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1

African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from West or West Central Africa than those found in eastern or southern Africa. Fewer than 14% of the African-American mtDNA sequences matched sequences from only West Africa or only West Central Africa. Conclusion Our database of sub-Saharan mtDNA sequences includes the most common haplotypes that are shared among ethnic groups from multiple regions of Africa. These common haplotypes have been found in half of all sub-Saharan Africans. More than 60% of the remaining haplotypes differ from the common haplotypes at a single nucleotide position in the HVS-I region, and they are likely to occur at varying frequencies within sub-Saharan Africa. However, the finding that 40% of the African-American mtDNAs analyzed had no match in the database indicates that only a small fraction of the total number of African haplotypes has been identified. In addition, the finding that fewer than 10% of African-American mtDNAs matched mtDNA sequences from a single African region suggests that few African Americans might be able to trace their mtDNA lineages to a particular region of Africa, and even fewer will be able to trace their mtDNA to a single ethnic group. However, no firm conclusions should be made until a much larger database is available. It is clear, however, that when identical mtDNA haplotypes are shared among many ethnic groups from different parts of Africa, it is impossible to determine which single ethnic group was the source of a particular maternal ancestor based on the mtDNA sequence. PMID:17038170

Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A

2006-01-01

2

Ethnicity as a Social Context for the Development of African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does anticipated future racial discrimination undermine African-American adolescents' academic motivation and performance? Do face-to-face experiences with racial discrimination at school undermine African-American adolescents' academic functioning? Does African-American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these questions…

Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Wong, Carol A.; Peck, Stephen C.

2006-01-01

3

Ethnicity as a social context for the development of African-American adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does anticipated future racial discrimination undermine African-American adolescents' academic motivation and performance? Do face-to-face experiences with racial discrimination at school undermine African-American adolescents' academic functioning? Does African-American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African-American adolescents living near Washington D.C. The data

Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Carol A. Wong; Stephen C. Peck

2006-01-01

4

Ethnic Identity and Psychological Adjustment: A Validity Analysis for European American and African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research studied the role of ethnic identity as a protective factor among European American (n = 77) and African American (n = 82) adolescents identified either as high risk or successful. Adolescents participated in a multiagent, multimethod assessment of depression, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, competence, and academic…

Yasui, Miwa; Dorham, Carole LaRue; Dishion, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

5

Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

2013-01-01

6

Ethnic Differences in Family Stress Processes Among African-Americans and Black Caribbeans  

PubMed Central

Several theories of stress exposure, including the stress process and the family stress model for economically disadvantaged families, suggest that family processes work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Much of this research, however, treats African-Americans as a monolithic group and ignores potential differences in family stress processes within race that may emerge across ethnic groups. This study examines whether family stress processes differ intraracially in African-American and Black Caribbean families. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative data set of African-American and Black Caribbean families, we assess the extent to which parents’ stress appraisals and psychological adjustment are related to their adolescent children’s stress appraisals, psychological adjustment, and depressive symptoms. Our study illustrates that stress processes differ by ethnicity and operate through varying pathways in African-American and Black Caribbean families. The implications of intraracial variations in stress processes are discussed. PMID:23349643

Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Bellatorre, Anna; Jackson, James S.

2012-01-01

7

Ethnicity, Cognitive Styles, and Math Achievement: Variability within African-American Post-Secondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive styles was examined. Past literature (Witkin, 1978) suggested that African Americans and other ethnic groups were field-dependent learners. However, more recent studies (Dunn & Dunn, 1991; Saracho, 1999) have given mixed results regarding processing. This study included a sample of…

Tomes, Yuma I.

2008-01-01

8

Race and Ethnic Differences in Religious Involvement: African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites  

PubMed Central

This study examined differences in religious participation and spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) and non-Hispanic Whites. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites. Selected measures of organizational, nonorganizational and subjective religious participation were examined. African American and Caribbean Blacks were largely similar in their reports of religious involvement; both groups generally indicated higher levels of religious participation than non-Hispanic Whites. African Americans were more likely than Black Caribbeans to be official members of their places of worship, engage in activities (choirs, church clubs) at their place of worship and request prayer from others. Black Caribbeans reported reading religious materials more frequently than African Americans. The discussion notes the importance of examining ethnic differences within the black American population of the United States. PMID:20975850

Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Jackson, James S.

2010-01-01

9

Ethnicity And Race In The Urban South: German Immigrants And African-Americans In Charleston South Carolina During Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germans and African-Americans exhibited a significant degree of economic, social, and political interaction in Reconstruction Charleston. Race and ethnic relations between Germans and African-Americans tended to be more positive than those between blacks and white southerners and challenged southern social norms. During Reconstruction, a small but economically and politically significant community of German immigrants thrived in Charleston, South Carolina. The

Jeffery G. Strickland

2003-01-01

10

Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2007-01-01

11

African American women's safer sexual practices: the influence of ethnic-racial socialisation and body esteem.  

PubMed

African American women are disproportionately at risk for sexually transmitted infections (e.g., HIV and gonorrhoea). It is important therefore to explore cultural factors that may influence their sexual practices. The present study examined the relationship between safer sexual practices (i.e., using condoms and inquiring about partner sexual history), participants' ethnic-racial socialisation experiences with maternal and paternal caregivers, and body esteem. Participants were 262, largely middle-class, African American women (ages 18 to 78) from a Midwestern US city who completed an online questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences on measures of safer sexual practice based on relationship status. Regression results suggested that certain paternal cultural practices were negatively related to inquiring about a partner's sexual history. However, body esteem was positively associated with inquiry regarding partner's previous sexual history. Implications for intervention efforts and research are discussed. PMID:24654840

Brown, Danice L; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Cobb, Pamela Denise; Spaw, Devon; Aldridge, Kacee N

2014-01-01

12

Cross-Ethnic Equivalence of Socialization Measures in European American and African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the cross-ethnic equivalency of socialization measures developed primarily with European American families. Four aspects of measurement equivalence were assessed: conceptual, operational, scalar, and functional. Evidence of between-and within-group measurement equivalency of socialization measures was derived from youth reports of 500…

Krishnakumar, Ambika; Buehler, Cheryl; Barber, Brian K.

2004-01-01

13

Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

2007-01-01

14

Linking Contextual Affordances: Examining Racial-Ethnic Socialization and Parental Career Support among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory investigation examined the link between self-reported racial-ethnic socialization experiences and perceived parental career support among African American undergraduate and graduate students. The results of two separate multivariate multiple regression analyses found that messages about coping with racism positively predicted…

Blackmon, Sha'Kema M.; Thomas, Anita Jones

2014-01-01

15

Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

2009-01-01

16

The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women’s suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women’s risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264

Perry, Brea L.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.

2012-01-01

17

Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among African Americans with early rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of ethnic-specific normative data.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis among African Americans with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to assess the effect of using race/ethnicity-specific normative data. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine was assessed in African Americans with early RA. To examine the impact of using different normative data on disease classification, we calculated two sets of T scores, the first using sex-matched reference data from Caucasians and the second using data from African Americans. Osteoporosis was defined as a BMD at either site > or =2.5 SD below the young adult mean. Osteopenia was defined as a BMD > or =1 SD and <2.5 SD below this mean. RESULTS: Using Caucasian referent data, 33% (n=48) of patients had osteopenia or worse (n=48, 32.9%) and 5% (n=8) were osteoporotic. With the use of African-American normative data, 55% (n=94) were osteopenic or worse, and 16% (n=27) were osteoporotic. CONCLUSION: African Americans with RA are at risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis. Different diagnostic classifications may occur in this population based solely on the normative data used for assessing fracture risk. These results underscore the need for a standardized approach in defining osteopenia and osteoporosis in African Americans. PMID:16173331

Mikuls, Ted R.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Bridges, S. Louis; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Lim, Sam S.; Smith, Edwin A.; Jonas, Beth L.; Moreland, Larry W.

2005-01-01

18

Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skala K, Chuang RJ, Evans A, Hedberg AM, Dave J, Sharma S. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.

19

Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

Greer, Tawanda M.

2008-01-01

20

Case Studies of African American Families: Self-Reports of Ethnically Diverse Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the lessons learned from mistakes made in their earlier clinical work with African American families, through the lens of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy theory, these culturally diverse practitioners use reflections from their counseling experiences to offer clinicians a people-responsive, diversity-sensitive framework and provide…

Marbley, Aretha Faye; Wimberly, Cynthia; Berg, Rachelle; Rouson, Leon; Wilkins, Erica

2011-01-01

21

BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in an Ethnically Diverse Cohort of High-Risk Women: A Comparison Between African-American and Caucasian Families  

Cancer.gov

Title. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in an Ethnically Diverse Cohort of High-Risk Women: A Comparison Between African-American and Caucasian Families Hee-Jin Kim1, Rita Nanda1, Phil Schumm2, Fitsum Hagos1, James Fackenthal1, Qun Niu1, Shelly Cummings1,

22

Differences in attachment security between African-American and white children: ethnicity or socio-economic status?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NICHD Early Childcare Research Network data set was used to examine differences in attachment security between African-American children (n = 142) and white children (n = 1002). African-American children's mean score on the Attachment Q-sort (AQS) [Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 60 (1995) 234] was substantially lower (.20) than that of white children's (.30). The

Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Pieter M. Kroonenberg

2004-01-01

23

Stroke and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Stroke Stroke and African Americans African American adults are twice as likely to have a stroke than their White adult counterparts. Further, men are ...

24

Obesity and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

25

Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.  

PubMed

The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used to assess ethnic differences. Unhealthy foods were available for both groups. Hispanic families were more likely to have fresh vegetables (AOR = 2.9, P ? 0.001), fruit (AOR = 2.0, P = 0.004), and soda available (AOR = 1.40, P = 0.001) compared to African-Americans. African-Americans families were more likely to restrict (AOR = 0.63, P ? 0.001) and reward with dessert (AOR = 0.69, P ? 0.001). Hispanic families consumed more family meals together (P = 0.003) and less meals in front of the television (P ? 0.006). Health promotion interventions should consider the behavioral differences between ethnicities. PMID:22262411

Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-Marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

2012-12-01

26

African-American Biography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac," is reviewed, and a reference activity…

Martin, Ron

1995-01-01

27

American Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…

Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.

28

Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

2011-01-01

29

African–American and Hispanic ethnicities, renal involvement and obesity predispose to hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from LUMINA, a multiethnic cohort (LUMINAXLV)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the predictors of the occurrence of hypertension in a large multiethnic US cohort. Patients and methods There were 614 patients with systemic lupus erythematoses (SLE; ?4 American College of Rheumatology revised criteria) with ?5?years of disease duration at entry into the cohort (T0) and of Hispanic (Texan or Puerto Rican), African–American or Caucasian ethnicity. T0 variables were compared between patients who did and did not develop hypertension (blood pressure ?140/90?mm Hg on at least two occasions and/or the use of antihypertensive drugs) after T0. Significant and clinically relevant variables were then examined by a stepwise logistic regression model. Results A total of 379 patients without hypertension at T0 were included (patients who developed hypertension prior to SLE diagnosis (n?=?126) or before T0 (n?=?109) were excluded). Predictors of hypertension were African–American and Texan–Hispanic ethnicities, renal involvement and a higher body mass index. Conclusions Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, disease?related factors and ethnicity play a role in the occurrence of hypertension in patients with SLE. Controlling renal involvement and optimising body weight may prevent the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:17107981

Chaiamnuay, Sumapa; Bertoli, Ana M; Roseman, Jeffrey M; McGwin, Gerald; Apte, Mandar; Durán, Sergio; Vilá, Luis M; Reveille, John D; Alarcón, Graciela S

2007-01-01

30

African Americans and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts About Smoking Among African Americans Use of menthol cigarettes is disproportionately high among African Americans. Almost ... software. 4. Ibid. 5. Hebert, JR. Invited Commentary: Menthol Cigarettes and Risk of Lung Cancer. American Journal ...

31

Stability and Change in Private and Public Ethnic Regard among African American, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Chinese American Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…

Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

2011-01-01

32

Transcript African Americans and Lung Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Transcript African Americans and Lung Cancer Hello. I’m Dr. Christopher Lathan of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Of all ethnic/racial and gender groups in the United States, African American men are the most likely to develop lung cancer and also to die

33

Asthma and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Hispanic Blacks reported that they currently have asthma. African Americans were 20% more likely to have asthma than non-Hispanic Whites, in 2011. In 2009, African Americans were three times more likely to die from ...

34

Cancer and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2006-2010) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – Men ... a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2006-2010) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – Women ...

35

African American Suicide  

MedlinePLUS

... per 100,000. In 2010, there were 389 African American female suicides. The ratio of African American male to ... 4.9 to 1. The suicide rate among African American females was the lowest of all racial/gender groups. ...

36

Parent Support and African American Adolescents' Career Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that African American adolescents are not being prepared to enter the workforce at the same rates as adolescents from other ethnic groups. While educational and career options were unavailable to African Americans in previous eras, today educational and career opportunities abound, yet many young African Americans are not in a…

Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.; Skovholt, Thomas M.

2004-01-01

37

The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans  

PubMed Central

Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

2010-01-01

38

African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

39

16 Extraordinary African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

Lobb, Nancy

40

Understanding African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

Bell, Edward Earl

2010-01-01

41

HMO employment and African-American physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID:16916130

Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

2006-01-01

42

Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

2009-01-01

43

Alcohol-Related Consequences in African American and European American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50% of college students report a heavy drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. This pattern of heavy episodic drinking places them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. In addition, important ethnic differences exist between European American and African American college students in terms of drinking. European American college students report consuming more alcohol than African American college students,

Jessica R. Skidmore; James G. Murphy; Matthew Martens; Ashley A. Dennhardt

2012-01-01

44

African American History Month  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

February is African American History Month, and, as the Library of Congress site notes, it's an area of history that should be incorporated into all discussions about American history. The Library of Congress listened to its own advice and created this most useful site to help students, teachers, and others to do just that. Visitors can read about a number of notable African Americans, including historian Carter G. Woodson and Congressman Major Owens. By clicking on the "Exhibits & Collections" area visitors can look through some of the digital collections related to various aspects of African American history. Additionally, the site also has other sections that provide primary materials on African Americans in the performing arts as well as oral histories from the Veterans History Project.

45

The College: Arts & Sciences African & African-American Studies  

E-print Network

The College: Arts & Sciences African & African-American Studies Department: African & African-American for the course description. Department: African & African-American Studies Course: AAS 122 Title: History of Jazz Description: Please see MUR 122 for the course description. Department: African & African-American Studies

Mahon, Bradford Z.

46

African-Americans and Alzheimer's  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

47

Precedents in African American architecture  

E-print Network

As a sub-sets of American culture, African Americans have not been able to offer culturally specific architectural elements to the design process because the history of African American form and space has not been recognized ...

Sass, Lawrence

1994-01-01

48

Diabetes in African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Moving towards prevention of Type 2 Diabetes This music CD helps African Americans incorporate more physical activity ... move more. Three songs from the popular Movimiento music CD also are included. This CD also contains ...

49

Socioeconomic impact of ethnic cosmetic surgery: trends and potential financial impact the african american, asian american, latin american, and middle eastern communities have on cosmetic surgery.  

PubMed

The popularity of cosmetic surgery has increased around the world, and whereas in the past, the patient base consisted of mainly Caucasian individuals, interest in this field has grown among persons of varying ethnic backgrounds. Growing interest enables ethnic populations to contribute to the economic growth of the cosmetic surgery industry and impact the direction of the field in the future. Minority populations accounted for 22% of the cosmetic procedures performed in 2007, with the most common being liposuction, Botox((R)) generic botulinum toxin type A (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA), and chemical peels. Ultimately, changes in the population characteristics of the plastic surgery patient will alter the techniques of plastic surgeons that treat ethnic patients to cater to their physical differences. Factors such as increased cultural acceptance of plastic surgery, growing ethnic populations, and media emphasis on personal appearance have contributed to the increase in minorities seeking out cosmetic surgery. Escalating economic power within these populations has created an additional potentially lucrative market for interested plastic surgeons. PMID:20676308

Wimalawansa, Sunishka; McKnight, Aisha; Bullocks, Jamal M

2009-08-01

50

Asian American Studies Comparative Ethnic Studies  

E-print Network

0 Asian American Studies Comparative Ethnic Studies Indigenous/Native American Studies Latino Studies CSER Student Guide 2012-13 Ethnicity & Race Center for the Study of #12;1 About CSER Founded in 1999, the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race (CSER) is a vibrant teaching, research and public

Qian, Ning

51

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStreet-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the

Philippe Bourgois; Alexis Martinez; Alex Kral; Brian R Edlin; Jeff Schonberg; Dan Ciccarone

2006-01-01

52

Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

2005-04-01

53

Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

Walton, Emily

2012-01-01

54

The Prevalence and Context of Sexual Harassment Among African American and White American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic differences in the prevalence, type, and outcome of sexual harassment in various work and social settings were examined in a stratified community sample of 248 African American and White American women. Almost half of the women reported sexual harassment in work and social environments. Significant ethnic differences were found in the prevalence and type of sexual harassment and in

GAIL E. WYATT; MONIKA RIEDERLE

1995-01-01

55

Ethnicity, Nativity and the Health of American Blacks  

PubMed Central

Few national studies have empirically examined ethnic differences in health within the American Black population. We utilized logistic regression to examine the relationships among ethnicity, nativity, depressive symptoms, and physical health in the two largest ethnic groups of American Blacks, African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, an in-person national household survey representative of the non-institutionalized U.S. Black population. We found that African Americans, U.S.-born Caribbean Blacks, and Caribbean-born Blacks had significantly different self-ratings of their health and self-reports of being diagnosed with a chronic physical health condition. Whether assessed by self-rated health or the presence of at least one physician diagnosed chronic health condition, Caribbean-born Blacks had the best health outcomes and U.S.-born Caribbean Blacks had the worst. This finding remained significant even after considering self-reported depressive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering ethnic diversity, nativity and immigration as independent sources of variation in health status within the American Black population. PMID:21317512

Griffith, Derek M.; Johnson, Jonetta; Zhang, Rong; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S.

2012-01-01

56

The Peoples Multicultural Almanac: America from the 1400s to Present. 365 Days of Contributions by African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, European Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Peoples Multicultural Almanac provides five entries for each day in the school year, September through May, organized for the following ethnic groups: (1) African Americans; (2) Asian Americans; (3) European Americans; (4) Hispanic Americans; and (5) Native Americans. The entries highlight significant social, political, historical, cultural,…

Taylor, Earl J., Jr.; And Others

57

Ethnicity and American Group Life. A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic

Weed, Perry L., Comp.

58

Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

2013-01-01

59

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

60

Cancer and the African American Experience PDF  

Cancer.gov

African Americans bear an unequal burden of cancer. This is caused by a complex interplay of socio-economic, cultural, environmental, and biologic factors; the result is the persistence of inequalities in cancer care outcomes. These disparities encompass the entire spectrum of care, from screening and prevention activities, through diagnosis and treatment, to palliative and end of life care. Clinicians should be aware that concepts of race and ethnicity are social and political constructs, without a direct relationship to biology and genetics.

61

Psychopathy Subtypes among African American County Jail Inmates  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the classification of “psychopath” captures a heterogeneous group of offenders. Although several studies have provided evidence for two distinct psychopath subtypes, these studies have inadequately addressed potentially important ethnic differences. A recent taxonomic study found evidence for primary and secondary psychopath subgroups in a sample of European American offenders (Swogger & Kosson, 2007). The present study used cluster analysis to attempt to replicate those findings in a sample of African American offenders. Results confirm the presence of primary and secondary subtypes in African Americans. However, differences between the clusters obtained in the present and previous studies suggest that caution is warranted in generalizing offender taxonomies across ethnicity. PMID:19458787

Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.

2009-01-01

62

african-american studies 142AC african-american studies 156AC african-american studies 158 african-american stud-ies 173AC african-american studies 27AC african-american studies 28AC american studies 101AC american studies  

E-print Network

african-american studies 142AC · african-american studies 156AC · african-american studies 158 · african-american stud- ies 173AC · african-american studies 27AC · african-american studies 28AC · american studies 101AC · american studies 10AC · american studies 139AC · anthropology 121AC · anthropology

Walker, Matthew P.

63

African American Legislators' Perceptions of Firearm Violence Prevention Legislation.  

PubMed

Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28 %). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88 %) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10 %) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72 %) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

2014-10-10

64

Elder Abuse among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

2006-01-01

65

African & African-American Studies University of Kansas  

E-print Network

African & African-American Studies University of Kansas A Handbook for Graduate Students Department of African & African-American Studies 1440 Jayhawk Boulevard Bailey Hall, Room 9 Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (785-American Studies at the University of Kansas is to produce scholars, teachers, administrators, and other

66

Black or African American Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States: 2012 US Census Bureau, Poverty Data Income and Poverty in the United States, 2013 Report Issued September, ... percentage of African American adults lived below the poverty level and (ages 18-64 years) were unemployed ...

67

Trial and Lifetime Smoking Risks among African American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed African American college students regarding cigarette use magnitude, risk factors, and predictors. Over half had smoked at least once, and 9.3 percent were lifetime smokers. More women than men smoked. For trial smoking, predictors were current residence, parent smoking status, and friends' smoking. For lifetime smoking, race/ethnicity,…

Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, S. Carrol; Rhodes, Warren A.; Sydnor, Kim Dobson

2001-01-01

68

Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

Talleyrand, Regine M.

2010-01-01

69

Take up the Caregiver's Burden: Stories of Care for Urban African American Elders with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study uses an anthropological gaze to analyze transcripts of extended in-home interviews among a set of ten caregivers of African-American elders with dementia. How are race and ethnicity made to matter in the recognition of, the meaning-making around and the responses to dementing illness among a sample of African-American caregivers? The essay contrasts prevailing cultural representations of African-American

Kenneth Fox; Sue Levkoff; W. Ladson Hinton

1999-01-01

70

The online obstacle : a study of African-American enterprise on the Internet  

E-print Network

Iconic Web companies based in the US, along the likes of Google, Facebook, and Twitter, have exhibited some racial/ethnic diversity among their founders, yet there appears to be a dearth of African-Americans in the group. ...

