Sample records for african american ethnicity

  1. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  2. Ethnic socialization of African American children: Implications for parenting, identity development, and academic achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheree Marshall

    1995-01-01

    This research explores ethnic socialization among middle-income African American parents and their children who attend predominantly white schools. Descriptive data regarding parents' and children's reports of ethnic socialization practices were obtained. Additionally, the relationship between ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and academic achievement was assessed through correlational and predictive statistics. Correlation analyses indicated that children's reports of ethnic socialization were significantly

  3. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  4. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  5. Preferred Style and Ethnicity of Counselors by African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonji, Jacques M. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compared reality therapy and person-centered therapy practiced by an African American counselor and a European American counselor. Results from African American Job Corps participants who viewed videotapes depicting simulated counseling sessions show a statistically significant difference between the therapies and between the counselors. Higher…

  6. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  7. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  8. Race and Ethnic Differences in Religious Involvement: African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in religious participation and spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) and non-Hispanic Whites. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites. Selected measures of organizational, nonorganizational and subjective religious participation were examined. African American and Caribbean Blacks were largely similar in their reports of religious involvement; both groups generally indicated higher levels of religious participation than non-Hispanic Whites. African Americans were more likely than Black Caribbeans to be official members of their places of worship, engage in activities (choirs, church clubs) at their place of worship and request prayer from others. Black Caribbeans reported reading religious materials more frequently than African Americans. The discussion notes the importance of examining ethnic differences within the black American population of the United States. PMID:20975850

  9. Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African

  10. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. PMID:25133408

  11. Anxiety Symptoms in African American Children: Relations with Ethnic Pride, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Parenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calonie M. K. Gray; Rona Carter; Wendy K. Silverman

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relations among children’s ethnic pride, perceived parenting behavior (i.e., parental\\u000a control, parental acceptance), anxiety sensitivity, and child anxiety symptoms (i.e., physical symptoms, social anxiety symptoms,\\u000a separation anxiety symptoms, and harm avoidance symptoms) in 266 African American school children (M = 9.98 years old; 55% girls). Structural equation modeling results indicated that high ethnic pride was associated with high

  12. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

  13. Ethnic Identity Gratifications Selection and Avoidance by African Americans: A Group Vitality and Social Identity Gratifications Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica R. Abrams; Howard Giles

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relatively new idea that individuals engage with media in an effort to meet their social identity needs. Specifically, the study broadens the social identity gratifications (SIG) approach to the domain of ethnicity by examining how African Americansethnic identity gratifications selection and avoidance are related to their perceptions of ingroup vitality. Two mediation models involving level

  14. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement Among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aryn M. Dotterer; Susan M. McHale; Ann C. Crouter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described their ethnic identity, discrimination experiences at school, and school engagement (school

  15. The Relation of Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Race-Related Stress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samon C.; Arbona, Consuelo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among African American college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…

  16. Racial\\/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meeta BanerjeeZaje; Zaje A. T. Harrell; Deborah J. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Racial\\/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement\\u000a in education and its relationship to children’s cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial\\/ethnic socialization\\u000a and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions\\u000a of racial\\/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e.,

  17. A Developmental Perspective of the Relationship of Racial–Ethnic Identity to Self-Construct, Achievement, and Behavior in African American Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaundrissa Oyeshiku Smith; Douglas W. Levine; Emilie Phillips Smith; Jean Dumas; Ron J. Prinz

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the development of racial–ethnic identity among African American children. Racial preferences were assessed in early elementary school with the Racial Attitudes, Beliefs, and Stereotypes Measure–II, a projective technique using paired comparisons of pictures of African American, Asian, Latino, and Caucasian children. Racial–ethnic identity in 3rd grade was assessed using the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure Ethnic Belonging subscale.

  18. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noni K. Gaylord-Harden; Brian L. Ragsdale; Jelani Mandara; Maryse H. Richards; Anne C. Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than\\u000a other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social\\u000a support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to one’s ethnic group) in reducing\\u000a internalizing

  19. Linking Contextual Affordances: Examining Racial-Ethnic Socialization and Parental Career Support among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Sha'Kema M.; Thomas, Anita Jones

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examined the link between self-reported racial-ethnic socialization experiences and perceived parental career support among African American undergraduate and graduate students. The results of two separate multivariate multiple regression analyses found that messages about coping with racism positively predicted…

  20. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  1. Predictors of Unprotected Sex among Young Sexually Active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: The Importance of Ethnicity and Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Isabel; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián

    2010-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15–22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions. PMID:17721725

  2. Ethnic Variations in Mental Health Attitudes and Service Use Among Low-Income African American, Latina, and European American Young Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Alvidrez

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the predictors of mentalhealth service use among patients in an ethnicallydiverse public-care women's clinic. While waiting fortheir clinic appointments, 187 Latina, African American, and White women were interviewed about theirattitudes towards mental illness and mental healthservices. White women were much more likely to have madea mental health visit in the past than the ethnic minority women. Having

  3. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. PMID:25748108

  4. Ethnic Differences in Obesity and Surgical Weight Loss between African-American and Caucasian Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia K. Buffington; Robert T. Marema

    2006-01-01

    Background: In the general population, African-American females are more obese and resistant to weight loss than Caucasian\\u000a women. In the present study, we examined the severity of obesity among morbidly obese African-American and Caucasian females,\\u000a studied the effectiveness of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and sought to identify factors contributing to obesity and\\u000a weight loss. Methods: The study population included 153

  5. Development of Logical Reasoning and the School Performance of African American Adolescents in Relation to Socioeconomic Status, Ethnic Identity, an Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapell, Mark S.; Overton, Willis F.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relation of African American adolescents' deductive reasoning and school performance to socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and self-esteem. High SES students outscored low SES students in reasoning performance and school grades. Better reasoning performance related to stronger ethnic identity. Self-esteem and grades were strongly…

  6. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  7. Gene-Based Sequencing Identifies Lipid-Influencing Variants with Ethnicity-Specific Effects in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Shriner, Daniel; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Mullikin, James C.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Hansen, Nancy F.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Maskeri, Baishali; Young, Alice C.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable proportion of serum lipids loci identified in European ancestry individuals (EA) replicate in African Americans (AA), interethnic differences in the distribution of serum lipids suggest that some genetic determinants differ by ethnicity. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of five lipid candidate genes to identify variants with ethnicity-specific effects. We sequenced ABCA1, LCAT, LPL, PON1, and SERPINE1 in 48 AA individuals with extreme serum lipid concentrations (high HDLC/low TG or low HDLC/high TG). Identified variants were genotyped in the full population-based sample of AA (n?=?1694) and tested for an association with serum lipids. rs328 (LPL) and correlated variants were associated with higher HDLC and lower TG. Interestingly, a stronger effect was observed on a “European” vs. “African” genetic background at this locus. To investigate this effect, we evaluated the region among West Africans (WA). For TG, the effect size among WA was the same in AA with only African local ancestry (2–3% lower TG), while the larger association among AA with local European ancestry matched previous reports in EA (10%). For HDLC, there was no association with rs328 in AA with only African local ancestry or in WA, while the association among AA with European local ancestry was much greater than what has been observed for EA (15 vs. ?5 mg/dl), suggesting an interaction with an environmental or genetic factor that differs by ethnicity. Beyond this ancestry effect, the importance of African ancestry-focused, sequence-based work was also highlighted by serum lipid associations of variants that were in higher frequency (or present only) among those of African ancestry. By beginning our study with the sequence variation present in AA individuals, investigating local ancestry effects, and seeking replication in WA, we were able to comprehensively evaluate the role of a set of candidate genes in serum lipids in AA. PMID:24603370

  8. Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2010-01-01

    Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

  9. The influence of college choice on the success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging of African American engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The research question was best answered through a qualitative, phenomenological study that depicted the lived experiences of individuals in their own voice. The governing interest was in discovering whether aspiring African American engineers, at this stage in their professional experience, favorably viewed their choice of HBCUs versus PWIs. Participants relayed how having a sense of belonging to their institution and having a supportive network of peers and faculty influenced and shaped their outlook on life. Several of the participants spoke of being resolute in achieving their goal to become an engineer despite the challenges faced in college and in the workforce. Whether participants attended an HBCU or PWI, they felt a sense of achievement and a competence to walk into any situation and succeed. Overwhelmingly, most participants expressed they would choose their undergraduate institution again if given the opportunity. African American engineers favorably viewed their undergraduate college choice as having given them an opportunity to achieve their professional aspirations.

  10. The role of ethnic identity and self-construal in coping among African American and Caucasian American seventh graders: an exploratory analysis of within-group variance.

    PubMed

    Zaff, Jonathan F; Blount, Ronald L; Phillips, Layli; Cohen, Lindsey

    2002-01-01

    Much coping research has been conducted comparing members of different ethnic groups using discrete racial classifications. However, the past two decades have seen the construct of ethnicity evolve into a complex variable that must be assessed in a more comprehensive way. This study explored how ethnicity, a discrete variable, and the continuous variables of a person's ethnic identity and self-construal contribute to the use of particular coping strategies across various situations. One hundred twelve seventh graders (67 African Americans and 45 Caucasian Americans) from three suburban middle schools completed questionnaires assessing ethnic identity, self-construal, and coping strategies for medical, test, and social criticism stressors. Results supported the hypothesis that ethnicity as a discrete variable is not associated with coping, but that ethnic identity and self-construal are. It was also found that high scores on the ethnic identity and self-construal scales were indicative of more positive psychological adjustment. Implications for future research and methodological considerations are discussed. PMID:12564827

  11. Examining the relationship between the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess body fat composition in a national sample of African Americans and black Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lauren J; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized US Blacks, our study examined whether the endorsement of racial/ ethnic stereotypes was associated with excess body fat composition among African Americans (n = 3,265) and Black Caribbeans (n = 1,332) living in the United States. We used ordinary least squares and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Results from the linear regression suggested that the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes was associated with increased body mass index and weight among African American males (b = .57, P < .05) and females (b = .50 P < .05). Further, results from the adjusted multinomial logistic regression suggested that African American males who endorsed racial/ethnic stereotypes were more likely to be obese (odds ratio = 1.33, P < .05), than African American males who did not endorse racial/ethnic stereotypes. Surprising, a positive relationship was not found among Black Caribbeans. Future studies should examine the relationship between internalized discrimination and endorsements of negative racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess fat accumulation among ethnically heterogeneous samples of Blacks. PMID:24392609

  12. Case Studies of African American Families: Self-Reports of Ethnically Diverse Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Wimberly, Cynthia; Berg, Rachelle; Rouson, Leon; Wilkins, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Using the lessons learned from mistakes made in their earlier clinical work with African American families, through the lens of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy theory, these culturally diverse practitioners use reflections from their counseling experiences to offer clinicians a people-responsive, diversity-sensitive framework and provide…

  13. Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Martinez, Alexis; Kral, Alex; Edlin, Brian R; Schonberg, Jeff; Ciccarone, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Background Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. Methods and Findings We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1) drug consumption; (2) income generation; (3) social and institutional relationships; and (4) personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s) when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its “War on Drugs.” African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled from their families when they began engaging in drug-related crime. These historical-structural conditions generated distinct presentations of self. Whites styled themselves as outcasts, defeated by addiction. They professed to be injecting heroin to stave off “dopesickness” rather than to seek pleasure. African Americans, in contrast, cast their physical addiction as an oppositional pursuit of autonomy and pleasure. They considered themselves to be professional outlaws and rejected any appearance of abjection. Many, but not all, of these ethnographic findings were corroborated by our epidemiological data, highlighting the variability of behaviors within ethnic categories. Conclusions Bringing quantitative and qualitative methodologies and perspectives into a collaborative dialog among cross-disciplinary researchers highlights the fact that clinical practice must go beyond simple racial or cultural categories. A clinical social science approach provides insights into how sociocultural processes are mediated by historically rooted and institutionally enforced power relations. Recognizing the logical underpinnings of ethnically specific behavioral patterns of street-based injectors is the foundation for cultural competence and for successful clinical relationships. It reduces the risk of suboptimal medical care for an exceptionally vulnerable and challenging patient population. Social science approaches can also help explain larger-scale patterns of health disparities; inform new approaches to structural and institutional-level public health initiatives; and enable clinicians to take more leadership in changing public policies that have negative health consequences. PMID:17076569

  14. African American Health: A Webliography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mongold

    2008-01-01

    Health disparities are inequalities in the quality of health and health care across ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups. This article focuses on the health disparities of African Americans and identifies several consumer health Internet resources.

  15. A developmental perspective of the relationship of racial-ethnic identity to self-construct, achievement, and behavior in African American children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Levine, Douglas W; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Dumas, Jean; Prinz, Ron J

    2009-04-01

    This longitudinal study examines the development of racial-ethnic identity among African American children. Racial preferences were assessed in early elementary school with the Racial Attitudes, Beliefs, and Stereotypes Measure-II, a projective technique using paired comparisons of pictures of African American, Asian, Latino, and Caucasian children. Racial-ethnic identity in 3rd grade was assessed using the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure Ethnic Belonging subscale. Multilevel models indicated that own-group racial preferences increased with age. Second-grade own-group preferences were positively related to 3rd-grade racial-ethnic identity scores. Third-grade racial-ethnic identity was associated positively with self-esteem variables (scholastic, social, physical appearance, and behavioral) and with academic performance. Identity correlated negatively with parent-rated aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The findings suggest that children's racial-ethnic identity develops differentially by gender, with girls showing faster growth but lower initial ethnic identity. Racial-ethnic identity was shown to be modestly but statistically significantly associated with various important child outcomes. PMID:19364201

  16. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  17. An Analysis of Stereotype Threat in African American Engineering Students at Predominantly White, Ethnically Diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…

  18. The Relationship among Support, Ethnic Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations in African American High School Students: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…

  19. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments that delineate race and gender stereotype threat as perceived by African American female STEM students.

  20. Ethnicity-specific pharmacogenetics: the case of warfarin in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, W; Gamazon, E R; Aquino-Michaels, K; Patel, S; O'Brien, T J; Harralson, A F; Kittles, R A; Barbour, A; Tuck, M; McIntosh, S D; Douglas, J N; Nicolae, D; Cavallari, L H; Perera, M A

    2014-06-01

    Using a derivation cohort (N=349), we developed the first warfarin dosing algorithm that includes recently discovered polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 associated with warfarin dose requirement in African Americans (AAs). We tested our novel algorithm in an independent cohort of 129 AAs and compared the dose prediction to the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) dosing algorithms. Our algorithm explains more of the phenotypic variation (R(2)=0.27) than the IWPC pharmacogenomics (R(2)=0.15) or clinical (R(2)=0.16) algorithms. Among high-dose patients, our algorithm predicted a higher proportion of patients within 20% of stable warfarin dose (45% vs 29% and 2% in the IWPC pharmacogenomics and clinical algorithms, respectively). In contrast to our novel algorithm, a significant inverse correlation between predicted dose and percent West African ancestry was observed for the IWPC pharmacogenomics algorithm among patients requiring ?60?mg per week (?=-2.04, P=0.02). PMID:24018621

  1. Use of Hydralazine?Isosorbide Dinitrate Combination in African American and Other Race/Ethnic Group Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Golwala, Harsh B.; Thadani, Udho; Liang, Li; Stavrakis, Stavros; Butler, Javed; Yancy, Clyde W.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydralazine?isosorbide dinitrate (H?ISDN) therapy is recommended for African American patients with moderate to severe heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (<40%) (HFrEF), but use, temporal trends, and clinical characteristics associated with H?ISDN therapy in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results An observational analysis of 54 622 patients admitted with HFrEF and discharged home from 207 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure registry from April 2008 to March 2012 was conducted to assess prescription, trends, and predictors of use of H?ISDN among eligible patients. Among 11 185 African American patients eligible for H?ISDN therapy, only 2500 (22.4%) received H?ISDN therapy at discharge. In the overall eligible population, 5115 of 43 498 (12.6%) received H?ISDN at discharge. Treatment rates increased over the study period from 16% to 24% among African Americans and from 10% to 13% among the entire HFrEF population. In a multivariable model, factors associated with H?ISDN use among the entire cohort included younger age; male sex; African American/Hispanic ethnicity; and history of diabetes, hypertension, anemia, renal insufficiency, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower heart rate. In African American patients, these factors were similar; in addition, being uninsured was associated with lower use. Conclusions Overall, few potentially eligible patients with HFrEF are treated with H?ISDN, and among African?Americans fewer than one?fourth of eligible patients received guideline?recommended H?ISDN therapy. Improved ways to facilitate use of H?ISDN therapy in African American patients with HFrEF are needed. PMID:23966379

  2. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-ncome Hispanic and African American preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-Marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

    2012-01-01

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used to assess ethnic differences. Unhealthy foods were available for both groups. Hispanic families were more likely to have fresh vegetables (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.001), fruit (AOR = 2.0, P = 0.004), and soda available (AOR = 1.40, P = 0.001) compared to African-Americans. African-Americans families were more likely to restrict (AOR = 0.63, P = 0.001) and reward with dessert (AOR = 0.69, P = 0.001). Hispanic families consumed more family meals together (P = 0.003) and less meals in front of the television (P = 0.006). Health promotion interventions should consider the behavioral differences between ethnicities. PMID:22262411

  3. American Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.

    The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…

  4. Bidirectional Associations between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems in Boys from Childhood to Adolescence: The Moderating Effect of Age and African-American Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

  5. Bidirectional associations between parenting practices and conduct problems in boys from childhood to adolescence: the moderating effect of age and African-American ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J; Burke, Jeffrey D

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

  6. Counseling Preferences of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jacqueline R.; Wermeling, Linda

    2007-01-01

    African American women hold the greatest need for mental health services among ethnic groups but receive effective counseling least often. This study investigated their preferences of counseling services. Results revealed that the type of service delivery might not be as salient to African American women as counselor-client racial similarity.

  7. Stability and Change in Private and Public Ethnic Regard among African American, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Chinese American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…

  8. Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

  9. Mental Health: African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... education, employment, and health care. However, strong social, religious, and family connections have helped many African Americans ... church and community to cope. The level of religious commitment among African Americans is high. In one ...

  10. Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

  11. Do Gender Differences in Help Avoidance Vary by Ethnicity? An Examination of African American and European American Students during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena; Lampkins-uThando, Shawn A.; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Thompson, Geneene N.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses…

  12. Oppression through the Eyes of a Haitian Americans and African American Male Students Oppression is an issue still facing ethnic minority groups in the United States (Watts, 2002). The present

    E-print Network

    Boone, Randall B.

    Oppression through the Eyes of a Haitian Americans and African American Male Students Oppression the meaning of oppression in Miami as seen by Haitian American and African American male college students (n

  13. African & African-American Studies University of Kansas

    E-print Network

    ................................................................. 4 Language/Research Skills Requirement........................................................................................................... 9 African & African-American Studies Core Faculty ......................................................... 11 African & African-American Studies Adjunct Faculty

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV vaccine series compared with other race and ethnic young women. PMID:24602302

  15. Autism and the African American community.

    PubMed

    Gourdine, Ruby M; Baffour, Tiffany D; Teasley, Martell

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 500 live births per year. However, due to varying techniques for diagnosis and treatment, the disability remains the subject of debate. African Americans tend to suffer disproportionate rates of disability and disease when compared to other racial and ethnic groups due to access to preventative and curative care. However, evidence demonstrates that although rates of diagnosis for autism occur at the same rates in all racial groups, diagnosis in African American children occurs later than in White children. As a result, African American children may require longer and more intensive intervention. This article examines the etiology of autism, diagnosis, and treatment strategies and its impact on African American families. A case method approach is utilized to describe the impact of autism on an African American family. Implications for future research and professional practice and policy are discussed. Understanding autism is important as it relates to the human genome. PMID:21707353

  16. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American

  17. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  18. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  19. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-ethnicity peers when they had fewer same-ethnicity classmates. African American children’s segregation was positively associated with same-ethnicity social preference and perceived popularity and with cross-ethnicity perceived popularity. European American children’s segregation was positively associated with same-ethnicity social preference but negatively associated with cross-ethnicity social preference and perceived popularity. PMID:21848954

  20. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeeta Agrawal; Anand Bhupinderjit; Manoop S. Bhutani; Lisa Boardman; Cuong Nguyen; Yvonne Romero; Radhika Srinvasan; Colmar Figueroa-Moseley

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer in African Americans has an increased incidence and mortality relative to Whites. The mean age of CRC development in African Americans is younger than that of Whites. There is also evidence for a more proximal colonic distribution of cancers and adenomas in African Americans.African Americans are less likely to have undergone diagnostic testing and screening for colorectal cancer.

  1. African American History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Mississippi State University African American History Archive is a great place to start for pointers to African American history sites, as well as an excellent repository of African American history primary documents. The sites include Adonis Productions' Black Pioneers page (with pages on African American pioneers in all fields), Great Day In Harlem (jazz), Mississippi State's AfriGeneas genealogy mailing list and Web site, Small Towns-Black Lives in New Jersey, African American pioneers in Kentucky law, and the International Museum of the Horse's Buffalo Soldier pages. Full text documents include Dr. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, Booker T. Washington's "Up From Slavery", Frederick Douglass' "Autobiography" and "My Escape from Slavery", and Henry David Thoreau's "A Plea for Captain John Brown" and "Slavery in Massachussetts", among others. The site also contains African American bibliographies in the arts, education, history, and science, as well as pointers to other African American sites. http://www.msstate.edu/Archives/History/USA/Afro-Amer/afro.html

  2. JSTOR: African American Review

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    JSTOR has available this title in its collection of full-text, online journals. African American Review, the quarterly publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, is published by Indiana State University, and includes Volumes 1-33, 1967-1999. AAR continues Black American Literature Forum (1976-1991) and Negro American Literature Forum (1967-1976). Note: access to JSTOR content is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions.

