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Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West Africanethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple Africanethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single Africanethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from West or West Central Africa than those found in eastern or southern Africa. Fewer than 14% of the African-American mtDNA sequences matched sequences from only West Africa or only West Central Africa. Conclusion Our database of sub-Saharan mtDNA sequences includes the most common haplotypes that are shared among ethnic groups from multiple regions of Africa. These common haplotypes have been found in half of all sub-Saharan Africans. More than 60% of the remaining haplotypes differ from the common haplotypes at a single nucleotide position in the HVS-I region, and they are likely to occur at varying frequencies within sub-Saharan Africa. However, the finding that 40% of the African-American mtDNAs analyzed had no match in the database indicates that only a small fraction of the total number of African haplotypes has been identified. In addition, the finding that fewer than 10% of African-American mtDNAs matched mtDNA sequences from a single African region suggests that few AfricanAmericans might be able to trace their mtDNA lineages to a particular region of Africa, and even fewer will be able to trace their mtDNA to a single ethnic group. However, no firm conclusions should be made until a much larger database is available. It is clear, however, that when identical mtDNA haplotypes are shared among many ethnic groups from different parts of Africa, it is impossible to determine which single ethnic group was the source of a particular maternal ancestor based on the mtDNA sequence.
Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A
This study tested a theoretical model explaining how ethnic identity and religiousness might be related to alcohol use among AfricanAmericans. One hundred seventy-three AfricanAmerican undergraduates at a large, public, Southeastern historically black university completed the study. Findings indicate that although religiousness accounted for 31% of the relationship between ethnic identity and alcohol use, whether mediation existed depended on
Andrea M. Smith; Clarenda M. Phillips; Tamara L. Brown
|This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (AfricanAmerican vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by AfricanAmerican or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…
Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.
|Scholars in the field of AfricanAmerican family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of AfricanAmerican youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…
Several theories of stress exposure, including the stress process and the family stress model for economically disadvantaged families, suggest that family processes work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Much of this research, however, treats African-Americans as a monolithic group and ignores potential differences in family stress processes within race that may emerge across ethnic groups. This study examines whether family stress processes differ intraracially in African-American and Black Caribbean families. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative data set of African-American and Black Caribbean families, we assess the extent to which parents’ stress appraisals and psychological adjustment are related to their adolescent children’s stress appraisals, psychological adjustment, and depressive symptoms. Our study illustrates that stress processes differ by ethnicity and operate through varying pathways in African-American and Black Caribbean families. The implications of intraracial variations in stress processes are discussed.
Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Bellatorre, Anna; Jackson, James S.
|Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of AfricanAmerican parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…
Distress, coping, and social resources were compared in a sample of 202 Japanese-, Anglo-, African-, and Mexican American spousal caregivers of persons with dementia using a Stress-Coping model. Both ethnicity and gender showed differential effects on the outcome and on the moderating variables. Female caregivers in all ethnic groups reported significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology. All 4 ethnic groups
Brad Adams; María P. Aranda; Bryan Kemp; Kellie Takagi
This cross-sectional study examined the relations among children’s ethnic pride, perceived parenting behavior (i.e., parental\\u000a control, parental acceptance), anxiety sensitivity, and child anxiety symptoms (i.e., physical symptoms, social anxiety symptoms,\\u000a separation anxiety symptoms, and harm avoidance symptoms) in 266 AfricanAmerican school children (M = 9.98 years old; 55% girls). Structural equation modeling results indicated that high ethnic pride was associated with high
Calonie M. K. Gray; Rona Carter; Wendy K. Silverman
Racism and racial/ethnic socialization are proposed as interactive risk and resilience factors that promote the development of multiple dimensions of racial identity among AfricanAmerican youth are the focus of this study. One-hundred and eight AfricanAmerican students responded to questions about their racial identity and socialization. Controlling for demographic characteristics of ecological support (from family, friends, and neighbors), neighborhood racial composition, and gender, findings revealed that racism exposure significantly explained the variance of several racial identity components and ideologies but that racial/ethnic socialization mediated that influence. We discuss the implications for future study of racism experience on the racial identity development of AfricanAmerican youth. PMID:19364199
|This study will address the initial question: Are there ethnic differences in parenting that remain when contextual variables are controlled "and" are related to culture, focusing on two samples of rural AfricanAmerican families. This study is part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue (Le et al., 2008). Specific…
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 AfricanAmerican college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…
|Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 AfricanAmerican college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…
Study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from AfricanAmerican adolescents. Analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self esteem, self reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models…
|Racial socialization and ethnic identity are emerging, albeit atheoretical, constructs that have been argued to promote prosocial outcomes among ethnic minority youths. Using structural equation modeling, the author explored the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on school engagement in a sample of 131 AfricanAmerican youths.…
Germans and African-Americans exhibited a significant degree of economic, social, and political interaction in Reconstruction Charleston. Race and ethnic relations between Germans and African-Americans tended to be more positive than those between blacks and white southerners and challenged southern social norms. During Reconstruction, a small but economically and politically significant community of German immigrants thrived in Charleston, South Carolina. The
This study uses a causal modeling approach based on structural equation modeling to examine specific hypotheses regarding the relation among ethnic identity, its components, and various mental health outcomes in AfricanAmerican emerging adults. Data was provided by college students at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. Results did not support a relation between ethnic identity components and adverse mental
|This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban AfricanAmerican females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…
The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among AfricanAmerican college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…
This study explores the relatively new idea that individuals engage with media in an effort to meet their social identity needs. Specifically, the study broadens the social identity gratifications (SIG) approach to the domain of ethnicity by examining how AfricanAmericans’ ethnic identity gratifications selection and avoidance are related to their perceptions of ingroup vitality. Two mediation models involving level
Background Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. Methods Individual ancestry (IA) was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP), a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information) comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/AfricanAmerican (AA) or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA) from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino) using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC) were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. Results Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p?=?0.03) and EA (p?=?0.001). This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered “no” to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p?=?0.78) but not EA research subjects, p?=?0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. Conclusions Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA research participants: self-reported ethnicity. Accurately accounting for genetic admixture in this cohort is essential for future analyses of the genetic and environmental contributions to CaP.
Sucheston, Lara E.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Xu, Zongli; Singh, Prashant K.; Preus, Leah; Mohler, James L.; Su, L. Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Ruiz, Bernardo; Smith, Gary J.; Taylor, Jack A.
Traditional AfricanAmerican foods, also referred to as “soul food,” are often given a blanket label of “poor food choices.” The cultural value of these ethnic foods may be disregarded without sufficient study of their nutrient content. This study showed that of the various foods perceived as traditionally AfricanAmerican by the local sampled population, greens were the most often
A new biocatalytic assay analyzing the simultaneous presence of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was developed aiming at the recognition of biofluids of different ethnic origins for forensic applications. Knowing the difference in the concentrations of CK and LDH in the blood of healthy adults of two ethnical groups, Caucasian (CA) and AfricanAmerican (AA), and taking into account the distribution pattern, we mimicked the samples of different ethnic origins with various CK-LDH concentrations. The analysis was performed using a multi-enzyme/multi-step biocatalytic cascade where the differences in both included enzymes resulted in an amplified difference in the final analytical response. The statistically established analytical results confirmed excellent probability to distinguish samples of different ethnic origins (CA vs. AA). The standard enzymatic assay routinely used in hospitals for the analysis of CK, performed for comparison, was not able to distinguish the difference in samples mimicking blood of different ethnic origins. The robustness of the proposed assay was successfully tested on dried/aged serum samples (up to 24 h) - in order to mimic real forensic situations. The results obtained on the model solutions were confirmed by the analysis of real serum samples collected from human subjects of different ethnic origins. PMID:24003440
Kramer, Friederike; Halámková, Lenka; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Katz, Evgeny; Halámek, Jan
This study will address the initial question: Are there ethnic differences in parenting that remain when contextual variables are controlled and are related to culture, focusing on two samples of rural AfricanAmerican families. This study is part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue (Le et al., 2008). Specific attention was given to ascertaining whether these differences were explained by contextual factors, such as socioeconomic factors (i.e., parents’ educational level, homeowner-ship, family structure, and number of children in the household). Finally, this study examined whether any differences in parenting (warmth, monitoring, communication) were attributed to cultural factors, after controlling for the contributions of contextual factors. Results indicate that parental education, family size, negative life events, racial discrimination, neighborhood characteristics, and religiosity were significantly associated with various domains of parenting among rural AfricanAmericans.
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in the Western world. In the United States, it is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths after lung and bronchus carcinoma. No definitive causes of prostate cancer (PCa) have been identified to date but, increasing age, a positive family history, and sub-Saharan African ancestry are strongly linked to its development. AfricanAmerican men (AAM) have the highest reported incidence rates in the United States and their mortality from the disease is markedly higher than that of European American men (EAM). Conversely, Asian American men and Pacific Islanders (API), American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) men, and Hispanic men all have lower incidence and mortality rates as compared with EAM. The reasons for these differences are unclear. However, it is clear that AAM have more advanced PCa when diagnosed. Several other reasons have been suggested and these include differences in treatments and health seeking behavior among the ethnic groups, cultural beliefs, environmental/lifestyle factors, dietary and genetic factors. In conclusion, there are multiple factors that impact prostate cancer outcome and that may be responsible for ethnic disparity. These factors are discussed in this chapter. PMID:19107447
Background Accelerated central arterial stiffening as represented by progression of aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) may be influenced by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Little is known about the relationships between CVD risk factors and PWV progression among women transitioning through the menopause, or whether these relationships vary by ethnicity. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a subgroup analysis of 303 AfricanAmerican and Caucasian participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart Study received PWV scans at baseline examination and at a follow-up examination an average of 2.3 years later. CVD risk factors were also assessed at baseline. Methods and Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and waist circumference were the strongest predictors of PWV progression, after adjustment for age, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glucose, and triglyceride levels. The magnitude of the influence of SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and glucose on PWV progression varied by ethnicity (difference in slopes: p=0.02 for SBP, p=0.0009 for DBP, p=0.005 for LDL-C, and p=0.02 for glucose). The positive relationship between SBP and PWV progression was significant among women of both ethnicities. LDL-C, DBP, and, to a lesser extent, glucose levels were positively associated with PWV progression only among AfricanAmericans. Conclusions Blood pressure, LDL-C, glucose, and excess body size may be important targets for improving vascular health and preventing clinical outcomes related to arterial stiffening, particularly among AfricanAmerican women.