Lamb, Allen T. (Allen Terrel)

2010-01-01

71

Five African American Male Superintendents and Their Leadership in Diverse School Districts in Texas  

E-print Network

and teachers those superintendents serve and supervise which will, by the year 2020, make up 38% racial and ethnic minorities (Volp, 2001). Historical Perspectives on African American Superintendents There has been limited research on the subject...

Smothers, Aneil 1968-

2012-11-29

72

American Ethnic Groups: A Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides a survey of selective, recent literature on American ethnic groups. Emphasis is on the immigrant experience, political and social development, and contemporary rediscovery and resurgence. The majority of the literature in this last category is popular and journalistic but does provide a beginning to understanding recent…

Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.

73

Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

2011-01-01

74

Retention of African Americans in Gifted Education: Lessons Learned from Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predominately White institutions of higher education have focused a considerable amount of attention on the underrepresentation of African American and other ethnically diverse students in colleges and universities. To address this problem, colleges and universities have focused not just on recruitment but also on the retention of African American

Moore, James L., III; Ford, Donna Y.; Owens, Delila; Hall, Ted; Byrd, Melendez; Henfield, Malik; Whiting, Gilman W.

2006-01-01

75

Critical Race Theory: A Counternarrative of African American Male Medical Students Attending Predominately White Medical Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…

Morgan, Adrienne L.

2013-01-01

76

"We Don't Feel Welcome Here": African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics…

Louie, Josephine

2005-01-01

77

A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

Walls, Leon

2009-01-01

78

A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13–19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels

Jessy G. Dévieux; Robert M. Malow; Emma Ergon-Pérez; Deanne Samuels; Patria Rojas; Sarah R. Khushal; Michèle Jean-Gilles

2005-01-01

79

Participation and Degree Attainment of African-American and Latino Students in Graduate Education Relative to Other Racial and Ethnic Groups: An Update from Office of Civil Rights Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Degree completion data from an Office of Civil Rights survey of over 10,000 colleges show (1) African-American and Latino graduate enrollments were not better in 1988 than in 1982; (2) traditionally African-American colleges enroll significant numbers in math and sciences; and (3) nonresident aliens are substantially overrepresented in sciences…

Thomas, Gail E.

1992-01-01

80

Recommendations for the use of online social support for African American men.  

PubMed

African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

Watkins, Daphne C; Jefferson, S Olivia

2013-08-01

81

Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men  

PubMed Central

African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

2014-01-01

82

Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

2013-01-01

83

Adaptation of African-American cultural and food preferences in end-stage renal disease diets.  

PubMed

Emphasis on culturally based and ethnically oriented food selection by nutrition health professionals is needed to effectively plan therapeutic diets. With the influx of numerous ethnic groups into the United States and the merging of cultural practices, it is important for dietitians to become familiar with specific ethnic foods and regional cooking techniques. In this review, the influence of immigration on regional cuisine is documented. Dominant patterns of typical African-American ethnic menus for holidays and special celebrations are revealed. Analysis of common foods in the African-American culture are listed for reference, along with a glossary of ethnic foods. Renal guidelines are presented for various stages of end-stage renal disease. When planning a specific renal diet, African-American ethnic preferences can be incorporated into the meal plan or appropriate substitutions can be recommended. A suggested sample menu for hemodialysis patients that incorporates African-American preferences is included for reference. Health risks also influence current eating trends of the African-American population. Hypertension and obesity are two physiological factors that need to be evaluated and considered when planning renal diets. Literacy skills and appropriate dietary instructional material is discussed. Reference materials developed for nutrition professionals are important and can be used in the planning of renal diets for African-Americans. PMID:8996618

Patel, C; Nicol, A

1997-01-01

84

Comparison of hospice use by European americans, african americans, and latinos: a follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the rate of hospice use by Latinos and African Americans relative to their prevalence in the general population between 2004 and 2010 as a follow-up to a previous investigation. Archival data (N = 2625) were collected on patients' race/ethnicity, gender, marital status, length of stay in hospice, and reason for discharge. In contrast to previous findings, African Americans were more likely to utilize hospice services, but Latinos were less likely to use hospice services compared to the other groups. There were no differences among the racial/ethnic groups in terms of length of stay or disposition at termination. Strengthening efforts to reach a larger racial/ethnic representation in hospice programs may increase the rate of hospice use by some racial/ethnic groups but not others. PMID:24219885

Colón, Merydawilda; Lyke, Jennifer

2015-03-01

85

African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

86

Statistical Profile of Older African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... relatives, and 39 percent lived alone. INCOME AND POVERTY Households containing families headed by African Americans age ... for men and $16,040 for women. The poverty rate in 2012 for African Americans age 65 ...

87

Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males  

E-print Network

Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges for 2013 Prepared-Milwaukee 2013 #12;Wisconsin's Mass Incarceration of African American Males: Workforce Challenges of 2013 1 and practices leading to mass incarceration of African Americans men and suspensions of driving privileges

Saldin, Dilano

88

African American Girls and the Challenges Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy

Judith L. Rozie-Battle

2002-01-01

89

Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

2014-01-01

90

Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

91

African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy  

PubMed Central

Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159

Yerger, V; Malone, R

2002-01-01

92

Barriers to hospice use among African Americans: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and interventions designed to increase the number of African Americans using hospice services that have been tested. Results indicate that both qualitative and quantitative methods have identified the following key factors that contribute to the underuse of hospice services by members of the African American community: personal or cultural values in conflict with hospice philosophy, lack of awareness of hospice services, concern about burdening family, economic factors, mistrust of the health care system, and expected lack of ethnic minority employees in hospice agencies. Implications for future social work research and practice with terminally ill African Americans and their families include efforts to quantitatively determine whether the identified key factors contribute significantly in the decisions they make regarding end-of-life care. In addition, social work intervention studies are recommended to offer tested interventions designed to increase the use of hospice services that are cost-effective and culturally competent. PMID:19070274

Washington, Karla T; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

2008-11-01

93

Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

2007-01-01

94

Classic African American Children's Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

McNair, Jonda C.

2010-01-01

95

Mapping the African American Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mapping the African American Past (MAAP) project, produced by a team of researchers and specialists at Columbia University, offers a marriage of African American history and geography in New York City. The project was funded by JPMorganChase, and it allows users to navigate through sites of importance to the African American community throughout the city's past. New visitors may wish to start by watching the short film, "Introduction to MAAP", and then move on over to the "Place in Focus" feature. Here they can learn about places like Five Points, the Abyssinian Baptist Church, and the home of David Ruggles. They can also use an interactive map to toggle through places associated with certain time periods, such as the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Additionally, the site also contains lesson plans that address topics that include African American community and culture and "Building New York". The site is rounded out by a series of podcasts which cover all 52 locations featured on the MAAP website.

96

African-American Children's Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of representative stories told by black American children of West African descent in South Carolina shows that specific cultural motifs have been preserved in the oral tradition of black communities. Typical stories are tales of the supernatural, such as the Hag story about mortals who shed their skin at night to do evil deeds.…

Nichols, Patricia C.

97

HIV among African American Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... young white females. • The majority of young black females with HIV are infected through heterosexual contact. HIV treatment helps people with HIV live healthy lives and prevent transmission of the virus to partners. However, among African Americans who have been diagnosed with HIV, youth are ...

98

Tobacco Use among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups--African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…

Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

99

Parenting, Social-Emotional Development, and School Achievement of African American Youngsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, with the passage of No Child Left Behind Act (2001) (NCLB), renewed attention has been devoted to the achievement gap and the school achievement of ethnic minority children and youth. Ethnic differences in academic performance appear when children are young and continue into adulthood. For example, there are significant differences in the vocabulary scores of African American

Ronald D. Taylor

100

An Exploratory Study of the Career Decisions of African American and Hispanic Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need for culturally diverse teachers. Weiher (2000) studied the relationship between African American and Hispanic student achievement and schools with teachers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated the greater the difference between the percentage of ethnically diverse teachers and the percentage of diverse students, the…

Waller, Johnnye

2010-01-01

101

An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American

Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

2014-01-01

102

Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization among Low-Income African American Adolescents: Closing the Gap by Enhancing Practitioner’s Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of racial and ethnic match as a barrier to care in mental health treatment services has received considerable attention. In systems of care, which provide public mental health services to African American adolescents, the provider base is largely non-African American. This difference presents a challenge for African American adolescents and their parents who want a provider who is

Valire Carr Copeland

2006-01-01

103

Gender and Ethnic Identity Development among College Students from Four Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS) were administered to 150 male and female college students from four ethnic groups (African American; Asian American; Hispanic American; White American) to assess the influence of gender and ethnic group membership upon ego and ethnic

Chae, Mark H.

104

African American rhinoplasty.  

PubMed

Rhinoplasty in patients of African descent requires a patient-specific approach, because the goals and ideal proportions differ from the white nose. This article discusses approaches to surgical correction of common anatomic variations. In addition, common pitfalls are outlined. PMID:25049123

Boyette, Jennings R; Stucker, Fred J

2014-08-01

105

Germline mutations in PALB2 in African-American breast cancer cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer incidence is lower in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. However, African-American women have higher\\u000a breast cancer mortality rates and tend to be diagnosed with earlier-onset disease. Identifying factors correlated to the racial\\/ethnic\\u000a variation in the epidemiology of breast cancer may provide better understanding of the more aggressive disease at diagnosis.\\u000a Truncating germline mutations in PALB2 have been

Yuan Chun Ding; Linda Steele; Li-Hao Chu; Karen Kelley; Helen Davis; Esther M. John; Gail E. Tomlinson; Susan L. Neuhausen

2011-01-01

106

The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

2008-01-01

107

Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American

Hill, Paul, Jr.

108

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâÂÂs oral traditions.

109

The African-American house as a vehicle of discovery for an African-American architecture  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is three-fold: (1) This thesis seeks to uncover evidence of a distinctly African-American architectural form. The primary building type observed will be the house, or the housing of African-Americans ...

Clarke, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

1996-01-01

110

Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

2014-01-01

111

The Media as a System of RacializationExploring Images of African American Women and the New Racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the media perpetuate ideas about race and ethnicity that place African American women at a clear disadvantage. Beginning with the welfare queen image during the Reagan administration and moving to the porno chick represented in current videos, society views a daily discourse on race, gender, and class that continues to reproduce dominant and distorted views of African American womanhood

Marci Bounds Littlefield

2008-01-01

112

Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

2009-01-01

113

Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

Muhammad, Rhonda K.

2012-01-01

114

Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community. PMID:17047727

Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

2006-01-01

115

An African American Resour to the University of Californ  

E-print Network

#12;#12;An African American Resour to the University of Californ Table of Contents Message from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 African American Community Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 An African American Resource Guide to the University of California, Irvine #12;Welcome! We

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

116

Health-related Quality of Life of African American Breast Cancer Survivors Compared to Healthy African American Women  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on Caucasian samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Even when African American BCS have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American women BCS to African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). Methods A total of 140 women (62 BCS and 78 control), ages 18 years or older and 2–10 years post-diagnosis, was recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a one-time survey based on Brenner’s (1995) proximal-distal health-related quality of life model. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, African American BCS experienced more fatigue (p=0.001), worse hot flashes (p<0.001) and worse sleep quality (p<0.001), but more social support from their partner (p=0.028) and more positive change (p=0.001) compared to African American women controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that African American women BCS may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socio-economic status and body mass index. Implications for Practice Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions. PMID:22228394

Von Ah, Diane M.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zhao, Qianqian; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D.; Giesler, R. Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L.

2011-01-01

117

The Minority Experience -- A Basic Bibliography of American Ethnic Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 950 books and periodicals published between 1940 and 1969 are cited in this bibliography prepared for teachers and students of American minority ethnic groups. Afro Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans are the 3 groups specifically covered in the bibliography. The titles dealing with each minority group reflect concern…

Caselli, Ron, Comp.; And Others

118

Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

2009-01-01

119

HIV Behavioral Interventions for Heterosexual African American Men: A Critical Review of Cultural Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the United States, the rate of HIV infection transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact is disproportionately higher\\u000a among African American than among persons of other races or ethnicities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],\\u000a 2009). Therefore, African American men who have sex with women represent a critical target for behavioral interventions designed\\u000a to reduce HIV incidence in this community.

Kirk D. Henny; Kim M. Williams; Jocelyn Patterson

120

African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English  

Microsoft Academic Search

AfricanAmerican undergraduates evaluated two language guises: BlackEnglish and Standard American English. The speaker in these guises described activities in a weekend (informal) and in a business (formal) setting. Based on their scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale, 55 respondents were categorized as having either a low or high commitment to an African American identity. Results showed that persons without a

Michael J. White; Beverly J. Vandiver; Maria L. Becker; Belinda G. Overstreet; Linda E. Temple; Kelly L. Hagan; Emily P. Mandelbaum

1998-01-01

121

HYPERTENSION TELEMANAGEMENT IN AFRICAN AMERICANS  

PubMed Central

Background We propose evaluation of a multi-component home automated telemanagement (HAT) system providing integrated support to both clinicians and patients in implementing hypertension treatment guidelines. Methods In a randomized clinical study 550 African Americans with hypertension are followed for 18 months. The major components of the intervention and control groups are identical and are based on the current standard of care. For the purpose of this study, we define “standard of care” as the expected evidence-based care provided according to the current hypertension treatment guidelines. While intervention and control groups are similar in terms of their care components, they differ in the mode of care delivery. For the control group the best attempt is made to deliver all components of a guideline-concordant care in a routine clinical environment whereas for the intervention group the routine clinical environment is enhanced with Health Information Technology (IT) that assists clinicians and patients in working together in implementing treatment guidelines. The HAT system guides patients in following their individualized treatment plans and helps care coordination team in monitoring the patient progress. The study design is aimed at addressing the main question of this trial: whether the addition of the IT-enhanced care coordination in the routine primary care setting can improve delivery of evidence-based hypertension care in African Americans. The outcome parameters include quality of life, medical care utilization, treatment compliance, psychosocial variables and improvement in blood pressure control rates. Conclusions The trial will provide insight on the potential impact of IT-enhanced care coordination in African Americans with poorly controlled hypertension. PMID:20031848

Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eunme

2009-01-01

122

Marital Satisfaction Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings From the National Survey of American Life*  

PubMed Central

This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women reported overall higher levels of marital satisfaction than African American women. The findings amply demonstrate the significance of ethnic diversity within the Black population in the United States. Difficulties with finances (budgeting, credit issues, and debt management) are one of the key issues that generate conflict in marriages; stress generated as a result of financial problems can lower marital satisfaction. Because these issues are salient for couples at any given time in the family life cycle, counseling at critical points in the marriage (birth of children, launching of children from home, and retirement) may be helpful. PMID:21151891

Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

2010-01-01

123

African Americans and World War II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

Kersten, Andrew E.

2002-01-01

124

Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

Mims, Adrian B.

2010-01-01

125

Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

2009-01-01

126

African Americans and the Industrial Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

2000-01-01

127

Professor, Communication Studies and African American Studies  

E-print Network

Professor, Communication Studies and African American Studies Director of African American Studies Program Ph.D., Indiana University, 1998 Information Technology Solutions February 16, 2012 6:30pm, Africana Studies, Office of Multicultural Student Affairs, Office of Academic Enhancement, BOND & UBS

Miami, University of

128

Improving Outcomes for Urban African American Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores causes for the disproportionate representation of African American students in mild mental retardation and serious emotional disturbances special education categories. Provides recommendations to promote positive academic and social behavior for African American students that may prevent the students' need for specialized education…

Gardner, Ralph, III; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell

2001-01-01

129

Mental health and diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American and European American female dementia family caregivers.  

PubMed

Using a sociocultural stress and coping model, this pilot study examines the influence of depressive symptoms and stress on diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American (N=30) and European American (N=24) female dementia caregivers and noncaregivers (African American, N=48; European American, N=15). Caregiving participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS) as respective measures of depressive symptoms, stress, and stress resilience. Participants also collected five saliva samples daily for two consecutive days. African American caregivers scored significantly higher than European American caregivers on the SRGS, but they did not differ on the PSS and CES-D scales. Regression analyses with age, ethnicity, caregiving status, and depressive symptoms as predictors, and cortisol slope as criterion, showed that only age and ethnicity predicted cortisol slope. African Americans had flatter slopes than the European Americans sampled, regardless of caregiving status. Findings highlight the role of cultural beliefs and of ethnicity in explaining cortisol function. PMID:16861373

McCallum, T J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Fritsch, Thomas

2006-08-01

130

African American Oral History Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Telling the story of Louisville's African American community is an ambitious goal and the University of Louisville's Oral History Center has done a fine job with this website. The process began in the 1970s with funding from the Kentucky Oral History Commission, which supported the collection's first batch of interviews. A wide range of people was interviewed for the project, including politicians, doctors, musicians, and educators as well as "regular folks." Currently, there are 27 interviews, and visitors can browse through them to get a sense of the offerings. One particularly fascinating interviewee is Dr. Jesse Bell, a longtime physician in Louisville. The collection will intrigue historians, urbanologists, and others with a passion for the American experience.

2010-01-01

131

78 FR 21908 - Request for Nominations of Members To Serve on the National Advisory Committee on Racial, Ethnic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...youth, aging populations, American Indian and Alaska Native tribal...populations, complex households, poverty populations, race/ ethnic...the following populations: African American; American Indian and Alaska Native;...

2013-04-12

132

Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.  

PubMed

In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families. PMID:22792848

Borum, Valerie

2012-01-01

133

Asian American Studies Department College of Ethnic Studies  

E-print Network

Asian American Studies Department College of Ethnic Studies San Francisco State University Retention, Tenure, and Promotion Reviews Department Evaluation Criteria The following Asian American Studies and by the University Provost, Academic Affairs on April 8, 2011. The Asian American Studies Department expects its

134

Impegno nero: Italian Intellectuals and the African-American Struggle  

E-print Network

poverty, and violence decried by much African-Americanpoverty in Italy, and that the militant opposition to injustice central to African-AmericanAfrican Americans mirrored those on European minorities during the war, that the miseries of black poverty

Leavitt IV, Charles L.

2013-01-01

135

Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

2009-01-01

136

Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

137

African Americans, U.S. Poverty, and International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical rates of poverty among African Americans often hide the cultural and historical nature of their intended consequences. Unfavorable outcomes for social change can occur when viewing poverty among African Americans in isolation from their unique historical and cultural experiences and U.S. social, political, and capitalistic influences. While pressures to subordinate African Americans continue, African Americans also exert pressure (e.g.,

Valerie Borum

2007-01-01

138

The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

Weintraub, Elaine

1993-01-01

139

Hypertensive risk factors in kidney disease in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertensive risk factors in kidney disease in African Americans. African Americans with hypertension more commonly develop renal insufficiency compared to Caucasians. The African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK) included a renal biopsy pilot study that demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis of so-called hypertensive nephrosclerosis in these African American patients indeed was accurate. This biopsy study demonstrated extensive global glomerulosclerosis,

Agnes B. Fogo

2003-01-01

140

Unexpected findings in the exploration of African American underrepresentation in biospecimen collection and biobanks.  

PubMed

Racial/ethnic minorities are underrepresented in current biobanking programs. The current study utilized community-based participatory research to identify motivating factors and barriers that affect older African Americans' willingness to donate biospecimens. The standardized phone survey was administered to 78 African Americans who are 55 years old or older and live in the metropolitan Detroit area to assess their overall willingness to donate biospecimens and what factors were associated with it. The majority of the participants were willing to donate biospecimens, along with their personal information, for medical research and indicated that they did donate biospecimens when they were asked. However, African Americans were rarely asked to participate in biobanking programs. Furthermore, African Americans were not as concerned with research exploitation or as mistrusting of medical researchers as previously thought by the medical researchers. Even if African Americans were concerned over potential research exploitation or mistrust of medical researchers, these concerns or mistrust did not translate into an actual unwillingness to participate in biobanking programs. Rather, transparency in medical research and biobanking programs was more important when predicting African Americans' willingness to donate biospecimens for medical research. The findings suggest that underrepresentation of African Americans in current biobanking programs may not be due to their willingness/unwillingness to participate in such programs but rather due to a failure of medical researchers to approach them. Additionally, researchers and clinicians should focus on increasing the transparency of medical research and biobanking programs rather than changing African Americans' potential negative attitudes toward them. PMID:24243440

Hagiwara, Nao; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Francis, Carie; Ramsey, Lauren; Chapman, Robert A; Albrecht, Terrance L

2014-09-01

141

African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers.  

PubMed

Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing. PMID:22211059

Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

2011-01-01

142

The Development of Ethnic Identity During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N = 420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were assessed—group-esteem was found to rise for both early and

Sabine Elizabeth French; Edward Seidman; LaRue Allen; J. Lawrence Aber

2006-01-01

143

Ethnic Identification, Intermarriage, and Unmeasured Progress by Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Census and CPS data, we show that U.S.-born Mexican Americans who marry non-Mexicans are substantially more educated and English proficient, on average, than are Mexican Americans who marry co-ethnics (whether they be Mexican Americans or Mexican immigrants). In addition, the non-Mexican spouses of intermarried Mexican Americans possess relatively high levels of schooling and English proficiency, compared to the spouses

Brian Duncan; Stephen Trejo

2007-01-01

144

Lung Cancer and African Americans: Know the Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... white Americans: for example, from 2003 to 2007, African American men had a 23 percent higher rate of new lung cancer diagnoses than white men. African Americans also have a lower five-year relative survival rate than whites. ...

145

75 FR 6081 - National African American History Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...many hard-working Americans whose legacies are...opportunity for most African Americans, yet substantial obstacles...the vicious cycle of poverty--still pose enormous...past generations of African Americans to rise above the...

2010-02-05

146

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

2010-01-01

147

Cultural Self Meets Cultural Other in the African American Experience: Teachers' Responses to a Curriculum Content Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses certain complexities of personal transformation among people implementing African and African American curriculum content reform in the Buffalo (New York) public schools, highlighting individual teachers' understanding of and responses to the reform and noting that attitudes about their own and other people's ethnicity proved important…

Shujaa, Mwalimu J.

