency ..omega.., making it applicable to the transport induced by MHD modes. Bounce averaging is avoided, so the theory includes the contributions to transport from all harmonics of the bounce frequency, providing a continuous description of the transition from the banana drift to the ripple-plateau regime. The implications of the theory for toroidal rotation in tokamaks are considered.

  19. Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M

    2014-03-01

    The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America. PMID:24604201

  20. Malaria in East African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.

    2012-01-01

    East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia and 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 and 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda and 2,838,000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained. PMID:22934065

  1. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4). PMID:26132832

  2. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the ''banana drift'' collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and consequently the resulting transport coefficients can differ by several orders of magnitude.

  3. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the banana drift collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and the resulting transport coefficients can consequently differ by several orders of magnitude.

  4. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  5. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  6. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  7. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  8. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  9. Malaria in Kenya's Western Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Omumbo, Judy A.; Snow, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Records from tea estates in the Kericho district in Kenya show that malaria reemerged in the 1980s. Renewed epidemic activity coincided with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria and may have been triggered by the failure of antimalarial drugs. Meteorologic changes, population movements, degradation of health services, and changes in Anopheles vector populations are possible contributing factors. The highland malaria epidemics of the 1940s were stopped largely by sporontocidal drugs, and combination chemotherapy has recently limited transmission. Antimalarial drugs can limit the pool of gametocytes available to infect mosquitoes during the brief transmission season. PMID:16229773

  10. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.159 Yorkville Highlands. (a) Name. The name of...

  11. A highland sample strategy for Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, Rene A.

    1994-01-01

    Potential landing sites are confined to latitudes between 0 deg and 30 deg N and surfaces below 0 km elevation. The landing ellipse is 100 x 200 km oriented N 74 deg E. The constraints essentially eliminate the slopes of Elysium Mons, Olympus Mons, Tharsis Ridge, Lunae Plaunum, all the southern highlands, and almost all the Noachian material of Arabia Terra. Those areas that remain as potential landing sites are chiefly lowland plains of Amazonis Chryse, Isidis, and Elysium Planitia. Any attempt to sample highland material further constrains the possible landing sites by eliminating areas of Hesperian or Amazonian lavas and sediments. One possible sampling strategy is to sample materials within those few 'highland' terrains that extend to low elevations. A second strategy is to sample materials at the mouth of an outflow channel that drains from the highlands. Potential landing sites include outflow channel material at the edge of Chryse Planitia and highland materials bordering southern Amazonis Planitia.

  12. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. PMID:20035549

  13. Negative differential resistance: Another banana?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Zhang, H.-F.; Shao, G.-Q.; Wu, B.-L.; Ouyang, S.-X.

    2014-10-01

    Just like the artefact found in ferroelectric hysteresis loops, the nearly identical NDR effect shown in Sr3Co2Fe24O41, TiO2, Al2O3, glass and even banana skins is confirmed to be a kind of water behavior. The combination of water-induced tunneling effect, water decomposition and absorption plays a crucial role in the NDR effect. The results and mechanism demonstrated here illustrate that much attention should be paid to the chemical environment when studying electrical properties of materials/devices.

  14. Quantitative Digital Imaging of Banana Growth Suppression by Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:23285286

  15. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:23285286

  16. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. PMID:24612254

  17. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Summary Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, bio-control agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21 mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar ‘Gonja manjaya’ (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic plants in the glass house for resistance against Xcm. About fifty percent of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. PMID:24612254

  18. Statistical differentiation of bananas according to their mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-10-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were determined in banana cultivars Gran enana and Pequeña enana cultivated in Tenerife and in cv. Gran enana bananas from Ecuador. The mineral concentrations in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the mineral concentrations except in the case of Fe. Variations according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors) and farming style (conventional and organic) in the mineral concentrations in the bananas from Tenerife were observed. The mineral concentrations in the internal part of the banana were higher than those in the middle and external parts. Representation of double log correlations K-Mg and Zn-Mn tended to separate the banana samples according to origin. Applying factor and cluster analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife, and therefore, these are useful tools for differentiating the origin of bananas. PMID:12358491

  19. Origins of agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Denham, T P; Haberle, S G; Lentfer, C; Fullagar, R; Field, J; Therin, M; Porch, N; Winsborough, B

    2003-07-11

    Multidisciplinary investigations at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea show that agriculture arose independently in New Guinea by at least 6950 to 6440 calibrated years before the present (cal yr B.P.). Plant exploitation and some cultivation occurred on the wetland margin at 10,220 to 9910 cal yr B.P. (phase 1), mounding cultivation began by 6950 to 6440 cal yr B.P. (phase 2), and ditched cultivation began by 4350 to 3980 cal yr B.P. (phase 3). Clearance of lower montane rainforests began in the early Holocene, with modification to grassland at 6950 to 6440 cal yr B.P. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) was utilized in the early Holocene, and bananas (Musa spp.) were intensively cultivated by at least 6950 to 6440 cal yr B.P. PMID:12817084

  20. Lunar highlands breccias generated by major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1977-01-01

    The processes that may have been involved in the formation of most of the major types of lunar breccias are discussed. Some of the types of highlands breccias that may have originated in large impacts are identified.

  1. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  2. Banana cultivars, cultivation practices, and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, I S; Mavromatis, A

    2009-02-01

    The physicochemical (pH, texture, Vitamin C, ash, fat, minerals) and sensory properties of banana were correlated with the genotype and growing conditions. Minerals in particular were shown to discriminate banana cultivars of different geographical origin quite accurately. Another issue relates to the beneficial properties of bananas both in terms of the high dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds, the latter being abundant in the peel. Therefore, banana can be further exploited for extracting several important components such as starch, and antioxidant compounds which can find industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, the various storage methodologies were presented with an emphasis on Modified Atmosphere Packaging which appears to be one of the most promising of technologies. PMID:18989831

  3. GPS constraints on broad scale extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca; Fisseha, Shimeles; Lewi, Elias; Floyd, Michael; King, Robert; Reilinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Measurements from GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift, and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea show that present-day finite strain rates throughout NE Africa can be approximated at the continent scale by opening on the MER. Most sites in the Ethiopian Highlands are consistent with the motion of the Nubian plate at the level of 1 mm/yr with 95% confidence. However, sites at least as far as 60 km west of the rift show higher velocities relative to the stable Nubian frame of 1-2 mm/yr, requiring a combination of localized and distributed deformation to accommodate the African extensional domain. Off-rift velocities are consistent with ongoing strain related to either high gravitational potential energy or intrusive magmatism away from midrift magmatic segments either on the western rift margin or within the Ethiopian Highlands, especially when combined with likely rheological differences between the Ethiopian Rift and Highlands. Velocities from the Somali Platform are less well determined with uncertainties and residuals from a Somali frame definition at the level of 2-3 mm/yr but without spatially correlated residuals.

  4. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  5. Postharvest quality of specialty bananas after irradiation for quarantine security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit quality and ripening of 'Dwarf Brazilian' ("apple") bananas were determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. The USDA-approved minimum absorbed dosage for banana exports from Hawaii is either 400 Gy with inspection for the presence of banana moth, or 150 Gy ...

  6. Chemistry of the Apollo 12 highland component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven chemical highland groups are identified in Apollo 12 fragments and a range of petrographic types is found. Among the chemical groups, four are newly recognized; one group is a very high-K KREEP-La at 520X with a -Eu anomaly at 50X, and the other three have positive anomalies as follows (1) a poikilitic/granulitic rock with La at 130X, (2) anorthosite with La at 30X and Eu at 90X, and (3) anorthosite with La at 12X and Eu at 25X. The Apollo 12 highland suite is dominated by high-K Kreep and is similar to the Apollo 12 highland suite is dominated by hign-K Kreep and is similar to the Apollo 14 highland suite. The presence of high-K Kreep explains the relatively high LIL contents in the Apollo 12 soils. The plutonic suite data exhibit a trend in Eu anomaly versus longitude. Several parent magmas are suggested to explain the wide variety of plutonic and other highland suites observed at the Apollo 11 and 12 sites.

  7. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  8. Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Clendennen, S K; May, G D

    1997-10-01

    During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene production triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of respiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant groups of differentially expressed mRNAs. Identification of these transcripts by partial sequence analysis indicates that two of the mRNAs encode proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas others encode proteins thought to be associated with pathogenesis, senescence, or stress responses in plants. Their relative abundance in the pulp and tissue-specific distribution in greenhouse-grown banana plants were determined by northern-blot analyses. The relative abundance of transcripts encoding starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase, chitinase, lectin, and a type-2 metallothionein decreased in pulp during ripening. Transcripts encoding endochitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, a thaumatin-like protein, ascorbate peroxidase, metallothionein, and a putative senescence-related protein increased early in ripening. The elucidation of the molecular events associated with banana ripening will facilitate a better understanding and control of these processes, and will allow us to attain our long-term goal of producing candidate oral vaccines in transgenic banana plants. PMID:9342866

  9. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  10. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey. PMID:16222791

  11. Chemistry of the Apollo 11 highland component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shearer, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight Apollo 11 lunar highland fragments from coarse fines 10085 have been subjected to petrologic and chemical study. Six major chemical groups are identified: (a) high-K KREEP; (b) anorthosite with a 10X chondrite positive Eu anomaly and anorthosite with 30X positive Eu anomaly; (c) ANT; (d) LKFM; (e) anorthositic gabbro with no Eu anomaly, with a positive Eu anomaly, and with a negative Eu anomaly; and (f) dominant Highland component, 2X-10X chondrite with a positive 10X-14X Eu anomaly. Newly recognized groups are presented based on the REE patterns: (a) ANT group with 5X La and a 22X positive Eu anomaly; (b) 10X flat with 14X positive Eu anomaly; and (c) 2-3X flat with a 10X positive Eu anomaly. The highland suite is very low in K and REE, and is overall quite similar to the Apollo 16 suite.

  12. Accuracy of satellite rainfall estimates in the Blue Nile Basin: Lowland plain versus highland mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Bitew, Menberu M.; Hirpa, Feyera A.; Tesfay, Gebrehiwot N.

    2014-11-01

    The demand for accurate satellite rainfall products is increasing particularly in Africa where ground-based data are mostly unavailable, timely inaccessible, and unreliable. In this study, the accuracy of three widely used, near-global, high-resolution satellite rainfall products (CMORPH, TMPA-RT v7, TMPA-RP v7), with a spatial resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 3 h, is assessed over the Blue Nile River Basin, a basin characterized by complex terrain and tropical monsoon. The assessment is made using relatively dense experimental networks of rain gauges deployed at two, 0.25° × 0.25°, sites that represent contrasting topographic features: lowland plain (mean elevation of 719 m.a.s.l.) and highland mountain (mean elevation of 2268 m.a.s.l.). The investigation period covers the summer seasons of 2012 and 2013. Compared to the highland mountain site, the lowland plain site exhibits marked extremes of rain intensity, higher mean rain intensity when it rains, lower frequency of rain occurrence, and smaller seasonal rainfall accumulation. All the satellite products considered tend to overestimate the mean rainfall rate at the lowland plain site, but underestimate it at the highland mountain site. The satellite products miss more rainfall at the highland mountain site than at the lowland plain site, and underestimate the heavy rain rates at both sites. Both sites have uncertainty (root mean square error) values greater than 100% for 3 h accumulations of <5 mm, or daily accumulations of <10 mm, and the uncertainty values decrease with increasing rainfall accumulation. Among the satellite products, CMORPH suffers from a large positive bias at the lowland plain site, and TMPA-RP and TMPA-RT miss a large number of rainfall events that contribute nearly half of the total rainfall at the highland mountain.

  13. DEBDOM: Database Exploring Banana Diversity of Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Warepam Amuchou; Gopalrao, Somkuwar Bharat; Gourshyam, Thingnam; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2013-01-01

    Being poor man's apple, banana has a wide popularity worldwide. It's one of the important horticultural crops used irrespective of rich and poor alike. Manipur along with the other states of Northeast India harboured with plenty of wild and cultivated species of banana that are not fully explored. A data base named DEBDOM has been developed here describing the diversity of banana resources of Manipur and it comprises twenty eight genotypes of Musaceae. The database DEBDOM provides a sophisticated web base access to the details of the taxonomy, morphological characteristics, utility as well as sites of collection of Musa genotypes, and it would have contribute as a potential gene pool sources for the conservation, sustainability as well as for crop improvement in the future breeding programmes. Availability http://ibsd.gov.in/debdom/ PMID:23516335

  14. Rock types present in lunar highland soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  15. Dissipation and residue of azoxystrobin in banana under field condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siwei; Sun, Haibin; Liu, Yanping

    2013-09-01

    A method was developed for determining azoxystrobin in banana and cultivation soil using gas chromatography. The dissipation and residue of azoxystrobin in banana fields at GAP conditions were investigated. The average recoveries ranged from 80.3 to 96.0 % with relative standard deviations of 2.9 to 7.2 % at three different spiking levels for each matrix. The results indicated that the half-life of azoxystrobin in bananas and soil ranged from 7.5 to 13.5 days in Guangdong and from 8.7 to 12.7 days in Fujian. The dissipation rates of azoxystrobin in banana and soil were almost the same. Terminal residues in banana and banana flesh (0.01 mg/kg) were all below the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg by Codex Alimentarius Commission and China). The results demonstrated that the safety of using azoxystrobin at the recommended agriculture dosage to protect bananas from diseases. PMID:23443637

  16. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., photoinspected 1975. (c) Boundary. The Yorkville Highlands viticultural area is located in Mendocino County..., T. 12 N., R 11 W., until it reaches the Mendocino-Sonoma County line on the Cloverdale quadrangle map; (6) The boundary then follows the Mendocino-Sonoma county line west, south and west until...

  17. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., photoinspected 1975. (c) Boundary. The Yorkville Highlands viticultural area is located in Mendocino County..., T. 12 N., R 11 W., until it reaches the Mendocino-Sonoma County line on the Cloverdale quadrangle map; (6) The boundary then follows the Mendocino-Sonoma county line west, south and west until...

  18. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., photoinspected 1975. (c) Boundary. The Yorkville Highlands viticultural area is located in Mendocino County..., T. 12 N., R 11 W., until it reaches the Mendocino-Sonoma County line on the Cloverdale quadrangle map; (6) The boundary then follows the Mendocino-Sonoma county line west, south and west until...

  19. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., photoinspected 1975. (c) Boundary. The Yorkville Highlands viticultural area is located in Mendocino County..., T. 12 N., R 11 W., until it reaches the Mendocino-Sonoma County line on the Cloverdale quadrangle map; (6) The boundary then follows the Mendocino-Sonoma county line west, south and west until...

  20. A Report on the Highlander Folk School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The Highlander Folk School was founded as an alternative kind of education with no academic admission requirements, no examinations or grades, and no set curriculum. Hard times were caused by lack of funds and the radical nature of its purpose--to help poor people know their rights and stand up for them. As an undergraduate, Myles Horton, its…

  1. Highland's Mosaic Mural: The Project, the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Jan; Imming, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a group of upper-elementary students in Highland, Illinois, designed and constructed a large mosaic mural depicting their city. Students were enthusiastic and highly motivated by the project. Widespread publicity excited intense community interest and involvement. The problems of design and construction are discussed. (AM)

  2. A possible scenario for the evolution of Banana streak virus in banana.

    PubMed

    Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Muller, Emmanuelle

    2014-06-24

    Outbreaks of Banana streak virus (BSV) have been recorded worldwide where Musa spp. is grown during the last 20 years with no convincing evidence of epidemics. Epidemics were previously reported in Uganda where BSV is currently endemic. BSV is a plant pararetrovirus of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus it causes chlorosis leaf streak disease. The information currently available on banana streak disease makes it possible to identify a complex of distinct BSV species each causing the same disease. BSV exists in two states: one as an episomal form, infecting plant cells; the other as viral DNA integrated within the B genome of banana (endogenous BSV-eBSV) forming a viral genome for de novo viral particles. Both forms can be infectious in banana plants. The BSV phylogeny is polyphyletic with BSV distributed in two clades. Clade 1 clusters BSV species that occur worldwide and may have an eBSV counterpart, whereas Clade 3 only comprises BSV species from Uganda. Clearly, two distinct origins explain such BSV diversity. However, the epidemiology/outbreaks of BSV remains unclear and the role of eBSV needs to be clarified. In this review, the biodiversity of BSV is explained and discussed in the light of field and molecular epidemiology data. A scheme is proposed for the co-evolution of BSV and banana based on old or recent infection hypotheses related to African domestication sites and banana dissemination to explain the disease context. PMID:24457073

  3. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  4. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    PubMed Central

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  5. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  6. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  7. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  8. Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Rogers, David J.; Randolph, Sarah E.; Stern, David I.; Cox, Jonathan; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snow, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Climate has a significant impact on malaria incidence and we have predicted that forecast climate changes might cause some modifications to the present global distribution of malaria close to its present boundaries. However, it is quite another matter to attribute recent resurgences of malaria in the highlands of East Africa to climate change. Analyses of malaria time-series at such sites have shown that malaria incidence has increased in the absence of co-varying changes in climate. We find the widespread increase in resistance of the malaria parasite to drugs and the decrease in vector control activities to be more likely driving forces behind the malaria resurgence. PMID:12482536

  9. Climate change and highland malaria: fresh air for a hot debate.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2010-03-01

    In recent decades, malaria has become established in zones at the margin of its previous distribution, especially in the highlands of East Africa. Studies in this region have sparked a heated debate over the importance of climate change in the territorial expansion of malaria, where positions range from its neglect to the reification of correlations as causes. Here, we review studies supporting and rebutting the role of climatic change as a driving force for highland invasion by malaria. We assessed the conclusions from both sides of the argument and found that evidence for the role of climate in these dynamics is robust. However, we also argue that over-emphasizing the importance of climate is misleading for setting a research agenda, even one which attempts to understand climate change impacts on emerging malaria patterns. We review alternative drivers for the emergence of this disease and highlight the problems still calling for research if the multidimensional nature of malaria is to be adequately tackled. We also contextualize highland malaria as an ongoing evolutionary process. Finally, we present Schmalhausen's law, which explains the lack of resilience in stressed systems, as a biological principle that unifies the importance of climatic and other environmental factors in driving malaria patterns across different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:20337259

  10. Pyroxene poikiloblastic rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. E.; Papike, J. J.; Sueno, S.; Delano, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results of detailed petrographic, X-ray, electron microprobe, ion probe, and Ar-40/Ar-39 age studies of pyroxene poikiloblastic breccias, an important lunar highlands lithology, are interpreted to indicate that high grade metamorphic recrystallization occurred over wide regions of the moon at about 4.0 G.y. This metamorphism was probably related to a period of high meteorite influx at that time. The temperatures achieved were highly variable but in some cases were sufficiently intense to cause varying degrees of partial melting of the precursor highlands breccias. A complete spectrum of metamorphic grades from only slight recrystallization to virtually complete melting would be expected in such a model. Such a spectrum is observed in the Apollo 16 rocks.

  11. Cloning and expression of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from wild banana resistant to banana Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2007-12-01

    Wild banana species are essential natural gene pools for banana improvement. In this study, six RGAs about 500 bp were obtained from leaves of Musa acuminata, a wild banana shown to be resistant to banana Fusarium wilt race 4, by PCR amplification with degenerate primers designed according to the conserved NBS motif and serine/threonine kinase domain of plant resistance (R) genes. Among these RGAs, the deduced amino acids of WNB1 and WNB2 contain NB-ARC domain and WNB1 can be translated into polypeptide uninterrupted by stop codons. The deduced amino acids of other four RGAs (WST1, WST2, WST3 and WST4) all contain the serine/threonine kinase domain and WST3 encodes a polypeptide homologous to that of bacterial blight resistance gene Xa21 of rice. At different time after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) race 4, the transcript patterns of WNB1 and WST3 was enhanced, which implied that the expression of WNB1 and WST3 may be related to the resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt. PMID:18349511

  12. The lunar highland melt-rock suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

  13. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference. PMID:19723232

  14. Domestication, Genomics and the Future for Banana

    PubMed Central

    Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas and plantains are giant herbaceous plants within the genus Musa. They are both sterile and parthenocarpic so the fruit develops without seed. The cultivated hybrids and species are mostly triploid (2n = 3x = 33; a few are diploid or tetraploid), and most have been propagated from mutants found in the wild. With a production of 100 million tons annually, banana is a staple food across the Asian, African and American tropics, with the 15 % that is exported being important to many economies. Scope There are well over a thousand domesticated Musa cultivars and their genetic diversity is high, indicating multiple origins from different wild hybrids between two principle ancestral species. However, the difficulty of genetics and sterility of the crop has meant that the development of new varieties through hybridization, mutation or transformation was not very successful in the 20th century. Knowledge of structural and functional genomics and genes, reproductive physiology, cytogenetics, and comparative genomics with rice, Arabidopsis and other model species has increased our understanding of Musa and its diversity enormously. Conclusions There are major challenges to banana production from virulent diseases, abiotic stresses and new demands for sustainability, quality, transport and yield. Within the genepool of cultivars and wild species there are genetic resistances to many stresses. Genomic approaches are now rapidly advancing in Musa and have the prospect of helping enable banana to maintain and increase its importance as a staple food and cash crop through integration of genetical, evolutionary and structural data, allowing targeted breeding, transformation and efficient use of Musa biodiversity in the future. PMID:17766312

  15. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    PubMed

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied. PMID:24834817

  16. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  17. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fruit flies; (2) No bananas from bunches containing prematurely ripe fingers (i.e., individual yellow... process); and (4) To safeguard from fruit fly infestation, the bananas must be covered with insect-proof... part 305 of this chapter for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fruit...

  19. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  20. Mineral compositions in pristine lunar highland rocks and the diversity of highland magmatism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bersch, Michael G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, Klaus; Norman, Marc D.

    1991-01-01

    High precision electron microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene in pristine lunar highland rocks confirm the dichotomy between ferroan anorthosites and the Mg-suite. Ferroan-anorthosites plot as coherent trends, consistent with formation in a complex global magma system. Lack of coherent compositional trends in the Mg-suite rocks indicates derivation from numerous magmas.