  3. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  4. Differences between African Americans and whites in the outcome of heart failure: Evidence for a greater functional decline in African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viola Vaccarino; Evelyne Gahbauer; Stanislav V. Kasl; Peter A. Charpentier; Denise Acampora; Harlan M. Krumholz

    2002-01-01

    Background National statistics indicate that African Americans are disproportionately affected by mortality and hospitalizations resulting from heart failure when compared with other racial\\/ethnic groups. This might, in part, reflect a poorer course of heart failure among African Americans. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 316 white and 82 African American consecutive patients aged ?50 years with decompensated heart

  5. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of Non-Hispanic Whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  6. Instructing African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Clara Y.; Wright, James V.; Laster, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Closing the educational achievement gap has been a schooling issue since Brown v. Board of Topeka, Kansas decision. Generally, the learning achievement of elementary and secondary African-American student has been an issue in majority school populations across the United States. And evidence of performance of these students appears to be more…

  7. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy S. Bibeau; Brit I. Saksvig; Joel Gittelsohn; Sonja Williams; Lindsey Jones; Deborah Rohm Young

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent

  8. African-American Male Honor Students' Views of Teaching as a Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Mack, Faite R-P.; Akyea, Stacey Gray

    2004-01-01

    Why are the brightest of the young, African-American male high school graduates not seeking a career in teaching? It is widely recognized that there are pedagogical and societal benefits to having more African-American male role models for both African-Americans and other ethnic and racial groups. This investigation was based on the premise that…

  9. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  10. The Nguzo Saba as a Foundation for African American College Student Development Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vanessa D.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes the consideration of the Nguzo Saba as a foundation for African American college student development theory, focusing on: racial/ethnic identity theories; the history of Kwanzaa; the origins of Kwanzaa (African and African American origins); and practical applications of the Nguzo Saba's seven principles (unity, self-determination,…

  11. HIV\\/AIDS Stigma and Religiosity Among African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Muturi; Soontae An

    2010-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV\\/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what

  12. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  13. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  14. Psychopathy and ethnicity: structural, item, and test generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R) in Caucasian and African American participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Cooke; David S. Kosson; Christine Michie

    2001-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) is an important measure in both applied and research settings. Evidence for its validity is mostly derived from male Caucasian participants. PCL-R ratings of 359 Caucasian and 356 African American participants were compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT) analyses. Previous research has indicated that 13 items of the PCL-R can be

  15. What Women Need to Know about Breast Cancer - African American

    Cancer.gov

    Yet, in 2013, more than 27,000 African American women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. The disease is the most common cancer among this group. And although African American women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women, those African American women who do develop the disease are more likely to die from it (more than 6,000 were projected to die in 2013) than women of any other racial or ethnic group in the United States.

  16. Asian American ethnic identification by surname

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane S. Lauderdale; Bert Kestenbaum

    2000-01-01

    Few data sources include ethnicity-levelclassification for Asian Americans. However, it isoften more informative to study the ethnic groupsseparately than to use an aggregate Asian Americancategory, because of differences in immigrationhistory, socioeconomic status, health, and culture. Many types of records that include surnames of personsoffer the potential for inferential ethnicclassification. This paper describes the developmentof surname lists for six major Asian

  17. Mexican Americans. Ethnic Groups in American Life Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan W.; Cuellar, Alfredo

    Part of a series on ethnic groups in American life, this book treats the Mexican American experience in the U.S. Perspectives presented in the book result from interaction with Mexican American and Anglo students and with Mexican American community members, from responses to surveys in 3 southwestern cities, and from recent research findings.…

  18. Recruitment and Retention of African American Patients for Clinical Research: An Exploration of Response Rates in an Urban Psychiatric Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estina E. Thompson; Cheryl Munday; James S. Jackson

    2002-01-01

    The issues related to recruiting African American psychiatric inpatients are discussed in the context of a study on the influence of ethnicity on psychiatric diagnosis. Ethnically diverse psychiatric residents interviewed 960 Black and White inpatients in 2 urban psychiatric hospitals. Despite the obstacles cited in the literature about recruiting and retaining African Americans into research, 78% of this sample were

  19. Recruitment and Retention of African American Patients for Clinical Research: An Exploration of Response Rates in an Urban Psychiatric Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estina E. Thompson; Harold W. Neighbors; Cheryl Munday; James S. Jackson

    1996-01-01

    The issues related to recruiting African American psychiatric inpatients are discussed in the context of a study on the influence of ethnicity on psychiatric diagnosis. Ethnically diverse psychiatric residents interviewed 960 Black and White inpatients in 2 urban psychiatric hospitals. Despite the obstacles cited in the literature about recruiting and retaining African Americans into research, 78% of this sample were

  20. AFRICAN AMERICAN IDENTITY COURSE SYLLABUS

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    Books, 1997, 1999, 2003 Kitwana, Bakari, The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-defeating attitudes and self-destructive behavior?," "What effect has `hip-hop culture' had on American society

  1. Influences on Mathematics Learning among African American High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John P.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine if the influences of educational productivity factors on achievement and attitudes are the same for African Americans and other ethnic groups. Using Walberg's Educational Productivity Model as a framework, this study estimated the influence of home environment, quality and quantity of instruction,…

  2. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  3. Barriers to using palliative care: insight into African American culture.

    PubMed

    Drisdom, Sheronda

    2013-08-01

    As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. African Americans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of African Americans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by African Americans. Many African Americans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:23899976

  4. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American\\/African Couples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth A. Durodoye; Angela D. Coker

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however,\\u000a is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may\\u000a operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an examination of within-group differences\\u000a and similarities, counselors can be better prepared to assist

  5. Condom Beliefs in Urban, Low Income, African American and Hispanic Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Norris; Kathleen Ford

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on the condom beliefs of low income, urban African American and Hispanic youth living in the Midwest. The condom beliefs under investigation were derived from prior research with members of this population and through consultation with African American and Hispanic youth and service providers. Significant gender, ethnic, and acculturation differences were found among beliefs related to frequency

  6. Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babalola Faseru; Lisa S Cox; Carrie A Bronars; Isaac Opole; Gregory A Reed; Matthew S Mayo; Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Kolawole S Okuyemi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. METHODS: The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in

  7. A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

  8. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  9. Retention of African Americans in Gifted Education: Lessons Learned from Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James L., III; Ford, Donna Y.; Owens, Delila; Hall, Ted; Byrd, Melendez; Henfield, Malik; Whiting, Gilman W.

    2006-01-01

    Predominately White institutions of higher education have focused a considerable amount of attention on the underrepresentation of African American and other ethnically diverse students in colleges and universities. To address this problem, colleges and universities have focused not just on recruitment but also on the retention of African American

  10. "We Don't Feel Welcome Here": African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics…

  11. An Exploration of the Effects of Skin Tone on African American Life Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Alfiee M.; Collins, Wanda; Damico, Karen Lowenstein; Steward, Robbie; King, Jennifer

    This study surveys African Americans to assess perceptions of and life experiences with the issue of skin tone. Thirty-seven African American adults agreed to complete a survey packet and participate in a semi-structured focus group discussion. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Skin…

  12. Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

    2014-01-01

    African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

  13. Asian American Ethnic Options: How Cambodian Students Negotiate Ethnic Identities in a U.S.

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    Asian American Ethnic Options: How Cambodian Students Negotiate Ethnic Identities in a U.S. Urban across varying school contexts. [Asian American identity, Cambodian/Khmer students, ethnic stereotypes, model minority] Cambodian students in the United States are often viewed within an Asian American

  14. African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

    African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

  15. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  16. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Collins O. Airhihenbuwa; Shiriki Kumanyika; Tanya D. Agurs; Agatha Lowe; David Saunders; Christiaan B. Morssink

    1996-01-01

    The high mortality from diet?related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low? and middle?income African Americans recruited

  17. Correlates of Wellbeing Among African American Lesbians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne L. Dibble; Michele J. Eliason; Brenda Crawford

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of knowledge about health among African American women in general, there is a dearth of information on African American lesbians. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the correlates of health-related quality of life among African American lesbians using a cross-sectional anonymous survey with topics and measures developed by members of the

  18. THE STATE OF EDUCATION FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN

    E-print Network

    Knaust, Helmut

    education they need and deserve, and the performance of African American students lags far behind, performance among African American students has risen dramatically in recent years, and gaps between African American and white students have narrowed. It's important, of course, to look at student performance across

  19. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  20. Human CYP1B1 Leu432Val gene polymorphism: ethnic distribution in African-Americans, Caucasians and Chinese; oestradiol hydroxylase activity; and distribution in prostate cancer cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y M; Green, B L; Chen, G F; Thompson, P A; Lang, N P; Shinde, A; Lin, D X; Tan, W; Lyn-Cook, B D; Hammons, G J; Kadlubar, F F

    2000-12-01

    Cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones, including 17beta-oestradiol (E2) and testosterone. We report a significant difference in the allele frequencies of two point mutations in the coding region of the CYP1B1 gene among Caucasian (n = 189), African-American (n = 52) and Chinese (Linxian) (n = 109) populations. A (C to G) transversion at position 1666 in exon 3, which results in an amino acid substitution of Leu432 to Val, was present in African-Americans with an allele frequency for Va1432 of 0.75, in Caucasians of 0.43, and in Chinese of 0.17. A (C to T) transition at position 1719 in exon 3, with no amino acid change (Asp449), appeared to be closely linked with the Val432 variant. Results using human lung microsomal preparations from individuals with the CYP1B1Val/Val and CYP1B1Leu/Leu genotypes indicate that Val432 variant may be a high activity allele and thus may contribute to the interindividual differences in CYP1B1 activity. Because CYP1B1 is involved in hormone and carcinogen metabolism, and given the disparate rates of prostate cancer among ethnic groups, we also evaluated the association of the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism with prostate cancer risk in a pilot case-control study. Among Caucasians, 34% of men with cancer (n = 50) were homozygous for the Val432 polymorphism, while only 12% of matched control subjects (n = 50) had this genotype. These preliminary data indicate that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 might play an important role in human prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:11221602

  1. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  2. African American Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. Firearms were the predominant method of • suicide among African ... on 2012 Data (2014) Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  3. Spirituality Among Older African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya D. Armstrong; Martha R. Crowther

    2002-01-01

    Recent changes in gerontology have drawn attention to the role of spirituality among older adults. Demographic trends suggest that the number of African Americans over the age of 65 is increasing, with the largest shift to occur in persons 85 years of age and older. Given the paucity of information available regarding the relationship between spirituality and aging along with

  4. African-American Children's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Patricia C.

    Examination of representative stories told by black American children of West African descent in South Carolina shows that specific cultural motifs have been preserved in the oral tradition of black communities. Typical stories are tales of the supernatural, such as the Hag story about mortals who shed their skin at night to do evil deeds.…

  5. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  6. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  7. Older Women's Organization of Friendship Support Networks: An African American-White American Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jocelyn Armstrong

    2000-01-01

    Research of friendship in older people's lives has recently extended to examine the impact of social structural factors. This study compared the friendship support networks of a small sample of older African and White American women for influences of ethnicity. The comparison used a matched-pair sample which controlled for age, marital status, residence type, and disability. Examination of data from

  8. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Career Decisions of African American and Hispanic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Johnnye

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for culturally diverse teachers. Weiher (2000) studied the relationship between African American and Hispanic student achievement and schools with teachers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated the greater the difference between the percentage of ethnically diverse teachers and the percentage of diverse students, the…

  10. Outcomes Among African-American\\/Non-African-American Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Report From the Cancer and Leukemia Group B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. William Blackstock; James E. Herndon II; Electra D. Paskett; Michael C. Perry; Stephen L. Graziano; Joseph J. Muscato; Michael P. Kosty; Wallace L. Akerley; Jimmie Holland; Stewart Fleishman; Mark R. Green

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among patients diagnosed with advanced non- small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), African-Americans have lower survival rates than non-African-Americans. Whether this difference is due to innate characteristics of the disease in the two ethnicities or to disparities in health care is not known. We investigated whether the disparity in sur- vival would persist when patients were treated with similar systemic therapies

  11. The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

  12. Bridging the Communication Gap between Afro-Latino and African American Individuals: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Manuel P.; Kuhl, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a curriculum initiative intended to lay the foundational knowledge for a dialogue between Afro-Latinos and African Americans living in the United States. Afro-Latinos trace their roots to Africa and Latin America; although their physical characteristics are similar to those of African descent, their ethnic backgrounds…

  13. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer among whites and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jyi; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer among all US racial and ethnic groups. Dietary factors, lifestyle factors, obesity, variability in screening rates, socioeconomic differences, barriers to screening, and differences in access to health care may be contributory factors to racial and ethnic disparities. African Americans are more likely to demonstrate microsatellite instability in their colorectal tumors leading to malignancy. However, these differences do not completely explain all the variances. Ample evidence implicates insulin resistance and its associated conditions, including elevated insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in colorectal carcinogenesis. African Americans have a high risk for and a high prevalence of insulin resistance and subsequent overt type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical studies revealed that ethnic differences between whites and African Americans in early diabetes-related conditions including hyperinsulinemia already exist during childhood. African Americans have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than whites throughout their life spans. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with higher rates of diabetes and colorectal cancer, particularly in individuals with high serum insulin and IGF-1 levels. Moreover, African Americans have lower insulin sensitivity in tissues, independent of obesity, fat distribution, and inflammation. Further development of measures of biomarkers of tumor biology and host susceptibility may provide further insight on risk stratification in African Americans. PMID:22562539

  14. The African-American house as a vehicle of discovery for an African-American architecture

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is three-fold: (1) This thesis seeks to uncover evidence of a distinctly African-American architectural form. The primary building type observed will be the house, or the housing of African-Americans ...

  15. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  16. Social support unique to African American mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris Noel Ugarriza

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was the identification of the cultural postpartum prevention practices of African American families.\\u000a Using qualitative methods, 30 postpartum African American mothers were assessed for their degree of acculturation into the\\u000a Anglo-American culture. The mothers were interviewed to ascertain their postpartum depression prevention practices. Degree\\u000a of acculturation was ascertained using the Landrine & Klonoff (1995) African

  17. Beginning Library Research on African American Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This research site provides a reference guide on the historical and contemporary experiences of African Americans. It was composed by Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Services and contains numerous subject categories, including race/identity, press, literature, and history. It lists African American Studies Encyclopedias and Handbooks, biographical sources, book annotations, videos, and links to other related sites. It is an excellent place to start for those conducting research in the field of African American Studies.

  18. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures. PMID:14604079

  19. African-American Hair: Tips for Everyday Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and beauty Hair care African-American hair African-American hair: Tips for everyday care Unique in appearance and structure, African-American hair is especially fragile and prone to injury ...

  20. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  1. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  2. The Media as a System of RacializationExploring Images of African American Women and the New Racism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marci Bounds Littlefield

    2008-01-01

    Historically, the media perpetuate ideas about race and ethnicity that place African American women at a clear disadvantage. Beginning with the welfare queen image during the Reagan administration and moving to the porno chick represented in current videos, society views a daily discourse on race, gender, and class that continues to reproduce dominant and distorted views of African American womanhood

  3. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  4. Explorative study of African Americans and internet dating 

    E-print Network

    Spates, Kamesha Sondranek

    2005-02-17

    ....................................... 43 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Much of African American literature focuses on negative aspects of the African American community. Absence and shortage of the African American male, single female headed households, and children... family and describe the dilemmas that affect their unique positions. I will address several of the ways in which society ?invalidates? the adult African American male, the adult African American female and African American children. Subsequently, I...

  5. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  6. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  7. HIV Behavioral Interventions for Heterosexual African American Men: A Critical Review of Cultural Competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk D. Henny; Kim M. Williams; Jocelyn Patterson

    \\u000a In the United States, the rate of HIV infection transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact is disproportionately higher\\u000a among African American than among persons of other races or ethnicities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],\\u000a 2009). Therefore, African American men who have sex with women represent a critical target for behavioral interventions designed\\u000a to reduce HIV incidence in this community.

  8. Race consciousness and the health of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Watts, Rosalyn J

    2003-01-01

    The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group. PMID:12729454

  9. HYPERTENSION TELEMANAGEMENT IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eunme

    2009-01-01

    Background We propose evaluation of a multi-component home automated telemanagement (HAT) system providing integrated support to both clinicians and patients in implementing hypertension treatment guidelines. Methods In a randomized clinical study 550 African Americans with hypertension are followed for 18 months. The major components of the intervention and control groups are identical and are based on the current standard of care. For the purpose of this study, we define “standard of care” as the expected evidence-based care provided according to the current hypertension treatment guidelines. While intervention and control groups are similar in terms of their care components, they differ in the mode of care delivery. For the control group the best attempt is made to deliver all components of a guideline-concordant care in a routine clinical environment whereas for the intervention group the routine clinical environment is enhanced with Health Information Technology (IT) that assists clinicians and patients in working together in implementing treatment guidelines. The HAT system guides patients in following their individualized treatment plans and helps care coordination team in monitoring the patient progress. The study design is aimed at addressing the main question of this trial: whether the addition of the IT-enhanced care coordination in the routine primary care setting can improve delivery of evidence-based hypertension care in African Americans. The outcome parameters include quality of life, medical care utilization, treatment compliance, psychosocial variables and improvement in blood pressure control rates. Conclusions The trial will provide insight on the potential impact of IT-enhanced care coordination in African Americans with poorly controlled hypertension. PMID:20031848

  10. African Americans’ Perception of Mental Health Professions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A. Fall; Justin E. Levitov; Latoya Anderson; Harold Clay

    2005-01-01

    This study explored African-Americans perceptions of various mental health professions through the ranking of confidence levels across five case vignettes of varying psychiatric severity. Results indicated that African-Americans viewed psychologists and doctoral level licensed professional counselors with similar levels of confidence and ranked doctoral level licensed professional counselors above masters level counselors in every case example. Congruent with previous studies,

  11. African American hypertensives: Cognition and self care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Louise Klymko

    2006-01-01

    Problem. While evidence is present supporting aging and hypertension's association with cognitive decline, few, if any, studies have related cognition, self-care, and blood pressure outcomes in African American elders with hypertension. Purpose. The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe types of cognitive functions in elder hypertensive African Americans, (b) test relationships among concepts in a mid-range theory derived

  12. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  13. Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges for 2013 Prepared by John Pawasarat and Lois M. Quinn Employment and Training Institute University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 2013 #12;Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges of 2013 1

  14. Teaching African American History: A Literary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Gerald; Tolbert, Gail W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a unit which offers high school students a broader perspective on African American history in general and African American writers in particular. Describes how students choose a book (from a list with synopses) to read and then choose at least one activity (again from a list) to complete. (SR)

  15. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  16. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  17. National African American Photographic Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This glorious collection is a collaborative effort between the University Libraries, University of Memphis and Ampro Industries, Inc. of Memphis. The project's goal is "to collect, scan, and make available to the public photographs and informative metadata illustrating the daily and work lives and social activities of African Americans." Currently the project has over 450 items that are searchable by name or available for browsing. First-time visitors may want to start by looking at the Robert R. Church Family of Memphis slideshow. This visual vignette features studio portraits of the Church family and images taken in a variety of settings. [KMG

  18. Traditional African Informal Instructional Paradigm in African and African-American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of African storytelling for informal teaching of African traditions and values in today's African-American community. The instruction is shown in content and context in three literary works: "An African Night's Entertainment,""The Passport of Mallam Ilia," and "The Secret of Gumbo Grove." (MMU)

  19. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  20. Older women's organization of friendship support networks: an African American-white American comparison.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M J

    2000-01-01

    Research of friendship in older people's lives has recently extended to examine the impact of social structural factors. This study compared the friendship support networks of a small sample of older African and White American women for influences of ethnicity. The comparison used a matched-pair sample which controlled for age, marital status, residence type, and disability. Examination of data from the women's diagrams and descriptions of current informal support networks and friendship life histories indicates ethnic differences in four related areas of friendship network organization: size, composition, recruitment strategies, and opportunities for support exchanges. Implications for research and practice are considered. PMID:10986853

  1. Charting the pipeline: Identifying the critical elements in the development of successful African American scientists, engineers, and mathematicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Anthony Williams

    2003-01-01

    Many educational researchers are concerned with the apparent poor performance of different racial and ethnic groups in the fields of science, engineering, and mathematics in the United States. Despite improvements in the performance of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans in these areas over the past decade, these groups are still less likely to enroll in advanced math and

  2. Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them. PMID:24162183

  3. THE HEALTH STATUS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY A BLACK PAPER FOR THE URBAN LEAGUE OF PITTSBURGH

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    /ethnic disparities in health by 2010. This report examines the health conditions of African Americans in Allegheny of eliminating racial/ethnic health status disparities in Allegheny County. We used four methods to determine of health disparity between blacks and whites in the county. The third contrasted local rates of morbidity

  4. Expanding the obesity research paradigm to reach African American communities.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Gary, Tiffany L; Prewitt, T Elaine; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Karanja, Njeri; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions. PMID:17875256

  5. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  6. Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans

    Cancer.gov

    Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans New Hanover Regional Medical Center Coastal Area Health Education Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Carolina at Wilmington Report given at the Program Steering Committee

  7. African American Community Mental Health Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the African American population • Culture biases against mental health professionals and health care professionals in general prevent ... disadvantage in terms of accessing both medical and mental health care: in 2006, one-third of working adult ...