1995-01-01

148

Adversarial Diplomacy and African American Politics  

E-print Network

financial and organizational support for the lobby. Thelend their financial support to, the new lobby. Respondingfinancial challenges that faced African Americans in attempting to build support for their lobby,

Williams II, Ronald Cartell

2011-01-01

149

African American Community Mental Health Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... population and only 12 percent of the U.S. population. People experiencing homelessness are at a greater risk of developing a mental illness. • Nearly half of all prisoners in the United States are African American. Prison ...

150

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans Update for RTOG in Tampa Feb 2, 2007 Patrick D. Maguire, MD New Hanover Regional (NHRMC) Update for NHRMC Feb 2, 2007 I. Radiotherapy (RT) Clinical Trials II. Publications III. Partnership & Telesynergy IV. Patient

151

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans New Hanover Regional Medical Center Coastal Area Health Education Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Carolina at Wilmington Report given at the Program Steering Committee

152

Cancer and the African American Experience PPT  

Cancer.gov

EPEC-O Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care - Oncology Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans EPEC - Oncology Education in Palliative and End-of-life Care -Oncology : Cultural Considerations When Caring

153

Caveats in the neuropsychological assessment of African Americans.  

PubMed Central

This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured African Americans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations. PMID:12126285

Campbell, Alfonso L.; Ocampo, Carlota; DeShawn Rorie, Kashemi; Lewis, Sonya; Combs, Shawn; Ford-Booker, Phyllis; Briscoe, Juanita; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Brown, Andrew; Wood, Don; Dennis, Gary; Weir, Roger; Hastings, Alicia

2002-01-01

154

Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources.  

PubMed

The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111554

Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

2015-01-01

155

Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.  

PubMed

Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212

Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

2013-01-01

156

Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.  

PubMed

The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

2014-06-01

157

African American Men and Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on interviews with African American males in violent intimate relationships, this paper focuses on individual causes\\u000a (exposure to violence), cultural causes (constructions of masculinity) and structural causes (unemployment and incarceration)\\u000a of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American men. IPV is “triggered” by two threats to masculinity, though I\\u000a focus exclusively on the first trigger (breadwinning). The analyses are

Earl Smith

2008-01-01

158

Late-life Depression in Older African Americans: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological and Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Objective The population of older African Americans is expected to triple by 2050, highlighting the public health importance of understanding their mental health needs. Despite evidence of the negative impact of late-life depression, less is known of how this disorder affects the lives of older African Americans. Lack of studies focusing on how depression presents in older African Americans and their subsequent treatment needs lead to a gap in epidemiologic and clinical knowledge for this population. In this review, we aim to present a concise report of prevalence, correlates, course, outcomes, symptom recognition, and treatment of depression for these individuals. Method We performed a literature review of English-language articles identified from PubMed and Medline published between January 1990 and June 2012. Studies included older adults and contained the key words “geriatric depression in African Americans,” “geriatric depression in Blacks,” and geriatric depression in minorities.” Results Although in most studies older African Americans had higher or equivalence prevalence of depression compared to Caucasian Americans, we also found lower rates of recognition of depression and treatment. Many studies reported worse outcomes associated for depression among older African Americans compared older Caucasians. Conclusions Serious racial and ethnic disparities persist in the management of older African Americans with depression. Understanding their unmet needs and improving depression care for these individuals is necessary to reduce these disparities. PMID:23225736

Pickett, Yolonda R.; Bazelais, Kisha N.; Bruce, Martha L.

2013-01-01

159

Correlates of Physical Activity among African-American and Caucasian Female Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated determinants of participation in moderately and vigorously intense physical activity among African-American and Caucasian adolescent female high school students. Survey results indicated differences in psychosocial predictors of physical activity by type of activity and ethnic group. Self-efficacy and school sport participation were…

Bungum, Timothy; Pate, Russell; Dowda, Marsha; Vincent, Murray

1999-01-01

160

A Composite Counterstorytelling: Memoirs of African American Military Students in Hawaii Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are social, educational and behavioral problems for African American students in Hawaii public schools. Utilizing Critical Race Theory as a lens for analysis, the perceptions and experiences of these students regarding race, ethnic identity, military lineage, and self-definition are addressed. A composite counterstory of the researcher's and…

Hairston, Kimetta R.

2010-01-01

161

A comparison of urinary incontinence among African American, Asian, Hispanic, and white women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to compare urodynamic findings and the rate of incontinence diagnoses among various ethnic groups. Study Design: Data were collected for all new patients referred to the urogynecology clinic during a 10-year period. One hundred ninety-five Hispanic, 95 white, 66 Asian, and 59 African American women had urodynamic testing and were included in the study. All

Thinh H. Duong; Abner P. Korn

2001-01-01

162

Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

2005-01-01

163

Perceived Racism and Career Self-Efficacy in African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American adolescents' perceptions of racism and career self-efficacy relationships are examined. Participants in a southwestern urban high school completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Racism and Life Experiences Scale-Personal and -Group, and career decision and career task self-efficacy scales. Results indicate that…

Rollins, Vanessa B.; Valdez, Jesse N.

2006-01-01

164

African American Smokers Interested and Eligible for a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Recruitment is often the rate-limiting step in conducting clinical trials among ethnic minorities. Little is known about participants who consent and enroll into a trial, but do not return for randomization. Why participants fail to return for randomization is largely unknown.METHODS: We compared 287 enrolled African American smokers who did not return for randomization, to the 500 who returned

Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Kimber Richter; Matthew S Mayo; Harsohena K Ahluwalia; Won S Choi; Kristin H Schmelzle; Ken Resnicow

2002-01-01

165

Struggling to survive: Sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women?s increased risk for sexual assault and increased

Thema Bryant-Davis; Sarah E. Ullman; Yuying Tsong; Shaquita Tillman; Kimberly Smith

2010-01-01

166

Physical Activity among African American Women: Change and Ways of Knowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for African American women and suggest ways that future…

Henderson, Karla A.

2011-01-01

167

Substance Abuse in African Americans: In Search of a Culturally Competent Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Healthy People 2010 guidelines identify substance abuse as a major public health problem in need of effective interventions for diverse populations including racial and ethnic minorities. However, the literature with regard to substance abuse in the African American community is rather scant. This article discusses the need for a research…

Sharma, Manoj; Atri, Ashutosh

2006-01-01

168

Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

2010-01-01

169

A comparison of type 2 diabetes risk allele load between African Americans and European Americans.  

PubMed

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is greater in populations of African descent compared to European-descent populations. Genetic risk factors may underlie the disparity in disease prevalence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >60 common genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk in populations of European, Asian, African and Hispanic descent. These studies have not comprehensively examined population differences in cumulative risk allele load. To investigate the relationship between risk allele load and T2D risk, 46 T2D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 loci from GWAS in European, Asian, and African-derived populations were genotyped in 1,990 African Americans (n = 963 T2D cases, n = 1,027 controls) and 1,644 European Americans (n = 719 T2D cases, n = 925 controls) ascertained and recruited using a common protocol in the southeast United States. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed from the cumulative risk alleles for each individual. In African American subjects, risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.024 to 0.964. Risk alleles from 26 SNPs demonstrated directional consistency with previous studies, and 3 SNPs from ADAMTS9, TCF7L2, and ZFAND6 showed nominal evidence of association (p < 0.05). African American individuals carried 38-67 (53.7 ± 4.0, mean ± SD) risk alleles. In European American subjects, risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.084 to 0.996. Risk alleles from 36 SNPs demonstrated directional consistency, and 10 SNPs from BCL11A, PSMD6, ADAMTS9, ZFAND3, ANK1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, PRC1, FTO, and BCAR1 showed evidence of association (p < 0.05). European American individuals carried 38-65 (50.9 ± 4.4) risk alleles. African Americans have a significantly greater burden of 2.8 risk alleles (p = 3.97 × 10(-89)) compared to European Americans. However, GRS modeling showed that cumulative risk allele load was associated with risk of T2D in European Americans, but only marginally in African Americans. This result suggests that there are ethnic-specific differences in genetic architecture underlying T2D, and that these differences complicate our understanding of how risk allele load impacts disease susceptibility. PMID:25273842

Keaton, Jacob M; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Palmer, Nicholette D; Freedman, Barry I; Langefeld, Carl D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Bowden, Donald W

2014-12-01

170

for african and african-american students at arizona state university  

E-print Network

for african and african-american students at arizona state university aresourceguide #12;Welcome and helped to forge the modern American west through significant efforts like those of the Buffalo Soldiers, organizations and businesses that support our local African and African-American communities. We look forward

171

African-American Archaeology: Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network, Number 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Issue 19 (Early Winter 1997) of the African - American Archaeology: Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network has been posted by the publisher, New South Associates. Contents include a case study on Slavery and Consumerism, notices of current excavations and research, Internet resources, book reviews and notes, and professional news and announcements.

1997-01-01

172

Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

McBride, Chantee Earl

2010-01-01

173

Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

2009-01-01

174

Kidney disease in African Americans: genetic considerations.  

PubMed Central

African Americans shoulder a disproportionately high burden of kidney disease when compared with white Americans. While environmental factors such as poverty and poor health habits, and the high prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, contribute to the high rate of kidney disease in this population, genetic factors may also contribute. Studies of polymorphisms in genes encoding the proteins of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have identified alleles that are associated with kidney disease or changes in renal function in some populations. A higher prevalence of such alleles in African Americans may contribute to the increased prevalence of kidney disease. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the main causes of end-stage renal disease in the United States, are more prevalent in African Americans. However, no direct links between diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease and any genetic polymorphisms seen in African Americans have been identified. Further research is thus required to elucidate the genetic components that contribute to the high prevalence of kidney disease in African Americans. PMID:12152908

Price, Deborah A.; Crook, Errol D.

2002-01-01

175

Gateway to African-American History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gateway created by the State Department's International Information Programs features well-annotated links to Internet sites devoted to African-American literature and historical studies or involved with African-American issues. The site links to bibliographies, archival and research sites, presidential speeches, and full-text versions of government reports and articles on such topics as The Amistad Revolt, the Civil Rights Movement, and President Clinton's National Conversation on Race. A link is also provided to The Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History whose theme for this millennial Black History Month is "Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century."

176

Ancestry-informative markers for African Americans based on the Affymetrix Pan-African genotyping array  

PubMed Central

Genetic admixture has been utilized as a tool for identifying loci associated with complex traits and diseases in recently admixed populations such as African Americans. In particular, admixture mapping is an efficient approach to identifying genetic basis for those complex diseases with substantial racial or ethnic disparities. Though current advances in admixture mapping algorithms may utilize the entire panel of SNPs, providing ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) that can differentiate parental populations and estimate ancestry proportions in an admixed population may particularly benefit admixture mapping in studies of limited samples, help identify unsuitable individuals (e.g., through genotyping the most informative ancestry markers) before starting large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), or guide larger scale targeted deep re-sequencing for determining specific disease-causing variants. Defining panels of AIMs based on commercial, high-throughput genotyping platforms will facilitate the utilization of these platforms for simultaneous admixture mapping of complex traits and diseases, in addition to conventional GWAS. Here, we describe AIMs detected based on the Shannon Information Content (SIC) or Fst for African Americans with genome-wide coverage that were selected from ?2.3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covered by the Affymetrix Axiom Pan-African array, a newly developed genotyping platform optimized for individuals of African ancestry. PMID:25392759

Zhang, Xu; Mu, Wenbo; Liu, Cong

2014-01-01

177

Exercise economy in African American and European American women.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using (31) phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO(2), AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in (31)P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study's suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

Hunter, Gary R; McCarthy, John P; Bamman, Marcas M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R

2011-08-01

178

The business of preventing African-American infant mortality.  

PubMed Central

African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis. PMID:1413783

Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R

1992-01-01

179

Gender and Ethnicity Attributions to a Gender and Ethnicity-Unspecified Individual: Is there a People?=?White Male Bias?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated gender and ethnicity attributions to a gender- and ethnicity-unspecified individual (Chris) presented in one of two scripts (business versus interpersonal) to 192 African American and European American college students. Gender and ethnicity did not predict the likelihood of attributing masculine (77.60%) or feminine (22.40%) gender. Significantly more African American participants engaged in ethnicity attribution and saw Chris as

Rebecca Davis Merritt; Teion Wells Harrison

2006-01-01

180

Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

Wertsman, Vladimir F.

1999-01-01

181

Sociodemographic and health-related risk factors among African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic homeless men: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a 1989–1990 cross-sectional survey of homeless adults in California were stratified by ethnicity to examine whether adverse childhood events and adult medical disorders preceding homelessness differed between 269 African-American, 599 Caucasian, 201 foreign-born Hispanic, and 136 native-born Hispanic men. Although African-Americans were overrepresented (21%) compared with their presence in local (3%) and state (7%) populations, within the homeless

Laurie A. Davis; Marilyn A. Winkleby

1993-01-01

182

Genetic and Molecular Differences in Prostate Carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian American Men  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Prostate cancer incidence and associated mortality are highest in African American men in comparison to other races. The observed differences in incidence and disease aggressiveness at presentation support a potential role for different pathways of prostate carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian men. This review focuses on some of the recent molecular biology discoveries, which have been investigated in prostate carcinogenesis and their likely contribution to the known discrepancies across race and ethnicity. Key discussion points include the androgen receptor gene structure and function, genome-wide association studies and epigenetics. The new observations of the ethnic differences of the ERG oncogene, the most common prostate cancer gene, are providing new insights into ERG based stratification of prostate cancers in the context of ethnically diverse patient populations. This rapidly advancing knowledge has the likely potential to benefit clinical practice. Current and future work will improve the ability to sub-type prostate cancers by molecular alterations and lead to targeted therapy against this common malignancy. PMID:23892597

Farrell, James; Petrovics, Gyorgy; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv

2013-01-01

183

Addressing the lack of Baseball Consumption amongst African Americans  

E-print Network

representation, and African American players in pop-culture. The current study examined African American attitudes towards baseball consumption by investigating the role of perceived fit and its association with the theory of reasoned action. The study...

Brown, Brandon Leigh

2013-08-06

184

78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 Presidential...8992 of May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President...lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our...

2013-06-06

185

The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth  

PubMed Central

The present study examined ethnic, gender and age differences in perceived discrimination, and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth. Results indicate that the majority of Black youth perceived at least one discriminatory incident in the previous year. Adolescents at later stages of development perceived more discrimination than those at earlier stages, and African American and Caribbean Black males perceived more discrimination than their female counterparts. Perceptions of discrimination were positively linked to depressive symptoms and negatively linked to self-esteem and life satisfaction, regardless of ethnicity. However, Caribbean Black youth appear to be more vulnerable when they perceive high levels of discrimination. PMID:18793063

Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

2008-01-01

186

Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans  

PubMed Central

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

2011-01-01

187

Barriers to Treatment Among African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

African Americans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent African Americans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult African Americans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the African American OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to African Americans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the African American participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers. PMID:22410094

Williams, M.T.; Domanico, J.; Marques, L.; Leblanc, N.J.; Turkheimer, E.

2012-01-01

188

Postmodern Perspective on the Economics of African American Fatherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of African American fatherhood have not been effectively conveyed to social work practitioners. The prevailing\\u000a assumption of African American fathers by practitioners is that they are absent or dysfunctional. Despite the existence of\\u000a successful African American fathers, bias in the literature and practice reinforce deficit models as African American. To\\u000a eliminate bias, social scientists and human service practitioners

Ronald E. Hall; Jonathan N. Livingston; Valerie V. Henderson; Glenn O. Fisher; Rebekah Hines

2007-01-01

189

AFRICAN AMERICANS HAVE A GREATER SENSITIVITY TO ALPHA1-ADRENOCEPTOR-MEDIATED VENOCONSTRICTION COMPARED TO CAUCASIANS  

PubMed Central

African Americans have increased hemodynamic responses to both physiologic and pharmacologic adrenergic stimulation compared to Caucasians, and this may contribute to the greater prevalence of hypertension in this ethnic group. A small study suggested enhanced ?1-adrenoreceptor-mediated arterial vasoconstriction in the forearm vasculature of African Americans compared to Caucasians, but it is unknown whether this reflects a generalized vascular phenomenon. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in venous ?1-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Using a linear variable differential transformer, we measured local dorsal hand vein responses to increasing doses of the selective ?1-adrenoreceptor agonist, phenylephrine, in 106 subjects (64 Caucasians and 42 African Americans). There was wide interindividual variability in responses to phenylephrine. The dose that produced 50% of maximal constriction (ED50) ranged from 11 to 5442 ng/min, and maximal venoconstriction (Emax) ranged from 13.5% to 100%. African Americans (geometric mean ED50=172 ng/min; 95% CI, 115 to 256 ng/min) were more sensitive to phenylephrine than Caucasians (310 ng/min; 95% CI, 222 to 434 ng/min; unadjusted P=0.026; adjusted P=0.003). Median Emax was slightly higher in African Americans (89%; IQR, 82% to 98%) compared to Caucasians (85%; IQR, 75% to 95%; P=0.07). Taken together with previous findings in arterial vessels, our results suggest a generalized increased sensitivity to ?1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in African Americans. Increased vascular ?-adrenoreceptor sensitivity could predispose to hypertension, and future studies addressing this mechanism’s contribution to ethnic differences in the prevalence of hypertension will be of interest. PMID:23399717

Adefurin, Abiodun; Ghimire, Laxmi V.; Kohli, Utkarsh; Muszkat, Mordechai; Sofowora, Gbenga G.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Stein, C. Michael; Kurnik, Daniel

2013-01-01

190

Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American

Patterson, Jacqueline

191

Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

2004-01-01

192

African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

193

African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

2009-01-01

194

Cultural Alignment African American Male Youths and Violent Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four theories-racial inferiority, culture of poverty, racial discrimination, and political economy-are usually advanced to explain violence among African Americans. These theories, however, fail to underscore the deleterious influence that cultural oppression and cultural alienation have on African Americans generally and African American male youths specifically. To examine the role both cultural oppression and cultural alienation play in the lives of

Jerome H. Schiele

1998-01-01

195

Teachers' Reactions to African American Students' Movement Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public education system in the United States has overidentified African American children as targets for special education. In 1998, figures released by the U.S. Department of Education showed that African American students comprised 21% of all students in special education courses in the United States. Yet, African American students account for only 16.8% of the public school population. Research

La Vonne I. Neal; Audrey Davis McCray; Gwendolyn Webb-Johnson

2001-01-01

196

Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

2003

197

Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

198

African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

2000-01-01

199

BLACK MASCULINITY AND BASKETBALL AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDIES 398DT  

Microsoft Academic Search

and by appointment Because over 80% of NBA basketball players are African American and the style of play that emerged from African-American communities dominates the professional game, basketball is culturally marked as black. Larry Bird, a three-time NBA MVP, and the best non-African American player of the last thirty years maintained that basketball is \\

Damion Thomas

200

Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

2005-01-01

201

The Chaldean Americans: Changing Conceptions of Ethnic Identity. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chaldean Americans in Detroit, Michigan, a growing community of Roman Catholic immigrants from Iraq, are the focus of this study. A description is given of the Detroit Chaldean community centers around three key institutions, namely the church, the family, and the ethnic occupation or community economic enterprise, and of how these institutions…

Sengstock, Mary C.

202

A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13–19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels of unprotected sex, higher levels of sex while using drugs, and higher levels of drug/alcohol use in the three and six months prior to confinement. These differences may be explained by multiple factors, including differences in acculturation levels among the Cuban American adolescents, differences in health messages targeted at the two groups, and family mores and norms. PMID:19096724

Dévieux, Jessy G.; Malow, Robert M.; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Samuels, Deanne; Rojas, Patria; Khushal, Sarah R.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle

2007-01-01

203

"Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

Brown, Anthony L.

2009-01-01

204

Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

Jones, Sheila Kay

2007-12-01

205

WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes  

PubMed Central

Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

2015-01-01

206

African American Studies & Research Center's 28th Symposium on African American  

E-print Network

of Octavia Butler's Parable of the Sower Dr. Rone Shavers, College of Saint Rose #12;"Celebrating Our Past in African American images in post World War II popular culture. Jolivette Anderson-Douoning is a native

Ginzel, Matthew

207

Differences in Environmental Control and Asthma Outcomes Among Urban Latino, African American, and Non-Latino White Families.  

PubMed

Latino and African American children with asthma are at increased risk for asthma morbidity compared with non-Latino White children. Environmental control (ie, environmental exposures and family strategies to control them) may contribute to greater asthma morbidity for ethnic minority children living in urban environments. This study examined ethnic differences in a semi-structured assessment of environmental control, associations between environmental control and asthma outcomes (asthma control, functional limitation, and emergency department [ED] use), and ethnic differences in environmental triggers in a sample of urban Latino, African American, and non-Latino White families. One hundred thirty-three children (6-13 years of age) and their caregivers completed demographic questionnaires, measures of asthma control and morbidity, and a semi-structured interview assessing environmental control. Reported environmental control differed significantly by ethnicity (P<0.05), with Latino families reporting higher levels of environmental control. Reported environmental control was significantly associated with asthma control (P<0.017) and functional limitation (P<0.017). Reported environmental control and ED use were significantly associated in Latino families (P<0.05). Non-Latino White and African American families reported more secondhand smoke exposure than Latino families (P<0.001). Latino families reported more optimal home environmental control than other ethnic groups. Substantial ethnic differences in asthma triggers suggest that observed ethnic disparities in asthma may be due, at least in part, to differences in the home environment. PMID:22276226

Everhart, Robin S; Kopel, Sheryl; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Salcedo, Leslie; York, Daniel; Potter, Christina; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

2011-09-01

208

Self-reported asthma in Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans: factors associated with asthma.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide, there are striking, and largely unexplained differences across various racial and ethnic groups. The current study looks at the prevalence of asthma and risk factors between Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans. We used Health Assessment Survey data representing 3,136 respondents. Prevalence across the three ethnic groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, accounting for multiple risk factors. There were significant socio-demographic differences across all ethnic groups. Asthma prevalence was significantly lower in Arabs (9.4%) and Chaldeans (5.4%) than in Non-Middle Eastern Whites (14.4%). African American prevalence was 14.4%. The significantly lower prevalence of asthma among Chaldean and Arabs, as compared to African Americans, were not explained by traditional risk factors included in our models. We therefore, suggest that future studies should explore the possible role of ethnic-specific differences in gene × environmental interactions in the precipitation and/or exacerbation of asthma. PMID:20838892

Jamil, Hikmet; Raymond, Delbert; Fakhouri, Monty; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa; Arnetz, Bengt B

2011-06-01

209

African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

2011-01-01

210

African Americans' Perspectives on Racial Solidarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the fundamental formulations that shape perspectives on racial solidarity among one group of African Americans. The perspectives gained in this study aid in understanding the existence, origin, and views toward the concept. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with individuals from two generational cohorts: ages 18 to 30 (post-Civil Rights era) and ages 50 and older (Civil Rights

Paula Thompson Ross

2007-01-01

211

Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

Reed, Michael K.; And Others

1996-01-01

212

Profiling the African American Student Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The African American Student Network (AFAM) originated at a large Predominantly White Institution (PWI) in the Midwest. Including a sample of 163 network participants, the current paper profiles the academic performance of students in the network over its first 4 years. Findings indicate that although participants were similar to the average…

Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ehlert, John; Dade, Shari

2011-01-01

213

Celebrating African-American Librarians and Librarianship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Celebrates the achievements of African-American librarians and their contributions to librarianship. Identifies and reviews records of scholarship that can serve as starting points for students and scholars. Chronicles achievements of numerous individuals and provides additional resources for further investigation. Suggests areas of further…

Dawson, Alma

2000-01-01

214

African American College Students' Motivation in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible motivational factors related to the choice of college major and educational values were studied for 60 African American students. An interview guide was developed with open-ended questions designed to generate narrative about students' thoughts and perceptions of education. Students were asked why they chose their majors, what education…

Hwang, Young Suk; Echols, Celina; Wood, Ralph; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

215

African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

216

The Persistence of African American College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

Beale, Tyson J.