  1. The deep structure of Venusian plateau highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Magellan gravity data confirm that several of the large, tectonically deformed, plateau-like highlands on venus are shallowly compensated, most likely by crustal thickness variations. Apparent depths of isostatic compensation, computed in the spatial domain, range from 30 to 50 km for Alpha, Tellus, Ovda, and Thetis Regiones. Using a two-layer model for isostatic compensation, Alpha, Tellus, and Ovda are best represented as nearly completely compensated in crust that is regionally 20-40 km thick around these highlands, with little contribution from deeper mantle sources. In contrast to these three areas, a stronger regional gravity high associated with Thetis requires a significant upper mantle component to compensation. This is evident in the spectral admittance as a pronounced deep, long-wavelength anomaly. In the two-layer isostatic model, a broad, deeply compensated upland underlies a shallowly compensated central block of Thetis. If this deep component is interpreted as a thermal anomaly, the loci of maximum upwelling agree well with sites of recent extension. The plateau highlands are thus physiographically and isostatically equivalent to terrestrial continents, though probably not compositionally. They also share the record of a long tectonic history. The large regional gravity anomaly of Thetis indicates that active mantle proceses continue even beneath some areas (tessera) thought to be a relic of a former geological regime. The excellent agreement of modeled crustal thicknesses around Alpha, Tellus, and Ovda Regiones suggests that 20-40 km is a representative global value for the plains. Such a crust is thicker than previously estimated and about twice as thick as the expected thickness of crust produced at venusian spreading centers

  2. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  3. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  4. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  5. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  6. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  7. Fructan distribution in banana cultivars and effect of ripening and processing on Nendran banana.

    PubMed

    Shalini, R; Antony, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Many plants store fructan as reserve carbohydrate. Fructans naturally present in almost all plant foods, are also used as functional ingredients by the food industry to modify the texture and taste due to their properties as gelling agents, fat substitutes, soluble dietary fibers and low calorie sweeteners. Seven banana cultivars were analysed for fructans and Nendran banana was selected for the next set of experiments as it had the highest fructan content (1433.3 mg/100 g) among the cultivars studied. Low temperature ripening (16 °C) of Nendran banana resulted in higher fructan accumulation of these carbohydrates in cold conditions. Pectinase pre-treatment significantly increased yield of total fructans from 1.4/100 g to 6.5 g/100 g i.e., 370 %. Fructan composition was affected by processing, namely steaming and puree preparation in Nendran. The fructan composition data documented in this study will enable including banana, naturally high in fructans in the diet and will facilitate storage and processing for nutritional formulation for higher fructan consumption. PMID:26604400

  8. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  9. Evolution of the lunar highland crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Bence, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of three distinct element associations in the lunar highland crust is discussed in terms of the Taylor-Jakes model which involves melting of most of the moon during accretion. Sources for (1) high Ca, Al, Sr, Eu, (2) high Mg and Cr, and (3) high K, REE, Zr, Hf, Nb are suggested. Bombardment by large projectiles during the differentiation process causes melting and mixing, which produces a wide range of compositions in the crust. The formation of dunite, troctolite, high-, medium-, and low-K Fra Mauro basalts, and rocks close to the olivine-spinel-plagioclase peritectic point is considered.

  10. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. THE HIGHLANDER FOLK SCHOOL, PIONEER OF INTEGRATION IN THE SOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HORTON, AIMEE

    THE HIGHLANDER FOLK SCHOOL, FOUNDED IN 1931 TO TRAIN RURAL AND INDUSTRIAL LEADERS, WAS AN INTEGRATED CENTER FOR LABOR EDUCATION IN THE LATE 1930'S AND THE 1940'S AND FOR NATIONAL FARMERS UNION SESSIONS IN THE EARLY 1950'S. IN 1953 HIGHLANDER ORGANIZED TWO SUMMER WORKSHOPS ("THE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS"), FOLLOWED BY SCHOOL…

  12. Africa needs streamlined regulation to support the deployment of GM crops.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Howard J; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-08-01

    Future food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) requires enhancement of its crop production. Transgenic crops with a poverty focus can enhance harvests and are available for staples such as cooking bananas and plantains. One constraint is optimisation of national biosafety processes to support rapid and safe uptake of such beneficial crops. PMID:26194465

  13. Plague in Africa from 1935 to 1949

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D. H. S.

    1953-01-01

    The history of plague in Africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. Much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all African territories in 1950. The annual incidence of plague in Africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. In 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. By the end of 1949, plague was still active in the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Tanganyika, Madagascar, and southern Africa. No cases were reported from Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, or Uganda during 1949. A comparison of the seasonal incidence of plague with prevailing atmospheric conditions (temperature and rainfall) in African territories shows that human plague is more frequent in warm moist weather—60°-80°F (15°-27°C)—than in hot dry, or cold, weather—over 80°F (27°C) or under 60°F (15°C). The highlands of equatorial Africa and of Madagascar appear to provide the optimum environment for the persistence of plague on the domestic (murine) plane and the high-veld and Kalahari of southern Africa on the sylvatic plane. The rat (Rattus rattus) and the multimammate mouse (R. (Mastomys) natalensis) and their fleas Xenopsylla brasiliensis and X. cheopis appear to be mainly responsible for the persistence of the reservoir in the East African highlands; R. rattus and X. cheopis play this role in Madagascar. The gerbils (Tatera and Desmodillus) and their burrow fleas X. philoxera and X. piriei are the main reservoirs of plague in southern Africa. Within these areas, Pasteurella pestis finds an environment suitable for its continued survival; the conditions seem to be comparable to those defined as obtaining in endemic centres in India. Elsewhere in Africa such endemic centres do not appear to exist. PMID:13115987

  14. Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dumond, D E; Muller, F

    1972-03-17

    The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause

  15. Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 highland rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-highland interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient highland rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of highland rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of highland impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. Highland rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the highland rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of highland rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.

  16. An improved choice of oscillator basis for banana shaped nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The question of the appropriate choice of oscillator basis functions for studying exotic nuclear shapes is raised. Difficulties with the conventional choice of oscillator basis states are noted for shapes having a large banana component. A prescription for an improved oscillator basis to study these shapes is given. It can be applied in a more general context. New calculations with this improved basis are presented for the banana deformation mode. The change of basis gives results that improve the prospects of finding states in the banana minimum for many isotopes of Tl, Pb and Bi.

  17. Carbohydrate Analysis: Can We Control the Ripening of Bananas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Farmer, Catherine E.; Cerpovicz, Paul F.

    2002-04-01

    We have developed an experiment for nutritional/introductory biochemistry courses that focuses on carbohydrate analysis--specifically, the carbohydrates found in bananas and the change in carbohydrate composition as the banana ripens. Pairs of students analyze the starch and reducing sugar content of green, ripe, and overripe bananas. Using the techniques and knowledge gained from these analyses, they then investigate the influence of various storage methods on the ripening process. While this experiment was developed for an introductory-level biochemistry lab, it can easily be adapted for use in other laboratory programs that seek to teach the fundamentals of carbohydrate analysis.

  18. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been ...

  19. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  20. Seismic activity noted at Medicine Lake Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.

    1988-12-01

    The sudden rumble of earthquakes beneath Medicine Lake Highlands this fall gave geologists an early warning that one of Northern California's volcanoes may be stirring back to life. Researchers stressed that an eruption of the volcano is not expected soon. But the flurry of underground shocks in late September, combined with new evidence of a pool of molten rock beneath the big volcano, has led them to monitor Medicine Lake with new wariness. The volcano has been dormant since 1910, when it ejected a brief flurry of ash - worrying no one. A federal team plans to take measurements of Medicine Lake, testing for changes in its shape caused by underground pressures. The work is scheduled for spring because snows have made the volcano inaccessible. But the new seismic network is an effective lookout, sensitive to very small increases in activity.

  1. Isolation of banana lectin-a practical scale procedure from ripe banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Wearne, Kimberly; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J

    2013-01-01

    Banana lectin (BanLec) was isolated from slightly overripe bananas (PCI 6-7) by homogenation in NaCl solution, followed by extraction in the presence of glucose, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and affinity chromatography. Yields were approximately 10-fold greater that those of previously published methods using acidic extraction from very overripe fruit (Peel Color Index [PCI] 7+). By dilution of added isotopically labeled recombinant lectin, the content of total exchangeable BalLec was shown to be constant or to slightly decrease with increasing stage of ripeness, even though extractable BanLec increased, followed by rapid decrease in overripened fruit. In the course of this study we observed that recombinant BanLec expressed in Escherichia coli, although chemically and functionally identical to native BanLec, differed slightly in its apparent molecular size on gel filtration, probably due to differences in its native folding. PMID:23379275

  2. Hydrated Minerals in the Martian Southern Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrated minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, and hydrated silica have been observed on the surface of Mars by the orbital near-infrared spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM [1,2]. Global maps from OMEGA [3,4] show that km-scale and larger exposures of these minerals are scattered widely throughout the planet's low and mid latitudes, but are relatively rare. Yet CRISM has found hundreds to thousands of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate exposures in the highlands of Terra Tyrrhena alone [2], suggesting that smaller exposures may be much more common. To search for such exposures, we have surveyed the browse products from all PDS-released CRISM targeted observations (as of July 2008) across a large fraction of the Southern highlands, including the Noachis, Cimmeria, and Sirenum regions. Sulfates are observed in Noachian-aged terrains in each of these regions, including as far South as -63º latitude, suggesting that sulfate formation may have occurred locally or regionally throughout a large fraction of Martian history. Some of our strongest phyllosilicate detections occur adjacent to inferred chloride-bearing deposits [5] in Terra Sirenum. Also in Sirenum, the D 100 km Columbus crater contains light-toned, hydrated sulfate-bearing layers overlying materials that contain both a kaolin group clay and Fe/Mg-smectite clay, in different locations. However, phyllosilicates do not appear predominantly associated with impact craters in the regions surveyed, in contrast with Terra Tyrrhena [2]. We are currently searching for additional hydrated mineral exposures using CRISM multispectral data, providing further detail on their global distribution and identifying local areas of interest for future focused studies. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [3] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [4] Poulet, F. et al. (2007) Mars 7, Abs. #3170. [5] Osterloo M. M. et al. (2008) Science 319, 1651-1654.

  3. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  4. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: a field study using stable isotopes in women

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw banana for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked banana for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked bananas was significantly higher than raw bananas (0.53 mg/100 g bananas vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg bananas, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw bananas (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked banana (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked bananas was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw bananas. The banana matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254

  5. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  6. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  7. Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African highland.

    PubMed

    Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-06-01

    Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa. Our analyses rely on a new coupled mosquito-human model of malaria, which we use to compare projected disease levels with and without the observed temperature trend. Predicted malaria cases exhibit a highly nonlinear response to warming, with a significant increase from the 1970s to the 1990s, although typical epidemic sizes are below those observed. These findings suggest that climate change has already played an important role in the exacerbation of malaria in this region. As the observed changes in malaria are even larger than those predicted by our model, other factors previously suggested to explain all of the increase in malaria may be enhancing the impact of climate change. PMID:21068045

  8. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  9. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. 'Xiangfen 1,' a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with 'Brazil' serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with 'Brazil,' 'Xiangfen 1' fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and 'Xiangfen 1' banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  10. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  11. Huntington's disease and leprosy in a New Guinea Highlander.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E M

    1983-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) was observed in a 45-year-old male Melanesian patient from the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. The patient had multiple peripheral nerve palsies as a result of tuberculoid leprosy and had been resident in the leprosy ward of Goroka Base Hospital for over 6 years. During this time his HD had remained undiagnosed. This is the first report of HD in the Highlands of New Guinea. Images PMID:6228663

  12. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947

  13. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    PubMed

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes. PMID:26657016

  14. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure

    PubMed Central

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes. PMID:26657016

  15. Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

  16. New York/New Jersey Highlands -- ecological and economic sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, C.

    1997-08-01

    The New York/New Jersey Highlands region is one million acres of Appalachian ridges and valleys that stretch from the Hudson to the Delaware River. The spatial relationship of Highlands to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area provides a unique opportunity for regional development. The New Jersey Highlands Region, stretching from the Hudson River to the Delaware River, is an area critical to the overall environmental quality of the nation`s largest metropolitan area. However, there is substantial development pressure in this region. The way in which the Highlands Region is developed in the near future will have long-lasting effects. Patterns of population density, water use, pollution and resource consumption are difficult to rectify once established. All indications point to the Highlands becoming the latest addition to the urban sprawl of the New York/New Jersey metropolitan areas. Great cooperation and motivation would be required to change this pattern. This paper will attempt to explore the ecological merits of a Highland greenway proposal, the economic impacts and possible planning techniques which might effect a win/win situation.

  17. Metallic Snow in the Venusian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B.

    2003-05-01

    We modeled chemistry of elements and compounds proposed as radar reflective metallic frosts in the Venusian highlands (above 6054 km radius = 2.6 km altitude). Equilibrium calculations were done as a function of T and P from -2.6 to 50.6 km altitude. Several hundred compounds of the elements C, O, N, H, S, Cl, F (abundances from atmospheric gas abundances), and Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Sn, Pb, Se, Br, Cd, In, Ag, Sb, Hg, I, Tl, Bi, Te, and Au were considered. Abundances for Br, I, and the trace metals were assumed equal to those in Earth's basaltic oceanic crust, taken as an analog to Venus' basaltic crust. Complete degassing was assumed. We find that tellurium remains in the gas as TeS and TeSe, and it does not condense until 38.6 km altitude in the atmosphere. Tellurium condenses at 2.6 km if its abundance is increased 60,000 times to 182 ppm. This is larger than the Ni abundance in Earth's oceanic crust and is geochemically unreasonable. Tellurium is not the metallic snow on Venus. However, high dielectric constant compounds of Pb and/or Bi do condense at the appropriate altitude. Bismuthite (Bi2S3) condenses at 1.6 km (terrestrial abundance) and has a dielectric constant of 108. Bismuthite condenses at 2.6 km if about half the terrestrial abundance ( 4 ppb) is used. Galena (PbS) is stable at 0 km, but is less stable and condenses at 2.6 km if the Pb abundance is 0.1 times that in Earth's oceanic crust. Galenobismutite (PbBiS4), lillianite (Pb3BiS6), cannizarite (Pb4Bi5S11), and cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5) condense around terrestrial fumaroles. The estimated thermodynamic data that exist for these predict their condensation in the Venusian highlands. A lander equipped with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can determine if these compounds are present. Supported by NASA NAG5-11037.

  18. On Estimating Provenances of Lunar Highland Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Brad L.

    1998-01-01

    That even relatively small impacts can spread material across the face of the Moon is evident from the rays of Tycho. Tycho ejecta triggered the landslide that produced the light mantle deposit at Apollo 17 and perhaps excavated the Central Valley craters there. Basin-sized impacts appear to follow the same scaling laws as smaller impacts, as indicated by the satisfaction of a geophysical model. These giant impacts rearranged huge amounts of premare material, complicating the determination of provenance of materials collected from the highlands. We have developed a model to estimate the probability that material at a particular location might derive from a given basin or large crater. This model is based on crater scaling laws, and effects of secondary cratering. Because it accounts for the volume of primary ejecta from the basin-forming transient craters and the excavating and mixing effects of these ejecta with the substrate onto which they fall, it gives much thicker deposits than an early work. Our modeling takes into account the distribution of sizes of primary ejecta fragments (PriFrags) to obtain the probability at a given site for a deposit of a particular thickness and with a fraction of PriFrags.

  19. Lunar basin formation and highland stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Scott, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Multiring impact basins, formed after solidification of the lunar crust, account for most or all premare regional deposits and structures expressed in the lunar landscape and for major topographic and gravity variations. A fresh basin has two or more concentric mountain rings, a lineated ejecta blanket, and secondary impact craters. Crackled material on the floor may be impact melt. The ejecta blanket was emplaced at least partly as a ground-hugging flow and was probably hot. A suggested model of basin formation is that the center lifts up and the rings form by inward collapse during evisceration. The resulting basin is shallow and has a central uplift of the mantle. This results in a central gravity high and a ring low. Later flooding by mare basalt has since modified most near side basins. Highland deposits of plains, furrowed and pitted terrain, and various hills, domes, and craters that were interpreted before the Apollo missions as being volcanic can now be interpreted as being basin related.

  20. Tartarus Colles: A sampling of the Martian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Treiman, Allan

    1994-01-01

    Several of the most fundamental issues about the geology of Mars can be addressed using information on composition and structure of the plateau plains ('highlands') that cover approximately half the planet. The units that compose the highlands are interpreted as a mixture of volcanic, fluvial, lacustrine, and impact ejecta deposits. A more precise inventory of differing of igneous and sedimentary lithologies in highland rock units would not only lead to a better understanding of how the plateau plains formed, but would also clarify the nature of the surface environment during the first 800 m.y. of martian history. Structural features including bedforms, joints, and small faults that are unresolved from orbit record a history of the emplacement and deformation of the highlands. In addition, weathering products present in this very ancient terrain represent a mineralogic record of past climate and of the pathways by which bedrock is altered chemically. Their similarity or dissimilarity to bright soils observed spectroscopically and in situ at the Viking Lander sites will be evidence for the relative roles of regional sources and global eolian transport in producing the widespread cover of 'dust.' Unfortunately, these issues are difficult to address in the plateau plains proper, because bedrock is covered by mobile sand and weathering products, which dominate both surface composition and remotely measurable spectral properties. However, the 'Tartarus Colles' site, located at 11.41 deg N, 197.69 deg W at an elevation of -1 km, provides an excellent opportunity to address the highland geology within the mission constraints of Mars Pathfinder. The site is mapped as unit HNu, and consists of knobby remnants of deeply eroded highlands. It contains rolling hills, but lacks steep escarpments and massifs common in most highland remnants, and is free of large channels that would have removed colluvium from eroded upper portions of the stratigraphic column. These

  1. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  2. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  3. Study of Banana Dehydration Using Sequential Infrared Radiation and Freeze-Drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze-drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. To study the drying characteristics of bananas during the infrared (IR) and hot air predehydration, Cavendish bananas slices with 5 mm thickness...

  4. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event. PMID:25672291

  5. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: Banana pseudo stem

    PubMed Central

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J.; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production. PMID:25477922

  6. Left ventricular adaptation to high altitude: speckle tracking echocardiography in lowlanders, healthy highlanders and highlanders with chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Dedobbeleer, Chantal; Hadefi, Alia; Pichon, Aurelien; Villafuerte, Francisco; Naeije, Robert; Unger, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic exposure depresses myocardial contractility in vitro, but has been associated with indices of increased cardiac performance in intact animals and in humans, possibly related to sympathetic nervous system activation. We explored left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography and sympathetic tone by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in recently acclimatized lowlanders versus adapted or maladapted highlanders at high altitude. Twenty-six recently acclimatized lowlanders, 14 healthy highlanders and 12 highlanders with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were studied. Control measurements at sea level were also obtained in the lowlanders. Altitude exposure in the lowlanders was associated with slightly increased blood pressure, decreased LV volumes and decreased longitudinal strain with a trend to increased prevalence of post-systolic shortening (p = 0.06), whereas the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio increased (1.62 ± 0.81 vs. 5.08 ± 4.13, p < 0.05) indicating sympathetic activation. Highlanders had a similarly raised LF/HF ratio, but no alteration in LV deformation. Highlanders with CMS had no change in LV deformation, no significant increase in LF/HF, but decreased global HRV still suggestive of increased sympathetic tone, and lower mitral E/A ratio compared to healthy highlanders. Short-term altitude exposure in lowlanders alters indices of LV systolic function and increases sympathetic nervous system tone. Life-long altitude exposure in highlanders is associated with similar sympathetic hyperactivity, but preserved parameters of LV function, whereas diastolic function may be altered in those with CMS. Altered LV systolic function in recently acclimatized lowlanders may be explained by combined effects of hypoxia and changes in loading conditions. PMID:25665685

  7. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.

    GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.

    The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.

    The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the

  8. Dune Field in a Southern Highlands Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 September 2003

    Dark dunes sit on a rough, eroding sedimentary surface in the floor of an 83 km diameter crater. This crater is one of dozens in Noachis Terra, in the southern highlands of Mars, to have both dark dunes and an eroding surface. Note how the dunes seem to ignore the underlying rough surface in some cases, while in other places the dunes seem to have wrapped themselves around sharp knobs.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -40.5, Longitude 34.6 East (325.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  10. Isostatic compensation of equatorial highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, Algis B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    Spherical harmonic models for Venus' global topography and gravity incorporating Magellan data are used to test isostatic compensation models in five 30 deg x 30 deg regions representative of the main classes of equatorial highlands. The power spectral density for the harmonic models obeys a power-law scaling with spectral slope Beta approximately 2 (Brown noise) for the topography and Beta approximately 3 (Kaula's law) for the geoid, similar to what is observed for Earth. The Venus topography spectrum has lower amplitudes than Earth's which reflects the dominant lowland topography on Venus. Observed degree geoid to topography ratios (GTRs) on Venus are significantly smaller than degree GTRs for uncompensated topography, indicative of substantial compensation. Assuming a global Airy compensation, most of the topography is compensated at depths greater than 100 km, suggesting a thick lithosphere on Venus. For each region considered we obtain a regional degree of compensation C from a linear regression of Bouguer anomaly versus Bouguer gravity data. Geoid anomaly (N) versus topography variation (h) data for each sample were compared, in the least-squares sense, to theoretical correlations for Pratt, Airy, and thermal thinning isostasy models yielding regional GTR, zero-elevation crustal thickness (H), and zero elevation thermal lithosphere thickness (y(sub L(sub 0)), respectively. We find the regional compensation to be substantial (C approximately 52-80%), and the h, N data correlations in the chosen areas can be explained by isostasy models applicable on the Earth and involving variations in crustal thickness (Airy) and/or lithospheric (thermal thinning) thickness. However, a thick crust and lithosphere (y(sub L(sub 0)) approximately 300 km) must be assumed for Venus.

  11. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  12. Glycolysis at the climacteric of bananas.