We examined the cross-ethnic equivalency of socialization measures developed primarily with European American families. Four aspects of measurement equivalence were assessed: conceptual, operational, scalar, and functional. Evidence of between-and within-group measurement equivalency of socialization measures was derived from youth reports of 500…
Krishnakumar, Ambika; Buehler, Cheryl; Barber, Brian K.
This longitudinal study examines the development of racial–ethnic identity among AfricanAmerican children. Racial preferences were assessed in early elementary school with the Racial Attitudes, Beliefs, and Stereotypes Measure–II, a projective technique using paired comparisons of pictures of AfricanAmerican, Asian, Latino, and Caucasian children. Racial–ethnic identity in 3rd grade was assessed using the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure Ethnic Belonging subscale.
Chaundrissa Oyeshiku Smith; Douglas W. Levine; Emilie Phillips Smith; Jean Dumas; Ron J. Prinz
Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why AfricanAmerican adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than\\u000a other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social\\u000a support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to one’s ethnic group) in reducing\\u000a internalizing
Noni K. Gaylord-Harden; Brian L. Ragsdale; Jelani Mandara; Maryse H. Richards; Anne C. Petersen
Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth,\\u000a few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports\\u000a on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15–22) from three racial\\/ethnic backgrounds (AfricanAmerican,\\u000a Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL
Jacob C. Warren; M. Isabel Fernández; Gary W. Harper; Marco A. Hidalgo; Omar B. Jamil; Rodrigo Sebastián Torres
Theorists and researchers have long studied identity development among children, particularly during the period of adolescence, but most have focused on children residing with biological parents. Not only have identity issues facing foster children been little studied, but the effects of kinship foster care on identity, including ethnic identity, have received minimal attention. AfricanAmerican children are overrepresented in the
Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why AfricanAmerican adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.
|This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 AfricanAmerican adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…
Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna
Young minority mothers are particularly vulnerable to depression associated with community-level or contextual stressors such as violence exposure and ethnic discrimination. This study explores whether human and social capital act as buffers of the associations between such stressors and maternal depression. Among a sample of 230 urban, AfricanAmerican mothers, who were teenagers when their preschool-age children were born, both
Amy Lewin; Stephanie J. Mitchell; Andrew Rasmussen; Kathy Sanders-Phillips; Jill G. Joseph
Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that AfricanAmerican women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a sociocultural model of eating disorders for AfricanAmerican women but
This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on AfricanAmerican women's suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income AfricanAmerican women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women's risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264
Perry, Brea L; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B
This study examines the predictors of mentalhealth service use among patients in an ethnicallydiverse public-care women's clinic. While waiting fortheir clinic appointments, 187 Latina, AfricanAmerican, and White women were interviewed about theirattitudes towards mental illness and mental healthservices. White women were much more likely to have madea mental health visit in the past than the ethnic minority women. Having
Objective: To compare ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by computed tomography, and type 2 diabetes risk among 55- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women without known cardiovascular disease.Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were participants in the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 196), the Filipino Women’s Health Study (n = 181), and the Health Assessment Study of
Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor
The current study, using data from 374 AfricanAmerican students (59.4% female) in grades 7–12 attending a rural, southern\\u000a county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with “future education\\u000a orientation.” Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing levels of future education\\u000a orientation. The strongest predictors of future education orientation were self-efficacy,
Jennifer L. Kerpelman; Suna Eryigit; Carolyn J. Stephens
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from
Bert Ely; Jamie Lee Wilson; Fatimah Jackson; Bruce A Jackson
Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that AfricanAmerican women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…
|Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that AfricanAmerican women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…
|The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among AfricanAmerican students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related…
The present study examined racial, ethnic, and gender differences in family composition substance abuse, and mental health issues, such as depression and self-esteem among adjudicated juvenile offenders. Results revealed a negative relationship between depression and self-esteem among all ethnicities and family compositions. Caucasians reported greater incidence of substance abuse than did AfricanAmerican and Hispanic youth. Moreover, in reconstituted families,
Roslyn M. Caldwell; N. Clayton Silver; Marilyn Strada
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among AfricanAmerican students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…
|Although there is some evidence in the vague literature available to indicate that AfricanAmericans are underrepresented in foreign language studies, this issue has never been investigated with a focus on Spanish. Six hundred and thirty-one students enrolled in high school Spanish in a racially diverse school district in West Texas were surveyed…
Two experimental studies were conducted to examine AfricanAmericans' (AA) perceptions and attitudes toward light-skinned and dark-skinned AA female models in print advertisements. Using convenience student samples from three universities in the southeastern USA, the first study examined the perceptions and attitudes of 299 AA males toward the advertising stimuli, while the second study explored the perceptions and attitudes of
Stevie Watson; Corliss G. Thornton; Brian T. Engelland
Using the lessons learned from mistakes made in their earlier clinical work with AfricanAmerican families, through the lens of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy theory, these culturally diverse practitioners use reflections from their counseling experiences to offer clinicians a people-responsive, diversity-sensitive framework and provide…
Although there is some evidence in the vague literature available to indicate that AfricanAmericans are underrepresented in foreign language studies, this issue has never been investigated with a focus on Spanish. Six hundred and thirty-one students enrolled in high school Spanish in a racially diverse school district in West Texas were surveyed…
Background Epidemiologic studies report that self-identified AfricanAmericans typically have higher hemostatic factor levels than do self-identified Caucasians or Hispanics. Objective To better understand phenotypic variation in hemostatic factor levels by race/ethnicity we evaluated the relationship between genetic ancestry and hemostatic factor levels among MESA study participants. Patients/Methods Our sample included 712 AfricanAmerican and 701 Hispanic men and women aged 45–84. Individual global ancestry was estimated from 199 genetic markers using STRUCTURE. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between ancestry and hemostatic factor levels, adjusting for age, sex, education, income, and study site. Results Among AfricanAmericans, mean±SD ancestry was estimated as 79.9% ± 15.9% African and 20.1% ± 15.9% European. Each SD (16%) greater African ancestry was associated with 2.1% higher fibrinogen levels (p=0.007) and 3.5% higher plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) levels (p=0.02). Ancestry among AfricanAmericans was not related to levels of factor VIII or D-Dimer. Mean±SD estimated ancestry among Hispanics was 48.3% ± 23.8% Native American, 38.8% ± 21.9% European, and 13.0% ±18.9% African. In Hispanics, each SD (19%) greater African ancestry was associated with 2.7% higher fibrinogen levels (p=0.009) and 7.9% higher factor VIII levels (p=0.0002). In Hispanics, there was no relation between African ancestry and D-dimer or PAP levels, or between European ancestry and hemostatic factor levels. Conclusions Greater African ancestry among AfricanAmericans and Hispanics was associated with higher levels of several hemostatic factors, notably fibrinogen. These results suggest that genetic heterogeneity contributes, albeit modestly, to racial/ethnic differences in hemostatic factor levels.
Lutsey, PL; Wassel, CL; Cushman, M; Sale, MM; Divers, J; Folsom, AR
|Measures ownership of and access to AfricanAmerican and Latino periodical literature, illustrating the successes and failures in promoting racial and ethnic diversity in research libraries belonging to the ARL (Association of Research Libraries). Discusses desirability of multicultural collections; bibliographic control and access issues; and…
This commentary considers the implications of the assessment of racial/ethnic status for monitoring the health of AfricanAmericans and other Black populations in the United States. It argues that because racial disparities in health and other social indicators persist undiminished, the continued assessment of race is essential. However, efforts must be made to ensure that racial data are of the highest quality. This will require uniform assessment of racial status that includes identifiers for subgroups of the Black population. Research also indicates that the health of multiracial persons varies by maternal race. Thus, efforts to monitor multiracial status should assess the race of both parents. More attention should also be given to analysis and interpretation of racial data and to the collection of additional data that capture characteristics linked to race (such as socioeconomic factors and racism) that may adversely affect health.
Suggests sources of information for AfricanAmerican History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac," is reviewed, and a reference activity…
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for AfricanAmericans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in AfricanAmericans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in AfricanAmericans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic.
Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.
This Web site offer useful information concerning AfricanAmerican news and culture. AfricanAmerican Newspapers, provides a connection to over 200 listings of AfricanAmerican US newspapers and publications sorted by State. This provides valuable resource links for those looking to delve into AfricanAmerican history and culture.