2010-01-01

217

African American Biographies: A Collection Development Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the lack of African American biographies for elementary school libraries and reports the results of a study that surveyed publishers from the Children's Book Council. Examines book reviews, discusses the number of sports figures included, and considers problems with a lack of appropriate materials to support the curriculum. (LRW)

Woody, Donna

2000-01-01

218

Paranoid Ideation among Elderly African American Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross sectional study involving 998 independently living elderly African Americans used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure paranoid ideation and 14 independent variables including demographic characteristics, cognitive deficit, and depression. Paranoid ideation was found in 10% of the sample. Regression analysis revealed 6 of 14 independent…

Bazargan, Mohsen; Bazargan, Shahrzad; King, Lewis

2001-01-01

219

Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

2011-01-01

220

African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

Johnson, Bernadeia H.

2012-01-01

221

Elder Maltreatment Among Rural African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elder maltreatment, an unfortunate manifestation of the graying of our nation's population, has been well documented during the last decade; but, a clear definition or understanding of the phenomenon has not been forthcoming. This lack of clarity is particularly evident among older African-Americans and especially among this minority group in rural communities. This paper describes an exploratory study of 10

Linner Ward Griffin

1994-01-01

222

Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

223

The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.  

PubMed

Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

2015-01-01

224

Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment  

SciTech Connect

Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

Krossa, C.D. [San Francisco Univ. (United States)

1996-09-01

225

The use of family health histories to address health disparities in an African American community.  

PubMed

African Americans continue to suffer from health disparities. The Center for Minority Health (CMH) within the University of Pittsburgh has the mission to eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. CMH has designed and implemented the Family Health History (FHH) Initiative. The FHH Initiative places genetic-counseling graduate students in the African American community to provide risk assessments and emphasize the importance of family history as it pertains to disease prevention. The FHH Initiative also allows participants to enroll into the Minority Research Recruitment Database (MRRD). This enables CMH to alert individuals to available research participation opportunities. In the first year of this program, 225 African Americans completed their family health histories. More than 60% of individuals enrolled in the MRRD. The authors report their initial successes and challenges of an initiative that incorporates awareness of family history information, proper screening guidelines, behavior-modification recommendations, and support for participation in clinical research. PMID:17652189

Vogel, Kristen J; Murthy, Vinaya S; Dudley, Beth; Grubs, Robin E; Gettig, Elizabeth; Ford, Angela; Thomas, Stephen B

2007-10-01

226

African american women and prenatal care: perceptions of patient-provider interaction.  

PubMed

Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p < .001) and on prenatal care satisfaction (p < .001) but not on adherence to selected prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. PMID:24838492

Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L

2015-02-01

227

AAS African American Studies College of Arts and Sciences  

E-print Network

AAS African American Studies College of Arts and Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 AAS 200 INTRODUCTION TO AFRICAN and richness of African-American experience across geographic boundaries. AAS 235 INEQUALITIES IN SOCIETY. (3

MacAdam, Keith

228

Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African

Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

2010-01-01

229

Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry.  

PubMed

Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women. PMID:25073854

Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

2014-10-01

230

African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)

White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.

1998-01-01

231

African American Sheet Music, 1820-1920  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, sheet music was produced in enormous quantities in the United States. To historians and other interested parties, much of this material serves as a way to look at social and cultural mores of the times. This digital collection from Brown University takes a look at the sheet music that reflected attitudes towards African-Americans. Containing several hundred pieces of sheet music, this collection includes songs from the period of antebellum blackface and the abolitionist period. The wide range of material offered here also allows visitors the ability to trace the evolution of certain archetypes in African-American culture, including the appearances of Uncle Tom and Jim Crow. Also included here are a number of insightful essays, such as "Minstrelsy and the Construction of Race in America".

232

Postpartum depression among African-American women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2003-01-01

233

The journey of African-Americans on th path toward the doctoral degree: a revelation of underlying factors and themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation developed from an awareness of the continuing census gap in the award of doctorates between African-Americans and Caucasians. In a 2006 summary report of doctorate recipients from United States universities by race and ethnicity over the years 1986, 1996, and 2006, there was a decline in the number of doctorates awarded whites from 91% in 1986 to 80%

Jacobs Jr Walter R

2008-01-01

234

Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

2009-01-01

235

"I Want to Do the Right Thing but What Is It?": White Teachers' Experiences with African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines 26 White middle school teachers' perceptions of their experiences in a predominantly White middle school with a growing African American student population. Utilizing in-depth focus group interviews, teachers elaborated on their experiences with navigating racial, ethnic and cultural boundaries as they attempted to…

Henfield, Malik S.; Washington, Ahmad R.

2012-01-01

236

Heterogeneity in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behaviors among African-American Youth: Associations with General and Race-Specific Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…

Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.

2007-01-01

237

YOUR Blessed Health: A Faith-Based CBPR Approach to Addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite substantial federal, state, and local efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS, African Americans experience higher rates of infection than any other ethnic or racial group in the United States. It is imperative to develop culturally and ecologically sensitive interventions to meet the sexual health needs of this population.…

Griffith, Derek M.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober

2010-01-01

238

The Individual and Shared Meaning Students Make of Their Diverse Interactions with African American Faculty: A Phenomenological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics contend college graduates are not prepared to work in a global society. In response, higher education leaders identify the need to transform curriculum and teaching techniques (Bikson & Law, 1994). African American faculty are more likely than their White colleagues to employ teaching strategies that introduce students to diversity coursework and expose them to knowledge about race and ethnicity

Kathleen Marie Neville

2011-01-01

239

Sharing Information about Peer Relations: Parent and Adolescent Opinions and Behaviors in Hmong and African American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite sharing similar attitudes regarding the information about peers that parents have a right to know, the strategies African American and Hmong families use to seek or censor information about peers diverge because of ethnic differences in emphasis on trust, nurturing autonomy, respect for parental authority, and maintaining cultural…

Brown, B. Bradford; Bakken, Jeremy P.; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Von Bank, Heather G.

2007-01-01

240

A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

241

Moderating and Mediating Effects of Gender and Psychological Disengagement on the Academic Achievement of African American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major purposes of the present study were (a) to examine the degree to which gender moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and academic achievement and (b) to examine whether psychological disengagement (i.e., devaluing academic success [DAS]) mediates gender differences in the academic achievement of African American college students. Data from 274 participants (79% female) were examined using measures of

Kevin Cokley; Paula Moore

2007-01-01

242

Charting the Ancestry of African Americans  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record. PMID:16175514

Salas, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent

2005-01-01

243

77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 By the President...long-cherished piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story...tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special...

2012-06-07

244

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

2014-01-01

245

African American Women in Iowa Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fruitful collaboration between the Iowa Women's Archive and the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa has produced this enlightening website containing over 200 items including links to "scrapbooks," "photographs," "pamphlets" "oral histories" and "newsletters." The "Recent Additions" area allows visitors to click on any of the thumbnails in the line up of items shown, to see the image enlarged. By simply double clicking on the thumbnail, users can also access bibliographic data about the item.

246

Gambling Habits Among Aged African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cross-sectional study we investigated the correlates of gambling habits among a sample of 80 independently living African-American elderly persons. The participants were selected from two Senior Citizen Centers that provide inexpensive or free pleasure trips from Los Angeles, California to gambling sites in Nevada. The data for this study were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted by three trained

Mohsen Bazargan; Shahrzad H. Bazargan; Mahfuja Akanda

2001-01-01

247

White problem gamblers discount delayed rewards less steeply than their African American and Hispanic counterparts.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a core process underlying addictive behaviors, including nonpharmacological addictive behaviors such as problem gambling. Although considerable attention has been given to the investigation of delay discounting within the context of addiction-related behaviors, relatively little research has examined the relationship between discounting and individual variables, such as race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to compare discounting rates in the three most prevalent racial/ethnic groups in the United States: Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. The study was conducted with 315 problem gamblers. Participants completed a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately and a larger amount delivered later. A hyperbolic discounting function estimated delay-discounting rates based on participants' indifference points obtained via the questionnaires. Results showed significant effects of race/ethnicity on delay discounting. White gamblers discounted delayed money at lower rates than African Americans and Hispanics, even after controlling for confounding variables. These data suggest that among individuals who develop problem gambling, Whites are less impulsive than African Americans and Hispanics, at least in terms of choosing between delayed and immediate reinforcers. These results have implications for evaluating the onset and treatment of addictive disorders from a health-disparities perspective. PMID:24955678

Andrade, Leonardo F; Petry, Nancy M

2014-06-01

248

Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

249

Recruitment of a hidden population: African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E

2012-01-01

250

Analysing breast cancer microarrays from African Americans using shrinkage-based discriminant analysis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities. PMID:21106486

2010-01-01

251

Recruitment of a Hidden Population: African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig’s List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

Williams, Monnica T.; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin

2011-01-01

252

A Phenomenological Investigation on the Role of Mentoring in the Academic Development of African American Male Secondary Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by African American males can support the academic development of African American male students. Since African American male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for African American male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 African American males who had mentored or were currently mentoring African American male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring African American males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful African American males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as African American male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of African American male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.

Inge, Jillian

253

KSC kicks off African-American History Month  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

2000-01-01

254

The African American Acculturation Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development, reliability, and validity of the African American Acculturation Scale. This 74-item scale has good construct and concurrent validity. The eight subscales, assessing eight dimensions of African American culture, have high internal consistency reliability, and the scale as a whole has high split-half reliability. African Americans'scores on the scale were unrelated to social class, gender, and

Hope Landrine; Elizabeth A. Klonoff

1994-01-01

255

Exploring School Engagement of Middle-Class African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the scarcity of knowledge about middle-class African American adoles- cents, the present study explored psychological and parental factors in relation to ac- ademic performance. The participants were 336 middle-class African American stu- dents and their biological mothers. The findings suggest that for African American middle-class adolescents, educational expectations and school engagement have the strongest relation to academic performance.

Selcuk R. Sirin; Lauren Rogers-Sirin

2004-01-01

256

Anxiety disorders in African-American and white children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are little available data on African-American children with anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking African-American (n=30) and white children (n=139), with a current DSM-III-R anxiety disorder, were compared on sociodemographic background variables, clinical characteristics, and lifetime rates of specific DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Overall, results suggested that the anxiety-disordered African-American and white children who sought treatment from an outpatient mental health facility were

Cynthia G. Last; Sean Perrin

1993-01-01

257

African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a

Co-Founder Loretta J. Ross

1992-01-01

258

African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a

Loretta J. Ross

1992-01-01

259

Variation in Older Americans Act Caregiver Service Use, Unmet Hours of Care, and Independence Among Hispanics, African Americans, and Whites  

PubMed Central

Home- and community-based services (HCBS) are underused by minority seniors and their caregivers, despite greater rates of disability. We examined racial/ethnic variation among 1,749 Hispanic, African American, and Whites receiving Older Americans Act Title III caregiver services in 2009. In addition, we identified the volume of services used by caregivers, their unmet hours of respite care, and the relationship between service use and seniors’ ability to live independently. Minority caregivers cared for seniors in urban areas who had higher rates of disability, poverty, and Medicaid coverage. Hispanics had the highest rate of unmet hours of care, while caregiver services were less likely to help African Americans remain at home. Minorities sought services through community agencies and were more educated than demographically similar national cohorts. Greater efforts to reach minority caregivers of less educated, disabled seniors in urban areas and through community agencies may reduce unmet needs and support independent living. PMID:23438508

Herrera, Angelica P.; George, Rebecca; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Markides, Kyriakos; Torres-Gil, Fernando

2013-01-01

260

Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.  

PubMed

This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations. PMID:8718416

Davis, S P

1995-01-01

261

Strengthening the voice of African American parents : a study of the College Bound San Diego program  

E-print Network

of African-American families living in poverty. Urbansince poverty is more prevalent among African American andAfrican American and Hispanic populations” (Hertert & Teague, 2003). In an impassioned essay on poverty, (

Collins, John Peter

2008-01-01

262

Middle Class and Middle School: Does Opportunity Knock for African American Students?  

E-print Network

internal defects that impeded learning; 2) African American parent and student participants had deficit beliefs about other African Americans and used defensive othering as a coping strategy; and 3) African American students and parents perceived...

Mooney, Patricia 1960-

2012-12-10

263

3 CFR 8776 - Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012. National African American History Month, 2012  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...January 31, 2012. National African American History Month, 2012 8776 Proclamation 8776...Proc. 8776 National African American History Month, 2012By the President of the United...better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich...

2013-01-01

264

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

265

Interventions to Increase Medication Adherence in African-American and Latino Populations: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence in ethnic minority populations. A literature search from January 2000 to August 2012 was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms used included: medication (MeSH), adherence, medication adherence (MeSH), compliance (MeSH), persistence, race, ethnicity, ethnic groups (MeSH), minority, African-American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, and intervention. Studies which did not have ?75% of the sample population comprised of individuals of any one ethnic background were excluded, unless the authors performed sub-group analyses by race/ethnicity. Of the 36 studies identified, 20 studies showed significant post-intervention differences. Sample population sizes ranged from 10 to 520, with a median of 126.5. The studies in this review were conducted with patients of mainly African-American and Latino descent. No studies were identified which focused on Asians, Pacific Islanders, or Native Americans. Interventions demonstrating mixed results included motivational interviewing, reminder devices, community health worker (CHW) delivered interventions, and pharmacist-delivered interventions. Directly observed therapy (DOT) was a successful intervention in two studies. Interventions which did not involve human contact with patients were ineffective. In this literature review, studies varied significantly in their methods and design as well as the populations studied. There was a lack of congruence among studies in the way adherence was measured and reported. No single intervention has been seen to be universally successful, particularly for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:24470982

Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yeboah, Michelle; Castillo, Theresa P

2014-01-01

266

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

2005-01-01

267

Frequent Buyer Club Participation Patterns for African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on (a) racial prejudice, (b) lack of steppingstone jobs, (c) welfare programs, (d) low education levels, and (e) inferior trade skills, some feel America's leading minority groups will never become full-fledged, mainstream retail participants. This study, however, found that Asian and Hispanic immigrants assimilate as they move from cities. On the contrary, post-civil rights movement African Americans and Native

A. Bruce Clark

2003-01-01

268

77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nation--often in the face of both racial and gender discrimination. As courageous visionaries who led the fight to end slavery and tenacious activists who fought to expand basic civil rights to all Americans, African American women have long...

2012-02-03

269

Racial Narratives, Group Identity, and African-American Political Behavior  

E-print Network

My dissertation seeks to advance the racial politics and political behavior literatures in American politics by focusing on the role of "racial narratives" in explaining historical changes in African-American political ...

Delehanty, William

2010-05-13

270

76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...slowed the onward march of history and expansion of the American dream, African Americans braved bigotry and violence to organize schools, churches, and neighborhood organizations. Bolstered by strong values of faith and community, black...

2011-02-04

271

Differences in pelvic floor area between African American and European American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study tests the null hypothesis that the size of the pelvic opening spanned by the pelvic floor is the same in African American and European American women. Study Design: Forty African American female pelvises were age matched with 40 European American female pelvises from the Hamann-Todd collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. The distances between the

R. V. Baragi; J. O. L. DeLancey; R. Caspari; D. H. Howard; J. A. Ashton-Miller

2002-01-01

272

Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms Among African American Men  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18–34), middle (35–54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results Discrimination was significantly related to depressive symptoms for men ages 35 to 54 and mastery was found to be protective against depressive symptoms for all men. Compared to African American men in the young and late adult groups, discrimination remained a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms for men in the middle group once mastery was included. Implications Findings demonstrate the distinct differences in the influence of discrimination on depressive symptoms among adult African American males and the need for future research that explores the correlates of mental health across age groups. Implications for social work research and practice with African American men are discussed. PMID:24436576

Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

2013-01-01

273

Exploring differences in computerized neurocognitive concussion testing between African American and White athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to explore potential differences in pre- and post-concussion performance on a computerized neurocognitive concussion test between African American and White high-school and collegiate student-athletes. A prospective case-control design was used to compare baseline and 2- and 7-day post-concussion computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms between 48 White and 48 African American athletes matched for age, gender, and concussion history. The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment Cognitive Test (ImPACT) version 2.0 (NeuroHealth System, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) computer software program was used to assess neurocognitive function (i.e., verbal and visual memory, motor processing speed, and reaction time) and concussion symptoms. Regardless of race/ethnicity, there were significant decrements in computerized neurocognitive performance and increased symptoms following a concussion for the entire sample. African Americans and Whites did not differ significantly on baseline or post-concussion verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and total reported symptoms. However, African American participants were 2.4× more likely to have at least one clinically significant cognitive decline on ImPACT at 7 days post-concussion and scored lower at 7 days post-concussion compared with baseline on processing speed than White participants. The authors concluded that the baseline ImPACT test was culturally equivalent and construct valid for use with these two racial/ethnic groups. However, in contrast, the findings support deleterious performance for the African American athletes compared with the White athletes on the ImPACT post-concussion evaluation that is of critical clinical relevance and warrants further research. PMID:20861034

Kontos, Anthony P; Elbin, Robert J; Covassin, Tracey; Larson, Elizabeth

2010-12-01

274

Parent report of binge eating in Hispanic, African American and Caucasian youth.  

PubMed

Binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth. However, there are limited data on the relationship between binge eating and weight in racial or ethnically diverse youth. We therefore examined 409 obese (BMI?95th percentile for age and sex) treatment-seeking Hispanic (29.1%), Caucasian (31.7%), and African American (39.2%), boys and girls (6-18 years). Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat were measured to assess body composition. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children's Depression Inventory and disordered eating cognitions were measured with the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Accounting for age, sex, body fat mass, and height, the odds of parents reporting that their child engaged in binge eating were significantly higher among Caucasian compared to African American youth, with Hispanic youth falling non-significantly between these two groups. Youth with binge eating had greater body adiposity (p=.02), waist circumference (p=.02), depressive symptoms (p=.01), and disordered eating attitudes (p=.04), with no difference between racial or ethnic group. We conclude that, regardless of race or ethnicity, binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth and is associated with adiposity and psychological distress. Further research is required to elucidate the extent to which binge eating among racially and ethnically diverse youth differentially impacts weight loss outcome. PMID:23265393

Elliott, Camden A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mirza, Nazrat M

2013-01-01

275

Genetic ancestry, population sub-structure, and cardiovascular disease-related traits among African-American participants in the CARDIA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American populations are genetically admixed. Studies performed among unrelated individuals from ethnically admixed\\u000a populations may be both vulnerable to confounding by population stratification, but offer an opportunity for efficiently mapping\\u000a complex traits through admixture linkage disequilibrium. By typing 42 ancestry-informative markers and estimating genetic\\u000a ancestry, we assessed genetic admixture and heterogeneity among African-American participants in the Coronary Artery Risk\\u000a Development

Alexander P. Reiner; Christopher S. Carlson; Elad Ziv; Carlos Iribarren; Cashell E. Jaquish; Deborah A. Nickerson

2007-01-01

276

Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

2011-01-01

277

Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all three ages. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated that spanking (but not verbal punishment) at age 1 predicted child aggressive behavior problems at age 2 and lower Bayley mental development scores at age 3. Neither child aggressive behavior problems nor Bayley scores predicted later spanking or verbal punishment. In some instances, maternal race/ethnicity and/or emotional responsiveness moderated the effects of spanking and verbal punishment on child outcomes. PMID:19765008

Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

2010-01-01

278

An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms, and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black females exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared to older African American males. PMID:20822246

Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

2013-01-01

279

Retention and Attrition Among African Americans in the STAR*D Study: What Causes Research Volunteers to Stay or Stray?  

PubMed Central

Background High attrition rates among African-Americans (AA) volunteers are a persistent problem that makes clinical trials less representative and complicates estimation of treatment outcomes. Many studies contrast AA with other ethnic/racial groups, but few compare the AA volunteers who remain in treatment with those who leave. Here, in addition to comparing patterns of attrition between African Americans and whites, we identify predictors of overall and early attrition among African Americans. Method Sample comprised non-Hispanic African-American (n=673) and white (n=2,549) participants in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Chi-square tests were used to examine racial group differences in reasons for exit. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of overall attrition, early attrition (by Level 2) and top reasons cited for attrition among African Americans. Results For both African-American and white dropouts, non-compliance reasons for attrition were most commonly cited during the earlier phases of the study while reasons related to efficacy and medication side effects were cited later in the study. Satisfaction with treatment strongly predicted overall attrition among African Americans independent of socioeconomic, clinical, medical or psychosocial factors. Early attrition among African American dropouts was associated with less psychiatric comorbidity, and higher perceived physical functioning but greater severity of clinician-rated depression. Conclusions The decision to drop out is a dynamic process that changes over the course of a clinical trial. Strategies aimed at retaining African Americans in such trials should emphasize engagement with treatment and patient satisfaction immediately following enrollment and after treatment initiation. PMID:23723044

Murphy, Eleanor J; Kassem, Layla; Chemerinski, Anat; Rush, A. John; Laje, Gonzalo; McMahon, Francis J.