    PubMed

    Ball, K L; Green, J H; ap Rees, T

    1991-04-10

    This work was carried out to investigate the relative roles of phosphofructokinase and pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase during the increased glycolysis at the climacteric in ripening bananas (Musa cavendishii Lamb ex Paxton). Fruit were ripened in the dark in a continuous stream of air in the absence of ethylene. CO2 production, the contents of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and PPi; and the maximum catalytic activities of pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were measured over a 12-day period that included the climacteric. Cytosolic fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase could not be detected in extracts of climacteric fruit. The peak of CO2 production was preceded by a threefold rise in phosphofructokinase, and accompanied by falls in fructose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate, and a rise in fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. No change in pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase or pyrophosphate was found. It is argued that phosphofructokinase is primarily responsible for the increased entry of fructose 6-phosphate into glycolysis at the climacteric. PMID:1849821

  13. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. PMID:25703385

  14. Wild Banana Seed Phytobezoar Rectal Impaction Causing Intestinal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng Yih; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Tan, Yew Eng; Chong, Hock Chin

    2016-08-01

    Wild banana (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild banana seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild bananas should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification. PMID:27574355

  15. Green banana pasta: an alternative for gluten-free diets.

    PubMed

    Zandonadi, Renata Puppin; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Gandolfi, Lenora; Ginani, Janini Selva; Montenegro, Flávio Martins; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and analyze a gluten-free pasta made with green banana flour. The study was divided into five steps: preparation/selection, chemical, sensory, technological, and statistical analysis. The modified sample presented greater acceptance (84.5% for celiac individuals and 61.2% for nonceliac) than standard samples (53.6% for nonceliac individuals). There was no significant difference between the modified and the standard samples in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall quality. The modified pastas presented approximately 98% less lipids. Green bananas are considered a subproduct of low commercial value with little industrial use. The possibility of developing gluten-free products with green banana flour can expand the product supply for people with celiac disease and contribute to a more diverse diet. PMID:22889636

  16. Visualization of internal structure of banana starch granule through AFM.

    PubMed

    Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew; Simão, Renata A; Soares, Claudinéia A; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R

    2015-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution technique for studying the external and internal structures of starch granules. For this purpose granules were isolated from bananas and embedded in a non-penetrating resin. To achieve image contrast of the ultrastructure, the face of the cut blocks were wetted in steam and force modulation mode imaging was used. Images of starch from green bananas showed large variation of height across the granule due to a locational specific absorption of water and swelling of amorphous regions; the data reveal that the center of the granules are structurally different and have different viscoelastic properties. Images of starches from ripe bananas showed an even greater different level of organization: absence of growth rings around the hilum; the central region of the granule is richer in amylose; very porous surface with round shaped dark structures; the size of blocklets are larger than the green fruits. PMID:26005137

  17. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  18. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

  19. Cloning and sequence analysis of banana streak virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Hull, R

    1998-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of the Badnavirus group of plant viruses, causes severe problems in banana cultivation, reducing fruit yield and restricting plant breeding and the movement of germplasm. Current detection methods are relatively insensitive. In order to develop a PCR-based diagnostic method that is both reliable and sensitive, the genome of a Nigerian isolate of BSV has been sequenced and shown to comprise 7389 bp and to be organized in a manner characteristic of badnaviruses. Comparison of this sequence with those of other badnaviruses showed that BSV is a distinct virus. PCR with primers based on sequence data indicated that BSV sequences are present in the banana genome. PMID:9926402

  20. Predicting potential effects of climate change on Ozark Highlands streams

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, G.D.; Rabeni, C.F.; Galat, D.L. )

    1993-06-01

    The Ozark Highlands biogeographic area centers on two National Park Service units: Ozark National Scenic Riverways in Missouri and Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The Ozark Highlands is part of a national network of 20 research sites established to determine the potential influence of global change on ecosystems and their adaptability. The Ozark Highlands program will integrate historic and proxy stream flows, fluvial geomorphology, and trophic-level responses in streams to model aquatic systems under mid-continent, climate change scenarios. Climate change in Ozarks streams will likely alter hydrologic/geomorphic patterns and disrupt community structure and ecological processes. Initially, the program has focused on defining variation inherent in stream systems and how ecological processes and biota respond to that variability.

  1. EARTHSHINE ON A YOUNG MOON: EXPLAINING THE LUNAR FARSIDE HIGHLANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Arpita; Wright, Jason T.; Sigurðsson, Steinn

    2014-06-20

    The lunar farside highlands problem refers to the curious and unexplained fact that the farside lunar crust is thicker, on average, than the nearside crust. Here we recognize the crucial influence of Earthshine, and propose that it naturally explains this hemispheric dichotomy. Since the accreting Moon rapidly achieved synchronous rotation, a surface and atmospheric thermal gradient was imposed by the proximity of the hot, post-giant impact Earth. This gradient guided condensation of atmospheric and accreting material, preferentially depositing crust-forming refractories on the cooler farside, resulting in a primordial bulk chemical inhomogeneity that seeded the crustal asymmetry. Our model provides a causal solution to the lunar highlands problem: the thermal gradient created by Earthshine produced the chemical gradient responsible for the crust thickness dichotomy that defines the lunar highlands.

  2. Complete genome sequence of a novel badnavirus, banana streak IM virus.

    PubMed

    Geering, Andrew D W; Parry, Judith N; Thomas, John E

    2011-04-01

    In 1999, banana streak disease outbreaks occurred at two locations in Australia in new banana hybrids that were being screened for fusarium wilt resistance. Two different badnaviruses, banana streak GF virus and a newly discovered virus called banana streak IM virus (BSIMV), were detected in these plants. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BSIMV genome was determined and comprised 7768 nt. Three open reading frames were detected, the first beginning with a non-conventional start codon (CUG). A 55-nt repetition in the putative pregenomic RNA promoter was also identified. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that BSIMV is most closely related to banana streak VN virus. PMID:21347843

  3. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  4. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed. PMID:12475275

  5. 76 FR 58850 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY... Capital Management, L.P. (``HCM''), Highland Funds Asset Management, L.P. (``HFAM''), Highland Funds I..., personally or by mail. Hearing requests should be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m. on October 11,...

  6. Africa: "Yonondio."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendetson, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences on a trip to Africa. Describes her pleasant moments with her fellow travelers; her appreciation of the natural setting; her visit to an impoverished native school; and her confrontation with a Maasai warrior. (TB)

  7. On the age of KREEP. [in lunar highland rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palme, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the variable Rb-Sr model ages of lunar highland rocks containing a significant amount of KREEP basalt may be best explained by some fractionation of Rb from Sr during metamorphism 3.9 billion years ago, but the uniformity of the KREEP-type trace-element pattern in different highland samples indicates that elements such as the rare earth were hardly fractionated at all during the metamorphic event. Data are presented which show that the Rb/Sr fractionation 3.9 billion years ago was due to Rb mobilization alone in most cases and that this fractionation can be accounted for by coupling of Rb to other, less volatile incompatible elements. Variations of Rb in lunar highland rocks are analyzed, a correction method is applied for the Rb/Sr fractionation, and results are evaluated separately for Apollo 16 VHA and KREEP basalts, Apollo 17 noritic breccias, Apollo 14 KREEP breccias, Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, and Apollo 15-KREEP-enriched breccias. Evidence for volatilization of alkalis from glasses of impact origin is summarized, and an apparent correlation is discussed between meteoritic component (as given by the Ir/Au ratio) and rock type (as given by the U or Rb content) for many lunar highland samples.

  8. Educational Leadership by Objectives. Highland, Indiana Superintendency Team Assessment Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highland Public Schools, IN.

    This publication describes the Highland Superintendency Team Assessment Program, an effort to apply the principles of management by objectives to the evaluation of school district administrative personnel. Section 1 presents the basic rationale and goals of the assessment program and explains the concept of "educational leadership by objectives"…

  9. Descartes highlands: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes highlands. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.

  10. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... process); and (4) To safeguard from fruit fly infestation, the bananas must be covered with insect-proof... part 305 of this chapter for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fruit fly (Bactrocera curcurbitae), the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), and the green scale (Coccus...

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... process); and (4) To safeguard from fruit fly infestation, the bananas must be covered with insect-proof... chapter for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fruit fly (Bactrocera curcurbitae), the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), and the green scale (Coccus viridis) and are...

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... process); and (4) To safeguard from fruit fly infestation, the bananas must be covered with insect-proof... part 305 of this chapter for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fruit fly (Bactrocera curcurbitae), the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), and the green scale (Coccus...

  13. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... process); and (4) To safeguard from fruit fly infestation, the bananas must be covered with insect-proof... part 305 of this chapter for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fruit fly (Bactrocera curcurbitae), the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), and the green scale (Coccus...

  14. Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits.

    PubMed

    Thakorlal, J; Perera, C O; Smith, B; Englberger, L; Lorens, A

    2010-04-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is a type of starch that is resistant to starch hydrolyzing enzymes in the stomach and thus behaves more like dietary fibre. RS has been shown to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management, which are critically important for many people in the Federated States of Micronesia. Green bananas are known to contain substantial concentrations of RS and are a common part of the Micronesian diet. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the RS content in banana cultivars from Pohnpei, Micronesia: Daiwang, Inahsio, Karat, Utin Kerenis and Utin Ruk, for which no such information was available. Utin Kerenis, Inahsio and Utin Ruk were found to contain the highest amounts of RS. The fate of RS after incorporation into a food product (i.e., pancakes) was also studied and a significant reduction in the RS content was found for each cultivar after cooking. Microscopy of the banana samples indicated that the overall morphology of the cultivars was similar. In conclusion, green banana, including these varieties, should be promoted in Micronesia and other places for their rich RS content and related health benefits including diabetes control. Further research is needed to more clearly determine the effects of cooking and food processing on RS. PMID:20968236

  15. Characterization of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Shiomi, S; Nakatsuka, A; Kubo, Y; Nakamura, R; Inaba, A

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  16. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  17. Ammonia-nitrogen sorptional properties of banana peels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunnen; Ding, Lichao; Fan, Jingbiao

    2011-04-01

    Using modified banana peel as a biosorbent to treat water containing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was studied. Related parameters in the sorptional process, such as chemical modification, pH, and contact time were investigated. The experimental results showed that banana peel modified by 30% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and mesothermal microwaves (NMBPs) can greatly improve the sorption removal for NH4(+)-N. The kinetics study revealed that the sorption behavior better fit the pseudo-second-order equation than the Lagergren first-order equation. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum analysis of banana peels and NMBPs before and after NH4(+)-N sorption revealed that the activity of hydroxyl groups at the surface of the banana peels was strengthened after modification, and nitrogenous groups appeared after biosorpting the NH4(+)-N. In the end, metallurgical wastewater containing a low concentration of NH4(+)-N was treated by NMBPs. The initial NH4(+)-N concentration of 138 mg/L was reduced to 13 mg/L in 25 minutes by 4 g/L NMBPs at pH 10. PMID:21553592

  18. Fluorinated banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamysheva, L. A.; Agafonova, I. F.; Geivandova, T. A.; Torgova, Sofia I.; Becchi, M.

    2002-06-01

    A series of banana-shaped diesters derivated of 3,5-bis-(p- hydroxyphenyl)-1,2;4-oxadiazole and p-alkyloxy- fluoro(difluoro)benzoic acids were synthesized and investigated by optical microscopy and DSC method. The influence of the alkyloxy-substituent lengths and of the F- group position in the molecule on its mesomorphic properties is discussed.

  19. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species ...

  20. Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation.

    PubMed

    Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T B; Alexander, Mhairi E; Dube, Timothy; Froneman, William P; Manungo, Kwanele I; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in Africa. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern Highlands around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as "Least Concern". Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern Highlands, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region. PMID:26751064

  1. Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T. B.; Froneman, William P.; Manungo, Kwanele I.; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in Africa. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern Highlands around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as “Least Concern”. Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern Highlands, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region. PMID:26751064

  2. Distribution of nitrate in the unsaturated zone, Highland-East Highlands area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, John M.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the Highland-East Highlands area of San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans to recharge the local aquifers with imported surface water would raise the water table and intercept that nitrogen. This study was made to describe the distribution of inorganic nitrogen and other chemical constituents and nitrogen-using bacteria in the unsaturated zone, to relate nitrogen occurrences, in a general way, to present and historical land use, and to attempt to predict nitrogen concentrations in ground water after recharge. Some generalized correlations between nitrogen occurrence and land use were observed. In 11 of 13 test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of the surface, suggesting that the major source of nitrogen is from the surface at these sites. Test holes were ranked according to maximum NO3--N in the top 10 feet, total NO3--N in the top 10 feet, and total NO3--N in the top 40 feet. In all three rankings, the top seven test holes were the same--five in or near present or historical agricultural areas (primarily citrus groves), one in a feedlot, and one adjacent to an abandoned sewage-treatment plant. Two test holes in historically uninhabited areas ranked lowest. The control test hole in an uninhabited area ranked high in geometric mean of ammonium-nitrogen concentration (NH4+-N), suggesting that present in freshly weathered granite. The geometric means of NH4+-N concentrations in six of eight citrus-related test holes were significantly lower than in the control hole, suggesting that irrigation in citrus groves may have created conditions favoring nitrification of the primary NH4+-N. Rank correlation analyses between various measurements in test holes showed that high NO3--N concentrations tend to occur with high specific conductance and chloride concentrations in soil extracts. If recharge is carried out as planned

  3. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  4. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    PubMed

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  5. Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of Banana and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2015-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like banana. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant banana cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic banana plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in banana in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076

  6. Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of Banana and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like banana. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant banana cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic banana plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in banana in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076

  7. The influence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in simulated sunlight on ascospores causing Black Sigatoka disease of banana and plantain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, Mark; Burt, P. J. A.; Wilson, Kate

    The influence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in simulated natural sunlight on the viability of ascospores of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the cause of Black Sigatoka disease in banana and plantain, has been investigated as part of a study to assess the windborne spread of this pathogen from mainland Central and South America into the Caribbean. Spores were killed following continuous exposure to UV radiation for periods of 6 h or over. This relatively short exposure time suggests that the distances over which viable spores can be transported will be determined not only by the speed of the wind but also the amount of cloud cover and the time off day that spore release occurs. On this basis, wind dispersal of viable spores over distances greater than a few hundred kilometres is unlikely. These conclusions are reinforced by an examination of historical reports of the arrival of the disease in previously uninfected areas of the Americas and Africa.

  8. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  9. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran

    2014-03-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.

  10. Sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana.

    PubMed

    Palacin, Arantxa; Quirce, Santiago; Sanchez-Monge, Rosa; Bobolea, Irina; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Martin-Muñoz, Flora; Pascual, Cristina; Salcedo, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    Banana fruit allergy is well known, but neither immunoglobulin E recognition patterns to purified plant food allergens nor true prevalences of putative banana allergens have been established. This study aimed to characterize β-1,3-glucanase and thaumatin-like protein (TLP) as banana allergens, testing them, together with other plant food allergens, in 51 children with allergic reactions after banana ingestion and both positive specific IgE and skin prick test (SPT) to banana. Banana β-1,3-glucanase and TLP were isolated and characterized. Both banana allergens, together with kiwifruit TLP Act d 2, avocado class I chitinase Pers a 1, palm pollen profilin Pho d 2 and peach fruit lipid transfer protein (LTP) Pru p 3, were tested by in vitro and in vivo assays. Banana β-1,3-glucanase (Mus a 5) was glycosylated, whereas banana TLP (Mus a 4) was not, in contrast with its homologous kiwi allergen Act d 2. Specific IgE to both banana allergens, as well as to peach Pru p 3, was found in over 70% of sera from banana-allergic children, and Mus a 4 and Pru p 3 provoked positive SPT responses in 6 of the 12 tested patients, whereas Mus a 5 in only one of them. Both peptidic epitopes and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants were involved in the IgE-binding to Mus a 5, whereas cross-reactivity between Mus a 4 and Act d 2 was only based on common IgE protein epitopes. Profilin Pho d 2 elicited a relevant proportion of positive responses on in vitro (41%) and in vivo (58%) tests. Therefore, Mus a 4 and LTP behave as major banana allergens in the study population, and profilin seems to be also a relevant allergen. Mus a 5 is an equivocal allergenic protein, showing high IgE-binding to its attached complex glycan, and low in vivo potency. PMID:21284746

  11. Breeding disease-resistant wheats for tropical highlands and lowlands.

    PubMed

    Dubin, H J; Rajaram, S

    1996-01-01

    Wheat is grown on about 10 million ha in the tropical highlands and lowlands of the world, where it is an important food source. Many farmers in these areas work under subsistence conditions. Wheat diseases in tropical regions can be severe and require significant efforts to control. For economic and environmental reasons, host plant resistance is the most appropriate and sustainable disease control method. We describe highland and lowland tropical wheat regions and discuss CIMMYT's breeding strategies, philosophies, and progress in developing resistance to the major diseases such as rusts, foliar blights, fusarium scab, BYD, and spot blotch. Additionally, we review the role of national wheat research programs and beneficial spillovers of our combined breeding efforts to other wheat production areas of the world. PMID:15012554

  12. Lunar highland rock types: Their implications for impact induced fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    The first step in a petrologic study must be a classification based on observed textures and mineralogy. Lunar rocks, may be classified into three major groups: (1) coarse-grained igneous rocks, (2) fine-grained igneous rocks and (3) breccias. Group 1 is interpreted as primitive lunar crustal rocks that display various degrees of crushing and/or annealing. Group 2 is interpreted as volcanic rocks. Group 3 is interpreted as resulting from impacts on the lunar surface and is subdivided on the basis of matrix textures into fragmental breccias, crystalline breccias that have been annealed, and crystalline breccias with igneous matrices. A synthesis of the relevant data concerning lunar highlands polymict breccias from the fields of petrography, chemistry, photogeology, and impact studies compels the prediction that the breccias should have homogeneous matrices from rock to rock within regions of the highlands of limited size where impact mixing has been efficient and extensive.

  13. Mission Applications of a HIAD for the Mars Southern Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winski, Richard; Bose, Dave; Komar, David R.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries of evidence of a flowing liquid in craters throughout the Mars Southern Highlands, like Terra Sirenum, have spurred interest in sending science missions to those locations; however, these locations are at elevations that are much higher (0 to +4 km MOLA) than any previous landing site (-1 to -4 km MOLA). New technologies may be needed to achieve a landing at these sites with significant payload mass to the surface. A promising technology is the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD); a number of designs have been advanced but the stacked torus has been recently successfully flight tested in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 projects through the NASA Langley Research Center. This paper will focus on a variety of mission applications of the stacked torus type attached HIAD to the Mars southern highlands.

  14. The Lunar Highland Crust: Complex or Simple Petrogenesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-07-01

    Following the general acceptance of the magma ocean hypothesis, models for the evolution of the highland crust of the Moon have become increasingly complicated, just as religious and philosophical systems have always diverged from the teachings of their founder. Three components make up the highland crust: the ferroan anorthosite, which crystallizes early from the magma ocean, depletes the deep interior in Eu, and adds a large Eu enrichment to the crust. KREEP, choked with incompatible trace elements from the residual 2% melt resulting from the crystallization of the magma ocean is pervasively mixed into the crust by cratering. KREEP adds a deep Eu depletion, with high abundances of the other REE parallel to those of the ferroan anorthosites. The third well-recognized component is the Mg Suite, commonly about 100-200 Ma younger, with intermediate REE patterns parallel to the ferroan anorthosites and KREEP (Fig. 1). If the highland crust were formed from many igneous events, in which the Mg suite comes from several separate plutons, crystallization and separation of mineral phases would surely result in REE patterns with diverse slopes, as is observed on Earth. This does not seem to have occurred. For example, the deep-seated troctolite 76535 has a well-established age of 4236 +- 15 Ma (Premo and Tatsumoto, 1992), much younger than the 4440 +- 20 Ma crystallization age of the lunar crust (Carlson and Lugmair, 1988), and the 4400-Ma closure ages for the source regions of the lunar mare basalts. If 76535 formed as a separate intrusion by partial melting during "serial magmatism" 200 Ma after the ferroan anorthosites crystallized, why is its REE pattern parallel to those of all the other highland rocks (Fig. 1)? Two explanations seem viable. The first possibility is that a diverse crust may have been homogenized by cratering. Alternatively, only one major igneous event produced the lunar highland crust. All subsequent complexity in ages and production of "igneous

  15. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  16. Genesis of highland basalt breccias - A view from 66095

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar highland breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and basalts. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro basalt, and minor meteoric material.

  17. Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.R. . New York State Museum)

    1993-03-01

    Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

  18. Relationships between respiration, ethylene, and aroma production in ripening banana.

    PubMed

    Golding, J B; Shearer, D; McGlasson, W B; Wyllie, S G

    1999-04-01

    Mature green bananas were treated with the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at intervals during the 24 h period after initiation of ripening with propylene. Following 1-MCP treatment, the fruits were ripened in either air or propylene while ethylene, carbon dioxide, and volatile production and composition were monitored at regular intervals. The application of 1-MCP significantly delayed and suppressed the onset and magnitude of fruit respiration and volatile production. The 1-MCP treatments also caused a quantitative change in the composition of the aroma volatiles, resulting in a substantial increase in the concentration of alcohols and a decrease in their related esters. The results showed that ethylene has a continuing role in integrating many of the biochemical processes that take place during the ripening of bananas. PMID:10564032

  19. Studies on optimization of ripening techniques for banana.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, B V C; Kaur, Tajender; Gill, M I S; Dhaliwal, H S; Ghuman, B S; Chahil, B S

    2010-06-01

    Fruits of banana (Musa spp) cultivar 'Grand Naine' were harvested at physiological green mature stage. The first lot of fruit was exposed to ethylene gas (100 ppm) for 24 h in ripening chamber. The second lot was treated with different concentrations of aqueous solution of ethephon (250, 500, 750, 1000 ppm) each for 5 min. The fruits were packed in plastic crates and stored in ripening chamber maintained at 16-18°C and 90-95% RH. Treatment with ethylene gas (100 ppm) or ethephon (500 ppm) resulted in adequate ripening of fruits after 4 days with uniform colour, pleasant flavour, desirable firmness and acceptable quality and better shelf-life. The untreated control fruits were hard textured and poor in colour and quality. The ripening with ethylene gas or ethephon treatment seems to hold promise in reducing postharvest losses and boosting the economy of banana growers and traders. PMID:23572644

  20. Low Parasitemia in Submicroscopic Infections Significantly Impacts Malaria Diagnostic Sensitivity in the Highlands of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Afrane, Yaw; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infections represent a major challenge in malaria control and elimination in Africa. They are reservoirs of malaria parasite that can contribute to disease transmission. Therefore, identification and control of asymptomatic infections are important to make malaria elimination feasible. In this study, we investigated the extent and distribution of asymptomatic malaria in Western Kenya and examined how varying parasitemia affects performance of diagnostic methods including microscopy, conventional PCR, and quantitative PCR. In addition, we compared parasite prevalence rates and parasitemia levels with respect to topography and age in order to explore factors that influence malaria infection. Over 11,000 asymptomatic blood samples from children and adolescents up to 18 years old representing broad areas of Western Kenya were included. Quantitative PCR revealed the highest parasite positive rate among all methods and malaria prevalence in western Kenya varied widely from less than 1% to over 50%. A significantly lower parasitemia was detected in highland than in lowland samples and this contrast was also observed primarily among submicroscopic samples. Although we found no correlation between parasitemia level and age, individuals of younger age group (aged <14) showed significantly higher parasite prevalence. In the lowlands, individuals of aged 5–14 showed significantly higher prevalence than those under age 5. Our findings highlight the need for a more sensitive and time-efficient assay for asymptomatic malaria detection particularly in areas of low-transmission. Combining QPCR with microscopy can enhance the capacity of detecting submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections. PMID:25816298

  1. Geomorphic evolution of the Martian highlands through ancient fluvial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of crater degradation in the Martian highlands based on variations in crater morphology is traced. The timing of this process related to geology, elevation, and latitude is examined, the nature of fluvial resurfacing is studied, and the approximate rate of denudation is determined. The obtained data make it possible to understand the early geologic history of Mars, the interaction between the atmosphere and surface processes through time, and the nature of highland surface materials. Degradation was found to begin with sheet-flooding and the formation of runoff channels in both the interior and exterior of the craters. Progressive stripping of the ejecta material led to craters with incised rims. Erosion and infilling led to flat doors. With time, continued erosion removed ejecta and rim materials completely. Timing of degradation based on cumulative size-frequency distribution curves of highland crater population indicates that the process ceased completely in the late Hesperian. Global average denudation rates were found to be between 0.0001 and 0.005 mm/yr.