  8. Asian American Studies Department College of Ethnic Studies

    E-print Network

    Asian American Studies Department College of Ethnic Studies San Francisco State University Retention, Tenure, and Promotion Reviews Department Evaluation Criteria The following Asian American Studies and by the University Provost, Academic Affairs on April 8, 2011. The Asian American Studies Department expects its

  9. African American Men and Intimate Partner Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with African American males in violent intimate relationships, this paper focuses on individual causes\\u000a (exposure to violence), cultural causes (constructions of masculinity) and structural causes (unemployment and incarceration)\\u000a of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American men. IPV is “triggered” by two threats to masculinity, though I\\u000a focus exclusively on the first trigger (breadwinning). The analyses are

  10. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  11. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ed Y.; Reeb, Ben T.; Martin, Monica J.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  12. Cultural Awareness and Ethnic Loyalty among Mexican American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbona, Consuelo; And Others

    A sample of 364 Mexican-American college students were used to study the adequacy of Keefe and Padilla's model and measure of cultural change. Keefe and Padilla developed an empirical measure yielding two divergent factors, labeled as Cultural Awareness and Ethnic Loyalty. An additional factor, labeled Ethnic Social Orientation, referred to…

  13. The Development of Ethnic Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Seidman, Edward; Allen, LaRue; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N=420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were…

  14. Diabetes Management Among Low-Income African Americans A Description of a Pilot Strategy for Empowerment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Consuela Greene; Linda McClellan; Celia O. Larson

    Incidence of type II diabetes is increasing in the United States and is most prevalent among low-income African Americans. Community health initiatives supported by partnerships of community leaders and health professionals can contribute to the elimination of inequalities in health status. The focus of Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010, an initiative sponsored by the Centers for

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases: Experience and risk factors among urban, low income, African American and Hispanic youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Ford; Anne E. Norris

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess: (1) ethnic and gender differences in reporting of diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), symptoms related to STDs and sexual behavior and (2) behavioral risk factors for STDs in a probability sample of low income African American and Hispanic youth.Methods. Data were analyzed from a household probability sample of youth. The

  16. Struggling to survive: Sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thema Bryant-Davis; Sarah E. Ullman; Yuying Tsong; Shaquita Tillman; Kimberly Smith

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women?s increased risk for sexual assault and increased

  17. Critical Race Theory as an Analytical Tool: African American Male Success in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Harlan E.; Cintron, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    While access to higher education for racial and ethnic minorities improved over the last half of the 20th century, the percentage of these populations obtaining terminal degrees does not approach their respective percentage of society at large. By interviewing five African American males who completed a doctoral program at a Majority White…

  18. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American

  19. Person Factors Associated With Suicidal Behavior Among African American Women and Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine J. Kaslow; Ann Webb Price; Sarah Wyckoff; Marnette Bender Grall; Alissa Sherry; Sharon Young; Larry Scholl; Venus Millington Upshaw; Akil Rashid; Emily B. Jackson; Kafi Bethea

    2004-01-01

    This study compared person risk factors among the following groups of low-income, African American adults in an urban, public hospital: (a) suicide attempters and nonattempters, (b) male and female attempters, and (c) all 4 groups (50 female attempters, 50 female nonattempters, 50 male attempters, and 50 male nonattempters). Participants completed psychological distress, aggression, substance use, cognitive processes, religiosity\\/spirituality, and ethnic

  20. Overrepresentation of African American Students in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Pamela; Rose, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The overrepresentation of ethnic minority students, particularly African American males, in the exclusionary discipline consequences of suspension and expulsion has been consistently documented during the past three decades. Children of poverty and those with academic problems are also overrepresented in such discipline consequences. Sadly, a…

  1. Substance Abuse in African Americans: In Search of a Culturally Competent Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Atri, Ashutosh

    2006-01-01

    The Healthy People 2010 guidelines identify substance abuse as a major public health problem in need of effective interventions for diverse populations including racial and ethnic minorities. However, the literature with regard to substance abuse in the African American community is rather scant. This article discusses the need for a research…

  2. African-American School Counselors in Majority School Districts: A Qualitative Perspective of Their Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Crystal Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation will focus on the lived experiences of African-American school counselors in majority school districts and the lack of retention among this population. The lack of retention and representation of ethnic minorities in the workforce has been the subject of much discussion throughout the United States (Ingersoll, 2004). The…

  3. African American Adolescent Girls in Impoverished Communities: Quality of Parenting and Adolescent Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura D. Pittman; P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between parenting style and adolescent functioning was examined in a sample of 302 African American adolescent girls and their mothers who live in impoverished neighborhoods. Although previous research has found that authoritative parenting, as compared to authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged parenting, is associated with positive adolescent outcomes in both White, middle class and large multi-ethnic school-based samples, these

  4. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  5. African-American and Anglo Anglers' Attitudes toward the Catch-Related Aspects of Fishing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Hunt; Myron F. Floyd; Robert B. Ditton

    2007-01-01

    Race and ethnic differences with respect to catch and harvest related attitudes are poorly known. Based on previous research, African Americans and Anglos were expected to differ with respect to importance attached to four constructs related to the catch-related aspects of recreational fishing: catching something, catching a lot of fish, catching large fish, and retaining fish. Four Texas statewide angler

  6. Differences in Risk Factors for Suicidality between African American and White Patients Vulnerable to Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty.…

  7. A Composite Counterstorytelling: Memoirs of African American Military Students in Hawaii Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Kimetta R.

    2010-01-01

    There are social, educational and behavioral problems for African American students in Hawaii public schools. Utilizing Critical Race Theory as a lens for analysis, the perceptions and experiences of these students regarding race, ethnic identity, military lineage, and self-definition are addressed. A composite counterstory of the researcher's and…

  8. Reaching beyond the Pale: Towards an Understanding of African-Americans' Mental Models of Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of US museums to attract and engage ethnically diverse audiences, including African Americans is a problem that has plagued museums for decades (Falk, 1993; Philipp, 1999). Scholars have sought to understand traditional visitors' perceptions of museums in order to better to increase visitations and promote lifelong learning, but…

  9. Treatment disparities among African American men with depression: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  11. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  12. Religiousness, social support and reasons for living in African American and European American older adults: An exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea June; Daniel L. Segal; Frederick L. Coolidge; Kelli Klebe

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between religiousness, perceived social support, and reasons for living among European American (n = 37; M age = 67.7 years) and African American (n = 35; M age = 71.1 years) older adults, where ethnicity was predicted to behave as a moderator.Method: Community-dwelling participants completed the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness\\/Spirituality, the Multidimensional Measure

  13. African Magazines for American Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Sanford

    1970-01-01

    From the varied spectrum of African periodical publishing, a selection of particular interest - an annotated bibliography of English-language titles produced wholly (or mainly) by Africans in Africa. (Editor/JB)

  14. African American Leaders' Perceptions of Intergroup Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jean A.; Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    2002-01-01

    Examined how African American principals perceived intergroup conflict, acknowledging their leadership concerns in working with European American participants in desegregated suburban schools. Interview data indicated that these leaders were cultural integrators and consensus builders who had acquired an understanding of diversity and had…

  15. A Qualitative Inquiry on the Multidimensional Racial Development among First-Year African American College Students Attending a Predominately White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2012-01-01

    While persistence and completion rates in postsecondary education are on the rise, gaps based on racial/ethnic demographics remain. This is particularly evident at predominately White institutions (PWIs), despite increasing enrollment of African Americans at these institutions. Previous studies have linked psychosocial health of African American

  16. Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

  17. Health and Mental Health Policies' Role in Better Understanding and Closing African American-White American Disparities in Treatment Access and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.

    2012-01-01

    Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health…

  18. Comparison of Infant Sleep Practices in African-American and US Hispanic Families: Implications for Sleep-Related Infant Death.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Anita A; Joyner, Brandi L; Oden, Rosalind P; Alamo, Ines; Moon, Rachel Y

    2015-06-01

    African-American and Hispanic families share similar socioeconomic profiles. Hispanic rates of sleep-related infant death are four times lower than African-American rates. We conducted a cross-sectional, multi-modal (surveys, qualitative interviews) study to compare infant care practices that impact risk for sleep-related infant death in African-American and Hispanic families. We surveyed 422 African-American and 90 Hispanic mothers. Eighty-three African-American and six Hispanic mothers participated in qualitative interviews. African-American infants were more likely to be placed prone (p < 0.001), share the bed with the parent (p < 0.001), and to be exposed to smoke (p < 0.001). Hispanic women were more likely to breastfeed (p < .001), while African-American women were more knowledgeable about SIDS. Qualitative interviews indicate that, although African-American and Hispanic parents had similar concerns, behaviors differed. Although the rationale for infant care decisions was similar for African-American and Hispanic families, practices differed. This may help to explain the racial/ethnic disparity seen in sleep-related infant deaths. PMID:24705738

  19. Home Front as Warfront: African American World War I Drama

    E-print Network

    Egging, Anna Katherine

    2010-08-31

    This dissertation recovers little-known African American World War I plays that blur the boundary between the home front and warfront. I argue that with this focus, the plays wage their own war for African American citizenship ...

  20. A Qualitative Description of African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences

    E-print Network

    Spencer, Becky

    2012-08-31

    The low rates of breastfeeding among African American women in the U.S. is a poorly understood, persistent disparity that contributes to higher incidences of morbidity and mortality for African Americans across the lifespan. ...

  1. Genome-Wide Association of BMI in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Hester, Jessica M.; Wing, Maria R.; Li, Jiang; Xu, Jianzhao; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Lu, Lingyi; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Palmer, Nichole D.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with obesity in Europeans but results in other ethnicities are less convincing. Here, we report a two-stage GWAS of BMI in African Americans. The GWAS was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform in 816 nondiabetic and 899 diabetic nephropathy subjects. 746,626 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with BMI after adjustment for age, gender, disease status, and population structure. Sixty high scoring SNPs that showed nominal association in both GWAS cohorts were further replicated in 3,274 additional subjects in four replication cohorts and a meta-analysis was computed. Meta-analysis of 4,989 subjects revealed five SNPs (rs6794092, rs268972, rs2033195, rs815611, and rs6088887) at four loci showing consistent associations in both GWAS (P < 0.0001) and replication cohorts (P < 0.05) with combined P values range from 2.4 × 10?6 to 5 × 10?5. These loci are located near PP13439-TMEM212, CDH12, MFAP3-GALNT10, and FER1L4 and had effect sizes between 0.091 and 0.167 s.d. unit (or 0.67–1.24 kg/m2) of BMI for each copy of the effect allele. Our findings suggest the presence of novel loci potentially associated with adiposity in African Americans. Further replication and meta-analysis in African Americans and other populations will shed light on the role of these loci in different ethnic populations. PMID:21701570

  2. The Teaching of Afrocentric Values by African American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Harriet

    1997-01-01

    Examines the extent to which four indices of African self-consciousness are operating in suburban African-American families. It presents examples of African self-consciousness illustrating how the perceptions of African-American children living in predominantly White suburbs are shaped by family, church, school, and social interactions. Parental…

  3. Depression in African-American patients with kidney disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Paul L.; Patel, Somir S.; Peterson, Rolf A.

    2002-01-01

    There are few data on the epidemiology, consequences and treatment of depression in African-American patients with kidney disease in the US, even though such patients disproportionately bear the burden of this illness. This paper reviews data on the diagnosis and pathogenesis of depression and its consequences in patients with and without kidney disease, in addition to work on the epidemiology of depression in the African-American population and in the US End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) program. African Americans are thought to have similar susceptibility to the development of depression as other populations in the US, but diminished access to care for this group of patients may be associated with differential outcomes. Data are presented from longitudinal studies of psychosocial outcomes in a population comprising primarily African-American patients with ESRD, and is reviewed the treatment of depression in patients with and without kidney disease. There are few studies of the management of depression that focus on minority populations. The authors agree with recommendations that treatment trials should include minority patients, patients with medical comorbidities, and the elderly, and assess function and quality of life as outcomes. The relationships between age, marital status and satisfaction, ethnicity, and perception of quality of life and depressive affect level and diagnosis of depression, and medical outcomes have not been determined in ESRD patients, or in African-American patients with ESRD. There are few studies of drugs for the treatment of depression in ESRD patients, and only one small randomized controlled trial. These have shown that therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors appears to be a safe treatment option for patients with ESRD. The long-term effectiveness of therapy, and its association with clinically important outcomes such as perception of quality of life, compliance, and survival have not been evaluated in ESRD patients. Also, therapeutic effectiveness and outcomes have not been assessed in minority populations with ESRD. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the management of depression in African Americans with kidney disease. PMID:12152919

  4. Prenatal Care and Medical Risk in Low-Income, Primiparous, Mexican-Origin and African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Zambrana; Susan C. M. Scrimshaw; Christine Dunkel-Schetter

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to assess selected prenatal factors that are associated with initiation of prenatal care for Mexican-origin and African American women, and to explore ethnic-specific differences in content of prenatal care at first visit, relationship with medical risk, and perceived medical risk. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,544 lowincome African American and Mexicanorigin women in 22

  5. Barriers to treatment among African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Domanico, Julian; Marques, Luana; Leblanc, Nicole J; Turkheimer, Eric

    2012-05-01

    African Americans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent African Americans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult African Americans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the African American OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to African Americans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the African American participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers. PMID:22410094

  6. Barriers to Treatment Among African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M.T.; Domanico, J.; Marques, L.; Leblanc, N.J.; Turkheimer, E.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent African Americans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult African Americans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the African American OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to African Americans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the African American participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers. PMID:22410094

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

    2001-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

  8. Examining Cultural Socialization Within African American and European American Households

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth M. Tyler; Monica L. Dillihunt; A. Wade Boykin; Sean T. Coleman; Darla M. Scott; Christina M. B. Tyler; Eric A. Hurley

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored the cultural socialization processes of 227 African American and European American parents of elementary schoolchildren. The Cultural Value Socialization Scales (K. M. Tyler, A. W. Boykin, C. M. Boelter, & M. L. Dillihunt, 2005) were used to garner parents' reports of their cultural value socialization activities at home. The scales contained written vignettes depicting persons involved

  9. Genetic and Molecular Differences in Prostate Carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James; Petrovics, Gyorgy; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Prostate cancer incidence and associated mortality are highest in African American men in comparison to other races. The observed differences in incidence and disease aggressiveness at presentation support a potential role for different pathways of prostate carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian men. This review focuses on some of the recent molecular biology discoveries, which have been investigated in prostate carcinogenesis and their likely contribution to the known discrepancies across race and ethnicity. Key discussion points include the androgen receptor gene structure and function, genome-wide association studies and epigenetics. The new observations of the ethnic differences of the ERG oncogene, the most common prostate cancer gene, are providing new insights into ERG based stratification of prostate cancers in the context of ethnically diverse patient populations. This rapidly advancing knowledge has the likely potential to benefit clinical practice. Current and future work will improve the ability to sub-type prostate cancers by molecular alterations and lead to targeted therapy against this common malignancy. PMID:23892597

  10. Acculturation and cigarette smoking among African American adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and cigarette smoking among African Americans was examined with 444 adults. Results revealed that African American smokers were more traditional (less acculturated) than their nonsmoking counterparts, irrespective of gender, and that acculturation was a better predictor of smoking than status variables such as income and education. The prevalence of smoking among traditional African Americans was 33.6%

  11. A qualitative analysis of health promotion among older African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamika R. Sanchez-Jones

    2006-01-01

    Disparities in health have placed African American elders at risk for poor health outcomes. African American elders suffer from disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality. Health promotion activities aimed at reducing health risk have not been widely studied and require further understanding.The purpose of this ethnographic content analysis was to investigate the health-promoting lifestyle behaviors of community dwelling African American

  12. Going to School: The African-American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…

  13. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  14. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  15. Resistance to Conversion to Islam Among African American Women Inmates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felecia Dix-Richardson

    2002-01-01

    While the tendency to convert to Islam is common among African American male inmates, Islamic conversion among African American female inmates does not commonly occur. Educated estimates and telephone interviews with chaplains of major female correctional institutions in Florida and Alabama, indicate that Islamic conversion among African American female inmates is extremely low. Why is there such a stark contrast

  16. Exploring School Engagement of Middle-Class African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Because of the scarcity of knowledge about middle-class African American adolescents, the present study explored psychological and parental factors in relation to academic performance. The participants were 336 middle-class African American students and their biological mothers. The findings suggest that for African American middle-class…

  17. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  18. African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

    2006-01-01

    Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

  19. Everyday Conflict and Stress Among Older African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Flynn Weitzman; Robert Dunigan; Robert L. Hawkins; Eben A. Weitzman; Sue E. Levkoff

    2001-01-01

    Older African American women are at high risk for morbidity due to anger suppression and stress. Yet sources of everyday stress and conflict in the lives of older African American women have not been documented. Such information is essential for developing health promotion programs. A focus group study was conducted with older African American women on everyday stress and conflict.

  20. Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jacqueline

    In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American

  1. Developing suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches.

    PubMed

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal; Puri, Rupa; Lyles, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches may have broad appeal because: (1) the Black Church has a strong history of helping community members, regardless of church membership; (2) African Americans have the highest level of public and private religiousness; and (3) the church can help shape religious and cultural norms about mental health and help-seeking. The proposed gatekeeper model trains lay helpers and clergy to recognize the risk and protective factors for depression and suicide, to make referrals to the appropriate community mental health resources, and to deliver a community education curriculum. Potential barriers and suggestions for how to overcome these barriers are discussed. PMID:18611131

  2. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy. PMID:17667868

  3. Gender and Ethnicity Attributions to a Gender and Ethnicity-Unspecified Individual: Is there a People?=?White Male Bias?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Davis Merritt; Teion Wells Harrison

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated gender and ethnicity attributions to a gender- and ethnicity-unspecified individual (Chris) presented in one of two scripts (business versus interpersonal) to 192 African American and European American college students. Gender and ethnicity did not predict the likelihood of attributing masculine (77.60%) or feminine (22.40%) gender. Significantly more African American participants engaged in ethnicity attribution and saw Chris as

  4. ? 2 Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: pharmacogenetic response to bronchodilator among African American asthmatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Ju Tsai; Nishat Shaikh; Jennifer Y. Kho; Natalie Battle; Mariam Naqvi; Daniel Navarro; Henry Matallana; Craig M. Lilly; Celeste S. Eng; Gunjan Kumar; Shannon Thyne; H. George Watson; Kelley Meade; Michael LeNoir; Shweta Choudhry; Esteban G. Burchard

    2006-01-01

    ?2-Adrenergic receptor (?2AR) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with various asthma-related traits in different racial\\/ethnic populations. However, it is unknown whether ?\\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a AR genetic variants are associated with asthma in African Americans. In this study, we have examined whether there is association between ?\\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a AR genetic variants and asthma in African Americans. We have recruited

  5. Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

  6. Sibling Relationships in Rural African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Stoneman, Zolinda; Smith, Trellis; Gibson, Nicole Morgan

    1999-01-01

    A family process model was used to link mothers' and fathers' psychological functioning to sibling relationship quality in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old African American youth (N=85) living in the rural Southeastern United States. Better parental psychological functioning was linked to more supportive relationships in the family, and youth in…

  7. Cajun, Creole, and African American Literacy Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Nicole Pepinster

    2005-01-01

    This article examines students' narrative responses to reading professional literacy histories. Demonstrating the importance of narrative as a way of learning, it shows how elementary education majors of diverse backgrounds explore their relation with language in a traditional grammar class. Cajun, Creole, and African American students recover…

  8. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  9. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  10. Language and the African American Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…

  11. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  12. African Americans and Teen Dating Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Racine Renee Henry; Senem Zeytinoglu

    2012-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the prevalence rates of teen dating violence in the United States, emergence of dating violence research, reasons of teen dating violence in the African American community, consequences of it regarding physical and mental health, and the impact of it on psychological and physical health. The research shows a trickledown effect of racism, low socio-economic status,

  13. Experiential Education for Urban African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer G.; McGinnis, J. Randy

    1995-01-01

    Stresses the importance of experiential educators being prepared to teach environmental education to students in specific contexts. A model for urban African American students includes the introduction and selection of a relevant local environmental issue; teaching strategies to investigate the issue; and techniques for initiating environmental…

  14. African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

  15. Participation of African Americans in Clinical Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria J. Bonner; Toni P. Miles

    1997-01-01

    Researchers throughout the United States have developed an increased interest in recruiting minority groups into studies. Such increased interests have been encouraged by the federal agencies that have mandated diversity in study populations. This editorial attempts to explore salient issues pertinent to the recruitment and retention of African Americans and cites culturally specific recruitment strategies that have been successfully applied

  16. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  17. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  18. Differences in Environmental Control and Asthma Outcomes Among Urban Latino, African American, and Non-Latino White Families.