2013-01-01

280

"HOW ASIAN AM I?" ASIAN AMERICAN YOUTH CULTURES, DRUG USE, AND ETHNIC IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American ethnicity and drug use, seeing their own consumption as exceptional. The second argues their drug consumption is a natural outgrowth of their Asian American identity, allowing them to navigate the liminal space they occupy in American society. The final group presents Asian American drug use as normalized and constructs identity through taste and lifestyle boundary markers within social contexts of the dance scenes. These three narratives share a sense of ethnicity as dynamic, provisional, and constructed, allowing us to go beyond the static, essentialist models of ethnic identity that underlie much previous research on ethnicity, immigration, and substance use. PMID:21822339

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

2011-03-01

281

“HOW ASIAN AM I?” ASIAN AMERICAN YOUTH CULTURES, DRUG USE, AND ETHNIC IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION*  

PubMed Central

This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American ethnicity and drug use, seeing their own consumption as exceptional. The second argues their drug consumption is a natural outgrowth of their Asian American identity, allowing them to navigate the liminal space they occupy in American society. The final group presents Asian American drug use as normalized and constructs identity through taste and lifestyle boundary markers within social contexts of the dance scenes. These three narratives share a sense of ethnicity as dynamic, provisional, and constructed, allowing us to go beyond the static, essentialist models of ethnic identity that underlie much previous research on ethnicity, immigration, and substance use. PMID:21822339

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

2010-01-01

282

Unequal burden of disease, unequal participation in clinical trials: solutions from African American and Latino community members.  

PubMed

African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894

Ford, Marvella E; Siminoff, Laura A; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; Diaz, Vanessa A; Soderstrom, Lea H; Jefferson, Melanie S; Tilley, Barbara C

2013-02-01

283

Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

Waites, Cheryl

2009-01-01

284

Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

285

Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

2006-01-01

286

African American English: An Interview with Marcyliena Morgan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an interview in which Marcyliena Morgan elaborates on the necessity to analyze both microlinguistic issues of grammar and phonology as well as larger issues of discourse pragmatics and language ideology. The interview touches on African American poetry, the convergence of African American and standard English, and oases and indirectness.…

Rymes, Betsy

1995-01-01

287

African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

2005-01-01

288

Community Reciprocity in the Work of African-American Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scholarship on historical and contemporary African-American teachers highlights the emphasis on community connections in their work. As such, the scholarship portrays African-American teachers almost exclusively as "givers" without fully considering what teachers derive from community connections. This paper describes a qualitative study in…

Dingus, Jeannine

2006-01-01

289

"Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

Maher, Rebecca

2004-01-01

290

"Teaching while Black": Narratives of African American Student Affairs Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American faculty have historically been underrepresented within predominantly white institutions (PWIs) and deal with academic isolation, marginalization of their scholarship, and racial hostility. Little is known about the experiences of African American faculty who teach in student affairs graduate programs. The purpose of this study was…

Patton, Lori D.; Catching, Christopher

2009-01-01

291

Educating African American Males: Examining Teacher Perceptions and Cultural Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…

Rivers, Celeste A.

2010-01-01

292

African American Communities: Implications for Culturally Relevant Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We suggest that there is a powerful and affirming socialization taking place in African American communities that could be instructive to schools. This article illustrates how educators can build on the strengths found in the black community to effectively teach African American students. Relating the ethos of the barbershop to tenets of…

Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Hill, Edward L.

2006-01-01

293

Schooling and Delinquency among White and African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent delinquency may be a likely consequence of negative school experi - ences, including poor academic performance, low class attendance, and dropping out. Given disparate experiences that African American and White students often encounter in school, this investigation examined the link between delinquency and school behaviors separately for White and African American males at risk for delinquency. In addition, it

KRISTIN E. VOELKL; JOHN W. WELTE; WILLIAM F. WIECZOREK

1999-01-01

294

African Americans and Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hermeneutic phenomenological study examined the lived experience of African-American persons recovering from serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Semi-structured interviews were conducted at three time points (6, 12, and 18 months) with nine African Americans with SPMI. A culturally sensitive perspective informed the data analysis. Interviews were transcribed, read, and coded to cluster thematic aspects in each case and

Marilyn Peterson Armour; William Bradshaw; David Roseborough

2009-01-01

295

Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

296

Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

2012-01-01

297

African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

Fikes, Robert Jr.

2001-01-01

298

The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

Mubenga, Pascal

2006-01-01

299

Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

Cooks, Michael

2010-01-01

300

Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.  

PubMed

African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PMID:25486153

Snowden, Lonnie R

2014-11-01

301

African American males’ attitudes toward marriage: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last twenty-five years, marriage rates among African American males have declined dramatically (Statistical Abstract of the United States 1995, 1995). In 1970, less than 25 percent of all African American men had never married (Statis- tical Abstract of the United States, 1995). By 1994, the percent- age of never married men had increased to 42.4 percent, and only

1999-01-01

302

Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

2011-01-01

303

African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

2002-01-01

304

20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

Bardeen, Tara

2008-01-01

305

Womanism: a methodologic framework for African American women.  

PubMed

Although nurse scholars have become increasingly engaged in feminist research and theory development, only a few have included important feminist thoughts expressed by African American womanist theorists. This article presents an abbreviated review and synthesis of Afrocentric ways of knowing, which includes Black feminist, womanist, and Afrocentric perspectives. A developing methodology for use with African American women is also described. PMID:9730407

Taylor, J Y

1998-09-01

306

African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

2005-01-01

307

SPIRITUALITY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: CORRELATIONS TO HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public health data show that African-Americans have not adopted health-promoting behaviors of diet and exercise. In an effort to find other motivating or moderating variables, this study was designed to determine how spirituality relates to health promoting behaviors in African-American women. Bur...

308

Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

2013-01-01

309

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

310

Plenary-AA : Cancer and the African American Experience  

Cancer.gov

The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

311

Resiliency Instructional Tactics: African American Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…

Jones, Vita L.

2011-01-01

312

Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

2012-01-01

313

Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

2010-01-01

314

Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

315

75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President...United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story, assuage our sorrows...including the African- American community, music unites individuals through a shared...

2010-06-07

316

76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President...United States of America A Proclamation The music of our Nation has always spoken to the...shared values. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the...

2011-06-07

317

"To Protect and Serve": African American Female Literacies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to add to the understanding of literacy as it relates to African Americans, with a focus on African American female literacies. Argues that mother tongue literacy is central to literacy education. Suggests that black female language practices, knowledges, and understanding can be and have been used advantageously to help black females in…

Richardson, Elaine

2002-01-01

318

Having our Say: African American Women, Diversity, and Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the voices of seven African American female counselor educators. The authors, having formally and informally collaborated in multiple settings over the past few years, decided to illuminate the challenges and successes of African American female counselor educators to add another dimension to our profession's discussion on…

Bryant, Rhonda M.; Coker, Angela D.; Durodoye, Beth A.; McCollum, Vivian J.; Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Constantine, Madonna G.; O'Bryant, Beverly J.

2005-01-01

319

Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

Scott, Kimberly Ann

2012-01-01

320

African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

2004-01-01

321

Board Books Featuring African Americans: Vanishing but Not Entirely Gone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of infant and toddler board books (books printed on heavy cardboard and laminated for durability) featuring African Americans and published from 1990 to 2002. Provides a brief overview of the development of board books in general, and suggests criteria for evaluating board books that feature African Americans in…

Mongo, Jonella A.

2002-01-01

322

AFRICAN-AMERICAN ENTREPRENEURIAL VENUES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores African-American (AA) entrepreneurship through the lens of social capital. Using a foundation of social capital theory, this study attempts to validate the hypothesis that social capital is a determinant of whether AA entrepreneurs choose to function in the formal or informal economies. One hundred and sixteen African American entrepreneurs participated in the study, which utilized respondent driven

PHILLIP COCHRANE

2010-01-01

323

Antihypertensive and Metabolic Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Diuretic Combination Therapy in Obese, Hypertensive African American and Caucasian Patients  

PubMed Central

A clinical trial showed comparable blood pressure (BP) lowering by valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in obese hypertensives. Relative to amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide reduced the hyperglycemic response to glucose challenge. An objective of this post-hoc analysis was to determine whether this benefit extended to African Americans and Caucasians. Treatments (valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg force-titrated to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 320/25 mg at Week 4 or hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg force-titrated to hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg at Week 4 with amlodipine 5 mg and 10 mg added at Weeks 8 and 12, respectively) were administered once daily. Both treatments reduced clinic BP from baseline to all visits (p<0.0001), regardless of race/ethnicity (126 African Americans, 212 Caucasians). In African Americans, there were no significant between-treatment differences in clinic or ambulatory BP lowering at Weeks 8 or 16. Caucasians responded better to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide. In both racial/ethnic subgroups, the addition of valsartan but not amlodipine mitigated the hyperglycemic response to hydrochlorothiazide through enhanced insulin secretion. Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide was as effective as amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in reducing BP in obese, hypertensive African Americans, and better than amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in Caucasians. In both racial/ethnic subgroups, addition of valsartan to hydrochlorothiazide reduced the negative metabolic effects associated with thiazide therapy. PMID:22248871

Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Zappe, Dion H.; Purkayastha, Das; Samuel, Rita; Sowers, James R.

2013-01-01

324

Cultural Socialization and School Readiness of African American and Latino Preschoolers.  

PubMed

Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children's school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25364832

Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch

2014-11-01

325

The paradox of atrial fibrillation in African Americans.  

PubMed

The reported lower prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) despite the higher prevalence of AF risk factors in African Americans compared to Caucasian whites has been referred to as the paradox of AF in African Americans. In this report we highlight this paradox and address potential explanations using data from several US populations studies. These possible explanations include limited methodology to detect AF patterns that are harder to detect (e.g. paroxysmal/intermittent AF or atrial flutter) coupled with the possibility of African Americans having more of these patterns, differential access to health care with African Americans having less access and subsequently less detected AF, survival bias with Caucasian whites living longer and subsequently having more AF, and finally differential impact of AF risk factors with Caucasian whites being more affected or African Americans less affected by AF risk factors whether this is genetically determined or via other unknown predispositions. PMID:25112176

Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J

2014-01-01

326

African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system  

PubMed Central

African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

2014-01-01

327

Survival disparities within American and Israeli dialysis populations: learning from similarities and distinctions across race and ethnicity.  

PubMed

There are counterintuitive but consistent observations that African American maintenance dialysis patients have greater survival despite their less favorable socioeconomic status, high burden of cardiovascular risks including hypertension and diabetes, and excessively high chronic kidney disease prevalence. The fact that such individuals have a number of risk factors for lower survival and yet live longer when undergoing dialysis treatment is puzzling. Similar findings have been made among Israeli maintenance dialysis patients, in that those who are ethnically Arab have higher end-stage renal disease but exhibit greater survival than Jewish Israelis. The juxtaposition of these two situations may provide valuable insights into racial/ethnic-based mechanisms of survival in chronic diseases. Survival advantages of African American dialysis patients may be explained by differences in nutritional status, inflammatory profile, dietary intake habits, body composition, bone and mineral disorders, mental health and coping status, dialysis treatment differences, and genetic differences among other factors. Prospective studies are needed to examine similar models in other countries and to investigate the potential causes of these paradoxes in these societies. Better understanding the roots of racial/ethnic survival differences may help improve outcomes in both patients with chronic kidney disease and other individuals with chronic disease states. PMID:21175833

Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Golan, Eliezer; Shohat, Tamy; Streja, Elani; Norris, Keith C; Kopple, Joel D

2010-01-01

328

Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

Allen, Talbott

329

Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

2012-01-01

330

Raising the Critical Consciousness of African American Students in Baldwin Hills: A Portrait of an Exemplary African American Male Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the pedagogical practices of an exemplary male African American middle school teacher in an affluent neighborhood, discussing principles guiding his efforts to enhance African American students' moral, intellectual, and spiritual development and noting how his emancipatory pedagogies provide a fertile learning ground. This case study…

Lynn, Marvin; Johnson, Charletta; Hassan, Kamal

1999-01-01

331

Patient attitudes regarding healthcare utilization and referral: a descriptive comparison in African- and Caucasian Americans with chronic pain.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate healthcare utilization and referral patterns for pain management services in a racially and ethnically diverse population. A study-specific mail survey was directed at African- (N=324) and Caucasian Americans (N=300) receiving chronic pain treatment at a tertiary care pain center to address their healthcare access, referral, and utilization patterns. Overall, 46% (N=286) responded, with the majority of respondents being Caucasian Americans (57%) and women (68%). The majority (58%) reported asking their physicians to refer them to a pain physician. African Americans were more likely to report that chronic pain was a major reason for financial problems. They made significantly more visits to the emergency room for pain care. African Americans agreed more that ethnicity and culture affected access to healthcare and pain management. They also tended to agree more than Caucasian Americans that pain medication could not control pain. These results demonstrate significant differences in healthcare utilization, access, and attitudes amongst African- and Caucasian Americans receiving chronic pain management. In light of the socioeconomic and health consequences of chronic pain, these results suggest the need for further studies addressing variability in pain care access and utilization in diverse populations. PMID:14746352

Green, Carmen R.; Baker, Tamara A.; Ndao-Brumblay, S. Khady

2004-01-01

332

Clinical aspects of dementia in African-American, Hispanic, and white patients.  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between ethnicity, cognitive deficits, functional impairment, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia. The data are from a cross-sectional study of patients evaluated at the Northern California Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADC). Using the ADC database of patient information, the authors compared sociodemographic and clinical variables in 187 African-American patients, 69 Hispanic patients, and 1317 white patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), ischemic vascular dementia (IVD), and mixed dementia (AD/IVD). Multivariate analysis indicated the following results: 1. African-American patients and Hispanic AD patients had lower risk of depressed mood compared to white patients; 2. African-American patients had lower risk for anxiety than whites; 3. Hispanic patients with mixed dementia had lower rates of apathy compared to whites. Future studies are needed to examine how ethnic group differences in dementia are based on the interaction of cultural differences; effects of age, education, and psychosocial variables; and biological differences in the course of dementia. PMID:10800282

Hargrave, R.; Stoeklin, M.; Haan, M.; Reed, B.

2000-01-01

333

Locus of control and peer relationships among caucasian, Hispanic, asian, and african american adolescents.  

PubMed

Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture. PMID:24352586

Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

2015-01-01

334

Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas  

PubMed Central

Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

2013-01-01

335

Promoting healthy behavior from the pulpit: clergy share their perspectives on effective health communication in the African American church.  

PubMed

African Americans continue to suffer disproportionately from health disparities when compared to other ethnicities (ACS 2010; CDC 2007). Research indicates that the church and the pastor in the African American community could be enlisted to increase effectiveness of health programs (Campbell et al. in Health Edu Behav 34(6):864-880, 2007; DeHaven et al. in Am J Public Health 94(6):1030-1036, 2004). The objective of this study was to investigate African American pastors' perceptions about health promotion in the church and how these perceptions could serve as a guide for improving health communication targeting African Americans. Semi-structured interviews with African American clergy revealed that pastors feel strongly about the intersection of health, religion and spirituality; they also believe that discussing health screening and other health issues more frequently from the pulpit and their own personal experiences will ultimately impact health behavior among congregants. This study suggests that African American clergy see themselves as health promoters in the church and believe this communication (i.e., pastor-endorsed health information materials) will impact health behavior among underserved and minority populations. PMID:21965057

Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine; Mabachi, Natabhona M; Neuhaus, Kris

2013-12-01

336

Effects of Parity on Blood Pressure among African-American Women  

PubMed Central

It has been well established that age, ethnicity, weight, and lifestyle behaviors can affect blood pressure (BP). Co-morbid conditions such as HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets), pre-eclampsia, and previous hypertension diagnosis might also be risks for chronic hypertension among women who have had children. Although parity has been linked to changes in blood pressure in White women, these findings have not been replicated among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to determine if the number of pregnancies urban African-American women have effects BMI and blood pressure readings later in life. Results indicated that women with a previous diagnosis of hypertension had higher SBP and DBP, and a slightly higher BMI than women who had never been diagnosed. Additionally, women with a prior history of hypertension had more children than those without a diagnosis of hypertension. As parity increased, SBP increased. However, DBP decreased after 3 to 4 children, even with increases in BMI. This study shows that parity may increase African-American women’s risk for hypertension in terms of increased SBP and BMI with increased parity. However, increased parity and BMI may also serve as protective factors in lowering DBP. Further studies, with larger samples followed throughout their pregnancies, is needed before more definitive statements may be drawn about the effects of parity on BMI and blood pressure readings among African-American women can be made. PMID:19397049

Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Chambers, Angelina N.; Funnell, Beth; Wu, Chun Yi

2010-01-01

337

Family-focused physical activity, diet, and obesity interventions in African American girls: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African American girls aged 5–18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format, and behavior change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviors were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data do not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step. PMID:23057473

Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Adams-Wynn, Alexis W.; DiSantis, Katherine I.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

2012-01-01

338

Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents’ Attributions Regarding Discrimination  

PubMed Central

The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethnicity (43%), followed by age (17%), physical appearance (16.5%) and gender (7.5%) and there were no ethnic, gender or age differences regarding discrimination attributions. Key findings suggest that the association between perceived discrimination and psychological did not vary according to discrimination attribution, which implies that discrimination is harmful for Black youth regardless of the attribution. PMID:23966759

Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

2013-01-01

339

Marriage Among African Americans: What Does the Research Reveal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reveals that African Americans are the least likely to marry, when they marry, they do so later and spend less\\u000a time married than White Americans, and they are the least likely to stay married. Factors contributing to the marriage status\\u000a of African Americans include structural, cultural, individual and interactive factors. Structural factors include the disparity\\u000a in sex ratios

Patricia Dixon

2009-01-01

340

Food Stamp Program Participation Among Impoverished African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies the characteristics of eligible African Americans who are not receiving food stamps. Secondary analysis\\u000a of the American Community Survey focused on 14,443 African American citizens aged 18 and over who were living below the poverty\\u000a line. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the 6,558 recipients of food stamps with the 7,885 non-recipients.\\u000a Less than

Melissa Redmond; Esme Fuller-Thomson

2009-01-01

341

Exploring Risk in Early Adolescent African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to explore the degree to which single- and multiple-risk profiles were evident in samples of African American early adolescents in low-income inner-city, rural, and suburban schools. Study 1 examined early adolescent risk status (i.e., single, multiple) in relation to later adjustment in a representative sample (70% European American, 30% African American). Youth who experienced a single

Thomas W. Farmer; LeShawndra N. Price; Keri K. O'Neal; Man-Chi Leung; Jennifer B. Goforth; Beverley D. Cairns; Le'Roy E. Reese

2004-01-01

342

Hostility is associated with Visceral, but not Subcutaneous, Fat in Middle-Aged African-American and White women  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study was designed to examine the cross-sectional association between hostility and measures of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in middle-aged African-American and white women. Because fat-patterning characteristics are known to differ by race,we were particularly interested in examining whether these associations were similar for women of both racial/ethnic groups. Methods Participants were 418 (45% African-American, 55% white) middle-aged women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Visceral and Subcutaneous fat were measured by Computed Tomographic Scans and hostility was assessed via questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to test associations among race/ethnicity, hostility and measures of abdominal fat. Results In models adjusted for race/ethnicity and total percent fat, higher levels of hostility were associated with a greater amount of visceral fat (B=1.8, s.e.=.69, p=.01). This association remained significant after further adjustments for age, education, and multiple coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Hostility was not associated with subcutaneous fat (p=.8). Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in hostility (p<.001) and the amount of total body (p<.001), subcutaneous (p<.001) and visceral fat (p<.001), the associations between hostility and measures of abdominal fat did not differ for African-American compared to white women (race/ethnicity*hostility interaction p=.67 for visceral, p=.85 for subcutaneous). Conclusions Hostility may affect CHD risk in women via the accumulation of visceral fat. Despite significant black-white differences in fat patterning and overall CHD risk, the association between hostilty and visceral fat appears to be similar for both African-American and white women. PMID:19592520

Lewis, Tené T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Janssen, Imke; Wesley, Deidre; Powell, Lynda H.

2010-01-01

343

Stability and Change in Ethnic Labeling among Adolescents from Asian and Latin American Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant…

Fuligni, Andrew J.; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar

2008-01-01

344

African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

345

African American Enrollment in Independent Schools, 1988-89. Research Notes on Education. No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the enrollment of African-American students in independent neighborhood schools across the country. Students in these schools constitute the second largest group of African-Americans outside the nation's public school systems. Over 52,000 African-American students are enrolled in independent schools. Data for African-American

Institute for Independent Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

346

Examining the Complexities of Suicidal Behavior in the African American Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once considered a “White thing,” suicide is now the third leading cause of death for African Americans, behind only homicide and unintentional injury. Although the rates of suicide for African American women remain low and relatively unchanged, the rates for African American men have increased dramatically during the past 20 years. The changes in the suicide rates for African American

Felicia Griffin-Fennell; Michelle Williams

2006-01-01

347

Communication Development and Disorders in African American Children: Research, Assessment, and Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of papers on language development and African-American children includes: "The Challenges of Conducting Language Research with African American Children" (Holly K. Craig); "Issues in Recruiting African American Participants for Research" (Joyce L. Harris); "Issues in Assessing the Language Abilities of African American Children"…

Kamhi, Alan G., Ed.; And Others

348

Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.  

PubMed

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:25196409

Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

2014-10-01

349

Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036

Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.