  2. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  3. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M.

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  4. Factors influencing the drain and rinse operation of Banana screens

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.; Firth, B.

    2005-06-01

    An Australian Coal Association Research Project (ACARP) study to identify the variables and effects on Banana screens is described in this article. The impacts of the following system variables were investigated: panel angle, volumetric feed flow rate, solids content of feed screen motion, vibration frequency, magnetite content and impact of screen aperture. The article was adapted from a presentation at Coal Prep 2005, Lexington, KY, USA in May 2005. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Purification and characterization of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from banana fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, W L; Plaxton, W C

    2000-01-01

    Cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PK(c)) from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L.) fruits has been purified 543-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 59.7 micromol of pyruvate produced/min per mg of protein. SDS/PAGE and gel-filtration FPLC of the final preparation indicated that this enzyme exists as a 240 kDa homotetramer composed of subunits of 57 kDa. Although the enzyme displayed a pH optimum of 6.9, optimal efficiency in substrate utilization [in terms of V(max)/K(m) for phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) or ADP] was equivalent at pH 6.9 and 7.5. PK(c) activity was absolutely dependent upon the presence of a bivalent and a univalent cation, with Mg(2+) and K(+) respectively fulfilling this requirement. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed for the binding of PEP, ADP, Mg(2+) and K(+) (K(m) values of 0.098, 0.12, 0.27 and 0.91 mM respectively). Although the enzyme utilized UDP, IDP, GDP and CDP as alternative nucleotides, ADP was the preferred substrate. L-Glutamate and MgATP were the most effective inhibitors, whereas L-aspartate functioned as an activator by reversing the inhibition of PK(c) by L-glutamate. The allosteric features of banana PK(c) are compared with those of banana PEP carboxylase [Law and Plaxton (1995) Biochem. J. 307, 807-816]. A model is presented which highlights the roles of cytosolic pH, MgATP, L-glutamate and L-aspartate in the co-ordinate control of the PEP branchpoint in ripening bananas. PMID:11104698

  6. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    PubMed Central

    De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid banana genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated banana hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated banana hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591

  7. Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee : the Highland Rim aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brahana, J.V.; Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee is primarily composed of Mississippian carbonates and occurs west of the Valley and Ridge Province. It crops out in the Highland Rim and the Sequatchie Valley. It has been removed by erosion from the Central Basin. Groundwater in the Highland Rim aquifer system occurs primarily in secondary openings including solution openings, joints, and faults. The Chattanooga Shale is the lower confining layer for the Highland Rim aquifer system. Under the Cumberland plateau, this aquifer system is separated from the overlying Pennsylvanian formations by the Pennington Shale. The Highland Rim aquifer system is an important source of drinking water. It supplies most of the rural, domestic, and many public supplies of drinking water in the Highland Rim. Where there is a dynamic flow system, dissolved solids concentrations are less than 500 mg/L. However, isolated cells may exist where the groundwater has dissolved solids concentrations of more than 1 ,000 mg/L. (USGS)

  8. The interaction of banana MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in banana was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating banana fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest banana fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:23007689

  9. Distribution of dissolved nitrate and fluoride in ground water, Highland-East Highlands, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.; Klein, John M.

    1978-01-01

    In the Highland-East Highlands area of southern California, concentrations of nitrate in water from many wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's and the California Department of Health 's recommended limit for public water supplies. The nitrate standards for public water supplies in the study area are commonly met by blending the high-nitrate water with low-nitrate water before distribution; however, some of the low-nitrate water sources have fluoride concentrations that exceed the optimum level, or in a few cases exceed the maximum level recommended by the California Department of Health. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the study area are generally between 1 and 20 milligrams per liter. In general, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations exceeding 10 milligrams per liter are found in water from wells perforated at depths of less than 500 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the climacteric in bananas.

    PubMed

    Ball, K L; ap Rees, T

    1988-11-15

    This work was done to test the view that there is a marked rise in the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate during the climacteric of the fruit of banana (Musa cavendishii Lamb ex. Paxton). Bananas were ripened in the dark in a continuous stream of air in the absence of exogenous ethylene. CO2 production and the contents of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and sucrose were monitored over a 15-day period. A range of extraction procedures for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were compared. Recovery of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate added to samples of unripe fruit varied from poor to unmeasurable. Recoveries from samples of ripe fruit were high. It is argued that this differential recovery of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate undermines claims that the amount of this compound increases at the climacteric. When recoveries are taken into account, our data suggest that there is no major change in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content during the onset of the climacteric in bananas. PMID:3143570

  11. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    PubMed

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre. PMID:20725857

  12. Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and Highland Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Pinault, Lauren L.; Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    Larval habitat for three highland Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (banana, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category “closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests” than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat’s abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in highland regions of the Andes. PMID:22454623

  13. The Mg-suite and the highland crust: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross; Norman, Marc D.; Esat, Tezer M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the rocks returned from the highlands are polymict breccias, pulverized by the massive bombardment. However, some monomict breccias with low siderophile element contents are considered to be 'pristine' rocks that represent the original igneous components making up the highland crust. Three principal pristine constituents make up the lunar highland crust: ferroan anorthosites, the Mg-suite, and KREEP. A discussion of these three constituents is presented.

  14. Orbital observations of the lunar highlands on Apollo 16 and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, T. K.; El-Baz, F.

    1973-01-01

    From orbital altitudes, the lunar highlands display the same surface characteristics on both the far and near sides. Rugged terra and plains forming materials all appear as if dusted with a uniform mantle. No stratigraphy or evidence of layering are seen in highland craters, with the possible exception of South Ray Crater in the Descartes landing site area. Among the discussed small scale features of the lunar highlands are: fine lineaments, that appear to be real rather than artifacts of lighting, on both horizontal and inclined surfaces; ridge-like scarps that cut across highland topography; and benches that are believed to be high lava marks rather than talus accumulates.

  15. Chemical mixing model studies of lunar orbital geochemical data - Apollo 16 and 17 highlands compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical mixing model studies of lunar geochemical data for the central and Taurus-Littrow lunar highlands were performed utilizing pristine highland rock types as end member compositions. The central highlands show considerable diversity in composition; anorthosite is the principal rock type in the Apollo 16/Descartes region, while norite predominates in the highlands west of the landing site. This change in crustal composition is coincident with a major color boundary seen in earth-based multispectral data and probably represents the presence of distinct geochemical provinces within the central highlands. The Taurus-Littrow highlands are dominated by norite; anorthosite is far less abundant than in the central highlands. This suggests that the impact target for the Serenitatis basin was different than that of the Nectaris basin and further strengthens the hypothesis that the lunar highlands are petrologically heterogeneous on a regional basis. It is suggested that the lunar highlands should be viewed in terms of geochemical provinces that have undergone distinct and complex igneous and impact histories.

  16. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10. PMID:26028740

  17. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  18. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  19. Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central highlands of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rufino, M C; Herrero, M; Van Wijk, M T; Hemerik, L; De Ridder, N; Giller, K E

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the highlands of East Africa, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term effects on productive (and therefore economic) performance of dairy systems. Because of the temporal scale needed to evaluate lifetime productivity, experimentation with feedstuffs in single lactations is not enough to assess improvements in productivity. A dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of dairy cattle. We used LIVSIM (LIVestock SIMulator), an individual-based, dynamic model in which performance depends on genetic potential of the breed and feeding. We tested the model for the highlands of Central Kenya, and simulated individual animals throughout their lifetime using scenarios with different diets based on common feedstuffs used in these systems (Napier grass, maize stover and dairy concentrates), with and without imposing random mortality on different age classes. The simulations showed that it is possible to maximise lifetime productivity by supplementing concentrates to meet the nutrient requirements of cattle during lactation, and during early development to reduce age at first calving and extend productive life. Avoiding undernutrition during the dry period by supplementing the diet with 0.5 kg of concentrates per day helped to increase productivity and productive life, but in practice farmers may not perceive the immediate economic benefits because the results of this practice are manifested through a cumulative, long-term effect. Survival analyses indicated that unsupplemented diets prolong calving intervals and therefore, reduce lifetime productivity. The simulations with imposed random mortality showed a reduction of 43% to 65% in all productivity indicators. Milk production may be

  20. Study of Banana Dehydration using Sequential Infrared Radiation Heating and Freeze-Drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. Cavendish banana slices with 5 mm thickness were predehydrated using IR heating at each one of three radiation intensities, 3000, 4000, and 5000...

  1. Specific detection of banana residue in processed foods using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Ishihata, Kimie; Nakano, Shigeru; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yano, Takeo; Uchida, Kouji; Nakao, Yoshiki; Urisu, Atsuo; Adachi, Reiko; Teshima, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2010-07-28

    Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the detection of banana residue in processed foods. For high banana specificity, the primer set BAN-F/BAN-R was designed on the basis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) genes of chloroplasts and used to obtain amplified products specific to banana by both conventional and real-time PCR. To confirm the specificity of these methods, genomic DNA samples from 31 other species were examined; no amplification products were detected. Subsequently, eight kinds of processed foods containing banana were investigated using these methods to confirm the presence of banana DNA. Conventional PCR had a detection limit of 1 ppm (w/w) banana DNA spiked in 50 ng of salmon testis DNA, whereas SYBR Green I real-time semiquantitative PCR had a detection limit as low as 10 ppm banana DNA. Thus, both methods show high sensitivity and may be applicable as specific tools for the detection of trace amounts of banana in commercial food products. PMID:20604506

  2. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  3. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  4. Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.

    PubMed

    Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

    2010-10-01

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

  5. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  6. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... not limited to: Quantity of produce, type of packaging, identification of grower or packinghouse on the packaging, and documents consigning the fruits or vegetables to a wholesaler or retailer. Produce...., bananas with no yellow or green color break) is a standard industry practice for banana production...

  7. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  8. In vitro fermentation of chewed mango and banana: particle size, starch and vascular fibre effects.

    PubMed

    Low, Dorrain Y; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Fruits (and vegetables) contain cellular structures that are not degraded by human digestive enzymes. Therefore, the structure of the insoluble fraction of swallowed fruits is mostly retained until intestinal microbial fermentation. In vitro fermentation of mango and banana cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were incubated with porcine faecal inoculum and showed intensive metabolic activity. This included degradation of cell walls, leading to the release of encapsulated cell contents for further microbial metabolism. Production of cumulative gas, short chain fatty acids and ammonia were greater for mango than for banana. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed this was due to a major fermentation-resistant starch fraction present in banana, that was absent in mango. This study demonstrated distinctive differences in the fermentability of banana and mango, reflecting a preferential degradation of (parenchyma) fleshy cell walls over resistant starch in banana, and the thick cellulosic vascular fibres in mango. PMID:26215214

  9. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    PubMed

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of Banana bunchy top virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Zhang, Junfang; Xia, Zihao; Li, Yongqiang; Huang, Junsheng; Fan, Zaifeng

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for rapid detection of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection. The reaction was performed in a single tube at 63°C for 90 min, with an improved closed-tube detection system by adding the SYBR Green I dye to the inside of the tube lid prior to amplification. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 1 pg/μl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted DNA from healthy banana plant, and no cross-reaction with other banana-infected pathogens was observed. Real-time turbidimetry was used to monitor the amplification result in the tubes, and it was shown that this LAMP assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than PCR. The results demonstrated that this LAMP method should be useful for both banana disease monitoring and mass propagation of virus-free banana plantlets. PMID:22771738

  11. Lunar highland meteorites and the composition of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Jochum, K.P.; Dreibus, G.; Weber, H.; Weckwerth, G.; Waenke, H. ); Bischoff, A.; Stoeffler, D. )

    1991-11-01

    Major, minor, and trace element data obtained by neutron activation techniques and by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) on two lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 are reported. Both MAC samples were also analyzed for their contents and isotopic compositions of rare gases. Additional SSMS-data were obtained on four lunar highland meteorites previously found in Antarctica: ALHA81005, Y791197, Y82192, and Y86032. MAC88104 and MAC88105 are very similar in chemistry, suggesting that they are pieces of a single fall event. The bulk chemical composition of MAC88104/5 is not very different from the other lunar highland meteorites: highly aluminous with relatively low contents of REE and siderophile element concentrations slightly above 1% of a CI-chondritic level. The contents of solar rare gases in the two MAC samples are low, indicating only a small regolith contribution in agreement with rare petrographically identifiable regolith components. There is no correlation among lunar meteorites between peak shock pressures and solar gas contents, indicating that peak shock pressures of up to 25 GPa do not lead to gas loss. A low {sup 26}Al activity (VOGT et al., 1990) and high contents of cosmogenic rare gases in MAC88104/5 suggest a long exposure (400,000 years) in the lunar sub-surface. K-Ar ages are in excess of 3.9 by. Since lunar highland meteorites are associated with at least three but probably four different fall events, and since they are not derived from chemically exotic front-side terranes, they may represent a better sampling of the average chemical composition of the lunar crust than previous estimates based on returned lunar samples and remote sensing data.

  12. Soil erosion and land degradation in the Highlands of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2013-04-01

    The Highlands of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the Highlands area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern Highlands, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation

  13. Ancestral Origins and Genetic History of Tibetan Highlanders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongsheng; Lou, Haiyi; Yuan, Kai; Wang, Xiaoji; Wang, Yuchen; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Yan; Yang, Xiong; Deng, Lian; Zhou, Ying; Feng, Qidi; Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Guan, Yaqun; Su, Bing; Kang, Longli; Xu, Shuhua

    2016-09-01

    The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan highlanders and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and uncover their origins. Non-modern human sequences compose ∼6% of the Tibetan gene pool and form unique haplotypes in some genomic regions, where Denisovan-like, Neanderthal-like, ancient-Siberian-like, and unknown ancestries are entangled and elevated. The shared ancestry of Tibetan-enriched sequences dates back to ∼62,000-38,000 years ago, predating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and representing early colonization of the plateau. Nonetheless, most of the Tibetan gene pool is of modern human origin and diverged from that of Han Chinese ∼15,000 to ∼9,000 years ago, which can be largely attributed to post-LGM arrivals. Analysis of ∼200 contemporary populations showed that Tibetans share ancestry with populations from East Asia (∼82%), Central Asia and Siberia (∼11%), South Asia (∼6%), and western Eurasia and Oceania (∼1%). Our results support that Tibetans arose from a mixture of multiple ancestral gene pools but that their origins are much more complicated and ancient than previously suspected. We provide compelling evidence of the co-existence of Paleolithic and Neolithic ancestries in the Tibetan gene pool, indicating a genetic continuity between pre-historical highland-foragers and present-day Tibetans. In particular, highly differentiated sequences harbored in highlanders' genomes were most likely inherited from pre-LGM settlers of multiple ancestral origins (SUNDer) and maintained in high frequency by natural selection. PMID:27569548

  14. Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants. PMID:23922960

  15. Transgenic banana plants expressing small interfering RNAs targeted against viral replication initiation gene display high-level resistance to banana bunchy top virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Hadapad, Ashok B

    2012-08-01

    The banana aphid-transmitted Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of bananas and plantains worldwide. Lack of natural sources of resistance to BBTV has necessitated the exploitation of proven transgenic technologies for obtaining BBTV-resistant banana cultivars. In this study, we have explored the concept of using intron-hairpin-RNA (ihpRNA) transcripts corresponding to viral master replication initiation protein (Rep) to generate BBTV-resistant transgenic banana plants. Two ihpRNA constructs namely ihpRNA-Rep and ihpRNA-ProRep generated using Rep full coding sequence or Rep partial coding sequence together with its 5' upstream regulatory region, respectively, and castor bean catalase intron were successfully transformed into banana embryogenic cells. ihpRNA-Rep- and ihpRNA-ProRep-derived transgenic banana plants, selected based on preliminary screening for efficient reporter gene expression, were completely resistant to BBTV infection as indicated by the absence of disease symptoms after 6 months of viruliferous aphid inoculation. The resistance to BBTV infection was also evident by the inability to detect cDNAs coding for viral coat protein, movement protein and Rep protein by RT-PCR from inoculated transgenic leaf extracts. Southern analysis of the two groups of transgenics showed that ihpRNA transgene was stably integrated into the banana genome. The detection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from the ihpRNA transgene sequence in transformed BBTV-resistant plants positively established RNA interference as the mechanism underlying the observed resistance to BBTV. Efficient screening of optimal transformants in this vegetatively propagated non-segregating fruit crop ensured that all the transgenic plants assayed were resistant to BBTV infection. PMID:22552945

  16. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  17. A ferroelectric model for the low emissivity highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Brackett, Robert A.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A model to explain the low emissivity venusian highlands is proposed utilizing the temperature-dependent dielectric constant of ferroelectric minerals. Ferroelectric minerals are known to occur in alkaline and carbonite rocks, both of which are plausible for Venus. Ferroelectric minerals possess extremely high dielectric constants (10(exp 5)) over small temperature intervals and are only required in minor (much less than 1%) abundances to explain the observed emissivities. The ferroelectric model can account for: (1) the observed reduction in emissivity with increased altitude, (2) the abrupt return to normal emissivities at highest elevations, and (3) the variations in the critical elevation observed from region to region.

  18. A new species of Parakari (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Guiana Highlands.

    PubMed

    Derka, Tomáš; Nieto, Carolina; Svitok, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The genus Parakari was described from Guiana Highlands in southeastern Venezuela by Nieto & Derka in 2011 for two species inhabiting streams draining isolated, flat-topped table mountains called tepuis. A description of a third representative, Parakari roraimensis sp. n., is given here based on material collected from a coldwater stream at the foothills of Roraima-tepui (SE Venezuela). Detailed morphological descriptions of mature nymph and female adult are given. A differential diagnosis and a key to nymphs of the three Parakari species are provided. PMID:26624312

  19. 75 FR 23221 - Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Conservation Act, Public Law 108- 421, the Forest Service has drafted the Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut... Forest Service Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update AGENCY: Forest Service... conservation value areas, the impacts of land use change on the natural resources, and conservation...

  20. Ethos in Action: Public Relations at the Highlander Folk School, 1955-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Frank

    An examination of Rosa Parks' relationship with the Highlander Folk School from the first encounter in 1955 through Labor Day of 1956 provides a new understanding of the school's public relations program that sought to end segregation in the Jim Crow South. Myles Horton founded Highlander in 1932 to provide an adult residential center in the South…

  1. A New Turnaround Model: Michigan's Highland Park Goes Charter. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This brief examines the series of events that led to the Highland Park school district being converted to a system of charter public schools in 2012. Used as a strategy to help the district eliminate its large fiscal debt while still providing resident students with a local public school option, Highland Park's charter conversion is one of the…

  2. 76 FR 80424 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application December 19, 2011. AGENCY... Management, L.P. (``Adviser''), Highland Funds I (``Trust'') and Nexbank Securities, Inc. (``Nexbank''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicants request an order that permits: (a) Certain open-end...

  3. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Regolith: Lessons Learned from Mare Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Cahill, J. T.; Patchen, A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R.; Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has begun study of the <45 m fractions of ten representative highland soils, chosen for their contrasting maturities. Difficulties are addressed in the modal and chemical analyses of these highland soils. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. "We Can Live Freedom:" The Highlander Folk School as a Model for Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preskill, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses Tennessee's Highlander Folk School. Reports that the school helped organize labor unions and played a role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s. Explains that Highlander sought to bring about southern integration. Argues that successful civic education draws out the experiences and interests of participants and nurtures respect and…

  5. WATERSHED RESTORATION AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is about watershed restoration and fisheries management in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. The goal of the Canaan Valley Institue is to develop and implement solutions to restore damaged areas and protect aquatic systems in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. A decision ana...

  6. South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239. PMID:12178120

  7. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  8. Mars, highlands-lowlands: Viking contributions to mariner relative age studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Stratigraphic relations between lowland plains and highlands, two major types of Martian geologic-terrain units, were not directly distinguishable on Mariner-9 images. Morphologic characteristics and crater densities suggested that the lava plains beneath their eolian cover were younger than adjacent highland rocks, which form a plateau bounded in many places by highly dissected escarpments. Alternatively, the lowland plains could be the older unit and represent a broad erosional surface exhumed by southward retreat of the highlands along their frontal scarp. Viking photos across five areas of the highland-lowland boundary, however, tend to confirm the younger age of the plains-forming lava flows. A time interval of several hundred million years probably occurred between the retreat of the highland scarp and its latest embayment by lava extrusions in the lowlands. ?? 1978.

  9. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland's highlands and mountain areas. PMID:26844017

  10. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas. PMID:26844017

  11. Determination of the geoid of central highlands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, Herath Mudiyanselage Indika; Tantrigoda, Dhammika Ariyakumara

    2009-06-01

    The available geoid undulations on the WGS84 ellipsoid at over two hundred GPS stations are interpolated using a least-squares surface fitting technique to determine the geoid of the central highlands in Sri Lanka. However, it is not possible to interpolate these points directly to prepare a detailed map of the geoid surface as the geoid separation varies intense due to the rugged local topography making the interpolation inaccurate. The gravity potential and subsequently the undulation of the local geoid due to the topography have been calculated separately using a topographic model and removed from the available geoid undulations. This model was created using information obtained from 1:50 000 digital topographic maps provided by the Survey department of Sri Lanka. The resulting geoid separations were interpolated and three surface polynomials were employed to determine the geoid using the least-squares surface fitting technique. To avoid possible artefacts in regions without observations, an area including central highlands was selected to determine the geoid. Finally, the geoid undulations due to the topography were added back to the Bouguer co-geoid represented by three mathematical surfaces to create a detailed map of the geoid of Sri Lanka. A local positive geoid surface superimposing a large negative regional surface has been obtained and the local maximum value of the geoid undulation is about -92.05 m in the vicinity of Piduruthalagala peak.

  12. Lunar highland melt rocks - Chemistry, petrology and silicate mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A selected suite containing several of the largest samples of lunar highland melt rocks includes impact melt specimens (anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro) and volcanic specimens (intermediate-K Fra Mauro). Although previous assumptions of LKFM volcanism have fallen into disfavor, no fatal arguments against this hypothesis have been presented, and the evidence of a possibly 'inherited igneous' olivine-plagioclase cosaturation provides cause for keeping a volcanic LKFM hypothesis viable. Comparisons of silicate mineralogy with melt rock compositions provide information on the specimen's composition and cooling history. Plagioclase-rock compositions can be matched to the experimentally determined equilibria for appropriate samples to identify melt rocks with refractory anorthitic clasts. Olivine-rock compositions indicate that melt rock vitrophyres precipitate anomalously Fe-rich olivine; the cause of this anomaly is not immediately evident. The Al-Ti and Ca-Fe-Mg zonation in pyroxene provide information on relative cooling rates of highland melt rocks, but Cr- and Al-content (where Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene cores are preserved in rapidly cooled samples) can be correlated with composition of the host rock.