    PubMed

    Everhart, Robin S; Kopel, Sheryl; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Salcedo, Leslie; York, Daniel; Potter, Christina; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2011-09-01

    Latino and African American children with asthma are at increased risk for asthma morbidity compared with non-Latino White children. Environmental control (ie, environmental exposures and family strategies to control them) may contribute to greater asthma morbidity for ethnic minority children living in urban environments. This study examined ethnic differences in a semi-structured assessment of environmental control, associations between environmental control and asthma outcomes (asthma control, functional limitation, and emergency department [ED] use), and ethnic differences in environmental triggers in a sample of urban Latino, African American, and non-Latino White families. One hundred thirty-three children (6-13 years of age) and their caregivers completed demographic questionnaires, measures of asthma control and morbidity, and a semi-structured interview assessing environmental control. Reported environmental control differed significantly by ethnicity (P<0.05), with Latino families reporting higher levels of environmental control. Reported environmental control was significantly associated with asthma control (P<0.017) and functional limitation (P<0.017). Reported environmental control and ED use were significantly associated in Latino families (P<0.05). Non-Latino White and African American families reported more secondhand smoke exposure than Latino families (P<0.001). Latino families reported more optimal home environmental control than other ethnic groups. Substantial ethnic differences in asthma triggers suggest that observed ethnic disparities in asthma may be due, at least in part, to differences in the home environment. PMID:22276226

  19. H-Afro-Am: African-American Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    H-Afro-Am is a new H-Net sponsored, moderated discussion list for professionals, faculty, and advanced students in African American Studies. The discussion list will focus on the African Diaspora, mainly on the US experience. H-Afro-Am is also the official voice of the Collegium for African American Research in Europe (CAAR), established in 1992 to promote African American scholarship from an international perspective.

  20. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically. PMID:25575321

  1. Soft tissue evaluation of contemporary Caucasian and African American female facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Sutter, R E; Turley, P K

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that esthetic Caucasian profiles exhibit fuller lips than the norm for their race, while esthetic African American profiles are similar to those of esthetic Caucasians. The present study was undertaken to compare the profiles of female Caucasian and African American models and their nonmodel counterparts. Four groups of 30 subjects were evaluated: Caucasian models [CM], Caucasian controls [CC], African American models [AM], and African American controls [AC]. The models' profiles were photographed from current fashion magazines, the photos were scanned, and 17 landmarks were digitized. Each profile was standardized for size and oriented along the N'-Sn' line on a Macintosh 6115CD computer. Control photographs were processed in a similar manner. Twenty-six variables were measured for each profile. Means, ranges, and standard deviations were computed along with unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-tests (p<0.05) to evaluate group differences. The results showed that for the AM and AC profiles, all but two of the 26 variable were similar. For the CM and CC profiles, eight variables demonstrated significant differences. Between-race comparisons demonstrated greater numbers of parameters that were significantly different: CM/AM with 18 and CM/AC, CC/AC, and CC/AM with 22 each. Most of the differences involved the lips. Vertical soft tissue proportions for the four groups did not follow a 40/20/40 ratio. Caucasian and African American models displayed significantly different profile characteristics. The African American models and controls showed similar profile features, whereas greater differences were observed between Caucasian models and controls. Based on our study, the African American profile currently presented in the mass media is not "Caucasian-like." In fact, it appears that Caucasian models display more ethnic features than African American models do Caucasian features, suggesting that previously held concepts of facial beauty may no longer apply. PMID:9851345

  2. Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women. PMID:25079012

  3. Ethnic and Class-Based Identities on the WWW 1 Running head: ETHNIC AND CLASS-BASED IDENTITIES ON THE WWW

    E-print Network

    Kvasny, Lynette

    ON THE WWW African American Ethnic and Class-Based Identities on the World Wide Web: Moderating the Effects-efficacy. A questionnaire was administered asking African Americans about their class and ethnic identities and web use, financial resources) representing or including ethnic (i.e., cultural) and low-income identities of adult

  4. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  5. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  6. Technological politics and the political history of African-Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Cosby

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation is a critical study of technopolitical issues in the history of African American people. Langdon Winner's theory of technopolitics was used to facilitate the analysis of large scale technologies and their compatibility with various political ends. I contextualized the central technopolitical issues within the major epochs of African American political history: the Atlantic slave trade, the African artisans

  7. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African

  8. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. PMID:25181324

  9. Ethnic Heritage Studies: The American Woman. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keepers, Beverly

    Providing information and activities designed to dispel sex role socialization, myths, and stereotypes as bases for prejudiced views, this teaching guide focuses on the American woman's image and diverse roles in our society. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are…

  10. Working shifts: Perceptions of African American community members and shift workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ericka King-Betts

    2008-01-01

    This research study examined African American shift workers, family and friends of African American shift workers, and African American community members' perceptions of shift work. In order to gain a clearer understanding of African Americans' perceptions of shift work, focus groups were conducted. By taking a qualitative approach and examining the views held by African American shift workers, friends and

  11. African-Centered Education: An Approach to Schooling for Social Justice for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…

  12. The recruitment of breast cancer survivors into cancer control studies: a focus on African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Ashing-Giwa, K.

    1999-01-01

    The recruitment of African Americans into cancer prevention and control studies has presented a major challenge to scientific investigators. Scientific findings, whether biomedical or behavioral, may not be appropriate and applicable to ethnic minority populations unless they are adequately represented as study participants. Moreover, the need to involve greater numbers of ethnic minorities is quite urgent due to the poor morbidity and mortality outcomes associated with ethnic minority group membership. Such is the case with breast cancer survivorship. The purpose of the study was to test a personalized recruitment strategy on response rate in African-American women. The response rate of 45% (n = 117) African Americans and 64% (n = 161) white subjects indicated only limited success in the recruitment of the African-American breast cancer survivors. The recruitment result suggests that culturally relevant recruitment strategies (e.g., inclusion of African-American investigators, culturally consistent letter of recruitment) may be insufficient in adequately increasing research participation. Therefore, further studies on investigating factors that influence research participation (eg, type of incentives, and schedule of payment as well as type of stationery and stamps used) are needed. PMID:10365546

  13. The African-American Legacy in American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarry, Abu

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the contributions of African-American poetry to the development of English literature from the earliest Black orator through the works of Langston Hughes. Emphasizes the work of Phillis Wheatley, Paul Lawrence Dunbar,"The New Negro" writers, and Hughes. (FMW)

  14. Police contacts and stress among African American college students.

    PubMed

    Landers, Amber J; Rollock, David; Rolfes, Charity B; Moore, Demietrice L

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward police rarely are studied in investigations of race-related stress among communities of color. African American undergraduates (66 women, 35 men) rated the frequency and stressfulness of 83 general, college-related, race-related, and police-related events. Although respondents described police contacts as stressful, multivariate analyses of variance indicated that mean stress scores for nonpolice items were higher than for police items. Men reported significantly greater stressfulness of police contacts, and women reported slightly greater stressfulness of nonpolice situations. Further analyses confirmed significant differences in police contact stress scores as a function of the type of contacts (benign vs. malignant), gender of respondent (men greater than women), and frequency of contact. Limited differences were observed as a function of immediacy of contact (personal, witnessed, contacts of a loved one, or loved one telling of another person's contact) and individual differences in ethnic identity. No differences were observed as a function of general affective intensity. Results suggest that the stress associated with police contact is specific and distinct from other elements of African American life in this college student sample and thus underscores the need for research on the effects of such stress in less advantaged, community-based populations. PMID:21219277

  15. The context for choice: health implications of targeted food and beverage marketing to African Americans.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-09-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

  16. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  17. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  18. African-Native Americans : We Are Still Here

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The William & Anita Newman Library at Baruch College (The City University of New York) has recently added this exhibit to its digital collection. African-Native Americans: We Are Still Here is a photo exhibit that profiles people of joint African American and Native American heritage, with text by Eve Winddancer and photographs by Louis B. Myers.

  19. Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney Clark; Norman B. Anderson; Vernessa R. Clark; David R. Williams

    1999-01-01

    iven the historical and contemporary existence of racism in American society, one might suspect there would be an equally substantial literature examining the effects of racism on African Americans. Yet, research exploring the biological, psychological, and social effects of racism among African Americans is virtually nonexistent. The purpose of this article was threefold: (a) to provide a brief overview of

  20. Incidence of AD in African-Americans, Caribbean Hispanics, and Caucasians in northern Manhattan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-X. Tang; H. Andrews; D. M. Jacobs; S. Small; K. Bell; C. Merchant; R. Lantigua; R. Costa; Y. Stern; R. Mayeux

    2010-01-01

    Article abstract—Objective: To compare the incidence rates for AD among elderly African-American, Caribbean His- panic, and white individuals and to determine whether coincident cerebrovascular disease contributes to the inconsistency in reported differences among ethnic groups. Methods: This was a population-based, longitudinal study over a 7-year period in the Washington Heights and Inwood communities of New York City. Annual incidence rates

  1. African American Adolescent Girls in Impoverished Communities: Quality of Parenting and Adolescent Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura D. Pittman; P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between parenting style and adolescent functioning was examined in a sample of 302 African American adolescent girls and their mothers who live in impoverished neighborhoods. Although previous research has found that authoritative parenting, as compared to authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged parenting, is associated with positive adolescent outcomes in both White, middle-class and large multi-ethnic school-based samples, these parenting

  2. Anxious depression among Puerto Rican and African-American older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gretchen J. Diefenbach; William B. Disch; Julie T. Robison; Evelyn Baez; Emil Coman

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine racial\\/ethnic differences in the prevalence and impact of anxious depression (i.e. major depressive disorder, MDD, occurring concomitant with generalized anxiety symptoms) among older adults.Method: Interviews were conducted with 218 Puerto Rican and 206 African American older (age ?60) urban senior housing residents. Data were collected on diagnostic status, depression severity and psychosocial functioning.Results: Results indicated a higher

  3. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  4. Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official Impact on Black Businesses"…

  5. Sudden cardiac death in Hispanic Americans and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, R F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to estimate rates of sudden cardiac death in US Hispanics and African Americans. METHODS: Data on coronary deaths occurring outside of the hospital or in emergency rooms were examined for 1992. RESULTS: In 1992, 53% (8194) of coronary heart disease deaths among Hispanic Americans 25 years of age and older occurred outside of the hospital or in emergency rooms. The percentage was lower among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks. Age-adjusted rates per 100,000 were lower in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Whites or Blacks (Hispanic men, 75; White men, 166; Black men, 209; Hispanic women, 35; White women, 74; Black women, 108). The percentages dying outside of the hospital or in emergency rooms were higher in young persons, those living in nonurban areas, and those who were single. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage and rate of coronary deaths occurring outside of the hospital or in emergency rooms were lower in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics; African Americans had the highest rates. Further research is needed on sudden coronary death in Hispanic Americans and African Americans. PMID:9314797

  6. A Phenomenological Investigation on the Role of Mentoring in the Academic Development of African American Male Secondary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inge, Jillian

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by African American males can support the academic development of African American male students. Since African American male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for African American male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 African American males who had mentored or were currently mentoring African American male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring African American males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful African American males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as African American male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of African American male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.

  7. Gambling Habits Among Aged African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Bazargan; Shahrzad H. Bazargan; Mahfuja Akanda

    2001-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study we investigated the correlates of gambling habits among a sample of 80 independently living African-American elderly persons. The participants were selected from two Senior Citizen Centers that provide inexpensive or free pleasure trips from Los Angeles, California to gambling sites in Nevada. The data for this study were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted by three trained

  8. African American Women in Iowa Digital Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fruitful collaboration between the Iowa Women's Archive and the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa has produced this enlightening website containing over 200 items including links to "scrapbooks," "photographs," "pamphlets" "oral histories" and "newsletters." The "Recent Additions" area allows visitors to click on any of the thumbnails in the line up of items shown, to see the image enlarged. By simply double clicking on the thumbnail, users can also access bibliographic data about the item.

  9. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses. PMID:10646309

  10. Psychopathy, IQ, and violence in European American and African American county jail inmates.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T; Kosson, David S

    2004-12-01

    The accuracy of the prediction of criminal violence may be improved by combining psychopathy with other variables that have been found to predict violence. Research has suggested that assessing intelligence (i.e., IQ) as well as psychopathy improves the accuracy of violence prediction. In the present study, the authors tested this hypothesis by using a contemporary measure of psychopathy, the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003), in a sample of 326 European American and 348 African American male offenders. The postdictive power of psychopathy was evident for both ethnic groups and robust across most changes in the operationalization of violence and the analysis conducted, whereas the postdictive power of IQ was not. No Psychopathy x IQ interactions were identified. Implications of these results for violence prediction are discussed. PMID:15612862

  11. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  12. Developing a study-centered mentoring program based on the perception of needs of the African-American nursing student

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Williams Buchanan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the African-American nursing student's perception of an ideal mentor to facilitate a study centered mentoring program. A secondary purpose was to determine the necessity of cultural inclusiveness in such a program. The percentage of ethnic minorities graduating from baccalaureate nursing programs has continued to decline since 1990 (National League of Nursing, 1995).

  13. Personal, social, and physical environmental correlates of physical activity in African-American women in South Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E Ainsworth; Sara Wilcox; Winifred W Thompson; Donna L Richter; Karla A Henderson

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundLittle is known about the correlates of physical activity among African-American women living in the southeastern United States. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of personal, social, cultural, environmental, and policy variables with physical activity among women in ethnic minority groups.

  14. "I Want to Do the Right Thing but What Is It?": White Teachers' Experiences with African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Washington, Ahmad R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines 26 White middle school teachers' perceptions of their experiences in a predominantly White middle school with a growing African American student population. Utilizing in-depth focus group interviews, teachers elaborated on their experiences with navigating racial, ethnic and cultural boundaries as they attempted to…

  15. Estimates of African, European and Native American Ancestry in Afro-Caribbean Men on the Island of Tobago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iva Miljkovic-Gacic; Robert E. Ferrell; Alan L. Patrick; Candace M. Kammerer; Clareann H. Bunker

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The Tobago Afro-Caribbean population is a valuable resource for studying the genetics of diseases that show significant differences in prevalence between populations of African descent and populations of other ancestries. Empirical confirmation of low European and Native American admixture may help in clarifying the ethnic variation in risk for such diseases. We hypothesize that the degree of European and

  16. Influence of Generational Status on Developmental Trajectories of Delinquency for Asian, African American, Hispanic, and White Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thao N. Le; Gary D. Stockdale

    2011-01-01

    Using two nationally representative datasets, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97), this study examined the developmental trajectories of delinquency for Asian, African American, Hispanic, and White race\\/ethnicity, and explored whether generation status and gender influenced these trajectories differently for Asian versus the other groups. Analyses included multigroup modeling using Mplus

  17. A New Audience Segmentation Tool for African Americans: The Black Identity Classification Scale

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, RACHEL E.; ALEXANDER, GWEN; CALVI, JOSEPHINE; WIESE, CHERYL; GREENE, SARAH; NOWAK, MIKE; CROSS, WILLIAM E.; RESNICOW, KEN

    2011-01-01

    Many health communications target African Americans in an attempt to remediate race-based health disparities. Such materials often assume that African Americans are culturally homogeneous; however, research indicates that African Americans are heterogeneous in their attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. The Black Identity Classification Scale (BICS) was designed as a telephone-administered tool to segment African American audiences into 16 ethnic identity types. The BICS was pretested using focus groups, telephone pretests, and a pilot study (n=306). The final scale was then administered to 625 Black adults participating in a dietary intervention study, where it generally demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. The construct validity of the BICS was also explored by comparing participants’ responses to culturally associated survey items. The distribution of the 16 BICS identity types in the intervention study is presented, as well as select characteristics for participants with core identity components. Although additional research is warranted, these findings suggest that the BICS has good psychometric properties and may be an effective tool for identifying African American audience segments. PMID:20677057

  18. Alternative medicine utilization by African Americans and improving life expectancy: is there a correlation?

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A; Lusk, William; Schwartz, Lawrence R

    2007-10-01

    The life expectancy of African Americans and Caucasians has been increasing in the United States and in many other countries around the world since the late 1800s. However, as long as statistics have been accrued on race and ethnicity, the life expectancy of African Americans and Blacks in general has been significantly lower than that of Caucasians. Basic public health and medical preventive education is needed because higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates is one of the primary reasons for the differences between life expectancy between African Americans and Caucasians. It is also of an apparent separate but perhaps related interest that several recent preliminary studies suggest that African Americans, more than any other race, may have some of the lowest uses of alternative medicine due to skepticism, as well as educational efforts and trust in their health care professional. Despite a common belief that African Americans harbor profound distrust of specific areas of the medical profession, it is of interest that this finding has not held validity in the area of alternative medicine. Therefore, since lifestyle changes are considered alternatives in most of these studies, this would suggest that a greater educational emphasis on behavioral modification could establish a foundation or a model of preventive medical education that can be utilized for underserved populations around the world. PMID:17990625

  19. Measuring Parental Support for Children’s Physical Activity in White and African American Parents: The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG)

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Li, Kaigang; Baskin, Monica L.; Cox, Tiffany; Affuso, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The Activity Support Scale (ACTS) was expanded for use with African American families. Its factorial invariance and internal reliability were examined for non-Hispanic white and African American parents. Methods The ACTS was modified to improve its applicability to African American families based on information from five focus groups with 27 African American parents of elementary school-aged children. Between 2006 and 2008, the revised scale was administered to 119 African American and 117 non-Hispanic white parents in northeastern NY and Alabama. Its factorial invariance across race/ethnicity and internal consistency were examined. Results Factor analysis of the revised scale, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), identified four parenting factors in white and African American parents including logistic support, modeling, use of community resources to promote physical activity (PA), and restriction of sedentary behaviors. Results supported the scale’s internal reliability and factorial invariance across race/ethnicity. Conclusion The ACTS-MG is appropriate for use with non-Hispanic white and African American families and will enable the extension of current research with white families to the examination of strategies supporting PA in African American families. Additional psychometric work with the ACTS-MG is encouraged. PMID:21111755

  20. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  1. Exploring Decision-Making of HIV-Infected Hispanics and African Americans Participating in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Stoll, Pamela; Grady, Christine; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.