2008-01-01

350

Toward a Trustworthy Voice: Increasing the Effectiveness of Automated Outreach Calls to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colorectal cancer screening rates are lower among African-American members of Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) than among members of other races and ethnicities. This study evaluated use of a linguistically congruent voice in interactive voice response outreach calls about colorectal cancer screening as a strategy to increase call completion and response. Methods: After an initial discussion group to assess cultural acceptability of the project, 6 focus groups were conducted with 33 KPCO African-American members. Participants heard and discussed recordings of 5 female voices reading the same segment of the standard-practice colorectal cancer message using interactive voice response. The linguistic palette included the voices of a white woman, a lightly accented Latina, and 3 African-American women. Results: Participants strongly preferred the African-American voices, particularly two voices. Participants considered these voices the most trustworthy and reported that they would be the most effective at increasing motivation to complete an automated call. Participants supported the use of African-American voices when designing outgoing automated calls for African Americans because the sense of familiarity engendered trust among listeners. Participants also indicated that effective automated messages should provide immediate clarity of purpose; explain why the issue is relevant to African Americans; avoid sounding scripted; emphasize that the call is for the listener’s benefit only; sound personable, warm, and positive; and not create fear among listeners. Discussion: Establishing linguistic congruence between African Americans and the voices used in automated calls designed to reach them may increase the effectiveness of outreach efforts. PMID:24867548

Albright, Karen; Richardson, Terri; Kempe, Karin L; Wallace, Kristin

2014-01-01

351

A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans.  

PubMed

The Jknun (Jk-3) phenotype, attributable to null or silenced alleles, has predominantly been found in persons of Polynesian descent. With the increased use of molecular genotyping, many new silencing mutations have been identified in persons of other ethnic backgrounds. To date, only two JK null alleles have been reported in African Americans, JK*01N.04 and JK*OlN.OS.A comparative study was undertaken to determine whether JK mutations were present in the regional African American population. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens. PMID:24689685

Billingsley, Katrina L; Posadas, Jeff B; Moulds, Joann M; Gaur, Lakshmi K

2013-01-01

352

Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American women  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

2013-01-01

353

Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up. PMID:25203924

Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

2014-09-01

354

"Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes. PMID:21403059

Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Lorraine; Brown, Adama; McPeek, Chelsea; Chee, Eunice

2012-04-01

355

Differences in Acute Response to Alcohol between African Americans and European Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Response to alcohol is a widely studied risk factor and potential endophenotype for alcohol use disorders. Research on African American response to alcohol has been limited despite large differences in alcohol use between African Americans and European Americans. Extending our previous work on the African American portion of this sample, the current study examined differences in acute subjective response to alcohol between African Americans and European Americans. Additionally, we tested if the association between response to alcohol and past month drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems differed across race. Methods One hundred and seventy eight participants (mean age = 21.87, SD = 1.23; 57% African American) who were moderate to heavy social drinkers completed an alcohol administration study in a laboratory setting, receiving a moderate dose of alcohol (0.72g/kg alcohol for males, 0.65g/kg for females). Acute alcohol response was measured at 8 time points (i.e., baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes). Results Latent growth curve models showed that African Americans experienced sharper increases in stimulation on the ascending limb compared to European Americans. African American women experienced sharper increases in sedation on the ascending limb compared to European American women. Change in sedation on the ascending limb was associated with past month drinking behavior. Stimulation on the ascending limb was related to alcohol-problems for African Americans but not European Americans. Conclusions We found differences in response to alcohol across racial groups: African Americans showed a stronger response to alcohol. Future studies are needed to incorporate response to alcohol into a larger model of African American alcohol use. PMID:23398190

Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.

2013-01-01

356

Oxford African American Studies Center: Focus on Women and Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oxford African American Studies Center has created this website to house its comprehensive collection of scholarship documenting the many and varied experiences that make up African and African American history and culture. Along with over 10,000 articles, 2,500 images, and 200 maps, the site features an excellent "Focus On" series each month, in which the editors compile various short articles, picture essays, and links on a designated topic. The Focus on Women and Literature is particularly noteworthy. Here, visitors can explore the life and works of influential women in American literature, from Phillis Wheatley to Toni Morrison. The site can be easily navigated by subject or by specific biography, with suggestions for related sources and content provided in each section. Additionally, curious visitors will find links to all of the previously featured subjects within the series, ranging from African Americans in Science and Technology to Black Homesteading in the American Western Frontier.

357

Relationship between waking–sleep blood pressure and catecholamine changes in African–American and European–American women  

PubMed Central

Background A blunted decline in waking to sleep blood pressure (BP) is more common in African–American (AA) than European–American (EA) women. The causes of reduced BP ‘dipping’ in AA women are not known, although several factors including ethnic differences in catecholamine sensitivity have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible contribution of catecholamine influences on BP to ethnic differences in BP dipping in a sample of working women. Participants and methods Healthy female participants wore ambulatory BP monitors over the course of 1 work day and night. Urine samples for assay of epinephrine and norepinephrine were collected at work (approximately 11.00–15.00 h), home (approximately 06.00–22.00 h) and during sleep (approximately 22.00–06.00 h). Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationships between changes in BP and the catecholamines by ethnicity. Results AA women (n= 51; age = 38.9 ± 8.5 years) had smaller proportional BP changes from work to sleep and home to sleep than EA women (n =110; age = 37.1 ±9.2 years). Overall, the work to sleep change in epinephrine excretion was positively associated with changes in both SBP (P <0.003) and DBP (P < 0.001); however, there was an ethnic difference in the epinephrine–BP relationship. For AA women, these associations were highly positive and significant, but for EA women, there was little correlation. Nonetheless, the analysis also revealed that overall, the work to sleep BP changes were not directly related to ethnic differences in catecholamine variation. Conclusion The AA–EA difference in waking–sleep BP changes (dipping) is not directly related to ethnic differences in catecholamine variation; however, AA seem to have a greater BP sensitivity to epinephrine. PMID:18799950

van Berge-Landry, Helene M.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; James, Gary D.

2009-01-01

358

Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.  

PubMed Central

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

Gamble, V N

1997-01-01

359

Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Profiled here are African American men and women who have contributed to the advancement of science and engineering. The accomplishments of the past and present can serve as pathfinders to present and future engineers and scientists. African American chemists, biologists, inventors, engineers, and mathematicians have contributed in both large and small ways that can be overlooked when chronicling the history of science. By describing the scientific history of selected African American men and women we can see how the efforts of individuals have advanced human understanding in the world around us.

Mitchell C Brown (University of California- Irvine)

1995-01-01

360

African-American Women: Online Archival Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University has a wealth of digitized materials related to African American women. This particular collection brings together three noteworthy collections: Elizabeth Johnson Harris: Life Story; Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson: Slave Letters; and Vilet Lester Letter. This last item is particularly noteworthy as it is a very rare item indeed: a letter written by a female slave. The Elizabeth Johnson Harris: A Life Story area brings together the full text of her memories, along with several poems and vignettes published in various newspapers in her lifetime. She was born in 1867 to parents who had been slaves, and the memoir includes information about her own childhood and the importance of religion and education in her life. Finally, the last section brings together letters written by Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson to their mistresses and other slave family members in Abingdon, Virginia.

2011-11-11

361

Engaging Depressed African American Adolescents in Treatment: Lessons From The AAKOMA PROJECT  

PubMed Central

The authors describe and illustrate means of engaging depressed African American adolescents in treatment. Twenty-eight youth participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Using grounded theory and transcript based analysis, they derived 5 themes describing African American adolescents’ experience of depression and suggested mechanisms for improving African American youth treatment engagement. Practitioners can educate African American youth about depression as a medical disorder, build trust, and apply innovative approaches to recognizing differential manifestations of depression in African American youth. PMID:20564682

Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy

2013-01-01

362

Ethnic Labels and Ethnic Identity as Predictors of Drug Use among Middle School Students in the Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores differences in the self-reported drug use and exposure to drugs of an ethnically diverse group of 408 seventh-grade students from a large city in the southwest. We contrast the explanatory power of ethnic la- bels (African American, non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and mixed ethnicity) and two dimensions of ethnic identity in predicting drug use. One dimension focuses

Flavio Francisco Marsiglia; Stephen Kulis; Michael L. Hecht

2001-01-01

363

Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization  

PubMed Central

Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship. PMID:20161575

Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

2009-01-01

364

Usefulness of Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A-I Ratio to Predict Coronary Artery Disease Independent of the Metabolic Syndrome in African-Americans  

PubMed Central

Studies demonstrate that the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/apoA-I) ratio predicts cardiovascular risk better than any of the cholesterol indexes. A number of factors that define the metabolic syndrome (MS) differ across African-American and European-American ethnicities. We assessed relationship of the apoB/apoA-I ratio to MS and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 224 African-Americans and 304 European-Americans. The MS was defined by the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria and CAD was assessed as ?50% stenosis or a continuous cardiovascular score (0–75). European-Americans had higher apoB/apoA-I ratio compared with African-Americans (1.15 vs. 1.07, P=0.008). The apoB/apoA-I ratio was associated with presence of the MS in both European-Americans (OR=5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.53–13.57; P<0.001) and African-Americans (OR=8.3; 95% CI, 3.52–19.25; P<0.001), and was higher in subjects with MS compared to those without MS (1.21 vs. 1.04, P<0.001 for European-Americans and 1.20 vs. 0.94, P<0.001 for African-Americans). There was a stepwise increase in the prevalence of MS across apoB/apoA-I ratio tertiles in both ethnic groups (?2=13.1, P<0.001 for European-Americans and ?2=19.6, P<0.001 for African-Americans). In multiple regression analyses, the apoB/apoA-I ratio independently predicted CAD in African-Americans (?=0.242, P=0.011). The cardiovascular score was significantly increased across apoB/apoA-I ratio tertiles in European-American subjects with MS (P=0.001), whereas this association was seen in African-American subjects without MS (P=0.023). In conclusion, the apoB/apoA-I ratio differed across ethnicities and was associated with presence of the MS in both groups. Among African-Americans, elevated apoB/apoA-I ratio independently predicted higher risk for CAD. PMID:21029822

Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Pearson, Thomas A.; Berglund, Lars

2010-01-01

365

Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.  

PubMed

This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans. PMID:23197118

Jarvis, G Eric

2012-12-01

366

3 CFR 8476 - Proclamation 8476 of February 1, 2010. National African American History Month, 2010  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...many hard-working Americans whose legacies are...opportunity for most African Americans, yet substantial obstacles...the vicious cycle of poverty—still pose enormous...past generations of African Americans to rise above...

2011-01-01

367

3 CFR 8627 - Proclamation 8627 of February 1, 2011. National African American History Month, 2011  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...historic recession has devastated many American families, and particularly African Americans, we must continue to create jobs...pathways for families to climb out of poverty. During National African American History Month, we recognize...

2012-01-01

368

3 CFR 8832 - Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...8832 of June 1, 2012. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 8832 Proclamation...2012 Proc. 8832 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012By the President...long-cherished piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to...

2013-01-01

369

Adolescent Alcohol Use in Context: The Role of Parents and Peers Among African American and European American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American youth are less likely to use alcohol than their European American counterparts; however, the greater consequences of use for African American youth highlight the need for greater research attention to this group. Two social contexts that have been linked with adolescent alcohol use are parents and peers, yet these studies have rarely included African American youth or failed

Deborah J. Jones; Andrea M. Hussong; Jennifer Manning; Emma Sterrett

2008-01-01

370

African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.  

PubMed

The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

2014-10-01

371

The Career Experiences of African American Female Engineers  

E-print Network

Women of color, specifically African American women, within science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are significantly underrepresented in workplace organizations. However, the majority of the research addressing STEM issues is centered...

Rice, Delores Nichelle

2012-10-19

372

Executive Summary of the African-American Initiative  

PubMed Central

The roundtable discussion, “Managing Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans: Emerging Strategies for Optimizing Care,” was convened to review the evidence that supports best practices for the management of cardiovascular disease and its complications in African Americans. Treatment guidelines are reviewed, as is the clinical evidence supporting the use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta-blockers. The ultimate goals of this work are to improve the understanding of the links among hypertension, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, all of which disproportionately affect African Americans, and to increase physician awareness of the unique impact of these conditions in the often underserved African-American population. PMID:17435635

Yancy, Clyde W.

2007-01-01

373

Preparing African American Counselor Education Students for the Professorate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to highlight the underrepresentation of African American faculty in CACREP-Accredited counseling programs and to discuss ways of creating and sustaining a pipeline of potential counselor educators for the academy. (Contains 1 table.)

Johnson, Phillip D.; Bradley, Carla R.; Knight, Donald E.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth S.

2007-01-01

374

African Americans and Pancreatic Cancer: Things to Know  

MedlinePLUS

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND PANCREATIC CANCER: THINGS TO KNOW By the National Cancer Institute BETHESDA, MD ? When NFL Hall of Famer Gene Upshaw died of pancreatic cancer in 2008, it was the first time that ...

375

A Kentucky Journey--African American Heritage. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to the core exhibit of the Kentucky History Center (Frankfort) focuses on African American history in the commonwealth of Kentucky. The guide extracts text from seven of the exhibit's chronological areas and lists environments, displays, and other exhibit features to help students understand some of the events that shaped the African

Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort.

376

Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

Wilson, Linda

377

African Americans’ views on research and the Tuskegee Syphilis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of African Americans in clinical and public health research is essential. However, for a multitude of reasons, participation is low in many research studies. This article reviews the literature that substantiates barriers to participation and the legacy of past abuses of human subjects through research. The article then reports the results of seven focus groups with 60 African

Vicki S. Freimuth; Sandra Crouse Quinn; Stephen B. Thomas; Galen Cole; Eric Zook; Ted Duncan

2001-01-01

378

Lactose Intolerance in Pregnant African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and

D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler

1997-01-01

379

A Qualitative Description of African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences  

E-print Network

,000 in population). While the prevalence appears only slightly higher for African Americans as compared to whites, the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the 10 to 19 year old African American population is significantly on the rise (SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth... B. Purpose 4 i. Research Question 5 ii. Theory 6 iii. Significance of the Study 8 iv. Definition of terms 9 v. Assumptions 10 Chapter 2 11-36 A. Introduction 11 B. Review of the Literature 12 i...

Spencer, Becky

2012-08-31

380

Explorative study of African Americans and internet dating  

E-print Network

these estimates where there is anonymity, such as on the Internet (Henderson and Gilding 2004). Thus, the authors? suggest that trustworthiness not only depends on immanent qualities of reputation, performance and appearance, but also on contextual conditions..., particularly African Americans. 24 CHAPTER III METHODS The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory study determining whether or not the Internet is an effective tool for African Americans to find ?compatable? dates. This study also...

Spates, Kamesha Sondranek

2005-02-17

381

Housing Discrimination and Urban Poverty of African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a conceptual synthesis of six competing positions about the causes of inordinately high rates of poverty among urban African-Americans. This framework guides the specification of a six-simultaneous-equation econometric model, wherein both the pattern and the extent of racial residential segregation, inter-class residential segregation within the African-American community, school racial segregation, school performance, and poverty rates are endogenous.

George C. Galster

1991-01-01

382

The African-American Urban Milieu and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic disparity between urban white America and urban black America is becoming more pronounced, whether in central cities, suburbs, or edge cities. African-American employment prospects have declined in central cities, increased slightly in suburbs, and increased substantially for the few African Americans living and working in edge cities. William Julius Wilson cites the decline in stable, higher-paying, blue-collar employment in

Lenneal J. Henderson

1994-01-01

383

Early Literacy Skills in African-American Children: Research Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor reading achievement of African- American children in urban schools is well established. African-American children from low-income homes may be at particular risk for reading difficulties, al- though middle-income children often fare poorly as well. Intervention efforts have focused on children in kindergarten through fifth grade. This article suggests that prevention efforts must begin prior to kindergarten entry. Several

Julie A. Washington

2001-01-01

384

JUNE 2, 2014 -CLASS DAY DEPARTMENTAL RECEPTIONS African American Studies  

E-print Network

JUNE 2, 2014 - CLASS DAY DEPARTMENTAL RECEPTIONS African American Studies Class of 1936 Memorial Garden 1:00 ­ 3:00 p.m. African Studies 3rd Floor Gallery, Aaron Burr Hall 2:30 ­ 3:15 p.m. American Studies Wu Dining Hall 2:30 - 3:30 p.m. Anthropology Large Multipurpose Room 104, Carl A. Fields Center 4

385

Infant mortality, low birth weight, and prematurity among Hispanic, white, and African American women in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The study was undertaken to compare Hispanic birth outcomes with those of white and African American women in North Carolina and to examine variables associated with adverse birth outcomes among Hispanic women. Study Design: Retrospective comparison of birth outcomes by ethnicity\\/race, from linked birth\\/infant death certificates in North Carolina (1993-1997) was conducted. Multivariate, binary logistic regression and ?2 analysis

Jennie C. Leslie; Shelley L. Galvin; Sandra J. Diehl; Trude A. Bennett; Paul A. Buescher

2003-01-01

386

Psychiatric and Demographic Predictors of Memory Deficits in African Americans with Schizophrenia: The Moderating Role of Cultural Mistrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although African Americans are overrepresented among schizophrenia diagnoses, assessments of memory deficits in schizophrenia\\u000a often do not consider issues of race, ethnicity, and culture. Digit span testing (DST) is often used to assess memory problems\\u000a associated with schizophrenia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of psychiatric symptoms and demographic\\u000a background on the DST performances of

Arthur L. Whaley

387

Comparable Efficacy of Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence Among African American, Hispanic, and White Methadone Maintenance Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine use is a significant problem among methadone maintenance clients. Contingency management (CM) is a reinforcement-based approach with demonstrated efficacy for reducing cocaine use. This study examines whether the efficacy of CM treatment for cocaine-dependent individuals receiving methadone maintenance for opioid dependence differs by ethnicity. Participants were 191 African American, Hispanic, and White cocaine-dependent methadone maintenance clients, randomly assigned to

Danielle Barry; Brendan Sullivan; Nancy M. Petry

2009-01-01

388

"It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

Ek, Lucila D.

2009-01-01

389

"How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

2011-01-01

390

Evaluating Academic Achievement of African-American Male Students in Relationship to African-American Male Teachers in Guilford County, North Carolina Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The home and the public school classroom have been key environments in the African American community and have been instrumental in developing identity and encouraging academic progress. Despite this, the dropout rates of African American males in secondary grades have increased, while academic achievement scores of African American males in the…

Daniels, Byron L.

2010-01-01

391

Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future. PMID:23140073

Shah, Sachil

2012-01-01

392

Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment. PMID:23862294

Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

2013-01-01

393

Cultural Barriers to African American Participation in Anxiety Disorders Research  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment. PMID:23862294

Williams, Monnica T.; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A.; Turkheimer, Eric

2014-01-01

394

Providing Culturally Relevant Mental Health Services: Collaboration between Psychology and the African American Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model of collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, discussing the connection between African psychology and religion, examining barriers to and strategies for collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, and describing the collaborative model called the African American Counseling Team.…

Queener, John E.; Martin, Juanita K.

2001-01-01

395

Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans

Sernak, Kathleen S.

2004-01-01

396

Evaluation of genetic susceptibility to childhood allergy and asthma in an African American urban population  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma and allergy represent complex phenotypes, which disproportionately burden ethnic minorities in the United States. Strong evidence for genomic factors predisposing subjects to asthma/allergy is available. However, methods to utilize this information to identify high risk groups are variable and replication of genetic associations in African Americans is warranted. Methods We evaluated 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and a deletion corresponding to 11 genes demonstrating association with asthma in the literature, for association with asthma, atopy, testing positive for food allergens, eosinophilia, and total serum IgE among 141 African American children living in Detroit, Michigan. Independent SNP and haplotype associations were investigated for association with each trait, and subsequently assessed in concert using a genetic risk score (GRS). Results Statistically significant associations with asthma were observed for SNPs in GSTM1, MS4A2, and GSTP1 genes, after correction for multiple testing. Chromosome 11 haplotype CTACGAGGCC (corresponding to MS4A2 rs574700, rs1441586, rs556917, rs502581, rs502419 and GSTP1 rs6591256, rs17593068, rs1695, rs1871042, rs947895) was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of asthma (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.8, p = 0.007). The GRS was significantly associated with a higher odds of asthma (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.21, 2.13; p = 0.001). Conclusions Variation in genes associated with asthma in predominantly non-African ethnic groups contributed to increased odds of asthma in this African American study population. Evaluating all significant variants in concert helped to identify the highest risk subset of this group. PMID:21320344

2011-01-01

397

Differential gene expression between African American and European American colorectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) is higher in African Americans (AAs) than other ethnic groups in the U. S., but reasons for the disparities are unknown. We performed gene expression profiling of sporadic CRCs from AAs vs. European Americans (EAs) to assess the contribution to CRC disparities. We evaluated the gene expression of 43 AA and 43 EA CRC tumors matched by stage and 40 matching normal colorectal tissues using the Agilent human whole genome 4x44K cDNA arrays. Gene and pathway analyses were performed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), Ten-fold cross validation, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). SAM revealed that 95 genes were differentially expressed between AA and EA patients at a false discovery rate of ?5%. Using IPA we determined that most prominent disease and pathway associations of differentially expressed genes were related to inflammation and immune response. Ten-fold cross validation demonstrated that following 10 genes can predict ethnicity with an accuracy of 94%: CRYBB2, PSPH, ADAL, VSIG10L, C17orf81, ANKRD36B, ZNF835, ARHGAP6, TRNT1 and WDR8. Expression of these 10 genes was validated by qRT-PCR in an independent test set of 28 patients (10 AA, 18 EA). Our results are the first to implicate differential gene expression in CRC racial disparities and indicate prominent difference in CRC inflammation between AA and EA patients. Differences in susceptibility to inflammation support the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments in these two patient populations. PMID:22276153

Jovov, Biljana; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Sigel, Carlie S; Stratford, Jeran K; McCoy, Amber N; Yeh, Jen Jen; Keku, Temitope

2012-01-01

398

Discrimination History, Backlash Fear, and Ethnic Identity among Arab Americans: Post-9/11 Snapshots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined discrimination history, backlash fear, and ethnic identity of Arab Americans nationally at 3 times, beginning shortly after September 11, 2001. Relations between variables were moderate, and discrimination history and backlash fear were statistically significant predictors of ethnic identity. Implications for acculturation and…

Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Lambert, Richard G.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

2011-01-01

399

Beyond Affirmation: How the School Context Facilitates Racial/Ethnic Identity among Mexican American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identity development is a dynamic process which involves reconciling multiple messages. While ethnic minority adolescents' development is affected profoundly by discrimination, positive racial/ethnic encounters can also transform one's identity. Questionnaire data were gathered from 122 tenth-grade Mexican Americans in a low-performing school that…

Gonzalez, Rosemary

2009-01-01

400

Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

2009-01-01

401

Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:22378829

Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

2012-01-01

402

Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Levi Strauss. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide focuses on the German-American immigrant experiences and the contribution of Levi Strauss. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective for this unit is to acquaint the…

Langnehs, Chic

403

Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and, in many cases, drugs, condemns African

Porter, Michael

404

Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

2008-01-01

405

Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

James, LaNora Marcell

2011-01-01

406

Cultural In-Group Advantage: Emotion Recognition in African American and European American Faces and Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students…

Wickline, Virginia B.; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

2009-01-01

407

Measurement Characteristics of Dietary Psychosocial Scales in a Weight Gain Prevention Study with 8- to 10-Year-Old African-American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…

Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.