The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by African- and Arab-Americans. Parental admonitions against discrimination were heard by all but AfricanAmericans, Latinos and those who reported prejudice heard that it could pose a barrier. Adolescents' beliefs that America is an equal opportunity society were negatively associated with experiences of discrimination and African-Americans were least likely to believe that the government was responsive to the average person. With respect to civic goals, all youth endorsed patriotism but ethnic minorities and ethnically aware youth were more committed to advocating for their ethnic group and European-Americans were less committed than were AfricanAmericans to improving race relations. PMID:19636724
We examined the importance of ethnicity in terms of ?-cell secretion and hepatic insulin extraction (HIE) and insulin clearance (IC) to peripheral insulin levels before and after stimulation in three populations of West African ancestry, namely African-Americans, Ghanaian immigrants, and native Ghanaians living in diverse environments, and white Americans. Following 10 to 12 hours of overnight fasting, each subject ingested
Kwame Osei; Dara P. Schuster; Samuel K. Owusu; Albert G. B. Amoah
|The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six Americanethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…
... education, employment, and health care. However, strong social, religious, and family connections have helped many AfricanAmericans ... church and community to cope. The level of religious commitment among AfricanAmericans is high. In one ...
Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…
|An historical overview of African and Afro-American music, from the foundations in sub-Saharan African music to the music of the 1980s, is presented in this paper as evidence that Afro-American music is closely intertwined with ethnic identification and follows the direction of Afro-American sociopolitical change. Slave and folk music, minstrel…
The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096\\u000a (53% female) adolescents (11–18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were\\u000a compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by African- and Arab-Americans.\\u000a Parental admonitions against discrimination were heard by all but
Constance A. Flanagan; Amy K. Syvertsen; Sukhdeep Gill; Leslie S. Gallay; Patricio Cumsille
Rationale: Genes in the interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/IL-4R? pathway have been shown to be associated with asthma and related phenotypes in some populations, but not in others. Furthermore, interaction between these genes has been shown to affect asthma in white and Chinese populations. Objectives: To determine whether there are IL-4/IL-13 and IL-4R? gene–gene interactions that are associated with asthma in AfricanAmericans. Methods: Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4R? genes were genotyped in 264 AfricanAmericans with asthma and 176 healthy control subjects. We tested the SNPs for genetic associations and gene–gene interactions with asthma, baseline lung function, bronchodilator drug response, and total serum IgE levels. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 94 SNPs in IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4R? genes by directly sequencing these genes in 24 African-American subjects with asthma. Seventeen SNPs were analyzed for association with asthma and related phenotypes. We found no evidence of association in the IL-4 gene. One SNP in the IL-13 gene (A?646G, rs2069743) and two SNPs in the IL-4R? gene (A+4679G, rs1805010, and C+22656T, rs1805015) showed association with lung function (both baseline and post-bronchodilator). Although the association between individual SNPs and asthma-related phenotypes differed from previous studies performed in white and Chinese populations, significant gene–gene interaction was found between the IL-13 (A?646G) and IL-4R? (A+4679G) SNPs for baseline lung function among African-American subjects with asthma. Conclusions: Gene–gene interaction between the IL-13 and IL-4R? genes may play an important role in asthma among AfricanAmericans.
It is estimated that two million African-Americans suffer directly and indirectly from alcoholism and its related problems. Yet, because of their cultural background, African-American alcoholics do not readily accept that alcoholism is a disease. This study explores how African-American alcoholics modify the steps and traditions of AA to affiliate with the organization. Data was collected from intensive and semi-structured interviews
|The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…
We find evidence of ethnic fractionalization and its consequences in an African labour market. We consider earnings differentials between members of different ethnic groups and between employers' relatives, unrelated co-ethnics, and other workers in the Ghanaian manufacturing sector. Variations in a standard set of observed workers' characteristics explain a large proportion of the earnings differentials between ethnic groups. However, the
Home > Living with Diverse Communities > AfricanAmericans and Alzheimer's AfricanAmericans and Alzheimer's African-Americans may be at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Know the warning signs and be aware. ...
|The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and AfricanAmerican women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…
The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% AfricanAmerican and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses indicated that help avoidance
Allison M. Ryan; S. Serena Shim; Shawn A. Lampkins-uThando; Sarah M. Kiefer; Geneene N. Thompson
|This collection for children tells the stories of 16 AfricanAmericans who helped make America what it is today. AfricanAmericans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman,…
Celiac disease is generally under diagnosed in the United States and it is unclear whether the disease is encountered in ethnic minorities. Our purpose is to describe a case series of African-American patients with celiac disease. Nine (1.3%) African-American patients with celiac disease were identified from a prospectively generated database of 700 patients with biopsy proven celiac disease and seen
Pardeep Brar; Ann R. Lee; Suzanne K. Lewis; Govind Bhagat; Peter H. R. Green
|Ethnicity in the American context involves two components: the cultural component and the "outsider" component. The first consists of those customs, folkways, rituals, and values identified with a particular ethnic group and its unique patterns of living. The second is the feeling of being outside the mainstream politically, economically,…
Objectives. We evaluated a theory-based lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity and dietary fat intake among AfricanAmerican women at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods. The Heart Healthy and Ethnically Relevant Lifestyle trial (2005–2008) randomly assigned 266 low-income AfricanAmerican women aged 35 years and older who were patients of South Carolina community health care centers into comprehensive or standard care interventions. Comprehensive participants received standard care (stage-matched provider counseling and assisted goal setting) plus 12 months of telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Primary outcomes were 6- and 12-month self-reported physical activity and dietary fat intake. Results. Comprehensive participants were more likely than were standard care participants to decrease total physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 8.25) and increase leisure-time physical activity (OR = 3.82; 95% CI = 1.41, 10.3) at 6 months (no 12-month differences). Mean reductions in Dietary Risk Assessment score occurred in both groups but were greater among comprehensive participants than among standard care participants (6 months, ?8.50 vs ?5.34; 12 months, ?7.16 vs ?3.37; P < .001). Conclusions. The comprehensive intervention improved women's leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat intake, highlighting a replicable model to help primary care providers implement lifestyle counseling.
Wilcox, Sara; Salinas, Jennifer; Addy, Cheryl; Fore, Elizabeth; Poston, Marybeth; Wilson, Dawn K.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of granulomas in affected organs. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of this disease have been conducted only in European population. We present the first sarcoidosis GWAS in AfricanAmericans (AAs, 818 cases and 1,088 related controls) followed by replication in independent sets of AAs (455 cases and 557 controls) and European Americans (EAs, 442 cases and 2,284 controls). We evaluated >6 million SNPs either genotyped using the Illumina Omni1-Quad array or imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project data. We identified a novel sarcoidosis-associated locus, NOTCH4, that reached genome-wide significance in the combined AA samples (rs715299, PAA-meta?=?6.51×10?10) and demonstrated the independence of this locus from others in the MHC region in the same sample. We replicated previous European GWAS associations within HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DRB1, BTNL2, and ANXA11 in both our AA and EA datasets. We also confirmed significant associations to the previously reported HLA-C and HLA-B regions in the EA but not AA samples. We further identified suggestive associations with several other genes previously reported in lung or inflammatory diseases.
Adrianto, Indra; Lin, Chee Paul; Hale, Jessica J.; Levin, Albert M.; Datta, Indrani; Parker, Ryan; Adler, Adam; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Moser, Kathy L.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Harley, John B.; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Montgomery, Courtney G.
Approximately 50% of college students report a heavy drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. This pattern of heavy episodic drinking places them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. In addition, important ethnic differences exist between European American and AfricanAmerican college students in terms of drinking. European American college students report consuming more alcohol than AfricanAmerican college students,
Jessica R. Skidmore; James G. Murphy; Matthew Martens; Ashley A. Dennhardt
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 AfricanAmerican and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with AfricanAmericans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among AfricanAmericans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for AfricanAmericans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for AfricanAmericans. PMID:18954169
African economic and social history since 1800 suggests that the relationships between ethnic consciousness and market transaction is very varied and largely unpredictable. The early twentieth century was a period of important change. Before 1900 labour was scarce and land abundant: inter-ethnic relations were relatively flexible, thanks to a general demand for mobile labour supplies. By 1960 population growth meant
It is estimated that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 500 live births per year. However, due to varying techniques for diagnosis and treatment, the disability remains the subject of debate. AfricanAmericans tend to suffer disproportionate rates of disability and disease when compared to other racial and ethnic groups due to access to preventative and curative care. However,
Ruby M. Gourdine; Tiffany D. Baffour; Martell Teasley
This study developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African-American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five types of African-American marriages were identified through cluster analysis using the positive couple agreement (PCA) scores in 10 relationship domains. Relationships between marital satisfaction, marital stability, and the five marital types were then analyzed. The five types (from highest marital satisfaction to lowest) were labeled as vitalized, harmonious, traditional, conflicted, and devitalized. The results were similar to findings in studies of ethnically mixed (predominantly European-American) marital samples including the number and characteristics of marital types. PMID:11436423
|Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…
Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the number one cause of end-stage renal disease in United States and is highly prevalent in AfricanAmericans. We have found that among AfricanAmericans in Mississippi diabetic nephropathy appears to affect females more than males, which may be related to increased rates of obesity and diabetes in AfricanAmerican women. Glycemic control and control of
... Over age 40 Extreme nearsightedness Diabetes Hypertension Prolonged steroid use Glaucoma occurs about five times more often in AfricanAmericans. Blindness from glaucoma is about six times more common. In ... after age 35. Why is there a difference? The reasons for the ...