    2011-01-01

    Underrepresentation of HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials seriously limits our understanding of the benefits and risks of treatment in these populations. This qualitative study examined factors that racial/ethnic minority patients consider when making decisions regarding research participation. Thirty-five HIV-infected Hispanic and African American patients enrolled in clinical research protocols at the National Institutes of Health were recruited to participate in focus groups and in-depth interviews. The sample of mostly men (n = 22), had a mean age of 45, nearly equal representation of race/ethnicity, and diagnosed 2 to 22 years ago. Baseline questionnaires included demographics and measures of social support and acculturation. Interviewers had similar racial/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds as the participants. Four major themes around participants’ decisions to enroll in clinical trials emerged: Enhancers, Barriers, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Context. Results may help researchers develop strategies to facilitate inclusion of HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials. PMID:21256054

  2. White problem gamblers discount delayed rewards less steeply than their African American and Hispanic counterparts.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-06-01

    Impulsivity is a core process underlying addictive behaviors, including nonpharmacological addictive behaviors such as problem gambling. Although considerable attention has been given to the investigation of delay discounting within the context of addiction-related behaviors, relatively little research has examined the relationship between discounting and individual variables, such as race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to compare discounting rates in the three most prevalent racial/ethnic groups in the United States: Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. The study was conducted with 315 problem gamblers. Participants completed a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately and a larger amount delivered later. A hyperbolic discounting function estimated delay-discounting rates based on participants' indifference points obtained via the questionnaires. Results showed significant effects of race/ethnicity on delay discounting. White gamblers discounted delayed money at lower rates than African Americans and Hispanics, even after controlling for confounding variables. These data suggest that among individuals who develop problem gambling, Whites are less impulsive than African Americans and Hispanics, at least in terms of choosing between delayed and immediate reinforcers. These results have implications for evaluating the onset and treatment of addictive disorders from a health-disparities perspective. PMID:24955678

  3. Neurological Impairment Among Elderly African-American Nursing Home Residents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloriajean L. Wallace

    1993-01-01

    :In this pilot study, 288 elderly African-American and 482 white residents of 10 nursing homes in Wayne County, Michigan, were compared for neurological impairment. The frequency of diagnosis of neurological impairment was equivalent for African-American and white males, but greater for African-American females than for white females. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or stroke) and nonspecific dementia were the most common

  4. Neurological Impairment Among Elderly African-American Nursing Home Residents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    In this pilot study, 288 elderly African-American and 482 white residents of 10 nursing homes in Wayne County, Michigan, were compared for neurological impairment. The frequency of diagnosis of neurological impairment was equivalent for African-American and white males, but greater for African-American females than for white females. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or stroke) and nonspecific dementia were the most common

  5. African Americans’ participation in clinical research: importance, barriers, and solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Branson; Kenneth Davis; Karyn L. Butler

    2007-01-01

    Ethical and scientifically sound research requires that any sample population represent the population as a whole. African-Americans suffer disproportionately from cancer, hypertension, and heart failure compared with whites, but they are commonly underrepresented in clinical trials of these diseases. Failure to include African-American subjects in clinical trials prevents generalizability of the results to this population. African-Americans are often underrepresented in

  6. Beyond the Myth: Addressing Suicide Among African American Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Robinson; Armon R. Perry; Sharon E. Moore; Rudolph Alexander Jr

    \\u000a Historically, African Americans were never considered at risk for suicide; however, in the last 20–30 years there has been\\u000a a precipitous increase in the number of suicides and suicide attempts among African American males. The authors of this chapter\\u000a provide an overview of the literature surrounding suicide and African American males. Furthermore, a number of preventative\\u000a measures are investigated, such

  7. Unfair Treatment, Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Ethnic Identification, and Smoking Among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American Study

    PubMed Central

    Chae, David H.; Takeuchi, David T.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Bennett, Gary G.; Lindsey, Jane; Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relations of self-report of general unfair treatment and self-report of race/ethnicity-specific discrimination with current smoking among Asian Americans. We investigated whether ethnic identification moderated either association. Methods. Weighted logistic regressions were performed among 1977 Asian Americans recruited to the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002–2003). Results. In weighted multivariate logistic regression models including both general unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination, odds of current smoking were higher among Asian Americans who reported high levels of unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13, 6.95) and high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination (OR=2.40; 95% CI=0.94, 6.12) compared with those who reported no unfair treatment and discrimination, respectively. High levels of ethnic identification moderated racial/ethnic discrimination (F3 =3.25; P =.03). High levels of ethnic identification were associated with lower probability of current smoking among participants reporting high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that experiences of unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination are risk factors for smoking among Asian Americans. Efforts to promote ethnic identification may be effective in mitigating the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination on smoking in this population. PMID:18235073

  8. The perception of optimal profile in African Americans versus white Americans as assessed by orthodontists and the lay public

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Hall; Reginald W. Taylor; Alex Jacobson; P. Lionel Sadowsky; Alfred Bartolucci

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the perceived optimal profiles of African Americans versus white Americans. A survey was conducted using profile silhouettes of 30 African American and 30 white patients, ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. Twenty white orthodontists, 18 African American orthodontists, 20 white laypersons, and 20 African American laypersons evaluated the profiles. The preference of

  9. The Relevance of Cultural Activities in Ethnic Identity Among California Native American Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Schweigman; Claradina Soto; Serena Wright; Jennifer Unger

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 – 19 across California. Respondents who participated

  10. Heart failure in African Americans: disparities can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Yancy, Clyde W

    2014-05-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure, with a high prevalence at an early age. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are all common in African Americans and all predispose to heart failure. Neurohormonal imbalances, endothelial dysfunction, genetic polymorphisms, and socioeconomic factors also contribute. In general, the same evidence-based treatment guidelines that apply to white patients with heart failure also apply to African Americans. However, the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is advised specifically for African Americans. PMID:24789589

  11. Hydrogenotrophic microbiota distinguish native Africans from African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Gerardo M.; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C.; O’Keefe, Stephen J.; Gaskins, H. Rex

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harbored the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harbored more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harbored significantly distinct SRB populations compared to AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota. PMID:23760794

  12. Variation in Older Americans Act caregiver service use, unmet hours of care, and independence among Hispanics, African Americans, and Whites.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Angelica P; George, Rebecca; Angel, Jacqueline L; Markides, Kyriakos; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Home- and community-based services (HCBS) are underused by minority seniors and their caregivers, despite greater rates of disability. We examined racial/ethnic variation among 1,749 Hispanics, African Americans, and Whites receiving Older Americans Act Title III caregiver services in 2009. In addition, we identified the volume of services used by caregivers, their unmet hours of respite care, and the relationship between service use and seniors' ability to live independently. Minority caregivers cared for seniors in urban areas who had higher rates of disability, poverty, and Medicaid coverage. Hispanics had the highest rate of unmet hours of care, while caregiver services were less likely to help African Americans remain at home. Minorities sought services through community agencies and were more educated than demographically similar national cohorts. Greater efforts to reach minority caregivers of less educated, disabled seniors in urban areas and through community agencies may reduce unmet needs and support independent living. PMID:23438508

  13. "Remember, It's Always Whites' Ball": Descriptions of African American Male Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbe, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Uses a phenomenological approach to study the communication of African American men. Discusses six essential themes as central to African American male communication: the importance of other African Americans, learning how to communicate with non-African Americans, keeping a safe distance, "playing the part," testing the sincerity of non-African

  14. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  15. Normative Changes in Ethnic and American Identities and Links with Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.

    2013-01-01

    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…

  16. Do you see what I see?: An exploration of inter-ethnic ideal body size comparisons among college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Chou, Ying-Yi; Adams, Lauren

    2013-06-01

    The present study explored African American (n=16) and European American (n=19) college women's ideal body size perceptions for their own and the other ethnic group along with reasons behind their selections. Respondents completed an ethnically-neutral figure rating scale and then participated in ethnically-homogenous focus groups. European Americans mostly preferred a curvy-thin or athletic ideal body while most African American students resisted notions of a singular ideal body. European Americans suggested that African Americans' larger ideal body sizes were based on greater body acceptance and the preferences of African American men. African Americans used extreme terms when discussing their perceptions of European Americans' thin idealization, celebrity role models, and weight management behaviors. African Americans' perceptions of European Americans' body dissatisfaction were also attributed to the frequent fat talk they engaged in. Implications for promoting the psychosocial well-being of ethnically-diverse emerging adult females attending college are discussed. PMID:23608124

  17. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological reactivity to ethnically matched and ethnically mismatched film clips.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Levenson, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    This study examined whether individuals from 4 major ethnic groups within the United States (African American, Chinese American, European American, and Mexican American) showed greater subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to emotional film clips (amusement, sadness, and disgust) with actors from their own ethnic group (ethnically matched) compared with actors from the other 3 ethnic groups (ethnically mismatched). Evidence showed greater responsivity to ethnically matched films for African Americans and European Americans, with the largest effect for African Americans. These findings were consistent across both sex and level of cultural identification. Findings of ethnic difference notwithstanding, there were many areas in which ethnic differences were not found (e.g., little or no evidence was found of greater response to ethnically matched films in Chinese-American or Mexican- American participants). These findings indicate that the emotional response system clearly reacts to stimuli of diverse ethnic content; however, the system is also amenable to subtle "tuning" that allows for incrementally enhanced responding to members of one's own ethnic or cultural group. PMID:17144754

  18. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms Among African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18–34), middle (35–54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results Discrimination was significantly related to depressive symptoms for men ages 35 to 54 and mastery was found to be protective against depressive symptoms for all men. Compared to African American men in the young and late adult groups, discrimination remained a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms for men in the middle group once mastery was included. Implications Findings demonstrate the distinct differences in the influence of discrimination on depressive symptoms among adult African American males and the need for future research that explores the correlates of mental health across age groups. Implications for social work research and practice with African American men are discussed. PMID:24436576

  19. Different Response to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in West African Sympatric Ethnic Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Modiano; V. Petrarca; B. S. Sirima; I. Nebie; D. Diallo; F. Esposito; M. Coluzzi

    1996-01-01

    The comparison of malaria indicators among populations that have different genetic backgrounds and are uniformly exposed to the same parasite strains is one approach to the study of human heterogeneities in the response to the infection. We report the results of comparative surveys on three sympatric West African ethnic groups, Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibe, living in the same conditions of

  20. Using the Moral Vision of African American Stories to Empower Low-Income African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Ruth Leslie

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of in-depth interviews with 30 low-income African American mothers who told their children Brer Rabbit stories, this article discusses the moral values the women conveyed. During sto rytelling, the women distanced themselves from Christian views of the absolute evil of tricks to interpret Brer Rabbit's tricks as clever and protective of the small and defenseless. Intervention strategies

  1. Problems of Transition for African Students in an American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelegan, Francis O.; Parks, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed Black East African, Black West African and Arabic North African students (N=33) enrolled in an American university to identify their problems and personal attributes and environmental conditions influencing their experience. Discusses social, transportation, food, loneliness, and other problems. (MCF)

  2. Revisiting safe sleep recommendations for African-American infants: why current counseling is insufficient.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George

    2015-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS. PMID:24889117

  3. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  4. Parent Report of Binge Eating in Hispanic, African American and Caucasian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Camden A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mirza, Nazrat M.

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth. However, there are limited data on the relationship between binge eating and weight in racial or ethnically diverse youth. We therefore examined 409 obese (BMI ? 95th percentile for age and sex) treatment-seeking Hispanic (29.1%), Caucasian (31.7%), and African American (39.2%), boys and girls (6-18y). Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat were measured to assess body composition. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children’s Depressive Inventory and disordered eating cognitions were measured with the Children’s Eating Attitudes Test. Accounting for age, sex, body fat mass, and height, the odds of parents reporting that their child engaged in binge eating were significantly higher among Caucasian compared to African American youth, with Hispanic youth falling non-significantly between these two groups. Youth with binge eating had greater body adiposity (p = .02), waist circumference (p = .02), depressive symptoms (p = .01), and disordered eating attitudes (p = .04), with no difference between racial or ethnic group. We conclude that, regardless of race or ethnicity, binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth and is associated with adiposity and psychological distress. Further research is required to elucidate the extent to which binge eating among racially and ethnically diverse youth differentially impacts weight loss outcome. PMID:23265393

  5. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  6. Perspectives on African American Men’s Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean J. Bonhomme; Aba D. Essuon

    2012-01-01

    The overall life expectancy of African American men significantly lags behind that of other major demographic groups in the United States. African American men as a group suffer extremely high rates of cancer, heart disease and many other conditions that cause substantial morbidity as well as premature and unnecessary loss of life. However, it is now widely accepted that lifestyle

  7. Voices of African American Health: stories of health and healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaimie Hunter; Sarah Langdon; Dianne Caesar; Scott D. Rhodes; Clarissa Pinkola Estés

    2011-01-01

    Few creative methodologies have been used in minority and underserved communities to elucidate the health challenges they face. Photovoice is a qualitative method that enables individuals to share their experiences with a given topic, such as chronic illness, through photography and inspires positive community action. Voices of African American Health was a photovoice project in which 24 African Americans living

  8. Breast cancer in African American women: Epidemiology and tumor biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Trock

    1996-01-01

    Summary This review of published data on the epidemiology, pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer in African American women seeks to identify how the etiology and presentation of the disease differ from those in white women. The crossover from higher to lower age-specific incidence rates in African American women at age 45 cannot be explained by current data on

  9. Weight Control Behaviors of Low-Income, African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faryle Nothwehr; Timothy Stump

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is extremely common among African American women, and many women express interest in losing weight. To better understand current weight management practices in this population, this study measured behaviors and attitudes believed important to successful weight management. Data were obtained via telephone survey. The study involved 155 low-income African American women aged 30 to 69 identified through an urban

  10. Barriers to Effective Mental Health Services for African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonnie R. Snowden

    2001-01-01

    Many African Americans—especially the most marginal—suffer from mental health problems and would benefit from timely access to appropriate forms of care. However, few seek treatment from outpatient providers in the specialty mental health sector and those who do are at risk of dropping out. African Americans visit providers in the general medical sector, although they use another hypothesized alternative to

  11. Mental Health and HIV Risk Among African American Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Tolou-Shams; Roberta Paikoff; David J. McKirnan; Grayson N. Holmbeck

    2007-01-01

    The family system is integral to adolescent mental health and HIV risk. However, few studies have addressed family variables and adolescent outcomes among African American families. This study tested a longitudinal model of parenting, adolescent mental health, and adolescent HIV risk, among a community sample of low-income, urban African American families from the Collaborative HIV prevention and AdolescentMental Health Project

  12. Heart disease beliefs of urban elderly African-American women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velma Lewis Ward

    1996-01-01

    This research examined the differences between African-American women's beliefs and knowledge regarding heart disease and those of Western medical practices about the prevalence and risk of functional impairment from heart disease among minorities. In brief, African-Americans are viewed as both \\

  13. Effective Education of African American Exceptional Learners: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Bridgie Alexis, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 11 author-contributed papers covering the theory and practice of effective assessment and instruction of African American students with exceptionalities, including both disabilities and giftedness. Emphasis is on effective delivery of empowering services to African American youth and their families. The first seven papers have…

  14. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  15. Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

  16. African American Male Adolescents' Hostile Responses to Perceived Racial Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, William D.; Hudley, Cynthia

    This study examined the hostile responses of adolescent African American males to acts of racial discrimination as a function of audience presence, noting attributions of personal control. Participants were 250 male African American students in grades 9-12 in an urban multiethnic high school who completed the Discrimination Response Index (DRI).…

  17. Components of School Engagement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…

  18. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  19. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  20. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  1. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  2. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  3. Culture: A Possible Predictor of Morality for African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ways in which cultural orientation (communalism and material well-being) and empathy influence the moral reasoning of African American middle to late adolescents. Specifically, this study utilized path analysis to investigate Ward's (1995) hypothesis that a communal orientation would promote morality among African American

  4. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  5. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  6. The experiences of African American graduate students: A cultural transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joretta Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from

  7. HIV Treatment in African Americans: Challenges and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria A. Cargill; Valerie E. Stone; M. Renee Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the current standard of care for HIV infection as well as how health disparities in the HIV care of African Americans present challenges for both providers and patients. The potential side effects in these antiretroviral treatment regimens that may be a source of additional challenges in treating African Americans are highlighted. A brief review of these issues

  8. Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

    This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

  9. Having our Say: African American Women, Diversity, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda M.; Coker, Angela D.; Durodoye, Beth A.; McCollum, Vivian J.; Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Constantine, Madonna G.; O'Bryant, Beverly J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the voices of seven African American female counselor educators. The authors, having formally and informally collaborated in multiple settings over the past few years, decided to illuminate the challenges and successes of African American female counselor educators to add another dimension to our profession's discussion on…

  10. Explorative study of African Americans and internet dating

    E-print Network

    Spates, Kamesha Sondranek

    2005-02-17

    EXPLORATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND INTERNET DATING A Thesis by KAMESHA SONDRANEK SPATES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Sociology EXPLORATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND INTERNET DATING A Thesis by KAMESHA SONDRANEK SPATES...

  11. African Americans' Reactions to Diversity Programs: Does Procedural Justice Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Orlando C.; Kirby, Susan L.

    1997-01-01

    Used an organizational justice approach to examine workforce diversity programs and their potential effects on attitudes of African American beneficiaries through data from 66 African American undergraduates. Beneficiaries were more concerned about adequate procedural justification for the decision to hire them under a diversity program than the…

  12. African American Women and Breastfeeding: An Integrative Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky S. Spencer; Jane S. Grassley

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional

  13. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  14. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  15. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia Among African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis R. Combs; David L. Penn; Jeffrey Cassisi; Chris Michael; Terry Wood; Jill Wanner; Scott Adams

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial to measure paranoia on a continuum, but few

  16. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  17. Contribute to the Disparate Representation of African American Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerlando F. L. Jackson

    In terms of income and employment opportunities, previous studies have indicated that African American men fare less well than their White counterparts in the academic workforce, including a recent study by the author that found the hiring practices in higher education had a disparate effect on African American men. On the grounds that human capital and merit-based performance measures have

  18. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  19. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  20. These Hallowed Halls: African American Women College and University Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Gerri

    2007-01-01

    Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…

  1. African American College Students: Establishing HIV Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cecil

    African American college students are among the age group of African Americans who are at significantly higher risk for heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Much of the research in this area suggests that for the majority of these students, there is little or no relationship between the knowledge of HIV transmission and…

  2. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  3. The African American Family and AIDS: Counseling Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patrick; Beamish, Patricia M.

    This document discusses the application of a systems approach for family counseling for African American families with a family member infected with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It begins by citing statistics that illustrate that there exists a disproportionate representation of cases of AIDS among African Americans. A discussion on…

  4. Characterizing Genetic Risk at Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Haiman, Christopher A.; Chen, Gary K.; Blot, William J.; Strom, Sara S.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Kittles, Rick A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Isaacs, William B.; Ingles, Sue A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Witte, John S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Signorello, Lisa B.; Yamamura, Yuko; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Thun, Michael J.; Murphy, Adam; Casey, Graham; Sheng, Xin; Wan, Peggy; Pooler, Loreall C.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Waters, Kevin M.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Stram, Daniel O.; Henderson, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls), we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p?0.05) with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p?6×10?4) that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR?=?1.17) over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR?=?1.08). In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. PMID:21637779

  5. Transferability and Fine Mapping of genome-wide associated loci for lipids in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B). Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits. PMID:22994408

  6. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African

  7. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894

  8. Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income white, african american, and mexican american toddlers.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Lisa J; Ispa, Jean M; Fine, Mark A; Malone, Patrick S; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated that spanking (but not verbal punishment) at age 1 predicted child aggressive behavior problems at age 2 and lower Bayley mental development scores at age 3. Neither child aggressive behavior problems nor Bayley scores predicted later spanking or verbal punishment. In some instances, maternal race/ethnicity and/or emotional responsiveness moderated the effects of spanking and verbal punishment on child outcomes. PMID:19765008

  9. Parental involvement and African American and European American adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Hill, Nancy E; Hofkens, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement across middle and high school, and how these trajectories related to adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional adjustment. In addition, ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in longitudinal associations and the potential moderating role of parental warmth were assessed. Longitudinal growth modeling technique was used to describe trajectories of different types of parental involvement and adolescent outcomes over 7th, 9th, and 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9, 14.3, and 17.2 years, respectively) on an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 1,400 adolescents (51% female, 56% African American, 39% European American, 5% others). Each aspect of parental involvement contributed differentially but significantly to adolescent outcomes. Finally, parental warmth moderated the associations between providing structure at home and adolescent grade point average and problem behavior. PMID:25156187

  10. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights. PMID:1420666

  11. Cultural socialization and school readiness of African American and Latino preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2015-07-01

    Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children's school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25364832

  12. Say Adios to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Devos; Kelly Gavin; Francisco J. Quintana

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification

  13. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture. PMID:24352586

  14. Promoting Healthy Behavior from the Pulpit: Clergy Share Their Perspectives on Effective Health Communication in the African American Church

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine; Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Neuhaus, Kris

    2012-01-01

    African Americans continue to suffer disproportionately from health disparities when compared to other ethnicities (ACS 2010; CDC 2007). Research indicates that the church and the pastor in the African American community could be enlisted to increase effectiveness of health programs (Campbell et al. in Health Edu Behav 34(6):864–880, 2007; DeHaven et al. in Am J Public Health 94(6):1030–1036, 2004). The objective of this study was to investigate African American pastors’ perceptions about health promotion in the church and how these perceptions could serve as a guide for improving health communication targeting African Americans. Semi-structured interviews with African American clergy revealed that pastors feel strongly about the intersection of health, religion and spirituality; they also believe that discussing health screening and other health issues more frequently from the pulpit and their own personal experiences will ultimately impact health behavior among congregants. This study suggests that African American clergy see themselves as health promoters in the church and believe this communication (i.e., pastor-endorsed health information materials) will impact health behavior among underserved and minority populations. PMID:21965057

  15. Marriage Among African Americans: What Does the Research Reveal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Dixon

    2009-01-01

    The research reveals that African Americans are the least likely to marry, when they marry, they do so later and spend less\\u000a time married than White Americans, and they are the least likely to stay married. Factors contributing to the marriage status\\u000a of African Americans include structural, cultural, individual and interactive factors. Structural factors include the disparity\\u000a in sex ratios

  16. The Male Factor: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV4 Vaccine Acceptance Among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Jennifer A

    2015-08-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STD) in the United States. In the U.S., racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionality affected by STDs. In 2009 the Food and Drug Administration approved the HPV4 vaccine for young men. It is necessary to understand African American young men's HPV knowledge, health beliefs, and perceived risk in relation to HPV4 vaccine acceptance. To date, there remains paucity in the literature regarding African American young men's HPV knowledge and HPV4 vaccine acceptance. The current study was a non-probability convenience sample of 68 African American college students. This study was part of a larger project of HPV4 vaccine acceptance. Participants completed a 68-item questionnaire about personal characteristics, HPV, and the HPV4 vaccine. A majority of the young men had heard about HPV (85 %, n = 58), however, only 38 % (n = 26) new about the HPV4 vaccine for women. Only 12.2 % (n = 9) of the respondents knew of an HPV4 vaccine for men. The top three barriers to HPV4 vaccination were that insurance would not cover the vaccine; they would have to pay a lot for the vaccine and worrying that the vaccine is not safe. Study findings suggest that HPV and HPV4 education programs, and low or no cost HPV4 vaccinations for African American young men are needed. PMID:25750108

  17. Perceptions of Guided Imagery for Stress Management in Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  18. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  19. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  20. Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America. Studies in American Folklife, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradunas, Elena; Topping, Brett, Ed.