  13. A mantle plume model for the Equatorial Highlands of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the Equatorial Highlands are the surface expressions of hot upwelling mantle plumes is considered via a series of mantle plume models developed using a cylindrical axisymmetric finite element code and depth-dependent Newtonian rheology. The results are scaled by assuming whole mantle convection and that Venus and the earth have similar mantle heat flows. The best model fits are for Beta and Atla. The common feature of the allowed viscosity models is that they lack a pronounced low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle. The shape of Venus's long-wavelength admittance spectrum and the slope of its geoid spectrum are also consistent with the lack of a low-viscosity zone. It is argued that the lack of an asthenosphere on Venus is due to the mantle of Venus being drier than the earth's mantle. Mantle plumes may also have contributed to the formation of some smaller highland swells, such as the Bell and Eistla regions and the Hathor/Innini/Ushas region.

  14. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene. PMID:18820933

  15. Effect of the degree of substitution of octenyl succinic anhydride-banana starch on emulsion stability.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Bello-Flores, Christopher A; Nuñez-Santiago, María del Carmen; Coronel-Aguilera, Claudia P; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2015-11-01

    Banana starch was esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) at different degree substitution (DS) and used to stabilize emulsions. Morphology, emulsion stability, emulsification index, rheological properties and particle size distribution of the emulsions were tested. Emulsions dyed with Solvent Red 26 showed affinity for the oil phase. Backscattering light showed three regions in the emulsion where the emulsified region was present. Starch concentration had higher effect in the emulsification index (EI) than the DS used in the study because similar values were found with OSA-banana and native starches. However, OSA-banana presented greater stability of the emulsified region. Rheological tests in emulsions with OSA-banana showed G'>G" values and low dependence of G' with the frequency, indicating a dominant elastic response to shear. When emulsions were prepared under high-pressure conditions, the emulsions with OSA-banana starch with different DS showed a bimodal distribution of particle size. The emulsion with OSA-banana starch and the low DS showed similar mean droplet diameter than its native counterpart. In contrast, the highest DS led to the highest mean droplet diameter. It is concluded that OSA-banana starch with DS can be used to stabilize specific emulsion types. PMID:26256319

  16. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption. PMID:26877005

  17. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides. PMID:23055273

  18. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value. PMID:24876653

  19. The banana E2 gene family: Genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Jue, Dengwei; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Xie, Jianghui; Jia, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in banana. In this study, 74 E2 genes of banana were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted banana E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the banana E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the banana E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the banana. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the banana E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. PMID:26940488

  20. Storage stability of banana chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R; Varadharaju, N

    2014-11-01

    In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of banana chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of banana chips under ambient condition at every 15 days interval were studied for 120 days. All quality parameters of stored banana chips increased whereas overall acceptability scores decreased during storage. The elevation in FFA, BF and TCD of stored banana chips increased with elapse of storage period as well as with increased proportion of both nanoclay and compatibilizer but decreased by reducing the thickness of film. Among all the packaging materials, the WA of banana chips remained lower than 0.60 i.e. critical limit for microbial growth up to 90 days of storage. The PV of banana chips packaged also remained within the safe limit of 25 meq oxygen kg(-1) throughout the storage period. Among all the nanocomposite films, packaging material having 5 % compatibilizer, 2 % nanoclay & 100 μm thickness (treatment E) and 10 % compatibilizer, 4 % nanoclay & 120 μm thickness (treatment N) showed better stability of measured quality characteristics of banana chips than any other treatment. PMID:26396292

  1. Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

  2. Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-01-01

    In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

  3. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  4. Tearing instabilities in the banana-plateau collisionality regime

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, W.X.; Callen, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Starting from a resistive MHD set of equations and adding neoclassical currents (bootstrap, enhanced polarization and pinch type), we derive the eigenmode equation and relevant dispersion relation for ''neoclassical MHD'' tearing modes in the banana-plateau collisionality regime. The ballooning mode representation and a multiple length scale approximation are utilized. Analysis of the dispersion relation shows that the neoclassical effects on tearing modes are quite strong for ..sqrt..epsilon ..beta../sub p/(1 + nu/sub *//sub e/)/sup -1/ > S/sup -2/5/ (epsilon is the inverse aspect ratio, ..beta../sub p/ is the poloidal beta value, nu/sub *//sub e/ is the electron collisionality factor and S is the neoclassical MHD Reynolds number). The growth rate ..gamma.. and singular layer width deltax are increased typically by more than one order of magnitude from the usual values for epsilon ..beta../sub p/ approx. = 1. For our model, the changes in the tearing modes from the banana-plateau collisionality regime to the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime are very clear and natural.

  5. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

    2012-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

  6. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots. PMID:23692371

  7. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y.H.; Wang, R.C.; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

  8. Neoclassical ion thermal conductivity modified by finite banana effects in a tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.S.

    1997-06-01

    A finite-banana-width correction to the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity is obtained in a tokamak plasma under the conventional assumption that the particle flow parallel to magnetic-field lines dominates the trapped particle{close_quote}s orbital dynamics. It is found that the finite-banana-width effect makes ion thermal conductivity itself be a function of radial plasma density gradient and magnetic shear. Negative radial gradients in plasma density and/or safety factor can reduce the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity when the banana width is a significant fraction of the gradient scale length. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Chlorophyll breakdown as seen in bananas: sign of aging and ripening--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The ripening of bananas is seen by a characteristic change of their color from deep green to bright yellow. Likewise, their over-ripening and eventual rotting are accompanied by the appearance of an unappetizing brown. Chlorophyll breakdown is a major contributor to the visual signs of these processes in bananas. Outlined here are the basic structures of chlorophyll catabolites in higher plants, with particular reference to ripening and aging bananas. In these fruits, unique fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites accumulate and give rise to their fascinating blue luminescence. PMID:21160159

  10. Are the Equatorial Highlands on Venus formed by mantle plume diapirs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Several origins have been proposed for the Equatorial Highlands on Venus, including spreading centers and plume-related uplift. Recently, the spreading center hypothesis has been shown to be incompatible with the measured geoid and topography variations over the highlands. It is also difficult to reconcile the range of geoid anomalies over the highlands with a steady-state plum model. There is a large variation in admittance values (geoid/topography ratios) among highland regions. This variation suggests that different uplifted regions represent distinct stages in a time dependent process. It has been proposed that the Beta Regio, Thetis Regio, Ovda Regio, and Artemis Plateau Equatorial Highland Regions are formed by large mantel diapirs. According to this model, topography and geoid height decrease with increasing age of the highland, as the diapir spreads out beneath the lithosphere. In order to determine if the diapir model is compatible with the sequence of tectonic and volcanic events recorded in the surface geology of the highlands, a series of finite difference calculations were made of the ascent and partial melting of a spherical thermal diapir in an incompressible, infinite Prandtl number, isoviscous fluid.

  11. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  12. Banana Ovate family protein MaOFP1 and MADS-box protein MuMADS1 antagonistically regulated banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  13. Plagioclase twin laws in lunar highland rocks - Possible petrogenetic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Keil, K.; Prinz, M.

    1974-01-01

    Plagioclases in different types of lunar highland rocks (all highly feldspathic) are twinned according to different laws and in different styles. Carlsbad and Carlsbad-albite twins, presumed to be growth twins, occur mainly in rocks which show igneous texture, and which have not been severely brecciated. These two twin laws appear to be absent from cataclastic rocks, including cataclastic anorthosite, possibly because the original twins were preferentially broken up in cataclasis (the composition plane being a plane of weakness). Pericline and lamellar albite twins, presumed to be deformation twins (except for some albite growth twins) occur in all types of rocks, and obvious deformation features, such as bending of lamellae, are well shown in many cataclastic rocks. Surprisingly, some Carlsbad and Carlsbad-albite twins are found in rocks with granoblastic texture, which presumably recrystallized in the solid state.

  14. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  15. 2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands. PMID:19161618

  18. Probing the structure and porosity of the lunar highlands crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, Jason M.; Evans, Alexander J.; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Miljković, Katarina; Phillips, Roger J.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Milbury, Colleen; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Sori, Michael M.; Thomason, Carver J.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    Impact cratering is held to be the primary mechanism responsible for regulating porosity in primordial planetary lithospheres, increasing porosity via fracturing and dilatant bulking and decreasing porosity via localized heating and compaction. Constraints on these processes, however, are limited to gravity profiles of four lunar craters and gravity and seismic observations of ~50 terrestrial craters, many of which have been substantially modified by erosion and weathering. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has afforded unprecedented insight into the structure of the lithosphere of the Moon. We use a Bouguer-corrected GRAIL gravity field to investigate the porosity associated with ~1200 complex lunar highlands craters. We find that the Bouguer anomaly (BA) of these craters is generally negative and scales inversely with crater size, implying that larger impacts result in more extensive fracturing and dilatant bulking. The BA of craters larger than ~93 km is independent of crater diameter, indicating that impact-generated porosity is truncated at depth. Considerable variability in the BA of craters is observed. Some craters, in fact, exhibit positive Bouguer anomalies. We find that positive values of the residual BA, the average BA within the crater rim less the average BA within an outer annulus from the outer flank of the rim to two crater radii from the crater center, correlate with high porosity in the surrounding crust. Our analysis shows that, whereas early impacts generally increased crustal porosity, when crustal porosity becomes too high, impacts reduce porosity, leading to the concept of a steady-state porosity, which we estimate to be ~15±1% for the lunar highlands. Knowledge of the extent and variability of crustal porosity is critical to understanding the thermal and geologic evolution of planetary bodies and to the ancient ecology of Earth.

  19. Effect of banana on cold stress test & peak expiratory flow rate in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, C; Bairy, K L; Rao, N M; Udupa, E G

    1999-07-01

    The effect of banana on cold stress induced hypertension, peak expiratory flow rate and plasma ACE activity in healthy human volunteers was tested. Systolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.025) and mean arterial blood pressure (P < 0.005) were significantly decreased during cold stress after banana treatment compared to controls subjected to cold stress. There was no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity after banana treatment. Banana decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:10709336

  20. Prediction of banana quality indices from color features using support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Sanaeifar, Alireza; Bakhshipour, Adel; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Banana undergoes significant quality indices and color transformations during shelf-life process, which in turn affect important chemical and physical characteristics for the organoleptic quality of banana. A computer vision system was implemented in order to evaluate color of banana in RGB, L*a*b* and HSV color spaces, and changes in color features of banana during shelf-life were employed for the quantitative prediction of quality indices. The radial basis function (RBF) was applied as the kernel function of support vector regression (SVR) and the color features, in different color spaces, were selected as the inputs of the model, being determined total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and firmness as the output. Experimental results provided an improvement in predictive accuracy as compared with those obtained by using artificial neural network (ANN). PMID:26653423

  1. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  2. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials. PMID:21983877

  3. Feeding of banana (Musa spp.) plantation wastes for fast pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Using the pyrolysis process, agricultural residue such as banana waste can be converted into bio-char, bio-oil, and gases. The fast pyrolysis process of banana wastes on the available 150g/h rig requires particle size reduction. The particle size of less than 150μm constitutes 50% and particles in the 150-250μm ranges make up 28% of the distribution of particle size of banana leaves. The particle size of less than 150μm makes up 52% and particles in the 150-250μm ranges constitute 28% of the distribution of particle size for banana pseudo-stem. A new gravity chute feeder is also designed for this fast pyrolysis system. A series of feeding tests were conducted using this new feeder. The advantages and limitations will be presented. A comparison with the previously designed feeder will be discussed.

  4. Development and Characterization of Spaghetti with High Resistant Starch Content Supplemented with Banana Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasta products, such as spaghetti, are relatively healthy foods traditionally manufactured from durum wheat semolina and water. Nutritionally improved spaghetti products with additional health benefits can be produced by supplementing durum wheat with suitable food additives, such as banana starch....

  5. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality. PMID:23572812

  6. Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Martínez, Eduardo; Ruepert, Clemens; Savage, Candida; Gilek, Michael; Pinnock, Margareth; Solis, Efrain

    2006-08-15

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufos

  7. M = 1 internal kink mode in the plateau and banana regimes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Tsypin, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    A theory is derived for the m = 1 internal kink mode of a tokamak in the plateau and banana regimes. The growth rate for this mode in the plateau regime is shown to be smaller by a factor of a/R than the MHD prediction (a and R are the minor and major radii of the torus). The growth rate in the banana regime is higher than in the plateau regime and approaches the standard MHD value.

  8. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. PMID:25591881

  9. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-15

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations ({epsilon}{identical_to}{delta}B/2B<<1). Solutions are obtained by integrating the drift-kinetic equation along field lines in steady state. A closure for the local value of the parallel viscous force B{center_dot}{nabla}{center_dot}{pi}{sub parallel} is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force by a factor of O(1/{epsilon}). A high-frequency limit ({omega}>>{nu}) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions.

  10. Finite banana width effect on magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.P.; Tsai, S.T.

    1995-08-01

    The finite banana width (FBW) effect on the coupling between magnetoacoustic waves and the near harmonic gyro-oscillations of the energetic ions/{alpha} particles in tokamaks are studied. The gyrokinetic equation with FBW effect is rederived for the energetic trapped ions. The dispersion relation and growth rate of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MACI) are obtained. It is found that the coherence interaction between the energetic ion trajectory and mode field has a significant effect when the Larmor radius of energetic ions is larger than the wavelength of MACI. Near the low field side the FBW effect destabilizes the mode, while away from it the FBW gives a stabilizing effect. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  11. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems. PMID:26002290

  12. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine. PMID:23039112

  13. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders. PMID:26952840

  14. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  15. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  16. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of a banana gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Huang, P L; Do, Y Y; Huang, F C; Thay, T S; Chang, T W

    1997-04-01

    A cDNA encoding the banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase has previously been isolated from a cDNA library that was constructed by extracting poly(A)+ RNA from peels of ripening banana. This cDNA, designated as pMAO2, has 1,199 bp and contains an open reading frame of 318 amino acids. In order to identify ripening-related promoters of the banana ACC oxidase gene, pMAO2 was used as a probe to screen a banana genomic library constructed in the lambda EMBL3 vector. The banana ACC oxidase MAO2 gene has four exons and three introns, with all of the boundaries between these introns and exons sharing a consensus dinucleotide sequence of GT-AG. The expression of MAO2 gene in banana begins after the onset of ripening (stage 2) and continuous into later stages of the ripening process. The accumulation of MAO2 mRNA can be induced by 1 microliter/l exogenous ethylene, and it reached steady state level when 100 microliters/l exogenous ethylene was present. PMID:9137825

  18. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  19. The antagonistic effect of Banana bunchy top virus multifunctional protein B4 against Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Mao, Qianzhuo; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2016-06-01

    The viral-induced banana bunchy top disease and the fungal-induced banana blight are two major causes of concern for industrial scale production of bananas. Banana blight is particularly troublesome, affecting ∼80% of crops worldwide. Strict guidelines and protocols are in place in order to ameliorate the effects of this devastating disease, yet little success has been achieved. From the data presented here, we have found that Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-infected bananas are more resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). BBTV appears to be antagonistic towards Foc, thus improving the survivability of plants against blight. The BBTV suppressor of RNA silencing, namely protein B4, displays fungicidal properties in vitro. Furthermore, transgenic tomatoes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein B4 demonstrate enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). Differential gene expression analysis indicates that increased numbers of photogenesis-related gene transcripts are present in dark-green leaves of B4-GFP-modified tomato plants relative to those found in WT plants. Conversely, the transcript abundance of immunity-related genes is substantially lower in transgenic tomatoes compared with WT plants, suggesting that plant defences may be influenced by protein B4. This viral-fungal interaction provides new insights into microbial community dynamics within a single host and has potential commercial value for the breeding of transgenic resistance to Fusarium-related blight/wilt. PMID:26369403

  20. Characterization of banana (Musa spp.) plantation wastes as a potential renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Agricultural residue such as banana waste is one of the biomass categories that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana leaves and pseudo-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana leaves and pseudo-stem are 7.5 mf wt.% and 11.0 mf wt.%, while the carbon content of banana leaf and pseudo-stem are 42.4 mf wt.% and 37.9 mf wt.%, respectively. The measured heating value of banana leaf and pseudo-stem are 17.7MJ/kg and 15.5MJ/kg, respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The potential of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

  2. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  3. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed. PMID:27041291

  4. Identification of Genes Encoding Granule-Bound Starch Synthase Involved in Amylose Metabolism in Banana Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weixin; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage. PMID:24505384

  5. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana. PMID:21212957

  6. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement. PMID:26001493

  7. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min. PMID:19082923

  8. Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

  9. Connecticut Highlands Technical Report - Documentation of the Regional Rainfall-Runoff Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the supporting data and describes the data sources, methodologies, and assumptions used in the assessment of existing and potential water resources of the Highlands of Connecticut and Pennsylvania (referred to herein as the “Highlands”). Included in this report are Highlands groundwater and surface-water use data and the methods of data compilation. Annual mean streamflow and annual mean base-flow estimates from selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations were computed using data for the period of record through water year 2005. The methods of watershed modeling are discussed and regional and sub-regional water budgets are provided. Information on Highlands surface-water-quality trends is presented. USGS web sites are provided as sources for additional information on groundwater levels, streamflow records, and ground- and surface-water-quality data. Interpretation of these data and the findings are summarized in the Highlands study report.

  10. Using lunar sounder imagery to distinguish surface from subsurface reflectors in lunar highlands areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Carter, James L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method using the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder imagery data which appears capable of filtering out off-nadir surface noise from highland area profiles, so that subsurface features may now be detected in highland areas as well as mare areas. Previously, this had been impossible because the rough topography in the highland areas created noise in the profiles which could not be distinguished from subsurface echoes. The new method is an image processing procedure involving the computerized selection of pixels which represent intermediate echo intensity values, then manually removing those pixels from the profile. Using this technique, a subsurface feature with a horizontal extent of about 150 km, at a calculated depth of approximately 3 km, has been detected beneath the crater Riccioli in the highlands near Oceanus Procellarum. This result shows that the ALSE data contain much useful information that remains to be extracted and used.

  11. Differentiation and volcanism in the lunar highlands: photogeologic evidence and Apollo 16 implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; McCauley, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Materials of possible volcanic origin in the lunar highlands include (1) highland plains materials, (2) materials forming closely spaced hills in which summit furrows and chains of craters are common and (3) materials forming closely spaced hills (some of which parallel the lunar grid) on which summit furrows and chain craters are rare. The highland plains materials probably are basaltic lavas with less Fe and Ti than the mare plains materials. The two hilly units appear to consist of materials that, if volcanic, were more viscous in the molten state than any of the lunar plains units; thus these materials may be significantly enriched in felsic components. Most of the highland materials of possible volcanic origin formed after the Imbrium multi-ring basin but before mare material completed flooding parts of the moon; they therefore postdate accretion of the moon and may represent several episodes of premare volcanism. ?? 1972.

  12. The nature of rays and sources of highland material in Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Although highland fragments are rare in the Luna 24 core, they should provide an important source of information on the sequence of formation and lithology of lunar east-limb basins. The numerous rays that cross the Crisium basin suggest several sources of highland materials. Both deposition of primary ejecta and reworking of local material were most likely responsible for the formation of ray systems in Mare Crisium. In addition to the fact that Luna 24 landed near the uprange end of a Giordano Bruno ray, incomplete sampling of the uppermost layer and formation of the ray by reworking of in situ regolith suggest that its materials may be scarce or not present in the core. Highland fragments present are most likely to be representative of several highland sources.

  13. Composition of the Lunar Highland Crust and Mantle and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Uemoto, K.

    2016-05-01

    Recent remote sensing data suggest that extremely pure anorthosite (PAN) layer is a main component of the lunar highland crust and presence of crustal material with higher Mg# on the farside than the nearside.

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To predict fish community response to environmental restoration in the Highlands Region one must first have information on fish abundance and diversity. We used data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program) to i...

  15. The distinction of pristine from meteorite-contaminated highlands rocks using metal compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Norman, M. D.; Score, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Pristine highlands rocks, i.e., those which have retained the chemical characteristics they acquired from igneous processes, contain metal grains whose Ni and Co contents are distinct from those in most polymict, meteorite-contaminated rocks. The difference is mainly a result of the bulk Ni/Co ratios of pristine rocks being much lower than those of chondritic meteorites. The compositions of metal grains thus provide a rapid and effective criterion for the recognition of pristine highlands samples.

  16. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M.; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R.; Pant, Ganesh R.; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K.; Impoinvil, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. PMID:26956778

  17. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    PubMed

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R; Pant, Ganesh R; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K; Impoinvil, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. PMID:26956778

  18. Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ngarakana-Gwasira, E. T.; Bhunu, C. P.; Masocha, M.; Mashonjowa, E.

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS. As a result of climate change, malaria burden is likely to increase in the tropics, the highland regions, and East Africa and along the northern limit of falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria will spread into the African highlands; however it is likely to die out at the southern limit of the disease. PMID:27066290

  19. Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngarakana-Gwasira, E T; Bhunu, C P; Masocha, M; Mashonjowa, E

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS. As a result of climate change, malaria burden is likely to increase in the tropics, the highland regions, and East Africa and along the northern limit of falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria will spread into the African highlands; however it is likely to die out at the southern limit of the disease. PMID:27066290

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:26307965

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:26307965

  2. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S.; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:26681854

  3. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Africa.

    PubMed

    Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M

    2005-08-01

    Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in Africa. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated highland and humid coastal belts of Africa, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In Africa, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about

  4. Lunar highland crustal models based on iron concentrations - Isostasy and center-of-mass displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data is introduced on the iron concentrations of the lunar surface which have been refined by means of convolution corrections to restore the spatial resolution and contrast lost by the omnidirectional spectrometer. This refined iron data is synthesized with other orbital seismic, and lunar sample data to derive highland crustal density and thickness, and isostasy and lunar centers of mass models are examined in light of this new information. A model is developed by which highland crustal density is calculated for each highland region from orbital observations of Fe, Mg and Ti concentrations. The results of this model are presented numerically and graphically for 35 highland and two non-highland regions. Density and thickness results are then applied to two long-standing lunar problems: (1) the nature of highland isostasy, which is shown to be controlled by crustal thickness rather than density, and (2) the separation of the moon's mass and figure centers, which is shown to be due to the crustal thickness difference between the lunar near and far sides.

  5. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  6. Sedimentological features of lateritic and saprolitic horizons in a mid-slope lavaka, Central Highlands, Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvardi, B.; Raveloson, A.; Visnovitz, F.; Szabó, Cs.; Kovács, I.; Székely, B.