BACKGROUND: It has been noted that the AfricanAmerican population in the U.S. bears disproportionately higher cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any racial and ethnic group for most major cancers. Many studies also document that decreased longevity is associated with low educational attainment and other markers of low socioeconomic status (SES), both of which are prevalent in AfricanAmerican
Natalie Thurman; Camille Ragin; Dwight E Heron; Renae J Alford; Cecile Andraos-Selim; Cornelius Bondzi; Jamila A Butcher; Jamison C Coleman; Charity Glass; Barbara Klewien; Aerie T Minor; Diana J Williams; Emanuela Taioli
Background. AfricanAmericans have low immunization rates, yet little is known about their immunization knowledge, attitudes, and practices or about the effect of outreach to this audience. In Spring 1997, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) launched a statewide culturally sensitive and ethnically specific media campaign directed toward AfricanAmericans. This campaign was preceded by a major Los Angeles
Nan Lashuay; Tom Tjoa; Maria Luisa Zuniga de Nuncio; MaeRetha Franklin; John Elder; Marcy Jones
The existence of numerous ethnic and racial disparities suggests that AfricanAmericans and other people of color are particularly ill served by the prevailing acute-care approaches to addiction treatment. This article (1) explores recovery management as an alternative framework for providing effective addiction treatment for AfricanAmericans; (2) illustrates the implementation of this approach by presenting examples from the Amistad
Ijeoma Achara-Abrahams; Arthur C. Evans; Jose Ortiz; Diana Lopez Villegas; Joseph ODell; OmiSade Ali; Dietra Hawkins
Traditionally, AfricanAmericans have registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young AfricanAmericans. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been limited for a variety of reasons and previous research has been inconclusive in determining risk factors of AfricanAmerican suicide. The purpose of this paper is to identify risk and protective factors specific to AfricanAmerican suicide. To determine the factors, the 1993 National Mortality Follow-back Survey was analyzed. The risk factors identified include being under age 35, southern and northeastern residence, cocaine use, firearm presence in home, and threatening others with violence. Some of the protective factors associated with AfricanAmerican suicide include rural residence and educational attainment. These results provide valuable information about completed AfricanAmerican suicides in relation to Whites. Several of these factors are unique to AfricanAmericans. PMID:14695056
Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Drentea, Patricia; Cockerham, William C
Background National statistics indicate that AfricanAmericans are disproportionately affected by mortality and hospitalizations resulting from heart failure when compared with other racial\\/ethnic groups. This might, in part, reflect a poorer course of heart failure among AfricanAmericans. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 316 white and 82 AfricanAmerican consecutive patients aged ?50 years with decompensated heart
Viola Vaccarino; Evelyne Gahbauer; Stanislav V. Kasl; Peter A. Charpentier; Denise Acampora; Harlan M. Krumholz
Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among AfricanAmericans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in AfricanAmericans
Ayo P. Doumatey; Kerrie S. Lashley; Hanxia Huang; Jie Zhou; Guanjie Chen; Albert Amoah; Kofi Agyenim-Boateng; Johnnie Oli; Olufemi Fasanmade; Clement A. Adebamowo; Adebowale A. Adeyemo; Charles N. Rotimi
To develop informative tools for the study of population affinities in AfricanAmericans, we sequenced the hypervariable segments I and II (HVS I and HVS II) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 96 Sierra Leoneans; European Americans; rural, Gullah-speaking AfricanAmericans; urban AfricanAmericans living in Charleston, South Carolina; and Jamaicans. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibiting ethnic affinities, and
McLean David C. Jr; Ida Spruill; Sahr Gevao; Errol Y. St. A. Morrison; George Argyropoulos; W. Timothy Garvey
Prior research has shown that minority groups experience greater levels of disability associated with psychiatric and substance use conditions due to barriers to treatment. Treatment delays are an important part of the overall problem of service utilization and access to treatment, yet little work has been done to understand the factors associated with treatment delays among ethnic minorities. This study
Brian E. Perron; Ben Alexander-Eitzman; Daphne Watkins; Robert Joseph Taylor; Ray Baser; Harold W. Neighbors; James S. Jackson
... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Multicultural Communities Osteoporosis and AfricanAmerican Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... and Bone Health Peak Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American ...
The Peoples Multicultural Almanac provides five entries for each day in the school year, September through May, organized for the following ethnic groups: (1) AfricanAmericans; (2) Asian Americans; (3) European Americans; (4) Hispanic Americans; and (5) Native Americans. The entries highlight significant social, political, historical, cultural,…
This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade AfricanAmerican elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications for school counselors and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Obesity disproportionately affects AfricanAmerican adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how AfricanAmericans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of AfricanAmerican adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent
Wendy S. Bibeau; Brit I. Saksvig; Joel Gittelsohn; Sonja Williams; Lindsey Jones; Deborah Rohm Young
|With a sample of AfricanAmerican and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for AfricanAmericans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among AfricanAmericans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among AfricanAmericans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among AfricanAmerican males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among AfricanAmericans. Five-year relative survival is lower for AfricanAmericans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. PMID:23386565
|In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…
This article explores the issues of AfricanAmerican participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that AfricanAmericans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…
|To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in AfricanAmericans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for AfricanAmericans. During the…
White (n = 213), AfricanAmerican (n = 210), and Hispanic (n = 104) Medicaid-eligible, chemically-dependent, pregnant women were interviewed during their stay in publicly-funded detoxification centers in Massachusetts. Comparisons of demographic, psychosocial, and substance abuse variables revlealed significant intergroup differences in almost all instances. There appears to be as much heterogeneity within the treatment population subgroup of pregnant women
AfricanAmericans comprise one of the nation's largest ethnic communities. They also account for the highest number of HIV infection and AIDS cases among children, youth, and young adults across all racial, ethnic, and cultural populations. The purpose of this exploratory theory-based article is to discuss the extent of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in the AfricanAmerican community, variables that contribute
Whether the contribution of inflammation to risk for chronic metabolic disease differs with ethnicity is not known. The objective of this study was to determine: (i) whether ethnic differences exist in markers of inflammation and (ii) whether lower insulin sensitivity among AfricanAmericans vs. whites is due to greater inflammatory status. Subjects were African-American (n = 108) and white (n
Tanya C. Hyatt; Radhika P. Phadke; Gary R. Hunter; Nikki C. Bush; A. Julian Muñoz; Barbara A. Gower
|This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic…
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the number one cause of end-stage renal disease in United States and is highly prevalent in AfricanAmericans. We have found that among AfricanAmericans in Mississippi diabetic nephropathy appears to affect females more than males, which may be related to increased rates of obesity and diabetes in AfricanAmerican women. Glycemic control and control of blood pressure is essential to prolong renal survival and to protect against cardiovascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce cardiovascular mortality in diabetics and are tolerated in advanced renal disease. The impact of glycemic control, appropriate antihypertensives, and the optimal level of blood pressure control in AfricanAmericans with advanced DN require further study. This article reviews the impact, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and treatment of diabetic nephropathy in AfricanAmericans. PMID:11411748
Purpose To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA) in a population-based study of minority preschool children. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Children 30 to 72 months of age in 44 census tracts in Los Angeles County. Methods A population-based sample of children underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation including monocular VA testing, cover testing, cycloplegic autorefraction, anterior segment and fundus evaluation, and VA retesting with refractive correction. The prevalence and etiology of decreased VA were determined, for both presenting and best-measured VA, and better eye and worse eye. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of decreased presenting and best-measured VA with an identifiable ophthalmic etiology. Results Presenting VA was assessed in 3207 children and best-measured VA in 3364 children. While nearly a third of cases of worse-eye decreased presenting VA were without an identifiable ophthalmic etiology, this proportion decreased with increasing age. Decreased presenting VA that resolved with retesting and was associated with uncorrected refractive error was present in the worse eye of 4.3% of African-American children and 5.3% of Hispanic children, and in the better eye of 1.9% of African-American children and 1.7% of Hispanic children. Decreased best-measured VA that was not immediately correctable with spectacles and that was due to ocular disease, unilateral or bilateral amblyopia, or probable bilateral ametropic amblyopia, was seen in the worse eye of 1.5% of African-American children and 1.9% of Hispanic children, and in the better eye of 0.8% of African-American and 0.6% of Hispanic children. Amblyopia related to refractive error was the most common cause. Conclusion Over 5% of African-American and Hispanic preschool children in Los Angeles County have either correctable visual impairment from uncorrected refractive error, or visual impairment from amblyopia related to refractive error.
AfricanAmericans are one of the largest ethnic groups in the United States. Data from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census (2001) reveal that there are approximately 34,333,000 AfricanAmericans residing in the United States, representing 12.1% of the total population. The African-American population is expected to increase to 40.2 million by 2010 (American Demographics, Inc., 1991). Health disparities among the African-American population include life expectancy, heart disease, hypertension, infant morality and morbidity rates, cancer, HIV/AIDS, violence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and asthma. The purpose of this article is to address the issue of health disparities among AfricanAmericans by providing nurses with a practice model of cultural competence. PMID:19331277
There is evidence that the classification of “psychopath” captures a heterogeneous group of offenders. Although several studies have provided evidence for two distinct psychopath subtypes, these studies have inadequately addressed potentially important ethnic differences. A recent taxonomic study found evidence for primary and secondary psychopath subgroups in a sample of European American offenders (Swogger & Kosson, 2007). The present study used cluster analysis to attempt to replicate those findings in a sample of AfricanAmerican offenders. Results confirm the presence of primary and secondary subtypes in AfricanAmericans. However, differences between the clusters obtained in the present and previous studies suggest that caution is warranted in generalizing offender taxonomies across ethnicity.