    This book reports the findings of the Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools Project undertaken by the American Folklife Center in 1982. Twenty-one researchers used participant observation to study ethnic schools in different parts of the United States. The project studied schools that correspond to Fishman's classification of ethnic education…

  1. “HOW ASIAN AM I?” ASIAN AMERICAN YOUTH CULTURES, DRUG USE, AND ETHNIC IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION*

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American ethnicity and drug use, seeing their own consumption as exceptional. The second argues their drug consumption is a natural outgrowth of their Asian American identity, allowing them to navigate the liminal space they occupy in American society. The final group presents Asian American drug use as normalized and constructs identity through taste and lifestyle boundary markers within social contexts of the dance scenes. These three narratives share a sense of ethnicity as dynamic, provisional, and constructed, allowing us to go beyond the static, essentialist models of ethnic identity that underlie much previous research on ethnicity, immigration, and substance use. PMID:21822339

  2. Oxford African American Studies Center: Focus on Women and Literature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Oxford African American Studies Center has created this website to house its comprehensive collection of scholarship documenting the many and varied experiences that make up African and African American history and culture. Along with over 10,000 articles, 2,500 images, and 200 maps, the site features an excellent "Focus On" series each month, in which the editors compile various short articles, picture essays, and links on a designated topic. The Focus on Women and Literature is particularly noteworthy. Here, visitors can explore the life and works of influential women in American literature, from Phillis Wheatley to Toni Morrison. The site can be easily navigated by subject or by specific biography, with suggestions for related sources and content provided in each section. Additionally, curious visitors will find links to all of the previously featured subjects within the series, ranging from African Americans in Science and Technology to Black Homesteading in the American Western Frontier.

  3. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up. PMID:25203924

  4. "Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Lorraine; Brown, Adama; McPeek, Chelsea; Chee, Eunice

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes. PMID:21403059

  5. Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

  6. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system. PMID:12413108

  7. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine social support needs of obese and over-weight African American women for weight loss. Methods Focus groups were conducted with over-weight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD=12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in receiving support from others focused on the health benefits of weight loss. Behaviors perceived as supportive include co-participating in exercise, providing nutrition education, using positive reinforcements, and avoiding criticism. Conclusions: African American women are interested in a program designed to increase social support for their weight loss. PMID:19182980

  8. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  9. Class Acts: Indian American High School Students Negotiate Professional and Ethnic Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2002-01-01

    Examined how race, class, ethnicity, and identity interacted at the macro and micro levels to reify the model minority stereotype of Asian American students. Interviews with Indian American high school students revealed how messages from school and home shaped professional and ethnic identities, pushing students toward careers promising financial…

  10. African-American Women: Online Archival Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-11

    The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University has a wealth of digitized materials related to African American women. This particular collection brings together three noteworthy collections: Elizabeth Johnson Harris: Life Story; Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson: Slave Letters; and Vilet Lester Letter. This last item is particularly noteworthy as it is a very rare item indeed: a letter written by a female slave. The Elizabeth Johnson Harris: A Life Story area brings together the full text of her memories, along with several poems and vignettes published in various newspapers in her lifetime. She was born in 1867 to parents who had been slaves, and the memoir includes information about her own childhood and the importance of religion and education in her life. Finally, the last section brings together letters written by Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson to their mistresses and other slave family members in Abingdon, Virginia.

  11. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. PMID:25147096

  12. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer Institute September is National ... most commonly diagnosed type of cancer among American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American ...

  13. Longitudinal Consistency of Adolescent Ethnic Identification across Varying School Ethnic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne; Bellmore, Amy; Witkow, Melissa R.; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined consistency and inconsistency in adolescents' ethnic identification (i.e., self-reported ethnicity) across the 6 middle-school semesters. The sample (N = 1,589, of whom 46% were boys and 54% were girls) included African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Caucasian/White, Latino/Latina, Mexican/Mexican American, and…

  14. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans. PMID:23197118

  15. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  16. African Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr

    2005-01-01

    Despite remarkable improvements in the overall health of the nation during the past two decades, compelling evidence suggests that the nation's racial and ethnic minority Americans suffer increasing disparities in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and adverse health outcomes compared with white Americans. The 1998…

  17. Preparing African American Counselor Education Students for the Professorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phillip D.; Bradley, Carla R.; Knight, Donald E.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the underrepresentation of African American faculty in CACREP-Accredited counseling programs and to discuss ways of creating and sustaining a pipeline of potential counselor educators for the academy. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Predictors of Psychological Health among Rural-Residing African Americans 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Helene

    2012-10-19

    The current study examined whether obesity contributed significantly to the prediction of depression and health status independent of other relevant factors such as sex, age, and perceived racism in a sample of 198 African Americans residing within...

  19. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488

  20. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for African Americans. This article addresses myths about skin cancer and discusses how everyone can protect their skin. It also introduces an NCI publication for minorities: Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer.

  1. Residential insecticide exposure during pregnancy among African American and

    E-print Network

    Residential insecticide exposure during pregnancy among African American and Dominican mothers, maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain, medications #12;Insecticides measured and exposure during pregnancy Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health #12;Pest sightings 85

  2. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  3. Prevalence and correlates of sun protection behaviors among African Americans

    E-print Network

    Pichon, Latrice Crystal

    2008-01-01

    African Americans seek most skin care from a primary careFurther, health care providers may not discuss skin cancercare doctors may not have the necessary training and/or skills to properly diagnose and treat skin

  4. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY A BLACK PAPER County (hereafter referred to as "the County"). Although most sexually transmitted diseases characterized sexually transmitted diseases as "hidden epidemics." STDs are considered hidden because only

  5. Addressing the lack of Baseball Consumption amongst African Americans 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Brandon Leigh

    2013-08-06

    The African American consumer represents a valuable market segment in the United States. This target market possesses both substantial purchasing power and future growth potential. Yet, baseball marketers have failed to ...

  6. Tumor Immunobiological Differences in Prostate Cancer between African-American and European-American Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany A. Wallace; Robyn L. Prueitt; Ming Yi; Tiffany M. Howe; John W. Gillespie; Robert M. Stephens; Neil E. Caporaso; Christopher A. Loffredo; Stefan Ambs

    2008-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer are significantly higher in African-American men when compared with European-American men. We tested the hypothesis that differences in tumor biology contribute to this survival health disparity. Using microarray technology, we obtained gene expression profiles of primary prostate tumors resected from 33 African-American and 36European-American patients. These tumors were matched on clinical variables.

  7. Worry Regarding Major Diseases Among Older African-American, Native-American, and Caucasian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Wilcox; Barbara E. Ainsworth; Michael J. LaMonte; Katrina D. DuBose

    2002-01-01

    This study examined worry regarding seven major diseases and their correlates in a sample of African-American (n = 57), Native-American (n = 50), and Caucasian (n = 53) women ages 36 to 91 years. African-American and Native-American women were most worried about developing cancer (44% and 50%, respectively) while Caucasian women were most worried about osteoporosis (37%) and cancer (33%).

  8. Therapeutic Group Mentoring with African American Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Howard, Alexis; Williams, Otis, III

    2003-01-01

    Present a culturally congruent approach to working with African American male adolescents in foster care. The therapeutic mentoring group was developed based on principles derived from a West African social and cultural worldview. A case study approach is used to describe the model's implementation and demonstrate its clinical utility with an…

  9. Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda

    This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

  10. African Music in an American Context. Mini-Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    Insights are offered into how speech, melody, and rhythm dramatize the differences in the construction and interpretation of music for Africa and America. Intended for use in instructing American students about African music, the learning module relates music to traditional African culture and maintains that the music is at the same time…

  11. Sweet Words So Brave: The Story of African American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, James Michael; Curry, Barbara K.

    This illustrated book introduces readers to African American literature by telling the story of the men and women who contributed to this body of work. The book begins by recounting the Africans' journey into slavery and how they kept their stories alive by telling them to one another, and by handing them down from generation to generation.…

  12. An Update on Hypertension among African-Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith C Ferdinand; Verna L Welch

    2007-01-01

    In the US, a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its associated complications—including coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease mortality—affect African-Americans (also referred to as US blacks). 2 This excess burden of hypertension among African-Americans has been recognized since early in the 1900s and explains a substantial portion of health disparities in this population.

  13. African-American Health over the Life Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES S. JACKSON; SHERRILL L. SELLERS

    This chapter outlines a multidimensional life-course framework to help clarify the psychological mechanisms that may contribute\\u000a to poor physical and psychological health outcomes among African-Americans. We suggest how the framework clarifies major health\\u000a issues at each life stage and how it might help in designing programs that promote health among African-Americans.

  14. Immigration, Income, Drinking and Obesity in African American Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julius N. Ade; Jim Rohrer; Nancy K. Rea

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between immigration status, income, drinking and overweight\\u000a and obesity in African American adults residing in the United States using an internet web based survey. Data on 303 adult\\u000a African American immigrants and non-immigrants was collected using a self-administered web based survey. Respondents were\\u000a recruited using a snowball sampling technique to

  15. Low-Income African-American Women Talk About Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DebraMoehle McCallum; Susan E. Arnold; John M. Bolland

    2002-01-01

    Research on stress has focused primarily on life-change events and daily hassles as sources of stress that can affect physical and mental health. There is evidence, however, that chronic conditions causing stress may be more characteristic of the lives of poor, African Americans. For this study, 45 African-American women living in low-income neighborhoods participated in focus group discussions about sources

  16. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Young African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Crosby; Ralph J. DiClemente; Laura F. Salazar; Gina M. Wingood; Jessica McDermott-Sales; April M. Young; Eve Rose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of selected factors to the consistent use of condoms among\\u000a high-risk young African American women. A clinic-based, prospective, study of 242 young, African-American women (ages 15–21)\\u000a was conducted. In multivariate analysis, consistent condom use was predicted by having greater perceptions of condom negotiation\\u000a self-efficacy, lower fear of negotiating condom

  17. Correlates of Casual Sex Among African-American Female Teens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Crosby; Ralph J. Diclemente; Gina M. Wingood; Catlainn Sionean; Brenda K. Cobb; Kathy F. Harrington; Susan L. Davies; Edward W. Hook III; M. Kim Oh

    2002-01-01

    This study identified correlates of reporting voluntary sex with casual partner (VS-CP) among African American adolescent females. Sexually active African-American female teens (N = 522) were recruited from neighborhoods characterized by high rates of unemployment, substance abuse, violence and STDs. Of the 609 eligible adolescents, 522 (85.7%) agreed to participate in the study. VS-CP was reported by 15.9% of adolescents.

  18. Early Literacy Skills in African-American Children: Research Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Washington

    2001-01-01

    The poor reading achievement of African- American children in urban schools is well established. African-American children from low-income homes may be at particular risk for reading difficulties, al- though middle-income children often fare poorly as well. Intervention efforts have focused on children in kindergarten through fifth grade. This article suggests that prevention efforts must begin prior to kindergarten entry. Several

  19. Implication of European-derived adiposity loci in African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Hester; M R Wing; J Li; N D Palmer; J Xu; P J Hicks; B H Roh; J M Norris; L E Wagenknecht; C D Langefeld; B I Freedman; D W Bowden; M C Y Ng; MCY Ng

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with adiposity in European-derived study populations. Limited study of these loci has been reported in African Americans. Here we examined the effects of these previously identified adiposity loci in African Americans.Methods:A total of 46 representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 loci that were previously reported in GWAS in Europeans

  20. Exploring Religion-Health Mediators among African American Parishioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Holt; Laura A. Lewellyn; Mary Jo Rathweg

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the religiosity-health association among African Americans, with particular attention to mediators through which religiosity positively impacts health. We conducted 31 interviews across seven African American churches of different Christian denominations. Semi-structured interviews were completed with male and female parishioners. Participants were asked to describe the religiosity-health association in their own terms, and if and how their

  1. Measuring Sustained Mammography Use By Urban African-American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda L. Greene; Celeste M. Torio; Ann C. Klassen

    2005-01-01

    Although the numbers of African-American women who are ‘ever’ screened for breast cancer has increased, sustaining regular screening over a lifetime remains a problem. Face-to-face interviews about breast cancer screening were conducted with 576 African-American women from an east coast city. The well-screened index measuring adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines was developed and tested. This index incorporated a woman’s

  2. Accuracy of the diagnosis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis in African Americans: A report from the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK) Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Fogo; Julia A Breyer; Michael C Smith; William H Cleveland; Lawrence Agodoa; Katharine A Kirk; Richard Glassock

    1997-01-01

    Accuracy of the diagnosis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis in African Americans: A report from the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK) Trial. African Americans have excess hypertension and end-stage renal disease presumed due to hypertension compared to Caucasians. The AASK was designed to examine the impact of antihypertensive therapies and two levels of blood pressure control on the rate of

  3. Evaluating Academic Achievement of African-American Male Students in Relationship to African-American Male Teachers in Guilford County, North Carolina Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Byron L.

    2010-01-01

    The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…

  4. An Investigation of African American Parents' Perception of School Leaders as It Relates to Parent Engagement and the African American Male Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Delvon Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…

  5. Diet, microbiota, and microbial metabolites in colon cancer risk in rural Africans and African Americans1234

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Zoetendal, Erwin G; DeLany, James P; Wang, Mei; Newton, Keith; Gaskins, H Rex

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated by the microbiota through their metabolites, we measured differences in colonic microbes and their metabolites in African Americans with a high risk and in rural native Africans with a low risk of colon cancer. Design: Fresh fecal samples were collected from 12 healthy African Americans aged 50–65 y and from 12 age- and sex-matched native Africans. Microbiomes were analyzed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing together with quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the major fermentative, butyrate-producing, and bile acid–deconjugating bacteria. Fecal short-chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography and bile acids by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Microbial composition was fundamentally different, with a predominance of Prevotella in native Africans (enterotype 2) and of Bacteroides in African Americans (enterotype 1). Total bacteria and major butyrate-producing groups were significantly more abundant in fecal samples from native Africans. Microbial genes encoding for secondary bile acid production were more abundant in African Americans, whereas those encoding for methanogenesis and hydrogen sulfide production were higher in native Africans. Fecal secondary bile acid concentrations were higher in African Americans, whereas short-chain fatty acids were higher in native Africans. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that colon cancer risk is influenced by the balance between microbial production of health-promoting metabolites such as butyrate and potentially carcinogenic metabolites such as secondary bile acids. PMID:23719549

  6. Differences in Universal-Diverse Orientation by Race-Ethnicity and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singley, Daniel B.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the roles of race-ethnicity and gender in university student orientation toward diversity. Differences in orientation toward diversity were found between men and women as well as among racial-ethnic groups (Asian/Asian American, African American, Latino, Anglo-American). Anglo-American students' scores were significantly…

  7. Overcoming barriers to glycemic control in African Americans with type-2 diabetes: benefits of insulin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Merville C.

    2007-01-01

    A disproportionate number of African-American men and women are affected by obesity and diabetes. The documented rate of poor glycemic control in the African-American population may contribute to the high rate of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes observed in these patients. Since the benefits of strict glycemic control have been demonstrated in multiple large trials, the aim of treatment should be to achieve the goals set forth by the American Diabetes Association. Insulin remains an essential therapeutic agent for helping patients achieve glycemic control and preventing long-term comorbidities. However, barriers to insulin therapy exist for both the physician and patient. Strategies to counter this resistance include identifying barriers to treatment, restoring the patient's sense of control, utilizing simple regimens, and reviewing the benefits of insulin and the risk of hypoglycemia. In treating African-American patients with diabetes, providers of various racial and ethnic backgrounds may maximize treatment efficacy by attempting to understand and practice culturally competent care. PMID:17722663

  8. Recruitment and retention of African American and Hispanic girls and women in research.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Debra C; Bartlett, Robin

    2013-03-01

    Recruiting women and girls into research studies, especially minority women, continues to be a major challenge that impacts health policy and delivery systems. This article discusses various strategies to recruit and retain African American and Hispanic girls and women in studies. Strategies for successful recruitment focus on trust, familiarity and visibility, racial and ethnic similarities, environmental context, and convenience. Retention strategies include issues of transportation, language, literacy, cultural appropriateness, safety, flexibility, incentives, communication, and veracity. All strategies assist in meeting the challenge of engaging minority women in research to decrease health disparities. PMID:23452110

  9. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF AFRICAN AMERICAN AND HISPANIC GIRLS AND WOMEN IN RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Debra C.; Bartlett, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Recruiting women and girls into research studies, especially minority women, continues to be a major challenge that impacts health policy and delivery systems. This paper discusses various strategies to recruit and retain African American and Hispanic girls and women in studies. Strategies for successful recruitment focus on trust, familiarity and visibility, racial and ethnic similarities, environmental context, and convenience. Retention strategies include issues of transportation, language, literacy, cultural appropriateness, safety, flexibility, incentives, communication, and veracity. All strategies assist in meeting the challenge of engaging minority women in research to decrease health disparities. PMID:23452110

  10. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future. PMID:23140073

  11. Some Socio-Behavioral Correlates of African Self-Consciousness in African-American College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Baldwin; Raeford Brown; Reginald Rackley

    1990-01-01

    Two stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on the African self-consciousness (ASC) Scale scores of 219 African-American male and female college students utilizing 36 background and 20 Africentric activity factors as the predictor variables. The results revealed that only a very small number of the two sets of predictors were significantly related to the ASC scores. The background factors of

  12. Racial Identity, African Self-Consciousness, and Career Decision Making in African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Reginald J.; McCowan, Carla J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines racial identity, African self-consciousness, and career decidedness in 212 African-American college women. Comparisons were made between senior and first-year students at a historically Black and a predominantly White university. Findings indicate that seniors at both institutions had higher levels of racial identity than did freshmen.…

  13. Port of Sanctuary: The Aesthetic of the African/African American and the Barnes Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)

  14. Providing Contraceptive Care To Low-Income, African American Teens: The Experience Of Urban Community Health Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa L. Gilliam; Maida Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn to the quality of the patient-provider relationship as a mediator of health outcomes for\\u000a racial and ethnic minorities. The purpose of this study was to examine the provider-patient relationship in reproductive health\\u000a care for low income African American teens and to identify effective techniques they use in caring for teens. We conducted\\u000a focus groups with

  15. Psychiatric and Demographic Predictors of Memory Deficits in African Americans with Schizophrenia: The Moderating Role of Cultural Mistrust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Whaley

    Although African Americans are overrepresented among schizophrenia diagnoses, assessments of memory deficits in schizophrenia\\u000a often do not consider issues of race, ethnicity, and culture. Digit span testing (DST) is often used to assess memory problems\\u000a associated with schizophrenia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of psychiatric symptoms and demographic\\u000a background on the DST performances of

  16. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and, in many cases, drugs, condemns African

  17. Examining the Relationship between Multiple Internalized Oppressions and African American Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Persons' Self-Esteem and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Gupta, Arpana

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the…

  18. Measurement Characteristics of Dietary Psychosocial Scales in a Weight Gain Prevention Study with 8- to 10-Year-Old African-American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…

  19. An Evaluation Study of the Young Empowered Sisters (YES!) Program: Promoting Cultural Assets among African American Adolescent Girls through a Culturally Relevant School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…

  20. Replication of GWAS “Hits” by Race for Breast and Prostate Cancers in European Americans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Raska, Paola; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assessed association of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) “hits” by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS) in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; N total?=?3693 individuals) and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk, and Ethnicity (SCORE; N total?=?1135 individuals). In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS “hits” (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24) were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1) and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS “hit” (SNP) of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2); for CBCS African Americans, 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all six SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans, 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24). We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and PS. PMID:22303333

  1. Early Head Start and African American Families: Impacts and Mechanisms of Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Persistent disparities exist between African American children and their European American counterparts across developmental domains. Early childhood intervention may serve to promote more positive outcomes among African American children. The current study examined whether and how the Early Head Start (EHS) program benefited African American

  2. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  3. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25364834

  4. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  5. Domestic Transracial Adoption: In the Words of African American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ellen M.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic transracial adoption has sparked more controversy than any other type of adoption. For the purposes of this study domestic transracial adoption is defined as European American parents adopting African American children. Many of the studies completed are contradictory and fail to control for variables that affect the outcome such as age of…

  6. Factors Affecting African American Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cravor; Hohensil, Thomas H.; Burge, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many job satisfaction studies, research related to the job satisfaction of African American counselors (AACs) is negligible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the job satisfaction of AACs. A total of 182 employed AACs who were members of the American Counseling Association (ACA) completed a modified Minnesota…

  7. African-American Higher Education: How Big Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    As a business, educating African Americans is a large enterprise, with total annual expenditures approaching $15 billion. Contrary to stereotypes, it cannot be regarded as a footnote to American higher education. Tuition expenditures account for nearly 8% of the total money income of blacks in the United States. (SLD)

  8. The Long Path to Higher Education for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the possibilities for a new progressive era in American higher education, the author contends that it is wise to review the past because there are lessons to be learned. In fact, the latter part of the 20th century was one of great progress for diversity in higher education, generally speaking, and for African Americans in…

  9. Knowledge of young African American adults about heart disease: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other ethnic groups. Young adults are prime targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young African American adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development of CVD outreach programs targeted to this population. The Health Belief Model was used as a conceptual framework. Methods A convenience sample of 172 African American men and women aged 18-26 years completed a questionnaire adapted from the American Heart Association national surveys. Descriptive statistics were compared by age, gender, education level, and health status variables including BMI, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Some aspects of heart-disease were well known among young adult African Americans. Knowledge of certain other important risk factors (menopause) and preventive behaviors (eating fewer animal products), however, was more variable and inconsistent among the respondents. Differences in knowledge of individual variables was greater by education level than by gender overall. Predictors of a summary CVD knowledge score included higher education, female gender, and high self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = 0.158, p < .001). Predictors of self-efficacy in changing CVD risk were higher education and perceived low risk of CVD (adjusted R2 = 0.064, p < .001), but these characteristics explained only 6% of the variance. Conclusions Evaluation of baseline knowledge of CVD is essential before designing and implementing health promotion programs. Existing strengths and weaknesses in knowledge can guide tailoring of programs to be more effective. Further research would help to identify the range of other characteristics that determine knowledge and risk perception. PMID:21504588