    2012-04-01

    Madagascar is characterized by a world-record erosion rate, especially in the Central Highlands and the vicinity of Lake Alaotra. As a consequence of the high erosion rate several specific erosional landforms develop in the area. Among them an inverted teardrop-shaped geomorphic feature, the lavaka, meaning 'hole' in Malagasy, is very typical in the hilly landscape. These unique features are widespread in Madagascar though somewhat similar patterns can also be found in Congo, South Africa and Brazil. In these areas, material from the lavakas is washed down from the hillsides into the streams and rivers after every heavy rain (1500-1800 mm/yr). The high sediment load from the eroded lavakas can damage the infrastructure (collapses roads, bridges and buildings) and may destroy agricultural land (swamp fields). The distribution of lavakas is very diverse: despite the same climatologic, geological environment and anthropogenic effects a large difference in density of lavakas can be observed. For this reason it cannot be fully constrained how lavakas form and develop. Their formation is affected by natural factors (hydrological and climatic effects, geology, tectonics, vegetation, etc.) and also by anthropogenic influences (deforestation, grassland burning, overgrazing). The basic condition for the formation of lavakas often includes the petrographic characteristics of the area. Lavaka-generating substrates can be separated into two main weathered units: thin upper laterite (less than one meter) and thicker deeper saprolite (several tens of meters) on the crystalline basement. This study focuses on a mid-slope lavaka, in the area of Tsiafahy, in Madagascar's Central Highlands. To ascertain the composition of the material and to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity of the lateritic and saprolitic profile on precambrian magmatic basement, we investigated the grain size distribution and mineral composition of an active lavaka. Our results show the significance of water on

  7. Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings

  8. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  9. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2008-02-27

    Sub-Saharan Africa could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as bananas, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes. PMID:17761472

  10. Banana-Associated Microbial Communities in Uganda Are Highly Diverse but Dominated by Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 109 gene copy numbers g−1). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations. PMID:22562988

  11. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  12. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations. PMID:22562988

  13. Figurines, flint clay sourcing, the Ozark Highlands, and Cahokian acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, T.E.; Hughes, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    At the pinnacle of Eastern Woodlands' prehistoric cultural development, Cahokia has been interpreted as a political and economic power participating in prestige-goods exchanges and trade networks stretching from the Great Plains to the South Atlantic. Among the more spectacular of the Cahokian elite artifacts were stone pipes and figurines made from a distinctive red stone previously identified as Arkansas bauxite. In this research, we used a combination of X-ray diffraction, sequential acid dissolution, and inductively coupled plasma analyses to establish the source of the raw material used in the manufacture of the red figurines and pipes that epitomize the Cahokian-style. Our research demonstrates that these objects were made of locally available flint clays. This finding, in conjunction with other evidence, indicate Cahokian exploitation of many mineral and stone resources focuses on the northern Ozark Highlands to the exclusion of other areas. These findings indicate that we must reassess the direction, extent, and role of Cahokian external contacts and trade in elite goods. Copyright ?? 2000 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  14. Coleman Highlands subsurface air utilization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, M.D.

    1982-11-15

    An investigation was conducted into the feasibility of using a 1 million square foot developed cave within the Downtown Industrial Park as a heating and cooling source for a proposed residential subdivision on an adjacent vacant tract of land. Both sites are located near the Coleman Highlands neighborhood in the Westport Community of Kansas City, Missouri. Characteristics of the cave and surface sites were studied, as well as potential heating and cooling sources and transfer media. BTU capacity of the cave and demand for the prototype houses was calculated. The preferred system included a water source in the cave, water transfer medium, and water-to-air heat pumps in the individual homes. Analysis of that system showed it would be marginally effective due to the limited heat valve available in the cave and substantial shortfalls of cooling capacity for summertime operation. Estimated system costs appeared to be in an affordable range, but it was felt that those capital costs could be better applied to other energy-conserving measures.

  15. Crustal structure of the Appalachian Highlands in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prodehl, C.; Schlittenhardt, J.; Stewart, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Crustal structure of the southern Appalachians and adjacent Interior Low Plateaus in Tennessee is derived from seismic-refraction measurements observed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1965 along reversed lines, normal (NW-SE) and parallel (NE-SW) to the structure of the Appalachian Highlands' major geologic divisions. Its easternmost part is located approximately 80 km southwest of the westernmost part of the COCORP seismic-reflection traverse within the Blue Ridge province. The velocity-depth models derived for both observational directions consist of three crustal layers with surprisingly high velocities, being about 6.1-6.2 km/s in the upper crust down to 7-10 km depth, 6.7-6.8 km/s for the middle crust between about 17 and 34 km and varying from 7.1 to 7.4 km/s for the lower crust at about 40-47 km depth. The boundaries between the three crustal layers as well as the crust-mantle boundary are transition zones of up to 11 km thickness. Similar to old orogens in other parts of the earth, the main result is a thick crust, at places in excess of 50 km, with high average velocity and a broad crust-mantle transition zone. ?? 1984.

  16. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  17. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests. PMID:23508886

  18. New Elemental Maps of the Nearside Lunar Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J. A.; Grande, M.; Bisi, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    A set of elemental maps obtained by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) and covering the Southern Nearside Lunar Highland region will be presented. This region broadly covers the area below 10 S latitude and between -10 to +30 E longitude. It has never been the subject of a sample return mission; the nearest ground truth measurements are Apollo 16 at 8.56 S, 15.3 E and Surveyor 7 at 41 S, -11 E - this is mainly due to the uneven, mountainous terrain which makes spacecraft landings hazardous. The region has very high relief, with large slopes and rough surface features - these characteristics complicate the analysis of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Chandrayaan-1 flew at a time coinciding with a predicted increase in solar activity. For an X-ray fluorescence instrument, which relies on incident solar X-rays to illuminate the surface, this increase in activity would be enough to guarantee ~100% surface coverage in Mg, Al and Si, and significant areas in Fe, Ti, and Ca. However, the solar cycle was delayed, and instead C1XS launched into the quietest solar conditions seen in 100 years. Regardless, the excellent stability and low noise level of the instrument meant that small flares (A and B class) were able to generate statistically significant findings. The elements mapped will include Magnesium, Silicon and Aluminium, as well as relevant elemental ratios. These will be compared to other datasets including Lunar Prospector, Clementine and M3 mineral maps.

  19. Local biologies and HIV/AIDS in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    The province of Papua, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in Asia. Within volatile political conditions, HIV has reached generalized epidemic status for indigenous Papuans. This article explores the merits of using the concept of local biologies as an analytic tool to assess the range of factors which affect a local pattern of untreated HIV and rapid onset of AIDS. A research team conducted 32 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive indigenous persons and 15 interviews with health care workers in urban and peri-urban sites in the central highlands region. The results show fear of gossip and stigmatization, regional political conditions and gaps in care interweave to create local biological conditions of evasion of care and rapid onset of AIDS. The normative emphasis in contemporary scholarship on stigma as shaping subjective responses to HIV needs to be complemented by a full assessment of the physiological impact of health services, and the ways political conditions trickle down and mediate local biological patterns. The concept of local biologies is highly effective for explaining the full scope of possible factors affecting the intersection of social and physical realms for HIV-positive persons. PMID:23242628

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of bedrock exposures in the Martian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D.; Aharonson, O.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The THEMIS instrument aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has provided a new view of the martian surface with 100 m/pixel daytime and nighttime multispectral infrared imaging. Numerous exposures of bedrock have been identified using THEMIS data. These exposures are found in a variety of southern highlands terrains, including crater floors and intercrater plains. We are characterizing the composition, thermophysical properties, and morphology of extensive, largely sediment-free bedrock surfaces in the intercrater plains of Mars. More than 30 spatially-contiguous, extensive, non-crater related bedrock surfaces with low albedo values (<0.16) have been identified to date. These bedrock exposures are investigated using THEMIS daytime and nighttime IR mosaics, MOC wide angle 256 ppd mosaic, MOLA elevation data binned at 128 ppd, and TES detector field-of-view overlays (full spatial resolution) of albedo and spectral emissivity. THEMIS and TES data are used for derivation of surface emissivity and estimation of mineral abundance allowing classification into units based on composition, morphology, texture and other noted characteristics. Building on previous global studies, we use infrared and VIS/NIR spectral data to determine surface mineralogy and examine how representative the martian surface layer is of near-surface underlying bedrock units. This study, for the first time, systematically probes a window into the stratigraphy and composition of globally distributed ancient terrains on Mars.

  1. Pristine highland clasts in consortium breccia 14305 Petrology and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.

    1984-11-15

    Data are presented on the petrography and mineral chemistry of six pristine highland clasts chipped from the polymict lunar breccia 14305. Major and trace elements in the clasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, and mineral analyses were performed by electron microprobe. Mg-suite clasts have eastern geochemical affinities, reaffirming the importance of local variations in geochemistry. These local variations are superimposed on the moon-wide, longitudinal variations noted by Warren and Wasson (1980). Alkali anorthosites and Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites are not comagmatic, and cannot be related to a single parent magma by either fractional crystallization or variable assimilation of KREEP. Both magma suites may have assimilated varied amounts of KREEP into distinct parent magmas. Alternatively, alkali anorthosites may have crystallized directly from a KREEP-basalt parent magma. A thick crust of ferroan anorthosite probably never existed on the western lunar nearside, or was removed by basin-forming impacts prior to intrusion of later plutonic suites.

  2. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants. PMID:19901901

  3. [Capabilities of the application of the perspective technique during the medical supply of the outfits in highlands].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Soldatov, E A; Shurupov, D A

    2010-07-01

    During the organization of the medical evacuation of the outfits in highlands it is necessary to consider that the workability of the stretchermen in highland goes down to 50% and more; equipment of the aid man must corresponds to the conditions of the highlands (immobilize vacuum mattress--IVMv-01, collapsible immobilize pinion stretchers--IPS-01); application of the wheel-type machines and helicopters is difficult and dangerously. Application of the modern techniques of informational support, unmanned drones and others modern techniques requires the output of new organization principles of the system of the medical evacuation in highlands. PMID:20873187

  4. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10(-8)). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10(-4)). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  5. Formation of Australian continental margin highlands driven by plate-mantle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Flament, Nicolas; Matthews, Kara J.; Williams, Simon E.; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Passive margin highlands occur on most continents on Earth and play a critical role in the cycle of weathering, erosion, and atmospheric circulation. Yet, in contrast to the well-developed understanding of collisional mountain belts, such as the Alps and Himalayas, the origin of less elevated (1-2 km) passive margin highlands is still unknown. The eastern Australian highlands are a prime example of these plateaus, but compared to others they have a well-documented episodic uplift history spanning 120 million years. We use a series of mantle convection models to show that the time-dependent interaction of plate motion with mantle downwellings and upwellings accounts for the broad pattern of margin uplift phases. Initial dynamic uplift of 400-600 m from 120-80 Ma was driven by the eastward motion of eastern Australia's margin away from the sinking eastern Gondwana slab, followed by tectonic quiescence to about 60 Ma in the south (Snowy Mountains). Renewed uplift of ∼700 m in the Snowy Mountains is propelled by the gradual motion of the margin over the edge of the large Pacific mantle upwelling. In contrast the northernmost portion of the highlands records continuous uplift from 120 Ma to present-day totalling about 800 m. The northern highlands experienced a continuous history of dynamic uplift, first due to the end of subduction to the east of Australia, then due to moving over a large passive mantle upwelling. In contrast, the southern highlands started interacting with the edge of the large Pacific mantle upwelling ∼ 40- 50 million years later, resulting in a two-phase uplift history. Our results are in agreement with published uplift models derived from river profiles and the Cretaceous sediment influx into the Ceduna sub-basin offshore southeast Australia, reflecting the fundamental link between dynamic uplift, fluvial erosion and depositional pulses in basins distal to passive margin highlands.

  6. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10−8). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10−4). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  7. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  8. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  9. Development of a genetic linkage map of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease in bananas (Musa spp.) using SSR and DArT markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  10. MusaWRKY71 overexpression in banana plants leads to altered abiotic and biotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are specifically involved in the transcriptional reprogramming following incidence of abiotic or biotic stress on plants. We have previously documented a novel WRKY gene from banana, MusaWRKY71, which was inducible in response to a wide array of abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. The present work details the effects of MusaWRKY71 overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Stable integration and overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transgenic banana plants was proved by Southern blot analysis and quantitative real time PCR. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaWRKY71 displayed enhanced tolerance towards oxidative and salt stress as indicated by better photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm) and lower membrane damage of the assayed leaves. Further, differential regulation of putative downstream genes of MusaWRKY71 was investigated using real-time RT-PCR expression analysis. Out of a total of 122 genes belonging to WRKY, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) and chitinase families analyzed, 10 genes (six belonging to WRKY family, three belonging to PR proteins family and one belonging to chitinase family) showed significant differential regulation in MusaWRKY71 overexpressing lines. These results indicate that MusaWRKY71 is an important constituent in the transcriptional reprogramming involved in diverse stress responses in banana. PMID:24116051

  11. MusaWRKY71 Overexpression in Banana Plants Leads to Altered Abiotic and Biotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Upendra K. S.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are specifically involved in the transcriptional reprogramming following incidence of abiotic or biotic stress on plants. We have previously documented a novel WRKY gene from banana, MusaWRKY71, which was inducible in response to a wide array of abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. The present work details the effects of MusaWRKY71 overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Stable integration and overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transgenic banana plants was proved by Southern blot analysis and quantitative real time PCR. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaWRKY71 displayed enhanced tolerance towards oxidative and salt stress as indicated by better photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm) and lower membrane damage of the assayed leaves. Further, differential regulation of putative downstream genes of MusaWRKY71 was investigated using real-time RT-PCR expression analysis. Out of a total of 122 genes belonging to WRKY, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) and chitinase families analyzed, 10 genes (six belonging to WRKY family, three belonging to PR proteins family and one belonging to chitinase family) showed significant differential regulation in MusaWRKY71 overexpressing lines. These results indicate that MusaWRKY71 is an important constituent in the transcriptional reprogramming involved in diverse stress responses in banana. PMID:24116051

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  13. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960

  14. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays. PMID:20397044

  15. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health. PMID:20839056

  16. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. PMID:23116484

  17. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P < 0.05) different. Both irrigation regimes resulted in significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, leaf length, leaf area, leaf area index, green leaf colour intensity, plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  18. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae. PMID:24854442

  19. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. PMID:24361571

  20. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels. PMID:26471649

  1. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4. PMID:21547366

  2. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  3. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  4. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  5. Collisional ballooning mode dispersion relation in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Tessarotto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Collisional ballooning mode theory in the banana regime is developed for tokamak configurations from the gyrokinetic formalism. A general dispersion relation is obtained, which in principle can deal with a collision operator of any type. However, investigation of an approximate Fokker--Planck collision operator developed in recent neoclassical transport theory is detailed. The most significant feature of the present theory as compared to the customary treatment lies in that the distinction between particle and fluid velocities is made in the ordering analyses. This reveals that the eigenfrequency of modes is determined by balancing the small-parallel-ion-velocity (SPIV) effect [L.-J. Zheng and M. Tessarotto, Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 3928 (1994)], instead of the fluid inertia one, with the instability drives. Since the parallel-electric-field effect is found to be negligible as compared to the SPIV effect, in contrast to the customary resistive ballooning mode picture, the leading collisional effect is demonstrated to be the modification of the SPIV effect instead of the relaxation of the frozen-in-law. The ion--ion collisions are the cause for this modification, while the electron collisional effect is shown to be negligible. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. PMID:25476008

  7. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2010-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures. PMID:20620890

  8. Ultrasonic probing of the banana photon distribution in turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Aner; Kotler, Zvi; Sfez, Bruno

    2001-06-01

    Probing photon density in diffusive media is very important in order to model and understand their propagation. It is possible to detect photons outside the medium, but their non-invasive detection inside it is still an unsolved problem. An elegant, semi-invasive approach to perform this task is to scan a small absorbing sphere inside the turbid medium and measure the light outside the sample when the sphere is present and when it is not. However this method requires the medium to be liquid and such a procedure cannot be performed in the case of biological tissues. Ultrasound tagging of light has been introduced initially for transillumination imaging in turbid media, and then extended to the case of reflection imaging. Here we present results showing that it is possible to map the photon density inside solid turbid media by locally tagging photons using an ultrasonic field. We experimentally retrieve the well-known banana-shaped photons distribution when the source and the detectors are in a back-scattering configuration, using a gel-based homogeneous phantom. We also present experiments where hemoglobin has been introduced inside the gel. By fitting the experimental results with the theoretical formula, we are able to quantitatively retrieve the amount of hemoglobin introduced inside the gel, not only from data obtained by scanning the ultrasound waist inside the phantom, the in put and output fibers staying fixed.

  9. Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial banana cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam IO; Mchau, Godwin A

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars––Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) ––were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions. PMID:25987997

  10. [Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas].

    PubMed

    Romminger, K; Hoppe, H

    1976-01-01

    With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m. PMID:950991

  11. Ranking Malaria Risk Factors to Guide Malaria Control Efforts in African Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. Methods and Findings A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through “classification and regression trees”, an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. Conclusions In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors. PMID:19946627

  12. The LHT (Lunar Highlands Type) Regolith Simulant Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, Douglas; Wilson, Steve; Weinstein, Michael; Rickman, Douglas; Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Gregory; Schrader, Christian; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John

    2008-01-01

    Three NU-LHT (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type) regolith simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M, -ID, and -2M. A fourth simulant is currently in production: NU-LHT-3C. The "M" (medium) designation indicates a simulant with a grain size of <1 mm, "D" (dust) a simulant with a grain size of <36 microns, and "C" (coarse) a simulant with a 10 cm maximum particle size. The composition of these simulants is based on a NASA average Apollo 16 regolith chemical composition, However, the mixing model used to create our simulants is based on cationic nonnative mineral proportions derived from the target chemical composition to approximate lunar modal mineralogy rather than chemical composition per se. Accordingly, the amount of plagioclase, pyroxenes, olivine, and trace minerals in the simulant crystalline fraction approximates that of the lunar regolith. We also added synthetic agglutinate in amounts approximate for low-medium regolith maturity. A pure glass fraction was also added to simulate other types of lunar glasses present in the regolith. In addition, the 3C simulant will include synthetic impact melt breccia clasts for the >1 cm particles. The bulk raw materials used to create these simulants include clinopyroxene-norite, anorthosite, hartzburgite and noritic mill waste from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, and olivine from the Twin Sisters dunite, WA. Added trace minerals include beach sand ilmenite, chromite, synthetic p-tricaicium phosphate (whitiockite), gem grade fluor-apatite, and pyrite. The agglutinate, glasses, and synthetic breccia were designed and prepared at an industrial plasma melting facility in Boulder, CO, using Stillwater mill waste feedstock for the melt. These simulants do not include nanophase-feO. The M and C simulant grain size distribution (down to 0.4 microns) approximates that of Apollo 16 regolith and the regolith in general.

  13. Culex Tarsalis Mosquitoes as Vectors of Highlands J Virus.

    PubMed

    Borland, Erin M; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Highlands J virus (HJV) is an alphavirus closely related to western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). HJV is an avian pathogen with the potential for disruption of poultry operations, but is not known to cause human or equine disease. HJV has only been identified in the eastern United States and is thought to have a transmission cycle similar to that of EEEV involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and birds. However, HJV is more genetically similar to WEEV and it remains unclear if it may be transmitted by Culex species mosquitoes like WEEV. Seven strains of HJV were characterized to assess this potential. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences revealed four distinct HJV lineages (lineages 1-4), and vector competence studies in Cx. tarsalis with four of the HJV strains from different lineages yielded two distinct infection patterns. Lineage 1 strains had low infection rates, while lineages 2 and 4 had significantly higher infection rates similar to those previously published for WEEV. The average mosquito body viral titer was highest at 8 dpi (6.60-7.26 log10 pfu equivalents/body), and head titers at all time points ranged between 6.01 and 6.80 log10 pfu equivalents/head. Nearly 45% of mosquitoes infected with strain AB-80-9 were able to transmit virus in saliva with an average titer of 5.02 log10 pfu equivalents/saliva. A single amino acid difference between high and low infectivity phenotypes was identified at genome position 8605, in the E2 gene. A nonpolar glycine was present in the low infectivity lineage 1 strains, while an acidic glutamic acid was present in the higher infectivity lineage 2 and 4 strains. This study demonstrates HJV transmission by Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes and clearly identifies the potential for transmission in the western United States. Two infection phenotypes were exhibited, indicating the need for further studies to understand Culex species transmission patterns. PMID:27248005

  14. Modern diseases, seen from a Highland practice. An ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Yellowlees, W W

    1983-01-01

    There is no agreement among scientists on which particular aspects of civilisation are most to blame for the emergence and undoubted increase in Western nations during this century of common degenerative diseases. Duodenal ulcer, coronary thrombosis, hypertension and other degenerations appear to be as common in quiet rural communities as in the cities. The frequency of these conditions in the Scottish Highlands where the tempo of life remains slow would seem to rule out stress or psychological factors as important. Changes in diet are now thought by many scientists to be the most likely cause for the increase in diseases of civilisation. The work of McCarrison, Cleave and Burkitt suggests that of all dietary developments in advanced nations during the last two centuries the refining of carbohydrates is the most damaging. A high intake of sugar tends to displace protective vitamin-rich foods and adds to the fibre depletion of refined white flour, with the inevitable consequences--widespread constipation and the serious complications of that distressing condition. Cleave has published strong evidence incriminating 'over-consumption' from dependence on refined carbohydrates, rather than traditional animal fats, as the main cause of coronary thrombosis. The high mortality and morbidity of degenerative diseases with all the attendant human suffering can truly be termed an ecological disaster. The cause is the failure of the food and drink industry to give overall priority to the needs of human health. Increasing demand from consumers for unprocessed fresh whole food would reverse modern trends and would have far-reaching effects on agriculture and industry. PMID:6332006

  15. Insights into Highland Patera Volcanism using Mars Express HRSC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.; Greeley, R.; Zuschneid, W.; Werner, S.; Neukum, G.; Gwinner, K.; Hauber, E.; Crown, D. A.; Gregg, T. K.; Raitala, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have used images obtained by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the ESA Mars Express orbiter to assess geologic activity at two of Mars' highland volcanoes: Hadriaca Patera and Tyrrhena Patera. HRSC images cover wide swaths at consistent lighting conditions and resolutions, making them ideal resources for assessing surfaces ages using crater statistics. Additionally, multi-channel HRSC images are processed to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) that are of greater spatial resolution than MOLA-derived DTMs, which are useful to assess regional and local topographic variations. Crater size-frequency analyses and cratering model age estimates show both Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae have complex surfaces shaped by volcanic, fluvial, and eolian processes. These ancient shields were formed early in martian history, 3.7-4.0 Ga. At Hadriaca Patera, the earliest detectable caldera activity occurred at 3.5 Ga, followed by explosive volcanic and fluvial activity on the flanks at 3.3-3.4 Ga. Later caldera activity occurred at 2.2-2.5 Ga and again at 1.1-1.6 Ga. At Tyrrhena Patera, explosive volcanic activity and emplacement of pyroclastic deposits occurred 3.5-3.6 Ga, with later fluvial erosional activity at 1.9-2.0 Ga and again at 1.2-1.5 Ga. Slopes on Tyrrhena Patera are generally shallower (0.09-0.4 degrees) than those on Hadriaca Patera (up to 0.7 degrees). Hadriaca's north flank trends uphill, suggesting that Hadriaca Patera settled due to removal of material during formation of Dao Vallis. Further study is underway to use HRSC topographic data and computer modeling to better understand pyroclastic volcanism at these two volcanoes.