As evidenced by the last presidential campaign, the African-American male continues to be the subject of extensive stereotyping. Such stereotypes are pervasive. Reinforced by media images, the stereotypes of the African-American male as a sex crazed beast with a penchant for violence aimed at the European-American community is an obstacle to social work in a multicultural society. Individual practitioners may
Young African-American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sexually transmitted infections (STI), and engage in greater sexual concurrency than other race/ethnicities. It is important to evaluate behaviors and characteristics associated with the risk of sexual concurrency, so that interventions can target factors most likely to affect positive change. An emphasis on correlates of concurrency beyond individual-level factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify individual- and partner-level characteristics associated with sexual concurrency among high-risk, young African-American women. Data were collected from 570 African-American adolescent women (aged 15-21) recruited from a STI clinic, a family planning clinic, and a teen clinic located in Atlanta, GA from March 2002 through August 2004. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2012 to evaluate correlates of sexual concurrency. Results show that almost one-quarter of participants reported sexually concurrent partnerships and 28.4% suspected male partner concurrency. Logistic regression results indicated the number of lifetime sexual partners and relationship factors were the primary contributors to engaging in concurrency in this sample. These findings suggest relationship factors may be important contributors to the prevalence of sexual concurrency among young African-American women. Interventions targeted toward sexual health among young African-American women may need to specifically address partner/relationship factors. Through these findings, we hope to better understand sexual risk taking and develop strategies that would overcome barriers to existing interventions aimed at improving the sexual health outcomes of young African-American women. PMID:23363034
Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna G; Davis, Teaniese L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J
Aims: AfricanAmericans with type 1 diabetes are at a high risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Factors associated with the presence of (any) proteinuria were examined in this ethnic group. Methods: Proteinuria and creatinuria were measured in both first-voided and 4-h timed urine specimens in AfricanAmericans with type 1 diabetes (N=717). Other evaluations included clinical interview, ocular examination,
This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting\\u000a practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional\\u000a associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian\\u000a families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship
Dustin A. Pardini; Paula J. Fite; Jeffrey D. Burke
The Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) is an important measure in both applied and research settings. Evidence for its validity is mostly derived from male Caucasian participants. PCL-R ratings of 359 Caucasian and 356 AfricanAmerican participants were compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT) analyses. Previous research has indicated that 13 items of the PCL-R can be
AfricanAmerican women (N = 100) recruited from an urban clinic were randomly assigned to view 1 of 3 experimental videotapes promoting HIV testing: (a) an ethnicity-matched information control videotape; (b) the same ethnicity-matched videotape presented by an AfricanAmerican woman (gender–ethnicity-matched control condition); or (c) an experimental videotape with a culturally relevant context that embedded HIV-testing information within a
Background Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from AfricanAmerican (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM. Results Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.
Malhotra, Alka; Igo, Robert P.; Thameem, Farook; Kao, W.H. Linda; Abboud, Hanna E.; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Bowden, Donald W.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Freedman, Barry I.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Kohn, Orly; Leehey, David; Meoni, Lucy A.; Nelson, Robert G.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Taylor, Kent D.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Zager, Philip G.; Horvath, Amanda; Hanson, Robert L.
Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among AfricanAmericans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...
Ethnic populations are growing in numbers throughout the United States, and retailers today are challenged to develop promotional strategies to reach these consumers. Couponing is one particular sales promotion activity to which ethnic consumers have historically responded poorly. This study examines the responses of African-American and Anglo-American consumers to four types of retail sales promotion—coupons, product displays, feature advertisements, and
Investigated Dominican-American high school students' accounts of their ethnic/racial identities and explanations of race. Interview and observation data reveal significant divergences between their ethnic/racial categorization system and dominant, traditionally accepted U.S. systems. Unlike non-Hispanic, African descent, second-generation…
The aim of this study was to test whether the relation between physical discipline and child aggression was moderated by ethnic-group status. A sample of 466 European American and 100 AfricanAmerican children from a broad range of socioeconomic levels were followed from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Mothers reported their use of physical discipline in interviews and questionnaires, and mothers,
Kirby Deater-Deckard; Kenneth A. Dodge; John E. Bates; Gregory S. Pettit
In this article, the authors use social network analysis and multilevel modeling to examine a central feature of classroom social organization: the ethnic composition of the classroom. They examine classroom ethnic composition as it relates to patterns of social integration between AfricanAmerican and European American children. They asked…
|In this article, the authors use social network analysis and multilevel modeling to examine a central feature of classroom social organization: the ethnic composition of the classroom. They examine classroom ethnic composition as it relates to patterns of social integration between AfricanAmerican and European American children. They asked…
Background. AfricanAmericans experience disproportionate smoking-related mortality. Because established smoking during youth predisposes to adult smoking and serious health consequences, characterizing ethnic differences in adolescent smokers' self-quit attempts may inform ethnic-specific approaches to youth smoking cessation.Methods. AfricanAmerican and European American teenage smokers applying to a teenage smoking cessation study (2000–2003) provided smoking-related data, including characteristics of previous cessation attempts
We examined demographic factors, drug-use severity indicators, social resources, and personal perceptions as correlates of Drug Problem Recognition among AfricanAmerican drug-using arrestees. In particular, we sought to move beyond the “ethnic gloss” of prior research by including ethnicity-related attitudes, perceptions, and experiences among the factors tested. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that Conventional Moral Beliefs and Neighborhood Drug\\/Alcohol Problems were
Human African trypanosomiasis has increased in many endemic areas in recent years. It is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense, and is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Diagnosis is difficult, particularly in the West African type, in which organisms are scanty. Determination of the stage of infection (early haemolymphatic stage or late meningoencephalitic stage) is also problematic,
... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...
As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. AfricanAmericans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of AfricanAmericans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by AfricanAmericans. Many AfricanAmericans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:23899976
|Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in AfricanAmerican girls given their…
We conducted a qualitative study of 23 subjects to determine how AfricanAmericans perceive culturally competent care by physi- cians. Our objectives were to understand patients' perceptions of: 1) high-quality health care by physicians; 2) the role of culture and ethnicity in the doctor-patient relationship; and 3) patients' expectations of doctors. We developed a discussion guide and a question- naire
Jerry C. Johnson; Mary Beth Slusar; Sumedha Chaatre; Pauline Johnsen
This article is a comparison of black women with women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds and black men in the U.S. military. Developmental analysis is used to examine historical trends and to hypothesize about the future of black women on active duty. Although there is considerable scholarly literature on minorities (particularly African-American men) and women in the armed forces,
|The news media are finally seeking ways to portray African-Americans and the nation's other minorities more accurately. Media executives are realizing that within the next several decades the audience for the media and the pool of potential media employees will be increasingly multi-ethnic. To make reporting more accurate, newspapers must include…
Obesity is more prevalent among AfricanAmericans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustain- able solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race
Shiriki K. Kumanyika; Melicia C. Whitt-Glover; Tiffany L. Gary; T. Elaine Prewitt; Angela M. Odoms-Young; Joanne Banks-Wallace; Bettina M. Beech; Chanita Hughes Halbert; Njeri Karanja; Kristie J. Lancaster; Carmen D. Samuel-Hodge
The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of AfricanAmerican technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. AfricanAmerican technical…
This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was moderated by ethnicity, with the relationship significant only for the African-American group.
Stefanie C. Gilbert; Stacey Crump; Serge Madhere; William Schutz
This article describes the history and dynamics of African\\/AfricanAmerican women in prostitution beginning with the arrival of the African woman to America, her life and the obstacles she faced living in America. We discuss treatment philosophy and services offered by Breaking Free, a Minneapolis organization offering services to AfricanAmerican prostituted women.
AfricanAmericans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young AfricanAmerican Males: Mentoring and Community…
The issues related to recruiting AfricanAmerican psychiatric inpatients are discussed in the context of a study on the influence of ethnicity on psychiatric diagnosis. Ethnically diverse psychiatric residents interviewed 960 Black and White inpatients in 2 urban psychiatric hospitals. Despite the obstacles cited in the literature about recruiting and retaining AfricanAmericans into research, 78% of this sample were
Estina E. Thompson; Cheryl Munday; James S. Jackson
A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however,\\u000a is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may\\u000a operate with AfricanAmerican and African couples residing in the United States. Through an examination of within-group differences\\u000a and similarities, counselors can be better prepared to assist
Although there is some research addressing gifted AfricanAmerican children who attend K-12 schools, few studies address high-achieving and gifted AfricanAmerican male college students. Moreover, the vast majority of research highlighting the schooling of AfricanAmerican students focuses on their negative educational outcomes instead of their…
AfricanAmerican youth today face many challenges that can result in poor decisions and lead to high risk behavior. This nation has experienced a decrease in the number of teen pregnancies, but among AfricanAmerican youth the rates are still too high. AfricanAmerican youth also struggle with alcohol and drug addiction and limited access to health care. In short,
Disparities between Whites and AfricanAmericans exist in many areas in U.S. society. These disparities are exacerbated by social ills, including the Persian Gulf conflict. Positive change on the part of AfricanAmerican educators is required to combat these problems. The following four postulates for teaching AfricanAmerican youth are provided:…
Although there is a growing body of knowledge about health among AfricanAmerican women in general, there is a dearth of information on AfricanAmerican lesbians. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the correlates of health-related quality of life among AfricanAmerican lesbians using a cross-sectional anonymous survey with topics and measures developed by members of the
Suzanne L. Dibble; Michele J. Eliason; Brenda Crawford
|This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of AfricanAmericans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some AfricanAmerican leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the AfricanAmerican people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham)…
|Fifty-eight AfricanAmerican children (grades 4-6) responded to the Test of Core Knowledge, a divergent task that required free associations about mainstream and AfricanAmerican topics. Participants' knowledge of both mainstream and AfricanAmerican cultural items increased significantly between grades 4 and 5. (Contains references.) (CR)|
African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date,
Leigh A. Willis; David W. Coombs; William C. Cockerham; Sonja L. Frison
This pilot study uses an anthropological gaze to analyze transcripts of extended in-home interviews among a set of ten caregivers of African-American elders with dementia. How are race and ethnicity made to matter in the recognition of, the meaning-making around and the responses to dementing illness among a sample of African-American caregivers? The essay contrasts prevailing cultural representations of African-American
Approximately 10% of African-American women smoke during pregnancy compared to 16% of White women. While relatively low, the\\u000a prevalence of smoking during pregnancy among African-American women exceeds the Healthy People 2010 goal of 1%. In the current study, we address gaps in extant research by focusing on associations between racial\\/ethnic residential\\u000a segregation and smoking during pregnancy among urban African-American women.