  10. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  11. Spouse Abuse and Alcohol Problems Among White, African American, and Hispanic U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Fuchs, Cara H.; McCarroll, James E.; Schwartz, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Prior studies suggest racial/ethnic differences in the associations between alcohol misuse and spouse abuse. Some studies indicate that drinking patterns are a stronger predictor of spouse abuse for African Americans but not whites or Hispanics, while others report that drinking patterns are a stronger predictor for whites than African Americans or Hispanics. This study extends prior work by exploring associations between heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and risk for spouse abuse within racial/ethnic groups as well as variations associated with whether the perpetrator is drinking during the spouse abuse incident. Methods Cases (N = 7,996) were all active-duty male, enlisted Army spouse abusers identified in the Army’s Central Registry (ACR) who had also completed an Army Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) Survey between 1991 and 1998. Controls (N = 17,821) were matched on gender, rank, and marital and HRA status. Results We found 3 different patterns of association between alcohol use and domestic violence depending upon both the race/ethnicity of the perpetrator and whether or not alcohol was involved in the spouse abuse event. First, after adjusting for demographic and psychosocial factors, weekly heavy drinking (>14 drinks per week) and alcohol-related problems (yes to 2 or more of 6 alcohol-related problem questions, including the CAGE) were significant predictors of domestic violence among whites and Hispanics only. Also for the white soldiers, the presence of family problems mediated the effect of alcohol-related problems on spouse abuse. Second, alcohol-related problems predicted drinking during a spouse abuse incident for all 3 race groups, but this relation was moderated by typical alcohol consumption patterns in Hispanics and whites only. Finally, alcohol-related problems predicted drinking during a spouse abuse incident, but this was a complex association moderated by different psychosocial or behavioral variables within each race/ethnic group. Conclusion These findings suggest important cultural/social influences that interact with drinking patterns. PMID:17010139

  12. A Pilot Program in Collaboration with African American Churches Successfully Increases Awareness of the Importance of Cancer Research and Participation in Cancer Translational Research Studies among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Albertie, Monica; Lesperance, Mary; Weis, Jennifer A.; Coles, Alton; Smith, Nina; Mills, Lynette; Woodward, Timothy; Aspitia, Alvaro Moreno; Vishnu, Prakash; Willis, Floyd; Isley, Amber; Fonseca, Rafael; Vachon, Celine; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2013-01-01

    African Americans are underrepresented in cancer research. We evaluate whether collaboration with African American churches can improve cancer awareness and increase participation in translational research protocols among African Americans. From February to April 2010, the Mayo Clinic partnered with African American Jacksonville churches to provide educational programs focused on cancer research and healthy behaviors. Education on multiple myeloma and on-site access to a translational cancer research pilot project evaluating the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies and t(14,18) in African Americans was offered. Seventy-four percent, 236 out of 318 participants, returned the questionnaires. The majority of participants had never received information on multiple myeloma (67%), had never received clinical research study information (57%), and were enrolled in the translational research studies (55%). Partnerships with African American churches in community education projects that bring research to church venues are effective in improving cancer awareness and in increasing research participation among African Americans. PMID:22072126

  13. A pilot program in collaboration with African American churches successfully increases awareness of the importance of cancer research and participation in cancer translational research studies among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Albertie, Monica; Lesperance, Mary; Weis, Jennifer A; Coles, Alton; Smith, Nina; Mills, Lynette; Woodward, Timothy; Aspitia, Alvaro Moreno; Vishnu, Prakash; Willis, Floyd; Isley, Amber; Fonseca, Rafael; Vachon, Celine; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2012-06-01

    African Americans are underrepresented in cancer research. We evaluate whether collaboration with African American churches can improve cancer awareness and increase participation in translational research protocols among African Americans. From February to April 2010, the Mayo Clinic partnered with African American Jacksonville churches to provide educational programs focused on cancer research and healthy behaviors. Education on multiple myeloma and on-site access to a translational cancer research pilot project evaluating the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies and t(14,18) in African Americans was offered. Seventy-four percent, 236 out of 318 participants, returned the questionnaires. The majority of participants had never received information on multiple myeloma (67%), had never received clinical research study information (57%), and were enrolled in the translational research studies (55%). Partnerships with African American churches in community education projects that bring research to church venues are effective in improving cancer awareness and in increasing research participation among African Americans. PMID:22072126

  14. Increased genetic diversity of ADME genes in African Americans compared with their putative ancestral source populations and implications for Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background African Americans have been treated as a representative population for African ancestry for many purposes, including pharmacogenomic studies. However, the contribution of European ancestry is expected to result in considerable differences in the genetic architecture of African American individuals compared with an African genome. In particular, the genetic admixture influences the genomic diversity of drug metabolism-related genes, and may cause high heterogeneity of drug responses in admixed populations such as African Americans. Results The genomic ancestry information of African-American (ASW) samples was obtained from data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and local ancestral components were also extracted for 32 core genes and 252 extended genes, which are associated with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes. As expected, the global genetic diversity pattern in ASW was determined by the contributions of its putative ancestral source populations, and the whole profiles of ADME genes in ASW are much closer to those in YRI than in CEU. However, we observed much higher diversity in some functionally important ADME genes in ASW than either CEU or YRI, which could be a result of either genetic drift or natural selection, and we identified some signatures of the latter. We analyzed the clinically relevant polymorphic alleles and haplotypes, and found that 28 functional mutations (including 3 missense, 3 splice, and 22 regulator sites) exhibited significantly higher differentiation between the three populations. Conclusions Analysis of the genetic diversity of ADME genes showed differentiation between admixed population and its ancestral source populations. In particular, the different genetic diversity between ASW and YRI indicated that the ethnic differences in pharmacogenomic studies are broadly existed despite that African ancestry is dominant in Africans Americans. This study should advance our understanding of the genetic basis of the drug response heterogeneity between populations, especially in the case of population admixture, and have significant implications for evaluating potential inter-population heterogeneity in drug treatment effects. PMID:24884825

  15. Parental endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in African American and Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A; Carrano, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with 3 sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing problems, with multigroup comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children's behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children's internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363

  16. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443

  17. Osteoporotic fragility fractures in African Americans: under-recognized and undertreated.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Neelofar M.; Archer, Juanita A.; Lee, Euni

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of diagnosing and treating osteoporosis in patients with fragility fractures. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective review of medical records from January 1992 to December 2002 at Howard University Hospital, an urban tertiary care teaching hospital with a predominantly African-American population. Men 50 years old and women 45 years old with fractures caused by low impact falls (fragility fractures) were included. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was based on history, x-rays and pathology reports as indicated by ICD-9 codes (733.00-733.09) and review of medical records. MAIN FINDINGS: Of 58,841 patients who were admitted during the study period, 1,248 patients (2.1%) had fractures. There were 323 patients (65%) who had fractures secondary to low-impact falls. However, only 29 (8.9%) of these had a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Of these, only five (19%) patients were discharged on antiosteoporotic medications, and only one patient was discharged with a bisphosphonate therapy. No patient had DXA scans. CONCLUSIONS: In the population studied, osteoporosis was missed in the majority of the patients as an underlying cause for fragility fractures in African Americans. These results strongly suggest that physicians should be more aware of osteoporosis as an essential cause of fragility fractures. Early recognition and treatment in African Americans and other ethnic groups can significantly decrease the morbidity, mortality and the healthcare costs. PMID:15624249

  18. Genetics of Alzheimer’s disease in Caribbean Hispanic and African American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Christiane; Mayeux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by progressive deterioration in cognition, function and behavior, is the most common cause of dementia and the sixth leading cause of all deaths placing a considerable burden on western societies. Most studies aiming to identify genetic susceptibility factors for LOAD have focused on non-Hispanic white populations. This is, in part related to differences in linkage disequilibrium and allele frequencies between ethnic groups that could lead to confounding. However, in addition, non-Hispanic white populations are simply more widely studied. As a consequence, minorities are genetically under-represented despite the fact that in several minority populations living in the same community as Whites (including African American and Caribbean Hispanics) LOAD incidence is higher. This review summarizes the current knowledge on genetic risk factors associated with LOAD risk in Caribbean Hispanics and African Americans and provides suggestions for future research. We focus on Caribbean Hispanics and African Americans as they have a high LOAD incidence and a body of genetic studies on LOAD that is based on samples with GWAS data and reasonable large effect sizes to yield generalizable results. PMID:23890735

  19. Marital Quality of Newlywed African American Couples: Implications of Egalitarian Gender Role Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined associations between husbands’ and wives’ gender role attitudes, division of household labor, and marital quality in a sample of 697 newlywed African American couples residing in the southern region of the United States. Guided by a cultural ecological framework, we tested hypotheses specific to the unique socio-cultural context of African Americans using a mixed model ANCOVA design. Results revealed that: (1) couples reported lower marital quality when husbands had relatively more traditional gender role attitudes; (2) husbands reported lower marital quality when the couple engaged in a relatively more traditional division of household labor; and (3) husbands with more traditional attitudes who also engaged in a traditional division of labor reported lower marital quality compared to all other husbands. Although African Americans are thought to have more flexible gender role orientations than other racial/ethnic groups within the U.S., these results document within group variability in couple gender dynamics and its association with variability in marital quality. PMID:24319311

  20. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nicholette D.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Wing, Maria R.; An, S. Sandy; Hester, Jessica M.; Cooke, Jessica N.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Lu, Lingyi; Ziegler, Julie T.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n?=?550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n?=?98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10?8). SNP rs7560163 (P?=?7.0×10?9, OR (95% CI)?=?0.75 (0.67–0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10?5) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations. PMID:22238593

  1. "It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

  2. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  3. Group identification and outgroup attitudes in four South African ethnic groups: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, John; Callaghan, Jane; Wagner, Claire

    2005-05-01

    Although Sumner's ethnocentrism hypothesis, which expects stronger group identification to be associated with more negative outgroup attitudes, has been widely accepted, empirical findings have been inconsistent. This research investigates the relationship of four dimensions of ethnocultural group identification previously proposed by Phinney, that is, salience, evaluation, attachment, and involvement, with attitudes to ethnic outgroups in four South African ethnocultural groups (Africans, Afrikaans Whites, English Whites, Indians). The findings supported the factorial independence of the four identification dimensions and indicated that only one, ethnocultural evaluation (ingroup attitudes), was systematically related to outgroup attitudes, but the association could be positive, negative, or zero. Both functionalist and similarity-dissimilarity approaches to intergroup relations seemed to provide plausible explanations for the pattern of relationships obtained between ingroup and outgroup attitudes. PMID:15802658

  4. An African Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Marva L.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the First African and African-American International Federation of Library Associations Pre-Conference Seminar, which was held in Nairobi, Kenya, in August 1984. Papers and issues highlighted cover publishing and ethnic collections, combatting racism, children's services, school libraries, public library services, academic libraries,…

  5. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  6. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Levi Strauss. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnehs, Chic

    This teaching guide focuses on the German-American immigrant experiences and the contribution of Levi Strauss. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective for this unit is to acquaint the…

  7. Bias at School: Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination among Latino and European American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2006-01-01

    Latino and White/European American children (N = 99; 5-11 years of age) participated in a study designed to examine their perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in educational settings. Children heard scenarios involving two children of different races/ethnicities, one who received a more positive outcome from a teacher than the other.…

  8. Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative

    E-print Network

    Tang, Hua

    Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative of height in 8149 African- American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P

  9. Visibly Invisible: Uncovering Identity for African American Women at an Academically Selective University 

    E-print Network

    Crear, Shelah Flowers

    2013-07-31

    Using intersectionality as the theoretical framework, this study examined the identity development of African American women attending an academically selective university. Much of the extant literature on African American ...

  10. Five African American Male Superintendents and Their Leadership in Diverse School Districts in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Smothers, Aneil 1968-

    2012-11-29

    The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male...

  11. 77 FR 45471 - White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...have strengthened our Nation, including by leading...the Brown v. Board of Education decision put America...referrals to special education. African American student...every other developed nation. Over a third of African American...

  12. Disparities in outcomes for African American and Latino subjects in the Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies (FIRST) trial.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Thomas P; Bartsch, Glenn; Zhang, Yafeng; Tedaldi, Ellen; Absalon, Judith; Mannheimer, Sharon; Thomas, Avis; MacArthur, Rodger D

    2010-05-01

    To benefit maximally from antiretroviral therapy, patients with HIV infection must enter care before their disease is advanced and adhere to care. We sought to determine if and where on this continuum of care racial/ethnic disparities were evident. Data from the Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies (FIRST) trial, which evaluated three strategies for initial HIV therapy, were compared for White, African American, and Latino subjects. Outcomes included progression of disease and death, HIV viral suppression, and change in CD4(+) cell count. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for known predictors of survival. There were 1357 subjects, including 368 non-Latino white, 751 non-Latino African American, and 238 Latino subjects. At baseline, the two latter groups were more likely to have had AIDS and had lower CD4(+) cell counts than white subjects. In follow-up, African American subjects had lower self-reported adherence to therapy, lower CD4(+) cell count increases, and lower odds of viral suppression. African American and Latino subjects had unadjusted hazard ratios of progression of disease or death of 1.57 (1.17, 2.10; p = 0.0025) and 1.57 (1.09, 2.26; p = 0.02), respectively. Adjusting for baseline differences and differences in adherence, CD4(+) cell count change, and viral suppression accounted for the disparities in outcomes. Opportunities to reduce disparities in outcomes for African American and Latino patients exist along the continuum of HIV care. Efforts to promote access to HIV testing and care and to improve adherence have the potential to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with HIV infection. PMID:20438378

  13. Providing Culturally Relevant Mental Health Services: Collaboration between Psychology and the African American Church

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Queener; Juanita K. Martin

    2001-01-01

    Many African American psychologists are concerned about the delivery of culturally relevant mental health services to their community. Recognizing the limitations of traditional psychotherapies and traditional mental health delivery systems, psychologists have developed African-centered models of therapy that emphasize spiritual development. Using African-centered therapies as a conceptual framework, the African American Counseling Team (AACT) was formed to overcome the limitations

  14. Fine Mapping and Identification of BMI Loci in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lim, Unhee; Hindorff, Lucia A; Haessler, Jeff; Buyske, Steven; Carlson, Christopher S; Rosse, Stephanie; B?žková, Petra; Fornage, Myriam; Gross, Myron; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S; Schreiner, Pamela J; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Gu, C Charles; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Henderson, Brian; Cheng, Iona; Wilkens, Lynne; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Rongling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Dilks, Holli H; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Fowke, Jay; Pooler, Loreall; Graff, Misa; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Cochrane, Barbara; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Matise, Tara C; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C; Haiman, Christopher A; North, Kari E; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) primarily performed in European-ancestry (EA) populations have identified numerous loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, it is still unclear whether these GWAS loci can be generalized to other ethnic groups, such as African Americans (AAs). Furthermore, the putative functional variant or variants in these loci mostly remain under investigation. The overall lower linkage disequilibrium in AA compared to EA populations provides the opportunity to narrow in or fine-map these BMI-related loci. Therefore, we used the Metabochip to densely genotype and evaluate 21 BMI GWAS loci identified in EA studies in 29,151 AAs from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Eight of the 21 loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, TFAP2B, BDNF, FTO, and MC4R) were found to be associated with BMI in AAs at 5.8 × 10(-5). Within seven out of these eight loci, we found that, on average, a substantially smaller number of variants was correlated (r(2) > 0.5) with the most significant SNP in AA than in EA populations (16 versus 55). Conditional analyses revealed GNPDA2 harboring a potential additional independent signal. Moreover, Metabochip-wide discovery analyses revealed two BMI-related loci, BRE (rs116612809, p = 3.6 × 10(-8)) and DHX34 (rs4802349, p = 1.2 × 10(-7)), which were significant when adjustment was made for the total number of SNPs tested across the chip. These results demonstrate that fine mapping in AAs is a powerful approach for both narrowing in on the underlying causal variants in known loci and discovering BMI-related loci. PMID:24094743

  15. Fine Mapping and Identification of BMI Loci in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lim, Unhee; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Haessler, Jeff; Buyske, Steven; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rosse, Stephanie; B?žková, Petra; Fornage, Myriam; Gross, Myron; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Gu, C. Charles; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Henderson, Brian; Cheng, Iona; Wilkens, Lynne; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Dilks, Holli H.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Fowke, Jay; Pooler, Loreall; Graff, Misa; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Cochrane, Barbara; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Matise, Tara C.; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; North, Kari E.; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) primarily performed in European-ancestry (EA) populations have identified numerous loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, it is still unclear whether these GWAS loci can be generalized to other ethnic groups, such as African Americans (AAs). Furthermore, the putative functional variant or variants in these loci mostly remain under investigation. The overall lower linkage disequilibrium in AA compared to EA populations provides the opportunity to narrow in or fine-map these BMI-related loci. Therefore, we used the Metabochip to densely genotype and evaluate 21 BMI GWAS loci identified in EA studies in 29,151 AAs from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Eight of the 21 loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, TFAP2B, BDNF, FTO, and MC4R) were found to be associated with BMI in AAs at 5.8 × 10?5. Within seven out of these eight loci, we found that, on average, a substantially smaller number of variants was correlated (r2 > 0.5) with the most significant SNP in AA than in EA populations (16 versus 55). Conditional analyses revealed GNPDA2 harboring a potential additional independent signal. Moreover, Metabochip-wide discovery analyses revealed two BMI-related loci, BRE (rs116612809, p = 3.6 × 10?8) and DHX34 (rs4802349, p = 1.2 × 10?7), which were significant when adjustment was made for the total number of SNPs tested across the chip. These results demonstrate that fine mapping in AAs is a powerful approach for both narrowing in on the underlying causal variants in known loci and discovering BMI-related loci. PMID:24094743

  16. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekere J Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; Gbadebo O Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their

  17. Achieving Healthy Weight in African-American Communities: Research Perspectives and Priorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiriki K. Kumanyika; Tiffany L. Gary; Kristie J. Lancaster; Carmen D. Samuel-Hodge; Joanne Banks-Wallace; Bettina M. Beech; Chanita Hughes-Halbert; Njeri Karanja; Angela M. Odoms-Young; T. Elaine Prewitt; Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

    2005-01-01

    The longstanding high burden of obesity in AfricanAmerican women and the more recent, steeper than average rise in obesity prevalence among African-American children constitute a mandate for an increased focus on obesity prevention and treatment research in African-American communities. The African-American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) was formed to stimulate and support greater participation in framing and implementing the obesity

  18. Panic disorder among African Americans, Caribbean blacks and non-Hispanic whites

    PubMed Central

    Himle, Joseph A.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Abelson, Jamie M.; Matusko, Niki; Muroff, Jordana; Jackson, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated co-morbidities, level of disability, service utilization and demographic correlates of panic disorder (PD) among African Americans, Caribbean blacks and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods Data are from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Results Non-Hispanic whites are the most likely to develop PD across the lifespan compared to the black subgroups. Caribbean blacks were found to experience higher levels of functional impairment. There were no gender differences found in prevalence of PD in Caribbean blacks, indicating that existing knowledge about who is at risk for developing PD (generally more prevalent in women) may not be true among this subpopulation. Furthermore, Caribbean blacks with PD were least likely to use mental health services compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion This study demonstrates that PD may affect black ethnic subgroups differently, which has important implications for understanding the nature and etiology of the disorder. PMID:22983664

  19. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups. PMID:24566508

  20. Life Goals and Attributions for Expected Outcomes among Adolescents from Five Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Baumann, Kathleen; Blanton, Shanika

    2001-01-01

    Surveys of 371 European American, African American, Mexican American, Vietnamese American, and Armenian American adolescents in ethnically diverse high schools in Los Angeles found that most adolescents set high goals for the future and expected to reach them. Compared to European American adolescents, minority group adolescents attributed…

  1. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated. PMID:22239385

  2. Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Organized by the Museum for African Art, New York, and presented online by the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Grass Roots is a history of 300 years of African basket making, brought by African people to the American South. The grasses that grow in the marshes along the Atlantic coast in the Southern United States, where African slaves were brought to work on rice plantations, were ideal for making coiled baskets, similar to the ones they'd made in Africa. The plantation system of rice growing required large numbers of several particular shapes of work baskets, including flat trays for winnowing, or removing chaff from the grain, and carrying baskets. The web resource includes an 86-page teachers' guide with activities for students from grades 3 - 12, and additional images of the baskets.