2009-01-01

408

"A Matter of Vocabulary": Performances of Low-Income African American Head Start Children on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine African American children (ages 3-5) enrolled in Head Start were assessed using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Their mean score was significantly lower than the mean for the normative sample. Few items were systematically missed; instead, performance seemed reflective of socioeconomic and/or ethnic patterns of vocabulary usage.…

Champion, Tempii B.; Hyter, Yvette D.; McCabe, Allyssa; Bland-Stewart, Linda M.

2003-01-01

409

Reproductive Health of Urban Adolescents: Differences in the Behaviors, Cognitions, and Social Context of African-American and Puerto Rican Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although ethnic and racial disparities exist in adolescent reproductive health, few studies have examined differences between members of different minority groups. This paper describes differences in measures of reproductive health behaviors, cognitions and social context between African-American (n=170) and Puerto Rican (n=150) adolescent females…

Milan, Stephanie; Ethier, Kathleen; Lewis, Jessica; Kershaw, Trace; Niccolai, Linda; Ickovics, Jeannette

2006-01-01

410

Examining the Relationship between Multiple Internalized Oppressions and African American Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Persons' Self-Esteem and Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Gupta, Arpana

2009-01-01

411

Psychosocial Issues Facing African and African American Women Diagnosed With Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a global issue. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 1.2 million people will receive a diagnosis of breast cancer each year. Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, after skin cancer, both within the United States and worldwide. Although the incidence of breast cancer among African and African American women is

Godfrey Gregg

2009-01-01

412

The relationship between skin color, self-esteem and African self-consciousness among African American college-educated women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among skin color, self-esteem, and African self-consciousness among 303 college-educated African American women. In addition, an African American Socialization Subscale was used to examine the participants' level of acculturation in the African American culture. The researcher hypothesized that those women who perceived their skin color as light, in comparison to

Kim M Daniel

2001-01-01

413

Genetic Ancestry-Smoking Interactions and Lung Function in African Americans: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated a

Melinda C. Aldrich; Rajesh Kumar; Laura A. Colangelo; L. Keoki Williams; Saunak Sen; Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Bernd Meibohm; Joshua Galanter; Donglei Hu; Christopher R. Gignoux; Yongmei Liu; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv; Joseph Zmuda; Melissa Garcia; Tennille S. Leak; Marilyn G. Foreman; Lewis J. Smith; Myriam Fornage; Kiang Liu; Esteban G. Burchard

2012-01-01

414

Replication of GWAS "Hits" by Race for Breast and Prostate Cancers in European Americans and African Americans.  

PubMed

In this study, we assessed association of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) "hits" by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS) in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; N total?=?3693 individuals) and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk, and Ethnicity (SCORE; N total?=?1135 individuals). In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS "hits" (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24) were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1) and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS "hit" (SNP) of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2); for CBCS African Americans, 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all six SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans, 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24). We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and PS. PMID:22303333

Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Raska, Paola; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Millikan, Robert C

2011-01-01

415

Social Representations of American History and Academic Engagement and Performance of African American Students  

E-print Network

Previous research has shown that social representations of one’s social groups can influence academic outcomes for racial and ethnic minority students in the United States. Other research has found that representations of American history have...

Thai, Luyen T.

2014-04-29

416

Ethnic Heritage Curriculum Guide, Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this guide are 11 multi-disciplinary ethnic heritage units for use with grades K-6. Included are units on Mexicans, Alabama Indians, the Japanese, black Americans, African and American folklore, the Afro-American struggle for freedom, and the contributions of outstanding blacks to our society. Each unit contains a lesson plan which…

Marion City Board of Education, AL.

417

Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

1921-01-01

418

Comparison of the prevalence of first-degree atrioventricular block in African-American and in Caucasian patients: an electrocardiographic study III.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic (ECG) differences occur between African-American and Caucasian patients. METHODS: The study includes ECGs of 2,123 patients, ages 20-99 years attending an urban hospital. RESULTS: First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block was more prevalent in African-American patients compared with Caucasian patients in all age groups of the study except for those patients in the eighth decade of life. The prevalence of first-degree AV block began to increase at age 50 years in both ethnic groups and gradually increased with advancing age, peaking in African-American patients in the 10th decade of life, and in Caucasian patients in the ninth decade of life. The continuing increase in first-degree AV block in African-American patients in the 10th decade of life suggests increasing impairment but greater durability of the AV conduction system in African-American compared with Caucasian patients. The dramatic decline of the prevalence of first-degree AV block in Caucasian patients in the 10th decade of life suggests more frequent failure of the AV conduction system in this group of patients at ages 90-99 years, compared with African-American patients in the same age group. In population-based surveys, first-degree AV block was more prevalent in African-American subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. PMID:15233485

Upshaw, Charles B.

2004-01-01

419

Early Head Start and African American Families: Impacts and Mechanisms of Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persistent disparities exist between African American children and their European American counterparts across developmental domains. Early childhood intervention may serve to promote more positive outcomes among African American children. The current study examined whether and how the Early Head Start (EHS) program benefited African American

Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

2012-01-01

420

Race in the Global Era. African Americans at the Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Race is only one of the prisms through which to examine the political and social life of Americans, but it is one in which there has been insufficient determination of contemporary dynamics. For this discussion, the most important issue is the debate within the black community regarding the nature and causes of the crisis facing African Americans

Lusane, Clarence

421

Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

Nicholson, Rosetta

1975-01-01

422

Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

2008-01-01

423

Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

Winston, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

424

Cross-ethnic friendships, perceived discrimination, and their effects on ethnic activism over time: a longitudinal investigation of three ethnic minority groups.  

PubMed

This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed. PMID:21895704

Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

2012-06-01

425

Ethnicity and cultural models of recovery from breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Recovery narratives describe the culturally shared understandings about the ideal or desirable way to recover from an illness experience. This paper examines ethnic differences in recovery narratives among women participating in breast cancer support groups in Central Florida, USA. It compares groups serving African-American, Latina, and European American women, with the objective of better understanding the appeal of ethnic-specific

Jeannine Coreil; Jaime A. Corvin; Rebecca Nupp; Karen Dyer; Charlotte Noble

2012-01-01

426

Ethnicity and cultural models of recovery from breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Recovery narratives describe the culturally shared understandings about the ideal or desirable way to recover from an illness experience. This paper examines ethnic differences in recovery narratives among women participating in breast cancer support groups in Central Florida, USA. It compares groups serving African-American, Latina, and European American women, with the objective of better understanding the appeal of ethnic-specific

Jeannine Coreil; Jaime A. Corvin; Rebecca Nupp; Karen Dyer; Charlotte Noble

2011-01-01

427

African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Library of Congress's American Memory project has premiered a new collection showcasing the Library's extensive African-American collections. It traces the African-American experience through nine chronological periods that document the long and difficult path from slavery to Reconstruction to the fight for civil and social equality in the twentieth century. This virtual exhibit is similar to a physical one in that the emphasis is on the historical materials rather than explanatory text. Users will find images of a wide range of rare books, manuscripts, government documents, sheet music, movie posters, and photographs.

428

Genetics of Alzheimer's disease in Caribbean Hispanic and African American populations.  

PubMed

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), which is characterized by progressive deterioration in cognition, function, and behavior, is the most common cause of dementia and the sixth leading cause of all deaths, placing a considerable burden on Western societies. Most studies aiming to identify genetic susceptibility factors for LOAD have focused on non-Hispanic white populations. This is, in part related to differences in linkage disequilibrium and allele frequencies between ethnic groups that could lead to confounding. However, in addition, non-Hispanic white populations are simply more widely studied. As a consequence, minorities are genetically underrepresented despite the fact that in several minority populations living in the same community as whites (including African American and Caribbean Hispanics), LOAD incidence is higher. This review summarizes the current knowledge on genetic risk factors associated with LOAD risk in Caribbean Hispanics and African Americans and provides suggestions for future research. We focus on Caribbean Hispanics and African Americans because they have a high LOAD incidence and a body of genetic studies on LOAD that is based on samples with genome-wide association studies data and reasonably large effect sizes to yield generalizable results. PMID:23890735

Reitz, Christiane; Mayeux, Richard

2014-04-01

429

Relationship between depressive symptoms and cognition in older, non-demented African Americans.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognition in older adults has primarily come from studies of clinically depressed, functionally impaired or cognitively impaired individuals, and in predominately White samples. Limited minority representation in depression research exposes the need to examine these associations in more ethnic/racially diverse populations. We sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognition in a sample of non-demented older African Americans recruited from surrounding U.S. cities of New York, Greensboro, Miami, and Nashville (N=944). Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Cognition was evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Test scores were summarized into attention, executive function, memory, language, and processing speed composites. Controlling for age, education, reading level, and sex, African American older adults who endorsed more symptoms obtained significantly lower scores on measures of memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning. Further investigation of the causal pathway underlying this association, as well as potential mediators of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive test performance among older African Americans, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, may offer potential avenues for intervention. PMID:24840093

Hamilton, Jamie L; Brickman, Adam M; Lang, Rosalyn; Byrd, Goldie S; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Manly, Jennifer J

2014-08-01

430

Assessment of Biases Against Latinos and African Americans Among Primary Care Providers and Community Members  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed implicit and explicit bias against both Latinos and African Americans among experienced primary care providers (PCPs) and community members (CMs) in the same geographic area. Methods. Two hundred ten PCPs and 190 CMs from 3 health care organizations in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area completed Implicit Association Tests and self-report measures of implicit and explicit bias, respectively. Results. With a 60% participation rate, the PCPs demonstrated substantial implicit bias against both Latinos and African Americans, but this was no different from CMs. Explicit bias was largely absent in both groups. Adjustment for background characteristics showed the PCPs had slightly weaker ethnic/racial bias than CMs. Conclusions. This research provided the first evidence of implicit bias against Latinos in health care, as well as confirming previous findings of implicit bias against African Americans. Lack of substantive differences in bias between the experienced PCPs and CMs suggested a wider societal problem. At the same time, the wide range of implicit bias suggested that bias in health care is neither uniform nor inevitable, and important lessons might be learned from providers who do not exhibit bias. PMID:23153155

Havranek, Edward P.; Price, David W.; Hanratty, Rebecca; Fairclough, Diane L.; Farley, Tillman; Hirsh, Holen K.; Steiner, John F.

2013-01-01

431

Increased genetic diversity of ADME genes in African Americans compared with their putative ancestral source populations and implications for Pharmacogenomics  

PubMed Central

Background African Americans have been treated as a representative population for African ancestry for many purposes, including pharmacogenomic studies. However, the contribution of European ancestry is expected to result in considerable differences in the genetic architecture of African American individuals compared with an African genome. In particular, the genetic admixture influences the genomic diversity of drug metabolism-related genes, and may cause high heterogeneity of drug responses in admixed populations such as African Americans. Results The genomic ancestry information of African-American (ASW) samples was obtained from data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and local ancestral components were also extracted for 32 core genes and 252 extended genes, which are associated with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes. As expected, the global genetic diversity pattern in ASW was determined by the contributions of its putative ancestral source populations, and the whole profiles of ADME genes in ASW are much closer to those in YRI than in CEU. However, we observed much higher diversity in some functionally important ADME genes in ASW than either CEU or YRI, which could be a result of either genetic drift or natural selection, and we identified some signatures of the latter. We analyzed the clinically relevant polymorphic alleles and haplotypes, and found that 28 functional mutations (including 3 missense, 3 splice, and 22 regulator sites) exhibited significantly higher differentiation between the three populations. Conclusions Analysis of the genetic diversity of ADME genes showed differentiation between admixed population and its ancestral source populations. In particular, the different genetic diversity between ASW and YRI indicated that the ethnic differences in pharmacogenomic studies are broadly existed despite that African ancestry is dominant in Africans Americans. This study should advance our understanding of the genetic basis of the drug response heterogeneity between populations, especially in the case of population admixture, and have significant implications for evaluating potential inter-population heterogeneity in drug treatment effects. PMID:24884825

2014-01-01

432

African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of CongressâÂÂs âÂÂAfrican American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenshipâ exhibition celebrates African American history over nine time periods, ranging from 18th century slavery to the Civil Rights era. This thorough collection includes over 240 books, government documents, maps, musical scores, films, and plays, supplemented with relevant historical explanations and contexts. Viewers can peruse through more than two hundred years of historical documents to better understand the African American quest for equality in the face of adversity. All available for review online, the collection features a key-word search for more efficient learning and researching. Through easy browsing of original documents, such as letters Frederick Douglass wrote during the Civil War, users are able to get a better historical perspective on the unique development of African American culture.

2008-01-01

433

A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.  

PubMed

African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n?=?550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n?=?98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P?=?7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI)?=?0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations. PMID:22238593

Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J; Roh, Bong H; Wing, Maria R; An, S Sandy; Hester, Jessica M; Cooke, Jessica N; Bostrom, Meredith A; Rudock, Megan E; Talbert, Matthew E; Lewis, Joshua P; Ferrara, Assiamira; Lu, Lingyi; Ziegler, Julie T; Sale, Michele M; Divers, Jasmin; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N; Ng, Maggie C Y; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W; Voight, Benjamin F; Scott, Laura J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Morris, Andrew P; Dina, Christian; Welch, Ryan P; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Huth, Cornelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; McCulloch, Laura J; Ferreira, Teresa; Grallert, Harald; Amin, Najaf; Wu, Guanming; Willer, Cristen J; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; McCarroll, Steve A; Langenberg, Claudia; Hofmann, Oliver M; Dupuis, Josée; Qi, Lu; Segrè, Ayellet V; van Hoek, Mandy; Navarro, Pau; Ardlie, Kristin; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bennett, Amanda J; Blagieva, Roza; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Bravenboer, Bert; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Burtt, Noël P; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chines, Peter S; Cornelis, Marilyn; Couper, David J; Crawford, Gabe; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Amanda L; Erdos, Michael R; Fox, Caroline S; Franklin, Christopher S; Ganser, Martha; Gieger, Christian; Grarup, Niels; Green, Todd; Griffin, Simon; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hadjadj, Samy; Hassanali, Neelam; Herder, Christian; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Paul R V; Jørgensen, Torben; Kao, Wen H L; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Kraft, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Man; Lieverse, Aloysius; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Midthjell, Kristian; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John R B; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Platou, Carl; Proença, Christine; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Roden, Michael; Sampson, Michael J; Saxena, Richa; Shields, Beverley M; Shrader, Peter; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sparsø, Thomas; Strassburger, Klaus; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Swift, Amy J; Thorand, Barbara; Tichet, Jean; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Dam, Rob M; van Haeften, Timon W; van Herpt, Thijs; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Walters, G Bragi; Weedon, Michael N; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witteman, Jacqueline; Bergman, Richard N; Cauchi, Stephane; Collins, Francis S; Gloyn, Anna L; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hansen, Torben; Hide, Winston A; Hitman, Graham A; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Laakso, Markku; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rudan, Igor; Sijbrands, Eric; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watanabe, Richard M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Campbell, Harry; Daly, Mark J; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Pedersen, Oluf; Wichmann, H-Erich; Barroso, Inês; Florez, Jose C; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif; Sladek, Rob; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Wilson, James F; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Altshuler, David; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Soranzo, Nicole; Wheeler, Eleanor; Glazer, Nicole L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua; Johnson, Toby; Elliott, Paul; Rybin, Denis; Henneman, Peter; Dehghan, Abbas; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Song, Kijoung; Goel, Anuj; Egan, Josephine M; Lajunen, Taina; Doney, Alex; Kanoni, Stavroula; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Kumari, Meena; Timpson, Nicholas J; Zabena, Carina; Ingelsson, Erik; An, Ping; O'Connell, Jeffrey; Luan, Jian'an; Elliott, Amanda; McCarroll, Steven A; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Pattou, François; Sethupathy, Praveen; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Barter, Philip; Beilby, John P; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Böttcher, Yvonne; Brunner, Eric; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan J M; Cooper, Matthew N; Crisponi, Laura; Day, Ian N M; de Geus, Eco J C; Delplanque, Jerome; Fedson, Annette C; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Forouhi, Nita G; Frants, Rune; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Galan, Pilar; Goodarzi, Mark O; Graessler, Jürgen; Grundy, Scott; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hallmans, Göran; Hammond, Naomi; Han, Xijing; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon C; Hercberg, Serge; Hicks, Andrew A; Hillman, David R; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joe; Jula, Antti; Kaakinen, Marika

2012-01-01

434

Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.  

PubMed Central

Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. PMID:14620706

Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

2003-01-01

435

Relational theory and cultural enhancement interventions for African American adolescent girls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study tested the effectiveness of two culturally appropriate substance abuse prevention intervention programs for African American girls. METHODS: Project Naja recruited 210 girls ages 10-12 from schools in a low-income ward in Washington, D.C., to participate in a 2.5- year, three-phase intervention to develop strong ethnic and gender identity. The Cultural Enhancement Project recruited sixth grade girls in Richmond, Virginia, for a 15-week curriculum. The author collected pre- and post-test data on cultural, drug, and sex measures. RESULTS: Project Naja participants in the intervention group scored significantly higher on Africentric values and racial identity than comparison group participants. They also had more positive concepts of their physical appearance. In the Cultural Enhancement Project, girls in the intervention group scored higher on the global African American identity scale. There was a trend toward significance in increased percentage of androgyny for girls in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programs should include a component directed at strengthening ethnic identity and other protective factors (self-esteem, positive peer support, and skill-enhancement). PMID:12435830

Belgrave, Faye Z.

2002-01-01

436

Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume V: Health and Medical Care of African-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

Reed, Wornie L.; Darity, William, Sr.; Roman, Stanford; Baquet, Claudia; Roberson, Norma L.

437

The Relevance of Cultural Activities in Ethnic Identity Among California Native American Youth  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 – 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth. PMID:22400467

Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

2013-01-01

438

Substance use and intimate partner violence victimization among White, African American, and Latina women.  

PubMed

The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women. PMID:23946141

Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L

2013-11-01

439

A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans.  

PubMed

The beneficial biologic effects attributed to vitamin D suggest a potential to influence overall mortality. Evidence addressing this hypothesis is limited, especially for African Americans who have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Southern Community Cohort Study to relate baseline serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with subsequent mortality. Cases were 1,852 participants who enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and died >12 months postenrollment. Controls (n = 1,852) were matched on race, sex, age, enrollment site, and blood collection date. The odds ratios for quartile 1 (<10.18 ng/mL) versus quartile 4 (>21.64 ng/mL) levels of 25(OH)D were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.14) for African Americans and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.21) for non-African Americans. The effects were strongest for circulatory disease death, where quartile 1 versus quartile 4 odds ratios were 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44, 4.46) and 3.25 (95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) for African Americans and non-African Americans, respectively. The estimated odds of total mortality were minimized in the 25(OH)D range of 35-40 ng/mL. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that vitamin D status may have an important influence on mortality for both African Americans and non-African Americans. PMID:23125439

Signorello, Lisa B; Han, Xijing; Cai, Qiuyin; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J

2013-01-15

440

Disparities in outcomes for African American and Latino subjects in the Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies (FIRST) trial.  