Janice F Bell; Frederick J Zimmerman; Jonathan D Mayer; Gunnar R Almgren; Colleen E Huebner
AfricanAmericans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the AfricanAmerican population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and
Nicholette D. Palmer; Caitrin W. McDonough; Pamela J. Hicks; Bong H. Roh; Maria R. Wing; S. Sandy An; Jessica M. Hester; Jessica N. Cooke; Meredith A. Bostrom; Megan E. Rudock; Matthew E. Talbert; Joshua P. Lewis; Assiamira Ferrara; Lingyi Lu; Julie T. Ziegler; Michele M. Sale; Jasmin Divers; Daniel Shriner; Adebowale Adeyemo; Charles N. Rotimi; Maggie C. Y. Ng; Carl D. Langefeld; Barry I. Freedman; Donald W. Bowden
This study describes some ethnically diverse psychosocial and behavioral contexts that influence low-income postpartum women's ability to focus on their health. Content analysis was conducted on data from ethnically concordant focus groups of low-income American Anglo, AfricanAmerican, and Hispanic women 12 to 24 months postpartum. All women described altered sense of “perceived control” as the context contributing to their
This article examines the responses of ninety-eight female respondents to a survey on job satisfaction of librarians of African descent employed in seventy-nine Association of Research Libraries (ARL) academic libraries in relation to other gender studies on job satisfaction of librarians. Dependent variables are race, age, years of experience and years at present institution. This article also provides information about
|This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for AfricanAmerican men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…
|The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic AfricanAmerican children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…
Poverty level affects mental health status. AfricanAmericans living below the poverty level, as compared to those over twice the poverty level, are 3 ... compared to 120% of Non-Hispanic Whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS: Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
This paper presents a Multicultural Communication Process Model for increasing multicultural competence. Incorporating social work values and practice theory, research findings, and principles of communication theory, the model defines a specific process for intervention with and by AfricanAmericans. The process is twofold. First, the practitioner uses the components of the model to guide his own individualized study and growth
Racial and ethnic minorities in the United States have higher rates of nutrition-related health problems than whites. AfricanAmericans have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. The cause for the disparity in these diseases and conditions is complex and multifaceted, and lifestyle factors are clearly implicated. AfricanAmericans have a lower intake of fruit and
|Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of AfricanAmerican children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen AfricanAmerican children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…
Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen
AfricanAmerican men have the highest rate of incidence for prostate cancer in the world and are more likely to die from the disease than other ethnic groups (National Institutes of Health, 1996). Routine screening for prostate cancer can lead to early detection of the disease, thereby reducing negative outcomes, but studies have shown that AfricanAmerican men are less
AfricanAmerican men have the highest rate of inci- dence for prostate cancer in the world and are more likely to die from the disease than other ethnic groups (National Institutes of Health, 1996). Routine screening for prostate cancer can lead to early detection of the dis- ease, thereby reducing negative outcomes, but studies have shown that AfricanAmerican men
Predominately White institutions of higher education have focused a considerable amount of attention on the underrepresentation of AfricanAmerican and other ethnically diverse students in colleges and universities. To address this problem, colleges and universities have focused not just on recruitment but also on the retention of AfricanAmerican…
Moore, James L., III; Ford, Donna Y.; Owens, Delila; Hall, Ted; Byrd, Melendez; Henfield, Malik; Whiting, Gilman W.
|Data have shown that AfricanAmerican male college students are being outperformed. Compared to all other populations by ethnicity and gender, AfricanAmerican males most often fare the worst in terms of persistence, performance, and completion. The impetus of this study was to explore the motivation of those that have low academic performance…
:Over the past 40 years, increasing numbers of Americans have benefited from cancer prevention, early detection, and improved treatment. But a review of site-specific cancer data from 1950 to the present shows that contemporary African-Americans have the highest age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence and mortality of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Compared to whites, blacks have
Over the past 40 years, increasing numbers of Americans have benefited from cancer prevention, early detection, and improved treatment. But a review of site-specific cancer data from 1950 to the present shows that contemporary African-Americans have the highest age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence and mortality of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Compared to whites, blacks have
Breast cancer, the second most common cause of cancer- related deaths in American women, varies substantially in incidence and mortality according to race and ethnicity in the UnitedStates.Althoughtheoverallincidenceofbreastcancer among African-American (AA) women is lower than in white American women, this cancer is more common in young pre- menopausal AA women, and AA breast cancer patients of all ages are more
David P. Rose; Steven M. Haffner; Jacques Baillargeon
... for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey Raw Data, 2008. Analysis by the American Lung Association, Research and Program Services Division using SPSS software. 4. Ibid. 5. Hebert, JR. Invited Commentary: ...
Cuban Americans as a demographic group have violated many of the normally observed patterns concerning immigrant groups to the United States. Although included under the term "Hispanic," Cuban Americans have had a unique demographic, political, economic, and social history in the United States which has differentiated them from other Hispanic…
BACKGROUND: Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in AfricanAmericans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the HGDP, as well as 136 AfricanAmericans and 38 European
Fouad Zakharia; Analabha Basu; Devin Absher; Themistocles L Assimes; Alan S Go; Mark A Hlatky; Carlos Iribarren; Joshua W Knowles; Jun Li; Balasubramanian Narasimhan; Steven Sidney; Audrey Southwick; Richard M Myers; Thomas Quertermous; Neil Risch; Hua Tang
Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, AfricanAmericans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the AfricanAmerican community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with AfricanAmerican leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every AfricanAmerican leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase AfricanAmerican tobacco use, to use AfricanAmericans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts.
|First-year AfricanAmerican and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for AfricanAmericans due to the…
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.
To develop informative tools for the study of population affinities in AfricanAmericans, we sequenced the hypervariable segments I and II (HVS I and HVS II) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 96 Sierra Leoneans; European Americans; rural, Gullah-speaking AfricanAmericans; urban AfricanAmericans living in Charleston, South Carolina; and Jamaicans. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibiting ethnic affinities, and developed restriction endonuclease tools to screen these SNPs. Here we show that three HVS restriction site polymorphisms (RSPs), EcoRV, FokI, and MfeI, exhibit appreciable differences in frequency (average delta = 0.4165) between putative AfricanAmerican parental populations (i.e., extant Africans living in Sierra Leone and European Americans). Estimates of European American mtDNA admixture, calculated from haplotypes composed of these three novel RSPs, show a cline of increasing admixture from Gullah-speaking AfricanAmerican (m = 0.0300) to urban Charleston AfricanAmerican (m = 0.0689) to West Coast AfricanAmerican (m = 0.1769) populations. This haplotype admixture in the Gullahs is the lowest recorded to date among AfricanAmericans, consistent with previous studies using autosomal markers. These RSPs may become valuable new tools in the study of ancestral affinities and admixture dynamics of AfricanAmericans. PMID:12943155
McLean, David C; Spruill, Ida; Gevao, Sahr; Morrison, Errol Y St A; Bernard, Owen S; Argyropoulos, George; Garvey, W Timothy
This study examined the portrayal of AfricanAmerican women in AfricanAmerican dominated rap music videos for the presence of AfricanAmerican female sex role stereotypes. The literature review included an historical overview tracing AfricanAmerican female stereotypes in American media utilizing an Africentric Feminist ideology. The review detailed descriptions and origins of stereotypes related to negative characterizations of African
|Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)|
This article looks at the perceptions and professional perspectives of African-American female EAPs who work with African-American women in various industries. It provides an exploration into the attitudes of African-American women about several workplace and personal issues including: sexual harassment and discriminationracial discriminationcareer opportunitieswork assignment disparityorganization culture and sensitivityorganizational supports These concerns have been examined against a backdrop of actual
OBJECTIVE:Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Because obesity and type 2 diabetes are prevalent among AfricanAmerican females by the 5th and 6th decades, one would expect an increased number of AfricanAmericans among patients with NASH and cryptogenic cirrhosis.METHODS:We determined the percentage of patients of AfricanAmerican and
Stephen H. Caldwell; Danielle M. Harris; James T. Patrie; Elizabeth E. Hespenheide
Hypertensive nephrosclerosis in AfricanAmericans versus Caucasians.BackgroundExtensive global glomerulosclerosis (GS) has been reported in AfricanAmericans with hypertension and renal insufficiency, far exceeding that in Caucasians. To assess and compare severity and phenotype of injury in biopsied AfricanAmericans and Caucasians who morphologically had hypertensive nephrosclerosis, we performed a retrospective biopsy study.MethodsAll renal biopsies with a histological diagnosis of hypertensive
Carmelita Marcantoni; Li-Jun Ma; Charles Federspiel; Agnes B Fogo
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the number one cause of endstage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States and is highly prevalent\\u000a in AfricanAmericans. Since 1997, DN has been the number one cause of ESRD in AfricanAmericans. In AfricanAmericans, almost\\u000a all DN is due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and nephropathy may affect female more than male
Type 2 diabetes is an increasing public health problem among AfricanAmericans, especially children. Several features make\\u000a type 2 diabetes among AfricanAmericans unique. First, African-American adults with type 2 diabetes, or Flatbush diabetes,\\u000a present with diabetic ketoacidosis. Patients are insulin resistant with acute, severe defects in insulin secretion and no\\u000a islet cell autoantibodies. Following treatment, some insulin secretory capacity
In this study we examined the influence of ethnicity on weight, body image, and self-esteem among adult women while controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Fifty women of AfricanAmerican (AA), European American (EA), and Mexican American (MA) descent completed interviews and questionnaires related to body size and self-esteem, and were measured for weight and height. AA women were significantly heavier
The prevalence of obesity is higher in AfricanAmerican compared to European American women. Ethnic differences in body-shape\\u000a perceptions such as greater acceptance of overweight figures, higher levels of body shape satisfaction, or an underestimation\\u000a of one's body-shape have been suggested as possible contributors. The purpose of this investigation was to compare body-shape\\u000a perceptions and body mass index of older
Petra B. Schuler; Debra Vinci; Robert M. Isosaari; Steven F. Philipp; John Todorovich; Jane L. P. Roy; Retta R. Evans
The research on the psychosocial development of AfricanAmerican girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. AfricanAmerican girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to AfricanAmerican girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of AfricanAmerican girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met. PMID:12413107
African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-Americanethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis.
Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R
Breast cancer incidence in Japanese-American women is approaching that of US Whites. We investigated whether this shift is paralleled by similar post-menopausal plasma hormone levels in the two ethnic groups. We also included African-American and Latina women to further our understanding of possible ethnic differences in oestrogen metabolism. We measured androstenedione (A), oestrone (E1) and oestradiol (E2) in 30 Japanese-American,
N M Probst-Hensch; M C Pike; R McKean-Cowdin; F Z Stanczyk; L N Kolonel; B E Henderson
This study investigated African-American student response to images of African-Americans in picture books. Study participants included 20 fifth-grade students, 9 girls and 11 boys. The study used five picture books featuring African-Americans as main characters and ranked the books on a continuum from "most positive" to "most negative" images.…
|With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on AfricanAmerican families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 AfricanAmerican psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with AfricanAmerican families, to investigate which strengths…
Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.
Background: Among patients diagnosed with advanced non- small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), African-Americans have lower survival rates than non-African-Americans. Whether this difference is due to innate characteristics of the disease in the two ethnicities or to disparities in health care is not known. We investigated whether the disparity in sur- vival would persist when patients were treated with similar systemic therapies
A. William Blackstock; James E. Herndon II; Electra D. Paskett; Michael C. Perry; Stephen L. Graziano; Joseph J. Muscato; Michael P. Kosty; Wallace L. Akerley; Jimmie Holland; Stewart Fleishman; Mark R. Green
Breast cancer incidence is lower in AfricanAmericans than in Caucasian Americans. However, African-American women have higher\\u000a breast cancer mortality rates and tend to be diagnosed with earlier-onset disease. Identifying factors correlated to the racial\\/ethnic\\u000a variation in the epidemiology of breast cancer may provide better understanding of the more aggressive disease at diagnosis.\\u000a Truncating germline mutations in PALB2 have been
Yuan Chun Ding; Linda Steele; Li-Hao Chu; Karen Kelley; Helen Davis; Esther M. John; Gail E. Tomlinson; Susan L. Neuhausen
The lack of racial and ethnic match as a barrier to care in mental health treatment services has received considerable attention. In systems of care, which provide public mental health services to AfricanAmerican adolescents, the provider base is largely non-AfricanAmerican. This difference presents a challenge for AfricanAmerican adolescents and their parents who want a provider who is
Background We propose evaluation of a multi-component home automated telemanagement (HAT) system providing integrated support to both clinicians and patients in implementing hypertension treatment guidelines. Methods In a randomized clinical study 550 AfricanAmericans with hypertension are followed for 18 months. The major components of the intervention and control groups are identical and are based on the current standard of care. For the purpose of this study, we define “standard of care” as the expected evidence-based care provided according to the current hypertension treatment guidelines. While intervention and control groups are similar in terms of their care components, they differ in the mode of care delivery. For the control group the best attempt is made to deliver all components of a guideline-concordant care in a routine clinical environment whereas for the intervention group the routine clinical environment is enhanced with Health Information Technology (IT) that assists clinicians and patients in working together in implementing treatment guidelines. The HAT system guides patients in following their individualized treatment plans and helps care coordination team in monitoring the patient progress. The study design is aimed at addressing the main question of this trial: whether the addition of the IT-enhanced care coordination in the routine primary care setting can improve delivery of evidence-based hypertension care in AfricanAmericans. The outcome parameters include quality of life, medical care utilization, treatment compliance, psychosocial variables and improvement in blood pressure control rates. Conclusions The trial will provide insight on the potential impact of IT-enhanced care coordination in AfricanAmericans with poorly controlled hypertension.
This study examined the influence of ethnic background, ethnic identity, and cultural identity on conflict styles among AfricanAmericans, Asian Americans, European Americans, and Latino(a) Americans. Panethnic factor analysis yielded four dimensions of ethnic identity: ethnic belonging, fringe, intergroup interaction, and assimilation. A second-order factor analysis yielded two clear identity dimensions: ethnic identity salience and cultural identity salience. In addition,
Stella Ting-Toomey; Kimberlie K Yee-Jung; Robin B Shapiro; Wintilo Garcia; Trina J Wright; John G Oetzel
This study examined whether individuals from 4 major ethnic groups within the United States (AfricanAmerican, Chinese American, European American, and Mexican American) showed greater subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to emotional film clips (amusement, sadness, and disgust) with actors from their own ethnic group (ethnically matched) compared with actors from the other 3 ethnic groups (ethnically mismatched). Evidence showed
As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few AfricanAmericans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women for reasons that are unknown. Ethnic differences in physiological processes related to insulin sensitivity (SI) and secretion, and age-related changes in these processes, may play a role. The purpose of this study was to identify ethnicity- and age-related differences in SI and ?-cell responsivity among AA
Paula C. Chandler-Laney; Radhika P. Phadke; Wesley M. Granger; José R. Fernández; Julian A. Muñoz; Chiara Dalla Man; Claudio Cobelli; Fernando Ovalle; Barbara A. Gower
The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 AfricanAmerican and 360 Caribbean…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
|This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, AfricanAmerican, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…
Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu
This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, AfricanAmerican, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…
Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu
This study examined whether religiosity is subsumed under the broader construct of meaning in life as a predictor of psychological symptomology in college students from two ethnic groups. Data from 299 undergraduates indicated that among European-American students, religiosity predicted little variance in psychological symptomology and was subsumed by general meaning in life. Conversely, for African-American students, perceived meaning in life
|This revised version of a lecture on the relationship of African language and Hispano-American literature illustrates the historical influence of the African slave on representative literature and modern culture of the Caribbean Islands. Introductory remarks focus on the migratory patterns of the African slaves. The concept of negritude is then…
Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on Caucasian samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of AfricanAmerican breast cancer survivors (BCS). Even when AfricanAmerican BCS have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of AfricanAmerican women BCS to AfricanAmerican women with no history of breast cancer (control group). Methods A total of 140 women (62 BCS and 78 control), ages 18 years or older and 2–10 years post-diagnosis, was recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a one-time survey based on Brenner’s (1995) proximal-distal health-related quality of life model. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, AfricanAmerican BCS experienced more fatigue (p=0.001), worse hot flashes (p<0.001) and worse sleep quality (p<0.001), but more social support from their partner (p=0.028) and more positive change (p=0.001) compared to AfricanAmerican women controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that AfricanAmerican women BCS may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socio-economic status and body mass index. Implications for Practice Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions.
Von Ah, Diane M.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zhao, Qianqian; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D.; Giesler, R. Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L.