  3. The Assessment of Rural African-American Churches' Capacity to Promote Health Prevention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, William A.; Phillips, Danielle S.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history, the African-American church has played a vital role in social, political and educational arenas. Often viewed as the cornerstone of the African-American community, the African-American church is an excellent medium to promote health prevention and promotion interventions. This article identifies several elements for the…

  4. What African American men need to know U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Are you at risk for oral cancer? What African American men need to know U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NationalInstitutesofHealth #12;Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? #12;Yes, African American men are one of the groups at highest risk for oral cancer­ but many don't know it. Most

  5. Improving Prenatal Care Services for Low-Income African American Women and Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Sanders-Phillips; Susie Davis

    1998-01-01

    :Increasing the level of prenatal care among African American women may be one method of improving the health and well-being of African American women and children. This article identifies factors influencing access to and use of prenatal care and strategies for increasing the use of prenatal care among low-income African American women. Barriers to prenatal care, the strengths and limitations

  6. Improving Prenatal Care Services for Low-Income African American Women and Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Sanders-Phillips; MA Susie Davis

    1998-01-01

    Increasing the level of prenatal care among African American women may be one method of improving the health and well-being of African American women and children. This article identifies factors influencing access to and use of prenatal care and strategies for increasing the use of prenatal care among low-income African American women. Barriers to prenatal care, the strengths and limitations

  7. The Role of Spirituality among African-American College Males Attending a Historically Black University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Reginald K.; McNeal, CoSandra; Herndon, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has examined the notion that African-Americans tend to have a strong religious orientation. However, studies have ignored the relationship between spirituality and academic performance among African-Americans. In this qualitative study, spirituality among 13 African-American college male students enrolled at a predominately Black…

  8. Elder Abuse and Neglect in African American Families: Informing Practice Based on Ecological and Cultural Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheena R. Horsford; José Rubén Parra-Cardona; Lori A. Post; Larry Schiamberg

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies

  9. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  10. THE MEANING OF HEALTH IN MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Russell; Rivienne Shedd-Steele

    2003-01-01

    Inadequate use of mammography screening for early detection of breast cancer is an important factor associated with the disproportionate breast cancer death rates in African American women. To improve understanding of the mammography screening experience and health for African Americans, focus groups were held with 30~African American women. Seven categories emerged: (a) the mind, body, and spirit connection; (b) living

  11. Bidirectional Linkages Between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities Among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa R. Starr; Geri R. Donenberg; Erin Emerson

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in

  12. Fifth Grade African American Boys' Attitudes, Interests, and Beliefs about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele-Mosley, Ratonya

    2013-01-01

    African American male students are performing on a lower level than their peers. The purpose of this study was to identify the interests, attitudes, and beliefs of 5th grade African American boys regarding reading. Examining this aspect from the perspective of the student provided insight as to why African American boys' reading assessment…

  13. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  14. Predictors and Correlates of Academic Performance among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe, Margaret; LaPoint, Velma; Bryant, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The academic performance of urban African American students continues to be a major concern. Academic achievement has been the main avenue to upward social mobility for African Americans. This study assesses the effect of attitudes, behavior, peers, and family on the academic performance of African American students living in urban public housing…

  15. African Americans' Perceptions of Their Teaching Experiences in Urban Schools Primarily Consisting of Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joffery, III.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American teachers' perceptions of their teaching experiences in schools that were once primarily populated with African American students but have experienced shifts in demographics to primarily consisting of Hispanic students. The study focused on three areas. The first area was African American teachers'…

  16. A Phenomenological Study Exploring Shortages of African American Male Teachers in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimbush, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…

  17. Contributions of College Experiences to African American and White Graduates' Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of housing/consumer economics and social work alumni received responses from 38 African American and 50 white graduates. Likely sources of financial support for whites were parents, and for African Americans, grants. African Americans had significantly higher social support from churches, whites from sororities/fraternities. There were no…

  18. 'Rise 'n' Shine: Catholic Education and the African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chineworth, Mary Alice, Ed.

    African-Americans have been present in Catholic schools since their beginnings in the United States. The six essays in this book examine Catholic education from the perspective of the African-American Catholic. The essays underscore the continued challenge for continuing Catholic schools in the African-American community. They include: (1) an…

  19. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  20. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  1. Challenges to the Study of African American Parenting: Conceptualization, Sampling, Research Approaches, Measurement, and Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda; Rahil D. Briggs; Sandra G. McClowry; David L. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Objective. The primary purpose of this review is to highlight methodological challenges to the study of African American parenting. Over the past two decades, research on African American parenting has burgeoned, and attempts have been made to address the shortcomings of prior work in this area. Recent studies have shed new light on the heterogeneity of African American parenting and

  2. Assessment of barriers to bone marrow donation by unrelated African-American potential donors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph H Laver; Thomas C Hulsey; Jacquetta P Jones; Michael Gautreaux; Julio C Barredo; Miguel R Abboud

    2001-01-01

    African Americans have a lower registration rate for becoming potential bone marrow and stem cell donors. The same attitudes and behaviors are exhibited in regard to solid organ and blood donations, causing a serious under-representation of the African-American population in the donor pool. In our efforts to increase donor availability for African Americans through a project funded by the Medical

  3. Toward a Theory of African American School Achievement. Report No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Theresa

    Past attempts to develop an explanatory model for African-American school achievement have focused disproportionately on failure. But if one considers the long and persistent denial and limiting of educational opportunity to African Americans, from slavery to the present, and African Americans' corresponding achievements, the historically and…

  4. "The Brown Face of Hope": Reading Engagement and African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terry

    2015-01-01

    African American children's literature has a potentially powerful role to play in increasing reading engagement for African American boys. Unfortunately, this body of literature is not always used effectively in schools. Many teachers use African American books as an add-on to pre-exisiting curriculum rather than fully exploring the topics,…

  5. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  6. Lifting the Voices of High-Achieving, Middle-Class, African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stacey Marvetta

    2012-01-01

    The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…

  7. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  8. African Americans Majoring in Science at Predominantly White Universities (A Review of the Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andre; Glasson, George

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…

  9. Referral of African American Children for Evaluation of Emotional or Behavioral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Garza, Sylvia G.; Nero, Collette L.

    2003-01-01

    Research indicates that high numbers of African American children receive special education services. To address the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, this study examined the source of referral and the behaviors that precipitate the referral of African Americans for evaluation due to behavioral or emotional concerns.…

  10. Depressive Symptoms, Stress, and Weight Concerns Among African American and European American Low-Income Female Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evette J. Ludman; Susan J. Curry; Louis C. Grothaus; Elinor Graham; James Stout; Paula Lozano

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between perceived stress, depressive symptoms, concern about weight gain and smoking dependence were examined among 83 European American and 175 African American female smokers bringing children to pediatric clinics serving a low-income population. Among African American women, but not European American women, greater stress and more depressive symptoms predicted greater smoking dependence, and less concern about weight gain

  11. Participation in Extracurricular Activities in the Middle School Years: Are There Developmental Benefits for African American and European American Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the associations between organized activity participation during early adolescence and adjustment in a large and economically diverse sample of African American and European American youth. The sample included 1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African American and 33% European American). We used analysis of…

  12. African American women and weight loss: disregarding environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Mastin, Teresa; Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, almost 80% of African American women are either overweight or obese. In this study, 46 low-income African American women struggling with weight issues participated in structured interviews using a social cognitive theory framework. Participants shared their social cognitive theory related weight loss thoughts and their perceived weight loss obstacles. Results suggest that although participants' primary weight-related obstacles were environment-based, for example, unsafe environments in which to engage in regular exercise, they more often offered individual-based solutions. The study concludes with a discussion of media advocacy as a tool that can be used to promote environmental solutions. PMID:21859923

  13. Defining Physiologically “Normal” Vitamin D in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicole C.; Chen, Lang; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina; Javiad, Kassim; Nevitt, Michael A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D levels ?30 ng/ml are commonly considered “normal” based upon maximal suppression of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); however, this has recently been challenged and the optimal 25(OH)D level among non-Caucasians is unclear. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in a sample of Caucasian and African American adults. Method We used baseline serum samples of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) for this analysis, and used three methods to model the relationship between 25(OH)D and iPTH: ordinary least squares regression (OLS), segmented regression, and Helmert contrasts. Results Among Caucasians (n=1,258), 25(OH)D and iPTH ranged from 4-51 ng/ml and 2-120 pg/ml and from 3-32 ng/ml and 3-119 pg/ml in African Americans (n=423). We observed different thresholds between African Americans and Caucasians using each analytic technique. Using 25(OH)D as a categorical variable in OLS, iPTH was statistically higher at lower 25(OH)D categories than the 24-32 ng/ml referent group among Caucasians. However, in African Americans, the mean iPTH was only significantly higher at 25(OH)D levels below 15 ng/ml. Using segmented regression, iPTH appeared to stabilize at a lower 25(OH)D level in African Americans (19-23 ng/ml) compared to in Caucasians (>32 ng/ml). Helmert contrasts also revealed a lower threshold in African Americans than Caucasians. Conclusion Among MOST participants, the 25(OH)D thresholds at which no further change in iPTH was observed was approximately 20 ng/ml in African Americans versus approximately 30 ng/ml in Caucasians, suggesting optimal vitamin D levels in Caucasians may not be applicable to African Americans. PMID:22189572

  14. Esophageal Carcinoma in African Americans: A Five-Decade Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Ashktorab; Zahra Nouri; Mehdi Nouraie; Hadi Razjouyan; Edward E. Lee; Ehsan Dowlati; El-Waleed El-Seyed; Adeyinka Laiyemo; Hassan Brim; Duane T. Smoot

    Background  Esophageal cancer accounts for a considerable proportion of carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract in African Americans.\\u000a Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among\\u000a African Americans in the last five decades.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 601 records of patients with documented esophageal cancer between 1959 and 2007 at Howard University

  15. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African

  16. Ethnic and cultural variations in anger regulation and attachment patterns among Korean American and European American male batterers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene J; Zane, Nolan W S

    2004-05-01

    This study examined relationships among ethnicity, self-construals, and 2 risk factors for marital violence (anger, insecure attachment) in Korean American and European American male batterers. Korean (vs. European) American batterers experienced more anger and controlled their anger less. Independent self-construal was positively associated with anger experience and anger control and mediated the influence of ethnicity on anger control. Korean batterers were less independent, and less independent batterers controlled their anger less. Korean batterers' attachment styles were more avoidant and less anxious. Independent and interdependent self-construals were negatively associated with anxious and avoidant attachment, respectively. Independent self-construal mediated the influence of ethnicity on avoidant attachment. Clinical severity and adherence to traditional gender roles may help explain these ethnic and cultural variations. PMID:15099181

  17. Cross-ethnic friendships and intergroup attitudes among asian american adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth-grade Asian American students (Mage  = 11.5 years) attending 1 of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students overnominated White students and undernominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes toward Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed. PMID:25626492

  18. Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    Extensive information is provided about the various cultural elements, including attitudes toward education and work, that different family groups have drawn on in order to exist in the United States today. The family ethnicities of five distinct cultures (Native American, African American, Mexican American and Spanish origin, Muslim American, and…

  19. American racism and African diplomats: race and American Cold War policy in West Africa

    E-print Network

    Oriabure, Stephannie Ebhota

    2001-01-01

    . Because of this underlying racialism, the United States was unwilling to support self-determination for people of color unconditionally although whites claimed it as a birthright. 4 The argument that American racism at home hindered the effective... for political rights to African demands for independence and self-determination. Blacks used the deplorable situation of African leaders in the United States to demonstrate to the world the United States' failure to live up to its ideals. In the end, African...

  20. The role of health literacy on African American and Hispanic/Latino perspectives on cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiameesha R; Lewis, M Jane; Hudson, Shawna V

    2012-06-01

    Although cancer clinical trials are important for discovering lifesaving therapies, participation remains low among racial/ethnic minorities, and little research explores the role of health literacy in racial/ethnic minority perceptions of cancer clinical trials (CCTs). Five focus groups (n?=?50) with African American and Hispanic participants explored CCT perceptions using a multidimensional health literacy framework. We found poor scientific literacy including misconceptions of scientific information, perceptions of clinical trials as uncertain and fear; limited civic literacy around topics of trust, perceptions of participants as guinea pigs, and concerns about of IRB protections; and cultural literacy challenges regarding the importance of home remedies for health, use of native language, and the importance of race/ethnicity matching to health care professionals. Results highlight the importance of attending to scientific literacy, cultural literacy, and civic literacy. Future educational interventions regarding cancer clinical trials should address the importance of health literacy in understanding cancer clinical trial decision making. PMID:22203466

  1. Obesity intervention among African-American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin, M L; Ahluwalia, H K; Resnicow, K

    2001-08-01

    Often, researchers and clinicians approach the African-American community from a deficit model with African Americans viewed as having less desirable health practices and higher disease risk; however, in developing interventions for African Americans, it is important to keep in mind positive aspects of black culture as they relate to obesity. For example, the cultural acceptance of a larger body type and less negative views toward overweight individuals need not be viewed as problematic or abnormal. In fact, it could be argued that majority culture has a dysfunctional view of body image and obesity. The fact that whites are less likely to be overweight than African Americans may stem from a value system that places undue emphasis on thinness, youth, and external beauty and a culture that imbues women with shame about how they look and what they eat. Thus, rather than holding whites and majority culture as the ideal, it may be important to incorporate the positive elements of black culture regarding body image and food rather than attempting to shift their values toward those of European Americans. How best to achieve a reduction in obesity and its medical consequences, without inducing undesirable shifts in body image and attitudes toward food, is a formidable but important challenge. PMID:11494636

  2. Fear, Fatalism and Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African-American Women: The Role of Clinicians and the Health Care System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica E. Peek; Judith V. Sayad; Ronald Markwardt

    2008-01-01

    Background  African-American women have the highest breast cancer death rates of all racial\\/ethnic groups in the US. Reasons for these\\u000a disparities are multi-factorial, but include lower mammogram utilization among this population. Cultural attitudes and beliefs,\\u000a such as fear and fatalism, have not been fully explored as potential barriers to mammography among African-American women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To explore the reasons for fear associated with

  3. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    PubMed

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth. PMID:22400467

  4. The Relevance of Cultural Activities in Ethnic Identity Among California Native American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 – 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth. PMID:22400467

  5. The company they keep and avoid: social goal orientation as a predictor of children's ethnic segregation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined whether social goal orientation (i.e., demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid, and social development goals) predicts changes in ethnic segregation among 4th and 5th grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years) from fall to spring. Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in friendships, (b) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer group affiliations, and (c) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social goal orientation was asymmetrically associated with ethnic segregation for the 2 groups. Among African Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted increases in same-ethnicity favoritism and cross-ethnicity dislike. Among European Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted decreases in same-ethnicity favoritism. PMID:24294876

  6. The impact of ethnicity on outcomes following coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the Veterans Health Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S Rumsfeld; Mary E Plomondon; Eric D Peterson; Michael G Shlipak; Charles Maynard; Gary K Grunwald; Frederick L Grover; A. Laurie W Shroyer

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesWe evaluated the effect of African American (AA) and Hispanic American (HA) ethnicity on mortality and complications following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

  7. Uncovering myths and transforming realities among low-SES African-American men: implications for reducing prostate cancer disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joann T.; Webster, J. DeWitt; Fields, Norma J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer provides the most dramatic evidence of cancer disparities based on race and ethnicity among U.S. men. African-American men still hold a commanding lead in both prostate cancer incidence and mortality, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status (SES) and the medically underserved. Therefore, the need for early intervention persists. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to: a) assess the knowledge of a cohort of low-SES African-American men regarding prostate health/prostate cancer, and b) uncover myths/misinformation as barriers to prostate health decisions and behaviors. PROCEDURES: Asymptomatic African-American men participated in focus groups to candidly discuss: a) health concerns, b) prostate health, c) prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment, and d) factors influencing prostate health decisions/behaviors. FINDINGS: Participants revealed sociocultural and psychological barriers: myths and lack of accurate/adequate knowledge about prostate health and cancer, fear, denial and apathy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest factors that may explain the reluctance and limited participation in prostate health and prostate cancer services among medically underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, African-American men. Lack of knowledge, which affects all barriers to care, is amenable to change. Therefore, improvements in prostate cancer outcomes are achievable through culturally and linguistically appropriate health education tailored to their specific needs. PMID:15540880

  8. Healing pathways: longitudinal effects of religious coping and social support on PTSD symptoms in African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah; Tsong, Yuying; Anderson, Gera; Counts, Pamela; Tillman, Shaquita; Bhang, Cecile; Gray, Anthea

    2015-01-01

    African American women are at a slightly increased risk for sexual assault (A. Abbey, A. Jacques-Tiaura, & M. Parkhill, 2010). However, because of stigma, experiences of racism, and historical oppression, African American women are less likely to seek help from formal agencies compared to White women (Lewis et al., 2005; S. E. Ullman & H. H. Filipas, 2001) and/or women of other ethnic backgrounds (C. Ahrens, S. Abeling, S. Ahmad, & J. Himman, 2010). Therefore, the provision of culturally appropriate services, such as the inclusion of religion and spiritual coping, may be necessary when working with African American women survivors of sexual assault. Controlling for age and education, the current study explores the impact of religious coping and social support over 1 year for 252 African American adult female sexual assault survivors recruited from the Chicago metropolitan area. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses reveal that high endorsement of religious coping and social support at Time 1 does not predict a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at Time 2. However, high social support at Time 2 does predict lower PTSD at Time 2. Also, it is significant to note that survivors with high PTSD at Time 1 and Time 2 endorse greater use of social support and religious coping. Clinical and research implications are explored. PMID:25387044

  9. Using telephone focus groups methodology to examine the prostate cancer screening practices of African-American primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louie E; Stroud, Leonardo A; Rose, Shyanika W; Jorgensen, Cynthia M

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have a greater burden from prostate cancer than do white men and men of other races/ethnicities in the United States. To date, there have been no studies of how African-American primary care physicians screen their patients for prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of telephone focus groups as a methodology and to learn about this practice among a group of African-American primary care physicians. A total of 41 physicians participated in eight telephone focus groups. Results from the study are found in a separate article. Regarding telephone focus group methodology, we found that a majority of the physicians in this study preferred telephone focus groups over the conventional face-to-face focus groups. We also discuss some of the advantages (e.g., no travel, high acceptance rates, more flexibility than in-person groups, and general cost efficiency) as well as disadvantages (e.g., nonverbal communication limits and reduction of group interaction) of this methodology. This methodology may prove useful in studies involving African-American physicians, physicians in general and other difficult-to-reach healthcare professionals. PMID:16916127

  10. Normative Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behaviors in African American, American Indian, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Keiley, Margaret K.

    2007-01-01

    The current 5-year accelerated longitudinal investigation modeled the developmental trajectories of aggressive behaviors in 10,107 predominantly minority (greater than 70%; African American, American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic) children and early adolescents (Kindergarten through 8th grade, 49% female youth) from lower to lower-middle…

  11. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim L. Stansbury

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine African-American clergy who oversaw churches in central Kentucky. Collectively,

  12. Residential Segregation and the Beginning of the Great Migration of African Americans to Hartford, Connecticut A GIS-Based Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Schlichting; Peter Tuckel; Richard Maisel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the African American population of the United States remained concentrated in the South. In 1910, African Americans in Connecticut accounted for less than 2 percent of the population. Hartford's African American population then totaled 1,745, but by 1920 had increased significantly (by 143 percent) to 4,567. The Great Migration of African Americans

  13. Bachelor's Degrees Awarded by College, Area of Study, Ethnicity, and Gender 2011-2012 Academic Year

    E-print Network

    NON- RESIDENT ALIEN AFRICAN- AMERICAN or BLACK AMERICAN INDIAN or ALASKA NATIVE ASIAN HISPANIC- HISPANIC, MULTIPLE ETHNICITIES NATIVE HAWAIIAN or PACIFIC ISLANDER NON- RESIDENT ALIEN AFRICAN- AMERICAN 1 3 1 7 9 140 94 163 117 College of Health Athletic Training 1 0 9 6 10 6 Exercise & Sport Science 0

  14. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  15. This Far by Faith: African-American Spiritual Journeys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Faith Project, Inc.

    The diverse forms and expressions of African-American faith and spirituality are sometimes underappreciated, a situation that this particular six-part documentary, developed by PBS, hopes to rectify. This Web site, a companion to "This Far by Faith," provides a host of information about these many experiences, beginning with African slaves brought to America and continuing to the present day. Visitors will want to read the introductory essay to each section, along with the timeline that accompanies each historical period of African-American religious and spiritual life. The timelines themselves are fully interactive as visitors can click on certain points to find out additional information about noteworthy events and people, such as Olaudah Equiano, who composed one of the first slave autobiographies in America. Additionally, viewers can write in with their own comments and observations and learn more about this series.

  16. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  17. African American health issues: a selective annotated bibliography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Jenkins

    2003-01-01

    African American men and women suffer from health problems such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, AIDS, sickle cell anemia, and various forms of cancer, often at a higher rate than the rest of the population. There is a need for information about these and other health problems affecting this particular community. This annotated bibliography includes recent articles, books, Internet resources,

  18. African American Identity Development: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Janeula M.; Halpin, Glennelle

    Beginning from general concepts of identity formation, this review of models of African American identity development proceeds to Marcia's expansion of Erikson's identity model and to Chickering's vector theory. DuBois's concept of "double identity" and Erikson's writings concerning "adaptive coping" in minorities are considered. Cross's…

  19. Teaching African American Learners to Read: Perspectives and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bill, Ed.; Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes, Ed.; McPhail, Irving Pressley, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This collection of original and previously published articles fills a critical need for professional literature that documents successful research-based practices and programs that teach African American children to read. Thoughtful commentary on historic and current issues, discussion of research-based best practices, and examples of culturally…

  20. Homies: Peer Mentoring among African-American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Warren R.

    Peer mentoring among African-American males (referred to as "homies") on the west side of Chicago was examined in an afrocentric ethnographic study. The study used three data collection methods: a survey (of respondents' definition of the word "mentor") administered at bus stops, elevated train stations, gyms, and libraries to approximately 100…