PubMed

To benefit maximally from antiretroviral therapy, patients with HIV infection must enter care before their disease is advanced and adhere to care. We sought to determine if and where on this continuum of care racial/ethnic disparities were evident. Data from the Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies (FIRST) trial, which evaluated three strategies for initial HIV therapy, were compared for White, African American, and Latino subjects. Outcomes included progression of disease and death, HIV viral suppression, and change in CD4(+) cell count. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for known predictors of survival. There were 1357 subjects, including 368 non-Latino white, 751 non-Latino African American, and 238 Latino subjects. At baseline, the two latter groups were more likely to have had AIDS and had lower CD4(+) cell counts than white subjects. In follow-up, African American subjects had lower self-reported adherence to therapy, lower CD4(+) cell count increases, and lower odds of viral suppression. African American and Latino subjects had unadjusted hazard ratios of progression of disease or death of 1.57 (1.17, 2.10; p = 0.0025) and 1.57 (1.09, 2.26; p = 0.02), respectively. Adjusting for baseline differences and differences in adherence, CD4(+) cell count change, and viral suppression accounted for the disparities in outcomes. Opportunities to reduce disparities in outcomes for African American and Latino patients exist along the continuum of HIV care. Efforts to promote access to HIV testing and care and to improve adherence have the potential to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with HIV infection. PMID:20438378

Giordano, Thomas P; Bartsch, Glenn; Zhang, Yafeng; Tedaldi, Ellen; Absalon, Judith; Mannheimer, Sharon; Thomas, Avis; MacArthur, Rodger D

2010-05-01

441

Comparison of dietary variety and ethnic food consumption among Chinese, Chinese-American, and white American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study's purpose was to estimate the variety of foods consumed within standard and ethnic food categories by three groups of women between 18 and 35 years of age. Foreign-born Chinese women [N = 21], Chinese-American women [N = 20] and white American women [N = 23] kept 4-day food records, after instruction. Analysis of variance showed that the mean

Audrey A. Spindler; Janice D. Schultz

1996-01-01

442

Barriers and Facilitators to Digital Rectal Examination Screening among African-American and Afro-Caribbean Men  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of race/ethnicity and fear characteristics on the initiation and maintenance of DRE screening. Methods 533 men from Brooklyn, NY, aged 45–70, were classified into four race/ethnic groups: US-born whites, US-born African-American, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian. Participants recorded the number of DRE’s in the past 10 years. Demographics and structural variables, as well as prostate cancer worry and screening fear were measured with validated tools. Results Overall, 30% of subjects reported never having a DRE and 24% reported annual DRE’s. African-American, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian men have higher prostate cancer worry and screening fear scores than white men (all p<0.05). African-American, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian men were less likely to maintain annual DRE’s than white males (ORs = 0.17, 0.26, and 0.16, respectively, all p<0.05). Men with low screening fear were more likely to have an initial DRE (OR=2.3, p<0.05 vs. high screening fear), but no more or less likely to have annual DRE’s. Having a regular physician, comprehensive physician discussion, and annual visits were also associated with undergoing DRE. Conclusion We identified several ethnically-varying barriers and facilitators to DRE screening. African-American and Afro-Caribbean men undergo DRE less often and have higher prostate cancer worry and screening fear scores than white men. Screening fear predicts the likelihood of undergoing an initial, but not annual, DRE screen. Access to a physician and annual visits facilitate DRE screening. Interventions that include both culturally-sensitive education and patient navigation, and consider whether patients should be initiating or maintaining screening, may facilitate guideline-consistent screening. PMID:21477716

Lee, Daniel J; Consedine, Nathan S; Spencer, Benjamin A

2011-01-01

443

Religion and womanism in the lives of Central Texas African American Baptist women  

E-print Network

African American Baptist churches are not known as bastions of sexual equality. The dominance of males in the pulpit and the conservative and literal interpretation of the Bible often support this idea. African American women, however, were...

Turner, Deidra Rochelle

2009-05-15

444

3 CFR 8992 - Proclamation 8992 of May 31, 2013. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013  

...8992 of May 31, 2013. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 8992 Proclamation...2013 Proc. 8992 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013By the President...lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our...

2014-01-01

445

Mentoring Relationships among African American Women in Graduate and Professional Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of mentoring relationships among African American women in postbaccalaureate degree programs is emphasized and coupled with a discussion of the current shortage of same-race, same-sex mentors for African American female graduate and professional students.

Patton, Lori D.; Harper, Shaun R.

2003-01-01

446

Panic disorder among African Americans, Caribbean blacks and non-Hispanic whites  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study investigated co-morbidities, level of disability, service utilization and demographic correlates of panic disorder (PD) among African Americans, Caribbean blacks and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods Data are from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Results Non-Hispanic whites are the most likely to develop PD across the lifespan compared to the black subgroups. Caribbean blacks were found to experience higher levels of functional impairment. There were no gender differences found in prevalence of PD in Caribbean blacks, indicating that existing knowledge about who is at risk for developing PD (generally more prevalent in women) may not be true among this subpopulation. Furthermore, Caribbean blacks with PD were least likely to use mental health services compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion This study demonstrates that PD may affect black ethnic subgroups differently, which has important implications for understanding the nature and etiology of the disorder. PMID:22983664

Himle, Joseph A.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Abelson, Jamie M.; Matusko, Niki; Muroff, Jordana; Jackson, James

2014-01-01

447

Ethnic Identity Development and Collegiate Experience of Asian Pacific American Students: Implications for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the ethnic identity development of Asian Pacific American college students in conjunction with their collegiate experience. Findings showed that these students recognized their unique minority experience as Asian Pacific Americans. Another finding of this study was explicit and implicit connections between students' academic and career…

Kawaguchi, Shozo

2003-01-01

448

Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

449

Ethnic differences in microvascular function in apparently healthy South African men and women.  

PubMed

Microvascular dysfunction precedes the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Given the ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease, we aimed to investigate ethnic differences in microvascular endothelial function in a group of young (18-33 years old), apparently healthy individuals (n = 33, nine Black African, 12 mixed ancestry and 12 Caucasian). Microvascular endothelium-dependent and -independent function was assessed by laser Doppler imagery and iontophoresis of ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, adjusting for skin resistance. Microvascular reactivity was expressed as maximum absolute perfusion, percentage change from baseline and area under the curve (AUC). Skin resistance was significantly lower in the Caucasian group in response to ACh (Caucasian, mean 0.16 ± 0.03 ? versus Black, 0.21 ± 0.04 ? and mixed ancestry, 0.20 ± 0.02 ?, P < 0.01) and SNP (Caucasian, 0.08 ± 0.01 ? versus Black, 0.11 ± 0.02 ? and mixed ancestry, 0.12 ± 0.01 ?, P < 0.01). Microvascular function in response to ACh was significantly higher in the Caucasian group compared with the other two groups; however, after adjusting for skin resistance these differences were no longer significant. Conversely, the microvascular SNP response remained significantly higher in the Caucasian group, even after adjusting for skin resistance (P < 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure was inversely associated with the AUC of ACh (r = -0.4) and all SNP responses (r = -0.3 to -0.6). Skin resistance was inversely associated with AUC and maximum absolute ACh response (r = -0.59 and -0.64, respectively) and all SNP responses (r = -0.37 to -0.79). Ethnic differences in endothelium-independent microvascular function may contribute to ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Moreover, skin resistance plays a significant role in the interpretation of the microvascular response to outcomes of iontophoresis in a multiethnic group. PMID:24803528

Pienaar, P R; Micklesfield, L K; Gill, J M R; Shore, A C; Gooding, K M; Levitt, N S; Lambert, E V

2014-07-01

450

Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their

Ekere J Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; Gbadebo O Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene

2005-01-01

451

Sexual health communication within religious african-american families.  

PubMed

While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449

Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

2015-04-01

452

Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials.  

PubMed Central

African Americans have been underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was designed to determine factors that may help explain the low participation rate of African Americans in clinical trials. A historical review documented past medical experimentation and other practices on blacks that were often brutal and unethical. These experiences may have served to fortify the legacy of African-American mistrust in the medical system and culminated in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Four major barriers to participation in clinical trials were identified: lack of awareness about trials, economic factors, communication issues, and mistrust. These barriers, as well as others, can be surmounted with proper pretrial planning, patient education, genuine commitment and concern by study staff, and hard work to overcome deficiencies. PMID:8918067

Harris, Y.; Gorelick, P. B.; Samuels, P.; Bempong, I.

1996-01-01

453

Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by the Museum for African Art, New York, and presented online by the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Grass Roots is a history of 300 years of African basket making, brought by African people to the American South. The grasses that grow in the marshes along the Atlantic coast in the Southern United States, where African slaves were brought to work on rice plantations, were ideal for making coiled baskets, similar to the ones they'd made in Africa. The plantation system of rice growing required large numbers of several particular shapes of work baskets, including flat trays for winnowing, or removing chaff from the grain, and carrying baskets. The web resource includes an 86-page teachers' guide with activities for students from grades 3 - 12, and additional images of the baskets.

454

Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth  

PubMed Central

Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

2008-01-01

455

Low arterial compliance in young African-American males.  

PubMed

Hypertension remains a common public health challenge because of its prevalence and increase in co-morbid cardiovascular diseases. Black males have disproportionate pathophysiological consequences of hypertension compared with any other group in the United States. Alterations in arterial wall compliance and autonomic function often precede the onset of disease. Accordingly, our purpose was to investigate whether differences exist in arterial compliance and autonomic function between young, healthy African-American males without evidence of hypertension and age- and gender-matched non-African-American males. All procedures were carried out noninvasively following rest. Arterial compliance was calculated as the integrated area starting at the well-defined nadir of the incisura of the dicrotic notch to the end of diastole of the radial artery pulse wave. Power spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability provided distributions representative of parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations and sympathovagal balance. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated using the sequence method. Thirty-two African-American and twenty-nine non-African-American males were comparable in anthropometrics and negative family history of hypertension. t-Tests revealed lower arterial compliance (5.8 +/- 2.4 vs. 8.6 +/- 4.0 mmHg. s; P = 0.0017), parasympathetic modulation (8.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 9.7 +/- 1.1 ln ms2; P = 0.0063), and BRS (13.7 +/- 7.3 vs. 21.1 +/- 8.5 ms/mmHg; P = 0.0007) and higher sympathovagal balance (2.9 +/- 3.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 1.1; P = 0.03) in the African-American group. In summary, differences exist in arterial compliance and autonomic balance in African-American males. These alterations may be antecedent markers of disease and valuable in the detection of degenerative cardiovascular processes in individuals at risk. PMID:12738618

Zion, Adrienne S; Bond, Vernon; Adams, Richard G; Williams, Deborah; Fullilove, Robert E; Sloan, Richard P; Bartels, Matthew N; Downey, John A; De Meersman, Ronald E

2003-08-01

456

Sociocultural Issues in African American and Hispanic Minorities Seeking Care for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the sociocultural factors that may affect the diagnosis and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American and Hispanic minorities seen in the primary care setting in the United States. Data Sources: Searches on MEDLINE and PubMed were conducted in April and September 2012 on ADHD and its related problems and disabilities. A general search was conducted using the terms (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR AD/HD) AND (ethnicity OR cultural OR culture). Issues of particular relevance to racial and ethnic minorities utilizing health care services were researched using the string (black OR African OR Hispanic OR Latino OR minority OR racial) combined with terms relating to access, insurance, comorbidity, high-risk behavior, treatment compliance, and nonpharmacologic modalities. Searches were limited to English-language citations, and no date parameters were used. References identified as pertinent to this review were selected for citation. Study Selection/Data Extraction: Information revealing contrasts between minorities and the US non-Hispanic white population was organized in distinct categories, such as access to medical care and insurance, cultural attitudes, and the effects of stigmatization. The authors also provide perspectives for the primary care physician from their own clinical experience. Data Synthesis: Rates of diagnosis of in the United States are higher for non-Hispanic whites than for minorities, yet true prevalence is probably similar across racial-ethnic groups. When the stigma of mental illness is added to the challenges faced by racial/ethnic minorities or immigrant status, patients may be especially sensitive. Underuse of clinical services may reflect economic limitations on access to care, cultural attitudes toward mental illness, and the effects of real or perceived prejudice and stigmatization. Conclusions: Primary care clinicians in the United States should seek to become more aware of cultural factors that could interfere with the recognition and management of ADHD. PMID:25664217

Jaquez-Gutierrez, Marisela C.; Madhoo, Manisha

2014-01-01

457

Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

458

Their Highest Potential: An African American School Community in the Segregated South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of the public schooling of African Americans during legalized segregation has focused almost exclusively on the inferior education that African American students received. In the national memory, African Americans have been victims of Whites who questioned the utility of providing Blacks with anything more than a rudimentary education…

Walker, Vanessa Siddle

459

Taking Another Look at Educating African American Engineers: The Importance of Undergraduate Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we identify the engineering schools that either gradu- ate large classes of African Americans or that retain relatively high percentages of African American students in engineering; point out that modest improvements in student retention would signifi- cantly affect the total number of bachelors degrees earned annually by African Americans in engineering; examine the measures im- plemented by

MONTY REICHERT; MARTHA ABSHER

460

A Phenomenological Study Exploring Shortages of African American Male Teachers in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research was designed to explore the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic state through the lens of the phenomenon of shortage of African American male teachers. The overarching question guiding this study addressed the lived experiences of African American male educators in a mid-Atlantic…

Wimbush, Jason D.

2012-01-01

461

A Phenomenological Study: African-American Males in the Educational Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of African-American male teachers related to the underrepresentation of African-American males in the teaching profession. The study was guided by four research questions. The data was collected from 15 African-American male teachers at the elementary school level,…

Williams, Kristopher

2012-01-01

462

Perceptions of African American and Caucasian Partners in two-person work groups: Does Race Matter?  

E-print Network

128 Perceptions of African American and Caucasian Partners in two- person work groups: Does Race-person work groups. It was hypothesized that participants rating African American partners would be less to the U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics, African Americans made up approximately 8 percent

Omiecinski, Curtis

463

African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

464

Retaining African Americans in Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms for Retaining Students, Faculty and Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection discusses some of the issues surrounding the retention of African Americans in higher education, and it challenges traditional paradigms for retaining African American students, administrators, and faculty at predominantly White colleges. The chapters of part 1, "Retaining African-American Students," are: (1) "Creating an Affirming…

Jones, Lee, Ed.

465

Still Segregated, Still Unequal: Analyzing the Impact of No Child Left Behind on African American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article examines the impact of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on educational experiences and opportunities for African American children. Despite NCLB, public schools have continued to fail African Americans through separate and unequal educational opportunities partially because the focus on educating African American children well has not been legislated or mandated. In focusing on measuring the outcomes of

Christopher Knaus

466

issues in African-American politics, culture, and art. In addition,studentsencounterseveralargumentsaboutthe  

E-print Network

the appropriate departmental listings: African-American Studies 295 Art History 310-African-American Art Seminar History 360-The History of the African-American People since 1877 History 375-European Imperialism in East CURATOR RYAN REGULAR ADJUNCT FACULTY BEAVERS, CAPPS MAJORS A major in art history leading to a Bachelor

Dresden, Gregory

467

Impact of College Environments on the Spiritual Development of African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the impact of college environments on the spiritual development of African American students. Using the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality (AMOS) survey administered to 125 African American college students, the study sought to ascertain whether or not there were differences in spirituality as reported by African American

Weddle-West, Karen; Hagan, Waldon Joseph; Norwood, Kristie M.

2013-01-01

468

Pedagogies of Experience: A Case of the African American Male Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous scholars have illustrated how African American teachers' past experiences provide them a philosophical vision committed to teaching for social and educational change for African American students. This article draws from this body of work by looking at the diverse ways five African American male teachers used their past experiences to…

Brown, Anthony L.

2011-01-01

469

Counseling African American Adolescents: The Impact of Race, Culture, and Middle Class Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of literature addresses the concerns of African American youngsters who experience social distress, academic difficulties, poverty, despair, and violence. This article focuses on issues of particular rel- evance to school counselors working with middle-class, African American youngsters whose lives may have lit- tle relationship to the above-mentioned stressors. The article begins with an overview of African American

Norma L. Day-Vines; James M. Patton

470

Persistent poverty among Africans Americans in the United States: the impact of public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the persistent poverty that exists among African Americans in the United States. It explains why African Americans in the United States are much more likely to live and\\/or remain in poverty than any other population group. This study is based on the premise that the governmental system has affected African Americans through the use of public policies.

Daphne M Cooper

2011-01-01

471

Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner\\/medical examiner autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls'

James C Barton; Ronald T Acton; Asia K Richardson; Robert M Brissie

2005-01-01

472

HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AGE 35-64 IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY  

E-print Network

percentage of African American adults and children are living in poverty in the County,2 one would expectHEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AGE 35-64 IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY A BLACK PAPER and economic status of African Americans in the County is among the worst in the United States1 and a high

Sibille, Etienne

473

Elder Abuse and Neglect in African American Families: Informing Practice Based on Ecological and Cultural Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies

Sheena R. Horsford; José Rubén Parra-Cardona; Lori A. Post; Larry Schiamberg

2010-01-01

474

Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

Madyun, Na'im H.

2011-01-01

475

Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must

E James Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; GO Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene

2005-01-01

476

Rural African American Clergy: An Exploration of Their Attitudes and Knowledge of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural African American clergy's ability to recognize Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and their capacity to provide support to elders with this illness has been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore rural African American clergy knowledge and beliefs of AD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 African American clergy who

Kim L. Stansbury; Gillian L. Marshall; Debra A. Harley; Nancy Nelson

2010-01-01

477

Bidirectional Linkages Between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities Among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in

Lisa R. Starr; Geri R. Donenberg; Erin Emerson

2012-01-01

478

Our Students, Ourselves: Lessons of Challenge and Hope from the African American Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hope of many African Americans in education as the great equalizer is illustrated by a review of African American education in the United States. The challenge of the continuing struggle for equality and the failure of public schools to serve as a liberating force in African American lives are described. (SK)

Peterson, Elizabeth A.

1996-01-01

479

A National Dilemma: African American Students Underrepresented in Advanced Mathematics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lack of access to educational opportunities has been a reality for African American students. As a result, America's schools are facing a national dilemma. African American students are significantly underrepresented in advanced mathematics courses. One of the most segregated places in American society is the mathematics classroom. African

Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

2006-01-01

480

Lifting the Voices of High-Achieving, Middle-Class, African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…

Brown, Stacey Marvetta

2012-01-01

481

The Effects of Educational Tracking on the Social Mobility of African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a review of historical relations and an analysis of the current status of African Americans to critically examine educational opportunity for African Americans in the United States. In particular, the role that educational tracking plays in the relation of employment and educational achievement in the African-American population is detailed.…

Kershaw, Terry

1992-01-01

482

Referral of African American Children for Evaluation of Emotional or Behavioral Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that high numbers of African American children receive special education services. To address the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, this study examined the source of referral and the behaviors that precipitate the referral of African Americans for evaluation due to behavioral or emotional concerns.…

Riccio, Cynthia A.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Garza, Sylvia G.; Nero, Collette L.

2003-01-01

483

How Involvement in African American Student Organizations Supports and Hinders Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perspectives of 84 African American students attending a predominantly White institution (PWI) were qualitatively analyzed to identify the conditions under which African American student organizations were perceived as assets and liabilities to academic success. Results indicate that involvement in African American student organizations can…

Guiffrida, Douglas A.

2004-01-01

484

The Career Experiences of African American Women Faculty: Implications for Counselor Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite three decades of affirmative action efforts, counseling programs continue to struggle with the challenge of recruiting and retaining African American women faculty. African American women in general, and African American female professors in particular, have emerged from what Hudson-Weems (1989) terms as a tripartite form of oppression, of…

Bradley, Carla

2005-01-01

485

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

486

A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

Brooks Greaux, Lisa

2010-01-01

487

Mentoring and Professional Identity Development for African American Female Doctoral Students: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the impact mentoring relationships, between African American women doctoral students and faculty members, has on the students' professional identity development. Of particular interest is an examination of whether matched mentoring relationships between African American women doctoral students and African American female…

Curry, Nettavia Doreen

2011-01-01

488

The Effects of Age at Kindergarten Entry on the Reading Proficiency of African American and European American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European American students are more likely delayed entrance in kindergarten than African American students. This study examined whether age at kindergarten entry influences the reading proficiency skills of African American and European American students at the start of kindergarten, at the end of first grade, and at the end of third grade. Using…

Easton-Brooks, Donald; Brown, Amber

2010-01-01

489

Participation in Extracurricular Activities in the Middle School Years: Are There Developmental Benefits for African American and European American Youth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the associations between organized activity participation during early adolescence and adjustment in a large and economically diverse sample of African American and European American youth. The sample included 1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African American and 33% European American). We used analysis of…

Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2008-01-01

490

The African Folktale. An Instructional Unit for Seventh Grade English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents a 3-week seventh grade English unit on the African folktale. The guide is one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The objectives are to help students develop respect for African cultures and lifestyles, compare values of African and American ethnic

Dobbs, Sherry

491

Excessive Drinking Among African American Men: Individual and Contextual Correlates  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire

2012-01-01

492

Progression of coronary atherosclerosis in African-American patients  

PubMed Central

Background African-Americans with coronary artery disease (CAD) demonstrate worse clinical outcomes than Caucasians. While this is partly due to a lack of accessibility to established therapies, the mechanisms underlying this difference remain to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in African-Americans with CAD. Methods 3,479 patients with CAD underwent serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to evaluate atheroma progression in 7 clinical trials of anti-atherosclerotic therapies. Risk factor control and atheroma progression were compared between African-Americans (n=170) and Caucasians (n=3,309). Results African-Americans were more likely to be female (51.8% vs. 28.1%, P<0.001), have a higher body mass index (32.8±6.0 vs. 31.3±5.8 kg/m2, P=0.002) and greater history of hypertension (85.9% vs. 78.8%, P=0.02), diabetes (41.8% vs. 30.6%, P=0.002) and stroke (12.9% vs. 3.0%, P<0.001). Despite a high use of anti-atherosclerotic medications (93% statin, 89% aspirin, 79% ?-blocker, 52% ACE inhibitor), African-Americans demonstrated higher levels of LDL-C (2.4±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.7 mmol/L, P=0.006), CRP (2.9 vs. 2.0 mg/dL, P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (133±15 vs. 129±13 mmHg, P<0.001) at follow-up. There was no significant difference in atheroma volume at baseline (189.0±82.2 vs. 191.6±83.3 mm3, P=0.82) between two groups. Serial evaluation demonstrated a greater increase in atheroma volume in African-Americans (0.51±2.1 vs. –3.1±1.7 mm3, P=0.01). This difference persisted with propensity matching accounting for differences in risk factor control (0.1±2.1 vs. –3.7±1.7 mm3, P=0.02). Conclusions African-Americans with CAD achieve less optimal risk factor control and greater atheroma progression. These findings support the need for more intensive risk factor modification in African-Americans. PMID:24282765

Kataoka, Yu; Hsu, Amy; Wolski, Kathy; Uno, Kiyoko; Puri, Rishi; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Nissen, Steven E.

2013-01-01

493

Does Participation in Ethnic Cocurricular Activities Facilitate a Sense of Ethnic Awareness and Understanding? A Study of Asian Pacific American Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this study, I examined the relationship between participation in ethnic clubs and organizations and increases in racial/ethnic awareness and understanding for 184 male and female Asian Pacific American undergraduates using a longitudinal survey from 1990 to 1994. The results show that participation in such activities deepens APA students'…

Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

2004-01-01

494

The impact of ethnicity on outcomes following coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the Veterans Health Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe evaluated the effect of African American (AA) and Hispanic American (HA) ethnicity on mortality and complications following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

John S Rumsfeld; Mary E Plomondon; Eric D Peterson; Michael G Shlipak; Charles Maynard; Gary K Grunwald; Frederick L Grover; A. Laurie W Shroyer

2002-01-01