  16. Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two highland cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409

  17. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  18. BANANAS: providing child care services to a multi-ethnic community.

    PubMed

    Vu, Catherine M; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    BANANAS, Inc. is a nonprofit organization that has provided child care resource and referral services for over 35 years. BANANAS emerged as a grassroots effort initiated by a group of female volunteers who sought to build a network of women with children who needed childcare. As the organization developed, its leaders recognized and responded to additional needs, including resource and information sharing, workshops and classes, and political advocacy. Beginning as a collective, BANANAS has grown into a multifaceted service delivery and advocacy nonprofit operating with an annual budget of $12 million. This history of the agency reflects the development of a unique community-based effort, its challenges and rewards, and the multiple successes that this pioneering nonprofit has experienced. PMID:21416429

  19. Bananas--physiology and biochemistry of storage and ripening for optimum quality.

    PubMed

    Marriott, J

    1980-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) are a major food crop of the humid tropics, and although edible cultivars are diverse and numerous, most of our knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of these fruits relates to a few dessert cultivars of the AAA type, mainly of the Cavendish subgroup, which dominate the export trade between tropical and temperate zones. The preclimacteric period of banana fruits after harvest determines their transportability, and its duration is very sensitive to changes in fruit maturity, storage temperature, ethylene concentration, and other factors; progress in measurement and resolution of each of these effects is described. Changes in composition of the ripening fruits, especially in the development of flavor volatiles, are reviewed. Progress in understanding the integration of the biochemical changes controlling ripening in banana fruits is discussed. Recent work on storage, ripening, and factors relating to sensory assessment of fruit quality is discussed for cultivars of Musa types not used in major export trades. PMID:6996924

  20. Banana fluxes in the plateau regime for a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.; Fantechi, S. )

    1990-09-01

    The banana (or banana-plateau) fluxes, related to the generalized stresses {l angle}{bold B}{center dot}{del}{center dot}{pi}{sup {alpha}({ital n})}{r angle}, {l angle}{bold B}{sub {ital T}}{center dot}{del}{center dot}{pi}{sup {alpha}({ital n})}{r angle} have been determined in the plateau regime, for a plasma confined by a toroidal magnetic field of arbitrary geometry. The complete set of transport coefficients for both the parallel'' (ambipolar) and toroidal'' (nonambipolar) banana fluxes was obtained in the 13-moment (13M) approximation, going beyond the previously known expressions in the nonaxisymmetric case. The main emphasis is laid on the structure of the transport matrix and of its coefficients. It is shown that the Onsager symmetry of this matrix partly breaks down (for the mixed electron--ion coefficients) in a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma.

  1. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  2. Correction for the iatrogenic form of banana fold and sensuous triangle deformity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luiz Haroldo; Sterodimas, Aris

    2008-11-01

    The "banana fold," or the infragluteal fold, is a fat deposit on the posterior thigh near the gluteal crease and parallel to it. The "sensuous triangle" is found at the junction of the lateral buttocks, the lateral thigh, and the posterior thigh. The iatrogenic forms of banana fold and sensuous triangle deformity are produced by excessive liposuction. The authors' experience using autologous fat transplantation to treat tissue defects led them to use this technique for correcting iatrogenic forms of banana fold and sensuous triangle deformity. The simplicity of the procedure, the low incidence of complications, and the high satisfaction rate makes autologous fat transplantation an attractive option for correcting iatrogenic complications of liposuction. PMID:18663513

  3. Modeling the Flushing Response to the Construction of a Low Crested Weir in the Banana River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, A.; Weaver, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The ADCIRC hydrodynamic model coupled with a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Model (LPTM) is applied to study circulation in the Banana River. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which constructing a low crested weir adjacent to Port Canaveral can improve flushing in this region. The Banana River a 50 km long sub-basin of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), located on the central-east coast of Florida in Brevard County between Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island. Although Banana River has an outlet to the ocean through the Port Canaveral locks, the locks remain closed when there is no passing vessel resulting in limited circulation, long flushing time and poor water quality. Recent high mortality events of different species, e.g. dolphins, manatees and pelicans in the lagoon ecosystem, can be linked to the decline in the water quality. ADCIRC is used to simulate the hydrodynamic properties of the study area and determine the 2D depth-averaged velocity field for two separate cases: one with only tidal and another with both tidal and meteorological forces considered. Simulations are run, first to establish the baseline hydrodynamics of the unmodified system, and then to predict the effects of modifying the domain. Passive particles are placed in the Banana River portion of our domain, and the movement of these particles is tracked using LPTM for both cases. Flushing and residence time are then computed. Results indicate an improvement in flushing in both the Banana River and the central Indian River Lagoon, driven by an induced southerly current. In the portion of the Banana River to the south of the port complex, tidal flushing time is significantly reduced for the case of modified domain. In this southern region the flushing time based on 50% renewal time, is decreased from 100 days down to 15 days, after the addition of the weir to the domain.

  4. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang; Chen, Shiji

    2016-03-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ˜0.128 and 0.47 m, and ˜0.223 and 0.01 m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47 × 10-2 and 7.13 × 10-3, and 2.91 × 10-3 and 1.96 × 10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively.

  5. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Becker, Douglas K; Dickman, Martin B; Harding, Robert M; Khanna, Harjeet K; Dale, James L

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Apart from resistant cultivars, there are no effective control measures for the disease. We investigated whether the transgenic expression of apoptosis-inhibition-related genes in banana could be used to confer disease resistance. Embryogenic cell suspensions of the banana cultivar, 'Lady Finger', were stably transformed with animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis, namely Bcl-xL, Ced-9 and Bcl-2 3' UTR, and independently transformed plant lines were regenerated for testing. Following a 12-week exposure to Foc race 1 in small-plant glasshouse bioassays, seven transgenic lines (2 × Bcl-xL, 3 × Ced-9 and 2 × Bcl-2 3' UTR) showed significantly less internal and external disease symptoms than the wild-type susceptible 'Lady Finger' banana plants used as positive controls. Of these, one Bcl-2 3' UTR line showed resistance that was equivalent to that of wild-type Cavendish bananas that were included as resistant negative controls. Further, the resistance of this line continued for 23-week postinoculation at which time the experiment was terminated. Using TUNEL assays, Foc race 1 was shown to induce apoptosis-like features in the roots of wild-type 'Lady Finger' plants consistent with a necrotrophic phase in the life cycle of this pathogen. This was further supported by the observed reduction in these effects in the roots of the resistant Bcl-2 3' UTR-transgenic line. This is the first report on the generation of transgenic banana plants with resistance to Fusarium wilt. PMID:21819535

  6. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury. PMID:26074928

  7. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury. PMID:26074928

  8. A clinico-epidemiological study of epidemic typhus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Perine, P L; Chandler, B P; Krause, D K; McCardle, P; Awoke, S; Habte-Gabr, E; Wisseman, C L; McDade, J E

    1992-05-01

    Epidemic, louse-borne typhus persists in the rugged, mountainous areas of Ethiopia and much of northeastern and central Africa as well as in the rural highlands of Central and South America, where the conditions of living favor the harboring of body lice and where antibiotic treatment and effective louse-control measures are unavailable. The historical significance and current epidemiology of typhus, including the reservoir of Rickettsia prowazekii in flying squirrels in the United States, are reviewed, and the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and hospital course in the cases of 60 patients admitted with epidemic, louse-borne typhus to the St. Paul's Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, are described. Treatment of this disease with oral doxycycline, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol prevents complications and results in prompt resolution of symptoms. PMID:1600020

  9. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the Highland Rim. The Highland Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Geochemistry of trace elements in the highland lunar rocks based on SRXFA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, L. S.; Kudryashova, A. F.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Baryshev, V. B.; Zolotarev, K. V.

    1998-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation (SRXFA) has been applied for determination of trace elements in the highland lunar rocks (Luna 20 and Apollo 16). On the basis of the distribution of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb in 69 lunar highland fragments six geochemical groups of rocks with various aluminium and trace element contents were distinguished for each station. They have various levels of trace element content. This suggests the various petrological processes: cumulation of rock-forming minerals and partial melting of source rocks. The last process lead up to enriching in trace elements in rocks formed from these melts. The distribution of trace elements in highland and mare rocks of the Moon were compared.

  12. Female spirit cults as a window on gender relations in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P J; Strathern, A

    1999-09-01

    Early writings on male cults in the highlands of Papua New Guinea tended to stress the exclusion of women and the collective agency of men. Looking at a subset of these cults from the Western and Southern Highlands Provinces, centering on Female Spirit figures, the authors argue that in these cases the cults are better understood as expressions of a collaborative model, in which gendered cooperation, both in practice and in terms of ritual symbolism, is activated in order to produce fertility and wealth. Positive collaboration is involved as well as structural complementarity. The collaborative model is therefore suggested as an alternative to the model of "male exclusivity" in the analysis of certain cult practices in these parts of the New Guinea highlands region. PMID:12296236

  13. Geographical variation in urinary mercury concentrations among populations living in highland and lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, C; Imai, H; Kashiwazaki, H

    1994-05-16

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in spot urine samples of populations living in the highland and lowland areas of Bolivia. The mean levels of the Hg (U-Hg) were 0.43 and 0.34 micrograms Hg/g creatinine in lowlanders and in highlanders, respectively, which did not suggest existence of high-level exposure to Hg in these populations. In both highlanders and lowlanders, there was a marked difference in levels of U-Hg among different populations. Several lines of evidence suggested that local dietary patterns resulted in the observed difference in U-Hg among different populations. Several lines of evidence suggested that local dietary patterns resulted in the observed difference in U-Hg levels, although the responsible food items could not be specified. In most of the populations examined, females showed higher U-Hg levels than males. Other factors possibly related to the observed geographical differences are discussed. PMID:8023133

  14. The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

  15. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    PubMed

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  16. Highlander Folk School and the Labor Movement, 1932-1953. The Relationship between Education and Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis-Jutz, Jeff

    The mission of the Highlander Folk School (Tennessee), which flourished between 1932 and 1961, was intimately intertwined with the labor movement of the 1930s and 1940s and the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Highlander began as an Appalachian community school seeking to understand the issues and problems of the community it served.…

  17. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  18. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Magnet requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.; Taylor, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic beneficiation of immature highland soil 67511 recovered 22 wt pct of the sample with an iron oxide content of 0.6 pct. Magnetic isolates of immature highland soils are candidates for the manufacture of silicon, aluminum, and other metals. Fifty-seven percent of the ilmenite in immature mare soil 71061 was recovered in magnetic processing. Ilmenite can be recovered by magnetic separation but may be difficult to 'high'grade'. A parametric description is given of magnetic separators suitable for supplying ilmenite for the production of 22.7 metric tons per year oxygen.

  19. Banana resistant starch and its effects on constipation model mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2(θ) 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation. PMID:25046686

  20. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  1. Generation 2030/Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  2. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles < banana pulp noodles < control noodles. Since the peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered. PMID:19757248

  3. Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K; Kistler, H C; Cigelnik, E; Ploetz, R C

    1998-03-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Previous work has indicated that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. In this study we tested whether lineages of the Panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. DNA sequences were obtained for translation elongation factor 1alpha and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes for F. oxysporum strains from banana, pathogenic strains from other hosts and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. Cladograms for the two genes were highly concordant and a partition-homogeneity test indicated the two datasets could be combined. The tree inferred from the combined dataset resolved five lineages corresponding to "F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense" with a large dichotomy between two taxa represented by strains most commonly isolated from bananas with Panama disease. The results also demonstrate that the latter two taxa have significantly different chromosome numbers. F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1alpha and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana. Taken together, these results indicate Panama disease of banana is caused by fungi with independent evolutionary origins. PMID:9482835

  4. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 1. Morphological and compositional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.) in relation to consumer preferences.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) < dessert bananas (des: 29.4%) < nonplantain cooking bananas (cook: 32.0%) < FHIA cooking hybrids (hycook: 34.2%) < plantains (pl: 41.1%). Banana flour starch content on dry basis (db) varied from 74.2 to 88.2% among the varieties, with: pl: 86.5% > cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p banana and FHIA groups with 7.9, 13.6, and 15.6 mEq H(+)/100 g db, respectively (p

  5. Detection of Banana mild mosaic virus and Banana virus X by polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotide RT-PCR (PDO-RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Teycheney, Pierre-Yves; Acina, Isabelle; Lockhart, Benham E L; Candresse, Thierry

    2007-06-01

    Viruses are important constraints to the movement and propagation of plant germplasm, especially for vegetatively propagated crops such as banana and plantain. Their control relies primarily on the use of virus-free plant material, whose production and certification requires sensitive and reliable detection methods. An existing polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotide RT-PCR (PDO-RT-PCR) assay was adapted to the detection of Banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) and Banana virus X, two Flexiviridae infecting Musa spp. PDO inosine-containing primers were found to be well suited to the detection of BanMMV, despite its high molecular diversity, but not to that of the highly conserved BVX, for which species-specific primers were designed. Sampling and sample processing steps were optimized in order to avoid nucleic acid purification prior to the reverse transcription step. A polyclonal anti-BanMMV antiserum was raised and successfully used for the immunocapture (IC) of BanMMV viral particles from leaf extracts, leading to the development of a PDO-IC-RT-nested PCR assay. Although the anti-BanMMV antiserum could to some extent recognize BVX viral particles, direct binding (DB) was shown to be a more efficient method for processing BVX-infected samples and a PDO-DB-RT-nested PCR assay was developed for the detection of BVX from leaf extracts. PMID:17280722

  6. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0065). In study 1B, no groups differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver; P = 0.20). In study 2, the 60% raw Butobe group (0.68 ± 0.17 μmol retinol/liver) differed from the 60% cooked Butobe group (0.87 ± 0.24 μmol retinol/liver); neither group differed from baseline (0.80 ± 0.27 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0001). Total liver retinol was higher in the groups fed cooked bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets. PMID:23096010

  7. Characterization and complementation of a fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster deletion in banana isolates of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides produces the fumonisin mycotoxins, which are of significant concern for their animal toxicity. This ascomycete is also reported from banana, but such strains do not produce fumonisins and are not pathogenic on maize seedlings. Southern analysis of several ...

  8. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source. PMID:26018499

  9. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  10. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research efforts were initiated in 2003 to identify and introduce banana (Musa spp.) cultivars suitable for production in Georgia. In spring and summer 2012, seven of the cultivars (Veinte Cohol, Novaria, Cacambou, Chinese Cavendish, Raja Puri, Blue Torres Island, and African Red) grown in the field...

  11. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  12. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS006.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Bernal, Johan F; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences encode genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides, in addition to genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:26607897

  13. Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis Isolated from Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James; Grant, Murray R.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequences of strains Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis NCPPB 1832 and NCPPB 1630 (NCPPB, National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria), both isolated from Musa species in New Zealand. This will allow the comparison of genomes between phylogenetically distant xanthomonads that have independently converged with the ability to colonize banana plants. PMID:26868395

  15. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  16. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A

    2013-10-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. PMID:23910294

  17. Resonance parallel viscosity in the banana regime in poloidally rotating tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hsu, C.T.; Dominguez, N. )

    1994-05-01

    Parallel viscosity in the banana regime in a poloidally ([bold E][times][bold B]) rotating tokamak plasma is calculated to include the effects of orbit squeezing and to allow the poloidal [bold E][times][bold B] Mach number [ital M][sub [ital p

  18. Time dependent parallel viscosity and relaxation rate of poloidal rotation in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.T.; Shaing, K.C.; Gormley, R. )

    1994-01-01

    Time dependent ion parallel viscous force in the banana regime with arbitrary inverse aspect ratio [epsilon] is calculated using the eigenfunction approach. The flux surface averaged viscosity is then used to study the relaxation process of the poloidal rotation which leads to oscillatory relaxation behavior. The relaxation rate [nu][sub [ital p

  19. Relaxation rate of poloidal rotation in the banana regime in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1989-03-01

    The relaxation rate ..nu../sub p/ of poloidal rotation in the banana regime in tokamaks is calculated using a time-dependent parallel viscosity. It is found that ..nu../sub p/ is on the order of ..nu../sub i//sub i/, the ion--ion collision frequency, with no geometric enhancement factor associated with toroidicity.

  20. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas. PMID:21591784

  1. Genetic diversity and recombination analysis in the coat protein gene of Banana bract mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R

    2014-06-01

    Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, is the causal agent of the bract mosaic disease (BBrMD) that causes serious yield losses in banana and plantain in India and the Philippines. In this study, global genetic diversity and molecular evolution of BBrMV based on the capsid protein (CP) gene were investigated. Multiple alignments of CP gene of 49 BBrMV isolates showed nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity of 79-100 and 80-100 %, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that except two Indians isolates (TN14 and TN16), all isolates clustered together. Eleven recombination events were detected using Recombination Detection Program. Codon-based maximum-likelihood methods revealed that most of the codons in the CP gene were under negative or neutral selection except for codons 28, 43, and 92 which were under positive selection. Gene flow between BBrMV populations of banana and cardamom was relatively frequent but not between two different populations of banana infecting isolates identified in this study. This is the first report on genetic diversity, and evolution of BBrMV isolates based on recombination and phylogenetic analysis in India. PMID:24691817

  2. Soil Mineralogy as Factor in Spread of Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Stotzky, G; Dawson, J E; Martin, R T; Ter Kuile, C H

    1961-05-12

    A correlation is established between the spread of Fusarium wilt of banana and soil mineralogy. Montmorillonoid-type clay minerals occur in all soils in which disease spread is slow, but, with the exception of two soils, this group of minerals is absent in soils in which it is rapid. PMID:17818209

  3. Phase behaviors of binary mixtures composed of banana-shaped and calamitic mesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetinov, M.; Z. Obadovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vajda, A.; Fodor-Csorba, K.; Eber, N.; Ristic, I.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, five mixtures with different concentrations of banana-shaped and calamitic compounds have been prepared and subsequently studied by polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction on non-oriented samples. The phase sequences and molecular parameters of the binary systems are presented.

  4. The cold storage of green bananas affects the starch degradation during ripening at higher temperature.

    PubMed

    Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Cardoso, Mateus B; Agopian, Roberta G D; Louro, Ricardo P; Nascimento, João R O; Purgatto, Eduardo; Tavares, Maria I B; Lajolo, Franco M; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the starch degradation of bananas stored at low temperature (13°C, cold-stored group) and bananas stored at 19°C (control group) during ripening. The starch granules were isolated during different stages of banana ripening, and their structure was investigated using different techniques. The activities of α-amylase and β-amylase associated to the starch granules were determined, and their presence was confirmed using immunolocalization assays. The increased molecular mobility likely facilitated the intake and action of α-amylase on the granule surface, where it was the prevalent enzyme in bananas stored at low temperature. The 10 days of storage at low temperature also influenced the sizes and shapes of the granules, with a predominance of rounded granules and pits on the surface along with superior amylose content, the higher amounts of amylopectin A-chains and the subtle increase in the A-type allomorph content. PMID:23688463

  5. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force... River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within an area... Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  6. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force... River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within an area... Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  7. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force... River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within an area... Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  8. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force... River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within an area... Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  9. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force... River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within an area... Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  10. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  11. Impact of barrier crops on arthropod pests immigrating into orchards of sapodilla and banana.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the abundance and damage of several pests in orchards of sapodilla, banana, and papaya that were either surrounded by a border of tall sorghum or without such a border. Almost all pests were present in equal numbers in orchards, despite the presence or absence of a barrier crop of sorghu...

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis Isolated from Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James; Grant, Murray R; Studholme, David J

    2016-01-01

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequences of strains Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis NCPPB 1832 and NCPPB 1630 (NCPPB, National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria), both isolated from Musa species in New Zealand. This will allow the comparison of genomes between phylogenetically distant xanthomonads that have independently converged with the ability to colonize banana plants. PMID:26868395

  13. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  14. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS006

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Bernal, Johan F.; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences encode genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides, in addition to genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:26607897

  15. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  16. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts. PMID:19089653

  17. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  18. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  19. Yeast leavened banana-bread: formulation, processing, color and texture analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana powder (BP) was added to Hard Red Spring Wheat flour (HRSW) intended for yeast-leavened bread formulation. Five different formulations containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% BP were prepared with varying amounts of base flour, while vital gluten was maintained at 25% in all blends. Based on the...

  20. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas. PMID:26632017

  1. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  2. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  3. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  4. Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuejun; Shiomi, Shinjiro; Nakatsuka, Akira; Kubo, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Reinosuke; Inaba, Akitsugu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from the East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Asrat; Blair, Matthew W; Almekinders, Conny

    2009-12-01

    The East African highlands are a region of important common bean production and high varietal diversity for the crop. The objective of this study was to uncover the diversity and population structure of 192 landraces from Ethiopia and Kenya together with four genepool control genotypes using morphological phenotyping and microsatellite marker genotyping. The germplasm represented different common bean production ecologies and seed types common in these countries. The landraces showed considerable diversity that corresponded well to the two recognized genepools (Andean and Mesoamerican) with little introgression between these groups. Mesoamerican genotypes were predominant in Ethiopia while Andean genotypes were predominant in Kenya. Within each country, landraces from different collection sites were clustered together indicating potential gene flow between regions within Kenya or within Ethiopia. Across countries, landraces from the same country of origin tended to cluster together indicating distinct germplasm at the national level and limited gene flow between the two countries highlighting divided social networks within the regions and a weak trans-national bean seed exchange especially for landrace varieties. One exception to this may be the case of small red-seeded beans where informal cross-border grain trade occurs. We also observed that genetic divergence was slightly higher for the Ethiopian landraces compared to Kenyan landraces and that Mesoamerican genotypes were more diverse than the Andean genotypes. Common beans in eastern Africa are often cultivated in marginal, risk-prone farming systems and the observed landrace diversity should provide valuable alleles for adaptation to stressful environments in future breeding programs in the region. PMID:19756469

  6. Mapping Soil Organic Carbon Resources Across Agricultural Land Uses in Highland Lesotho Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.; Adam, E.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) using high resolution satellite imagery is especially important in inaccessible or upland areas that have limited field measurements, where land use and land cover (LULC) are changing rapidly, or where the land surface is sensitive to overgrazing and high rates of soil erosion and thus sediment, nutrient and carbon export. Here we outline the methods and results of mapping soil organic carbon in highland areas (~2400 m) of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa, across different land uses. Bedrock summit areas with very thin soils are dominated by xeric alpine grassland; terrace agriculture with strip fields and thicker soils is found within river valleys. Multispectral Worldview 2 imagery was used to map LULC across the region. An overall accuracy of 88% and kappa value of 0.83 were achieved using a support vector machine model. Soils were examined in the field from different LULC areas for properties such as soil depth, maturity and structure. In situ soils in the field were also evaluated using a portable analytical spectral device (ASD) in order to ground truth spectral signatures from Worldview. Soil samples were examined in the lab for chemical properties including organic carbon. Regression modeling was used in order to establish a relationship between soil characteristics and soil spectral reflectance. We were thus able to map SOC across this diverse landscape. Results show that there are notable differences in SOC between upland and agricultural areas which reflect both soil thickness and maturity, and land use practices such as manuring of fields by cattle. Soil erosion and thus carbon (nutrient) export is significant issue in this region, which this project will now be examining.

  7. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections. PMID:26826974

  8. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L−1 of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox–oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  9. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    PubMed

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  10. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening. PMID:18346078

  11. Citizens Advisory Committees for Virginia Highlands Community College. A Handbook of Information, Policies, and Procedures. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Highlands Community Coll., Abingdon.

    At Virginia Highlands Community College (VHCC), citizens advisory committees (CACs) were instrumental in the initiation of the first programs and services at the college and have continued to suggest needed additions, deletions, and modifications of offerings as the college has grown. This handbook outlines basic guidelines and procedures for…

  12. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, Stream Fish Community Predictor (SFCP), based on EMAP stream sampling in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict stream fish communities using stream and watershed characteristics. Step one in the tool development was a cluster analysis t...

  13. PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL ASSEMBLAGES OF MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, the Stream Fish Assemblage Predictor (SFAP), based on stream sampling data collected by the EPA in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict potential stream fish communities using characteristics of the stream and its watershed.
    Step o...

  14. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  15. Fluvial Degradation of the Highlands: The Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.; Harbert, W.

    2002-01-01

    Geologic and geomorphic analyses of highland terrains reveal the effects of fluvial erosion by well-integrated valley networks. Hydrologic modeling using 128 pix/deg Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded topography is being done to quantitatively characterize these systems. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Promoting Student Investigation of Local Environmental Issues through the Southern Highlands Environmental Project: Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Woodward S.

    This report of the Southern Highlands Environmental Project (SHEP) in North Carolina describes its initiation, needs assessment, teacher institute, classroom implementation, outcomes, and dissemination. The purpose of this project was to prepare and support Appalachian teachers in leading their students in investigations of local and regional…

  17. Response of soil respiration to experimental warming in a highland barley of the Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhen-Xi; Fu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Highland barley is an important dominant crop in the Tibet and the croplands of the Tibet are experiencing obvious climatic warming. However, information about how soil respiration will respond to climatic warming in the highland barley system is still lacking. A field warming experiment using infrared heaters with two warming magnitudes was conducted in a highland barley system of the Tibet in May 2014. Five daily cycles of soil respiration was measured using a CO2 flux system (Li-8100, Li-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE, USA) during the period from early June to early September in 2014. The high and low experimental warming significantly increased soil temperature by 1.98 and 1.52 °C over the whole study period, respectively. The high experimental warming significantly decreased soil moisture. Soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity did not significantly change under both the high and low experimental warming. The response of soil respiration to experimental warming did not linearly correlate with warming magnitudes because a greater experimental warming resulted in a higher soil drying. Our findings suggested that clarifying the response of soil CO2 production and its temperature sensitivity to climatic warming need consider water availability in the highland barley system of the Tibet. PMID:26933635

  18. Constraints on Sources of Strong Crustal Magnetism in the Southern Highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic models, guided by results of gravity-topography admittance studies, suggest that the anomaly pattern in the central southern highlands of Mars results from large blocks of coherently magnetized crust separated by 'non-magnetic' areas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  20. An unusual case of urinary incontinence in an intersex West Highland white terrier

    PubMed Central

    Connery, Neil A.; Spotswood, Tim

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old neutered female West Highland white terrier dog was presented with a history of congenital urinary incontinence that had become refractory to medical management. Complex urogenital anomalies including urethrovestibular and vestibuloperineal fistulae with low vulvar position along with a penoclitoris were present. Vaginectomy with perineal urethral reconstruction resolved the incontinence. PMID:23633714

  1. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  2. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  3. Isostasy Models and Correlations of Geoid and Topography Data for Characteristic Highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, A.; Turcotte, D.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the newest solution for the Venus geopotential, incorporating tracking data from the circularized orbit of Magellan, along with global Venus topography data to study correlations of geoid and topography variations in several regions characteristic of the principal classes of highlands found on Venus.

  4. Highland High School Vocational Television; a Salt Lake Schools Exemplary Vocational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, LaMar C.

    The Highland High School (Salt Lake City, Utah) vocational television production program was designed to provide students with marketable skills in color television studio operation. Among the skills covered in the program were camera set-up and operation, video engineering, production switching, directing, television lighting, audio engineering,…

  5. Highland Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleborg, Jorn

    2005-01-01

    The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "Highland Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central to HCEP is…

  6. Making Hope and History Rhyme: Reflections on Popular Education and Leadership Following a Visit to Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Bríd; Finnegan, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on our backgrounds as adult educators in Ireland and our experience at Highlander in 2014. We review our development as critical educators, exposed to deep inequalities in Irish society. We explore role of popular education in fostering social change, beginning with the commitment to equality and freedom, whereby, we produce…

  7. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Highlands region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...

  9. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN HIGHLAND PARK BOROUGH: THE NEXT STEP IN A SUSTAINABILITY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will address problems associated with impaired surface water bodies in the Lower Raritan River Watershed Management Area of New Jersey. More specifically, it will target the Raritan River at and downstream from Highland Park Borough of Middlesex County, New Jersey...

  10. Improving efficacy of landscape interventions in the (semi) humid Ethiopian Highlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite millions of dollars invested in soil and water conservation practices and other landscape interventions in Ethiopian highlands and billions of hours of food-for-work farm labor, sediment concentration in rivers is increasing. Possible ways to reverse the current trend has been investigated b...

  11. Profiles of the Highland Lao Communities in the United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Doua; North, David

    This collection of statistical data on the 90 Highland Lao communities in the United States is designed to help members of those communities and people working in refugee-serving agencies to better assist this refugee group. Information was provided by community leaders, state refugee coordinators, and county human resource officials in 1988.…

  12. Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and recovery from malaria in a highland area of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sumba, Peter O; Wong, S Lindsey; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Johnson, Kelsey A; John, Chandy C

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria epidemics in highland areas of Kenya cause significant morbidity and mortality. Methods To assess treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in these areas, a questionnaire was administered to 117 randomly selected households in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya. Self-reported episodes of malaria occurred in 100 adults and 66 children. Results The most frequent initial sources of treatment for malaria in adults and children were medical facilities (66.0% and 66.7%) and local shops (19.0% and 30.3%). Adults and children who initially visited a medical facility for treatment were significantly more likely to recover and require no further treatment than those who initially went to a local shop (adults, 84.9% v. 36.8%, P < 0.0001, and children, 79.6% v. 40.0%, P = 0.002, respectively). Individuals who attended medical facilities recalled receiving anti-malarial medication significantly more frequently than those who visited shops (adults, 100% vs. 29.4%, and children, 100% v. 5.0%, respectively, both P < 0.0001). Conclusion A significant proportion of this highland population chooses local shops for initial malaria treatment and receives inappropriate medication at these localshops, reslting in delay of effective treatment. Shopkeeper education has the potential to be a component of prevention or containment strategies for malaria epidemics in highland areas. PMID:19036154

  13. Climate resilience in the Blue Nile Highlands: defining a role for Earth System Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Simane, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, dissected topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As most climate projections indicate that climate variability and intensity of rain events will increase in the coming decades, there is concern that vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to develop climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available earth system science information on climate change impacts. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for Earth System Science (ESS), then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation for improved food and water security.

  14. Constraints on the Impact-Accreted Carapace Hypothesis for the Lunar Farside Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    2012-03-01

    The recent proposal that the an impact-accreted carapace accounts for the greater thickness of the Moon's farside highlands crust is not plausible. The carapace would not have appropriately low density, nor the appropriate Al_2O_3-rich composition.

  15. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  16. A Study of Service-Learning at Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alice

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…

  17. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  18. Participatory community-based gully rehabilitation on the Ethiopian Highlands: the case of Birr watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian highlands have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging as success rates have been small. This paper descri...

  19. Biophysical and economic assessment of a community-based rehabilitated gully in the Ethiopian highlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian highlands have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging, with limited success. This paper describes gully r...

  20. Tectonostratigraphy of the Mesozoic complexes of the northwestern part of the Koryak Highland, Ust' Belaya Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palechek, T. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Gul'pa, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    New data on the structure, age, and composition of the tectonostratigraphic complexes of the western part of the Koryak Highland are presented. The conclusions on the sedimentation conditions are drawn and primary relations are interpreted for most complexes. New Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Berriasian assemblages of radiolarians are established. Campanian radiolarians are found for the first time in the region.

  1. Interaction of MC1R and PMEL alleles on solid coat colors in Highland cattle.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Sheila M; Dreger, Dayna L

    2013-02-01

    Six solid colors occur in Highland cattle: black, dun, silver dun and red, yellow, and white. These six coat colors are explained by a non-epistatic interaction of the genotypes at the MC1R and PMEL genes. A three base pair deletion in the PMEL gene leading to the deletion of a leucine from the signal peptide is observed in dilute-colored Highland cattle (c.50_52delTTC, p.Leu18del). The mutant PMEL allele acts in a semi-dominant manner. Dun Galloway cattle also have one copy of the deletion allele, and silver dun Galloway cattle have two copies. The presence of two adjacent leucine residues at the site of this deletion is highly conserved in human, horse, mouse and chicken as well as in cattle with undiluted coat colors. Highland and Galloway cattle thus exhibit a similar dose-dependent dilution effect based on the number of PMEL :c.50_51delTTC alleles, as Charolais cattle with PMEL :c.64G>A alleles. The PMEL :c.64G>A allele was not found in Highland or Galloway cattle. PMID:22524257

  2. Geographic potential of disease caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A Townsend; Samy, Abdallah M

    2016-10-01

    Filoviruses represent a significant public health threat worldwide. West Africa recently experienced the largest-scale and most complex filovirus outbreak yet known, which underlines the need for a predictive understanding of the geographic distribution and potential for transmission to humans of these viruses. Here, we used ecological niche modeling techniques to understand the relationship between known filovirus occurrences and environmental characteristics. Our study derived a picture of the potential transmission geography of Ebola virus species and Marburg, paired with views of the spatial uncertainty associated with model-to-model variation in our predictions. We found that filovirus species have diverged ecologically, but only three species are sufficiently well known that models could be developed with significant predictive power. We quantified uncertainty in predictions, assessed potential for outbreaks outside of known transmission areas, and highlighted the Ethiopian Highlands and scattered areas across East Africa as additional potentially unrecognized transmission areas. PMID:27311387

  3. The Impact of Regional Climate Change on Malaria Risk due to Greenhouse Forcing and Land-Use Changes in Tropical Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andreas H.; Morse, Andrew P.; Paeth, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change will probably alter the spread and transmission intensity of malaria in Africa. Objectives: In this study, we assessed potential changes in the malaria transmission via an integrated weather–disease model. Methods: We simulated mosquito biting rates using the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM). The input data for the LMM were bias-corrected temperature and precipitation data from the regional model (REMO) on a 0.5° latitude–longitude grid. A Plasmodium falciparum infection model expands the LMM simulations to incorporate information on the infection rate among children. Malaria projections were carried out with this integrated weather–disease model for 2001 to 2050 according to two climate scenarios that include the effect of anthropogenic land-use and land-cover changes on climate. Results: Model-based estimates for the present climate (1960 to 2000) are consistent with observed data for the spread of malaria in Africa. In the model domain, the regions where malaria is epidemic are located in the Sahel as well as in various highland territories. A decreased spread of malaria over most parts of tropical Africa is projected because of simulated increased surface temperatures and a significant reduction in annual rainfall. However, the likelihood of malaria epidemics is projected to increase in the southern part of the Sahel. In most of East Africa, the intensity of malaria transmission is expected to increase. Projections indicate that highland areas that were formerly unsuitable for malaria will become epidemic, whereas in the lower-altitude regions of the East African highlands, epidemic risk will decrease. Conclusions: We project that climate changes driven by greenhouse-gas and land-use changes will significantly affect the spread of malaria in tropical Africa well before 2050. The geographic distribution of areas where malaria is epidemic might have to be significantly altered in the coming decades. PMID:21900078

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines. PMID:25523085

  5. Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, David C.; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Henson, Dru A.; Sha, Wei; Shanely, R. Andrew; Knab, Amy M.; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Jin, Fuxia

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the acute effect of ingesting bananas (BAN) versus a 6% carbohydrate drink (CHO) on 75-km cycling performance and post-exercise inflammation, oxidative stress, and innate immune function using traditional and metabolomics-based profiling. Trained cyclists (N = 14) completed two 75-km cycling time trials (randomized, crossover) while ingesting BAN or CHO (0.2 g/kg carbohydrate every 15 min). Pre-, post-, and 1-h-post-exercise blood samples were analyzed for glucose, granulocyte (GR) and monocyte (MO) phagocytosis (PHAG) and oxidative burst activity, nine cytokines, F2-isoprostanes, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and metabolic profiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood glucose levels and performance did not differ between BAN and CHO (2.41±0.22, 2.36±0.19 h, P = 0.258). F2-isoprostanes, FRAP, IL-10, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, GR-PHAG, and MO-PHAG increased with exercise, with no trial differences except for higher levels during BAN for IL-10, IL-8, and FRAP (interaction effects, P = 0.003, 0.004, and 0.012). Of 103 metabolites detected, 56 had exercise time effects, and only one (dopamine) had a pattern of change that differed between BAN and CHO. Plots from the PLS-DA model visualized a distinct separation in global metabolic scores between time points [R2Y(cum) = 0.869, Q2(cum) = 0.766]. Of the top 15 metabolites, five were related to liver glutathione production, eight to carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, and two were tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. BAN and CHO ingestion during 75-km cycling resulted in similar performance, blood glucose, inflammation, oxidative stress, and innate immune levels. Aside from higher dopamine in BAN, shifts in metabolites following BAN and CHO 75-km cycling time trials indicated a similar pattern of heightened production of glutathione and utilization of fuel substrates in several pathways. PMID:22616015

  6. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  7. Bulk hydrogen abundances in the lunar highlands: Measurements from orbital neutron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David J.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-07-01

    The first map of bulk hydrogen concentrations in the lunar highlands region is reported. This map is derived using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LP-NS). We resolve prior ambiguities in the interpretation of LP-NS data with respect to non-polar hydrogen concentrations by comparing the LP-NS data with maps of the 750 nm albedo reflectance, optical maturity, and the wavelength position of the thermal infrared Christiansen Feature. The best explanation for the variations of LP-NS epithermal neutron data in the lunar highlands is variable amounts of solar-wind-implanted hydrogen. The average hydrogen concentration across the lunar highlands and away from the lunar poles is 65 ppm. The highest hydrogen values range from 120 ppm to just over 150 ppm. These values are consistent with the range of hydrogen concentrations from soils and regolith breccias at the Apollo 16 highlands landing site. Based on a moderate-to-strong correlation of epithermal neutrons and orbit-based measures of surface maturity, the map of highlands hydrogen concentration represents a new global maturity index that can be used for studies of the lunar soil maturation process. We interpret these hydrogen concentrations to represent a bulk soil property related to the long-term impact of the space environment on the lunar surface. Consequently, the derived hydrogen concentrations are not likely related to the surficial enhancements (top tens to hundreds of microns) or local time variations of OH/H2O measured with spectral reflectance data.

  8. New highland distribution records of multiple Anopheles species in the Ecuadorian Andes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several recent climate change reviews have stressed the possibility of some malaria vectors occupying regions of higher altitudes than previously recorded. Indeed, highland malaria has been observed in several African nations, possibly attributable to changes in land use, vector control and local climate. This study attempts to expand the current knowledge of the distribution of common Anopheles species in Ecuador, with particular attention to highland regions (> 500 m) of the Andes. Methods Extensive field collections of larvae were undertaken in 2008, 2009 and 2010 throughout all regions of Ecuador (except the lower-altitude Amazonian plain) and compared to historical distribution maps reproduced from the 1940s. Larvae were identified using both a morphological key and sequencing of the 800 bp region of the CO1 mitochondrial gene. In addition, spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Hotspot Analysis: Gi*) were used to determine high and low-density clusters of each species in Ecuador. Results Distributions have been updated for five species of Anopheles in Ecuador: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles eiseni and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l.. Historical maps indicate that An. pseudopunctipennis used to be widespread in highland Andean valleys, while other species were completely restricted to lowland areas. By comparison, updated maps for the other four collected species show higher maximum elevations and/or more widespread distributions in highland regions than previously recorded. Gi* analysis determined some highland hot spots for An. albimanus, but only cold spots for all other species. Conclusions This study documents the establishment of multiple anopheline species in high altitude regions of Ecuador, often in areas where malaria eradication programs are not focused. PMID:21835004

  9. Differential transcriptional regulation of banana sucrose phosphate synthase gene in response to ethylene, auxin, wounding, low temperature and different photoperiods during fruit ripening and functional analysis of banana SPS gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Das, Ranjan; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-12-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.3.1.14) is the key regulatory component in sucrose formation in banana (Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish, cv Giant governor) fruit during ripening. This report illustrates differential transcriptional responses of banana SPS gene following ethylene, auxin, wounding, low temperature and different photoperiods during ripening in banana fruit. Whereas ethylene strongly stimulated SPS transcript accumulation, auxin and cold treatment only marginally increased the abundance of SPS mRNA level, while wounding negatively regulated SPS gene expression. Conversely, SPS transcript level was distinctly increased by constant exposure to white light. Protein level, enzymatic activity of SPS and sucrose synthesis were substantially increased by ethylene and increased exposure to white light conditions as compared to other treatments. To further study the transcriptional regulation of SPS in banana fruit, the promoter region of SPS gene was cloned and some cis-acting regulatory elements such as a reverse GCC-box ERE, two ARE motifs (TGTCTC), one LTRE (CCGAA), a GAGA-box (GAGA...) and a GATA-box LRE (GATAAG) were identified along with the TATA and CAAT-box. DNA-protein interaction studies using these cis-elements indicated a highly specific cis-trans interaction in the banana nuclear extract. Furthermore, we specifically studied the light responsive characteristics of GATA-box containing synthetic as well as native banana SPS promoter. Transient expression assays using banana SPS promoter have also indicated the functional importance of the SPS promoter in regulating gene expression. Together, these results provide insights into the transcriptional regulation of banana SPS gene in response to phytohormones and other environmental factors during fruit ripening. PMID:18830708

  10. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted. PMID:24324151

  11. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer. PMID:22608289

  12. Women in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    1975-01-01

    The role and status of women in Africa has changed profoundly since the end of the colonial period. Many differences in women's status and role are based on geography, history, nationality, political and socioeconomic systems, culture, and religion. (JR)

  13. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  14. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of KIN10 and cold-acclimation related genes in wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lai, Gongti; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars may experience chilling or freezing injury in some of their cultivated regions, where wild banana can still grow very well. The clarification of the cold-resistant mechanism of wild banana is vital for cold-resistant banana breeding. In this study, the central stress integrator gene KIN10 and some cold-acclimation related genes (HOS1 and ICE1s) from the cold-resistant wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans) were cloned and their expression patterns under different temperature treatments were analyzed. Thirteen full-length cDNA transcripts including 6 KIN10s, 1 HOS1 and 6 ICE1s were successfully cloned. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that all these genes had the highest expression levels at the critical temperature of banana (13 °C). Under chilling temperature (4 °C), the expression level of KIN10 reduced significantly but the expression of HOS1 was still higher than that at the optimal temperature (28 °C, control). Both KIN10 and HOS1 showed the lowest expression levels at 0 °C, the expression level of ICE1, however, was higher than control. As sucrose plays role in plant cold-acclimation and in regulation of KIN10 and HOS1 bioactivities, the sucrose contents of wild banana under different temperatures were detected. Results showed that the sucrose content increased as temperature lowered. Our result suggested that KIN10 may participate in cold stress response via regulating sucrose biosynthesis, which is helpful in regulating cold acclimation pathway in wild banana. PMID:26753116

  16. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease.

    PubMed

    Elayabalan, Sivalingam; Kalaiponmani, Kalaimughilan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Panchanathan, Radha; Muthuvelayoutham, Ramlatha; Kumar, Krish K; Balasubramanian, Ponnuswami

    2013-04-01

    One of the most severe viral diseases of hill banana is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a nanovirus transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. In this study, we reported the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on a highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease. The target of the RNA interference (RNAi) is the rep gene, encoded by the BBTV-DNA1. In order to develop RNAi construct targeting the BBTV rep gene, the full-length rep gene of 870 bp was polymerase chain reaction amplified from BBTV infected hill banana sample DNA, cloned and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The partial rep gene fragment was cloned in sense and anti sense orientation in the RNAi intermediate vector, pSTARLING-A. After cloning in pSTARLING-A, the cloned RNAi gene cassette was released by NotI enzyme digestion and cloned into the NotI site of binary vector, pART27. Two different explants, embryogenic cells and embryogenic cell suspension derived microcalli were used for co-cultivation. Selection was done in presence of 100 mg/L kanamycin. In total, 143 putative transgenic hill banana lines were generated and established in green house condition. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed in the selected putative transgenic hill banana lines by PCR and reverse transcription PCR analyses. Transgenic hill banana plants expressing RNAi-BBTV rep were obtained and shown to resist infection by BBTV. The transformed plants are symptomless, and the replication of challenge BBTV almost completely suppressed. Hence, the RNAi mediating resistances were shown to be effective management of BBTV in hill banana. PMID:23184576

  17. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  18. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl₃), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl₃ and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel. PMID:21369778

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MACROINVERTEBRATE BIOTIC INTEGRITY INDEX (MBII) FOR REGIONALLY ASSESSING MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multimetric Macroinvertebrate Biotic Integrity Index (MBII) was developed from data collected at 574 wadeable stream reaches in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (MAHR) by the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Over 100 candidate metrics were eval...

  20. Biobleaching of banana fibre pulp using Bacillus subtilis C O1 xylanase produced from wheat bran under solid-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, A; Vatsala, T M

    2007-11-01

    A cellulase-free xylanase produced by Bacillus subtilis C 01 from wheat bran under solid-state cultivation was tested for its efficacy in biobleaching of raw banana fibre and banana pulp obtained through a mechanical pulping process. Banana pulp samples treated with crude xylanase (450 nkat g(-1) pulp) resulted in a 19.6% increase in the brightness as compared to untreated pulp. The presence of chromophores, hydrophobic compounds and an increased reducing sugar (10.79 mg g(-1) pulp) quantity in the bleached solution after enzymatic treatment indicated the removal of materials that were absorbed at 237 nm from the banana pulp. PMID:17712584