The study examined AfricanAmerican, Asian American, and European American college students’ previous direct and indirect\\u000a experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European\\u000a American, 182 AfricanAmerican and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer AfricanAmerican and Asian\\u000a American college students had sought professional psychological services, knew someone
Akihiko Masuda; Page L. Anderson; Michael P. Twohig; Amanda B. Feinstein; Ying-Yi Chou; Johanna W. Wendell; Analia R. Stormo
The AfricanAmerican woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary AfricanAmerican woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…
|Discusses five topics on AfricanAmericans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) AfricanAmericans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)|
Increasing numbers of AfricanAmericans are entering the corporate workplace and becoming vulnerable targets for insidious, devastating and punishing forms of abusive behavior exhibited at all levels in America's corporate structures. This article explores violence against AfricanAmericans who are attempting to climb the “crystal staircase” in these formal organizations. A model is proposed to assist black executives survive hostile
|The authors discuss depression in AfricanAmerican women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the AfricanAmerican church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…
Problem. While evidence is present supporting aging and hypertension's association with cognitive decline, few, if any, studies have related cognition, self-care, and blood pressure outcomes in AfricanAmerican elders with hypertension. Purpose. The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe types of cognitive functions in elder hypertensive AfricanAmericans, (b) test relationships among concepts in a mid-range theory derived
Little is written about Islam and AfricanAmerican women or men from a psychosocial perspective. Most of the literature is on the historical and political development of the Nation of Islam, and the differences among the male leaders. This focus obscures the fact that the majority of AfricanAmericans Muslims belong to traditional Islamic groups. Drawing upon a variety of
Proteinuria and hypertensive nephrosclerosis in AfricanAmericans. Proteinuria is a known risk factor for both renal disease progression and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive populations. AfricanAmericans are among the highest risk groups for development of renal disease in the setting of hypertension and suffer a disproportionate burden of end-stage renal disease attributed to hypertension. Population-based studies indicate that
Discusses five topics on AfricanAmericans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) AfricanAmericans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)
We present the genotype distribution of the CYP1 A1 gene in a sample of over 300 subjects of various ethnic origins. Genotypes are presented as composites of eight possible alleles, taking into account the three major polymorphisms, including a recently described African-American-specific MspI RFLP. A new nomenclature system is presented for clarifying the various haplotypes. Interesting interracial differences in allelic
Seymour J. Garte; Julie Trackman; Frances Crofts; Paolo Toniolo; Joel Buxbaum; Sine Bayo; Emanuela Taioli
|Sixty-seven American Indian and 96 European-American undergraduate students responded to questions about their educational and ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their mother's and father's support for education. The American Indian participants completed some additional items regarding their ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their…
Okagaki, Lynn; Helling, Mary Kay; Bingham, Gary E.
African-Americans are usually over-represented among offenders arrested in “normal” homicide cases, making up a considerably\\u000a larger proportion than would be expected from the Black presence in the population at large. Among serial murderers, however,\\u000a African-Americans are much less in evidence—perhaps one-fifth or less of known American serial killers are Black. It may be\\u000a that African-Americans are in fact less involved
African-American women suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality compared to Caucasian women. Addressing racial\\/ethnic disparities in health requires the engagement of African-American women in the development of interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate. Three age groups of African-American women who attend beauty salons (18-29; 30-49; 50+) were recruited into six focus groups. Participants reviewed a series of
Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Laura Linnan; Noel Kulik; Veronica Carlisle; Zoe Enga; Margaret Bentley
A significantly greater proportion of AfricanAmerican children are in foster care than children of other races and ethnicities, according to HHS and other research. Given this situation, GAO was asked to analyze the (1) major factors influencing the prop...
An emerging body of research comparing body image disturbance and eating problems among AfricanAmerican and white women suggests that there are major ethnic differences in these areas. AfricanAmerican women appear to be more satisfied with their weight and appearance than are white women, and they are less likely to engage in unhealthy weight control practices, yet they are
Objective: To systematically assess and summarize impediments and facilitating factors impacting physical activity participation among AfricanAmerican Adults. ^ Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted, which included electronic databases, as well as reference list of relevant papers. Only qualitative studies which measured race and ethnicity and had AfricanAmerican as adult participants were included. The main themes
Objectives: To test the theory of planned behavior as a model for predicting and understanding behavioral intentions for fighting among inner-city adolescents and to determine whether its predictive power differs as a function of ethnicity (AfricanAmerican versus Latino). Methods: Participants were 956 (511 females, 445 males) AfricanAmerican (n = 702) and Latino (n = 254) adolescents (mean age
John B. Jemmott; Loretta Sweet Jemmott; Paulette Moore Hines; Geoffrey T. Fong
|Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight AfricanAmerican adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of AfricanAmerican social experience may contribute to the…
Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.
AfricanAmerican and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income AfricanAmerican and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…
Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica
The enormous HIV\\/AIDS disparity among AfricanAmerican women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of AfricanAmerican women participating in an HIV prevention intervention. Participants
Faye Z. Belgrave; Maya Corneille; Kristina Hood; Julia Foster-Woodson; Angela Fitzgerald
Objective: To evaluate the 2-year changes in body composition of white and AfricanAmerican boys and girls.Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 114 boys and girls ages 12 to 14 years with equal sex and ethnic distribution between AfricanAmerican and white races participated in measurements of body composition using DXA, underwater weighing (densitometry), skinfold thickness, corporal diameters, circumferences,
George A. Bray; James P. DeLany; David W. Harsha; Julia Volaufova; Catherine M. Champagne
To assess the relationship between ethnicity and hypertension using individual admixture and blood pressure measurements, we performed a cross-sectional study of AfricanAmerican and Hispanic American (HA) women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. The admixture odds ratio for systolic and diastolic hypertensive risk was determined using linear regression models in which the proportional measurements of European (EUR), sub-Saharan African (AFR) and Amerindian (AMI) admixture was analyzed using ancestry informative markers. In both African-American women (n=10,147) and HA women (n=4908) there was a significant positive association between hypertension and African admixture (P<10(-4)). This relationship was observed for both systolic and diastolic hypertension examined as a continuous or dichotomous trait, and whether age, body mass index, years since menopause and a measurement of socioeconomic status were used as covariates. The odds ratio associated with AFR admixture in a dichotomous model of hypertension was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.72-3.45). AMI admixture was associated with lower odds of hypertension and appeared to be more protective, relative to EUR admixture. These data show that African admixture increases the risk for hypertension and provide additional support for evaluating therapeutic efficacy and conducting genetic analyses of hypertension in different ethnic groups. PMID:21614021
Kosoy, R; Qi, L; Nassir, R; Garcia, L; Allison, M; Shigeta, R; Robbins, J; Seldin, M F
Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood. It can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairment in an individual's ability to function. At this level, it is identified as major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression and MDD occur across all racial and ethnic groups. Although many depressed patients are treated in primary care, depression in these settings has been underdetected and undertreated. AfricanAmericans, especially, who suffer from depression are frequently underdiagnosed and inadequately managed in primary care due to patient, physician, and treatment setting factors. Patient factors include being poor, uninsured, restrictive insurance policies, biological-genetic vulnerability, nonresponsiveness to traditional pharmacological interventions, and stigma (i.e., attitudes and perceptions of mental illness). Physician factors include diagnosis and assessment, physician characteristics, physician bias, and culture; and treatment setting factors include systemic variables such as lack of or poor access to health care, racism, environment, and patient management. AfricanAmericans are less likely to receive proper diagnosis and treatment, more likely to have depression for long periods of time, and more likely to suffer greater disability from depression. Understanding patient, physician, and treatment setting factors as contributing barriers that impede effective diagnosis and treatment of depression and MDD in AfricanAmericans is critical to effective patient management and discovery. Greater AfricanAmerican participation in clinical research trials also is needed to effectively improve, diagnose, and treat depression in AfricanAmericans. This article examines depression among AfricanAmericans in the context of gender, culture, and psychosocial determinants, and their engagement in clinical trials. PMID:21999029
|The present study investigated possible ethnic contributions to overly positive self-perceptions in middle childhood. The goals of this study were threefold. First, the present study sought to replicate the intriguing findings reported by Zakriski and Coie that AfricanAmerican children overestimate their acceptance, and European American…
Professional psychologists need to recognize ethnic\\/racial differences between AfricanAmericans and European Americans in psychotic symptom expression to treat individuals with severe mental illness from various cultural backgrounds. Specifically, they need to understand confluent paranoia or the interaction between culture and pathology in psychotic symptom expression. To assist mental health professionals, the present study identified cultural themes in the delusions
Despite some recruitment success in biomedical research among minorities, participation by African-American families into\\u000a research, specifically genetic research, is lower than Caucasian families (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189–190,\\u000a 2008). Such low participation rates by African-Americans prevent the exploration of specific ethnic differences in patterns of\\u000a diseases and diminish the identification of specific disease risks among ethnic groups (Bowen and
\\u000a In the United States, the rate of HIV infection transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact is disproportionately higher\\u000a among AfricanAmerican than among persons of other races or ethnicities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],\\u000a 2009). Therefore, AfricanAmerican men who have sex with women represent a critical target for behavioral interventions designed\\u000a to reduce HIV incidence in this community.
Specific knowledge of AfricanAmerican communities, culture, and history is crucial to achieving culturally competent care. The unique and complex relationship that belief systems have to health care outcomes must be considered for all patients. This is even more apparent in the connection between religion and health outcomes for AfricanAmericans. However, as with all ethnic groups, nothing is absolute. Therefore, one must avoid stereotyping and recognize there are differences within each cultural group. PMID:21501733
AfricanAmericans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the AfricanAmerican reproductive disadvantage is discussed
Background AfricanAmericans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other ethnic groups. Young adults are prime\\u000a targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge\\u000a of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young AfricanAmerican adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development
|Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…
The Catholic ethnic groups of European origins are essential to any assessment of ethnicity in the United States. Their ethnicity is believed widely to remain vigorous many decades after their immigration. Indeed, by the measure of some important characteristics, such as rates of college attendance and interethnic marriage, they seem distinct from American core groups, specifically Protestants of British ancestry.
The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill AfricanAmerican clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for AfricanAmericans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with AfricanAmericans than those who do not. PMID:18402348
AfricanAmerican women are at increased risk for disabilities. There is very little information available, however, regarding psychological interventions with AfricanAmerican women with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss psychological intervention in working with AfricanAmerican women with acquired disabilities from a womanist perspective. Themes and interventions will be discussed. Recommendations for working with AfricanAmerican
In the general population, AfricanAmericans experience atrial fibrillation (AF) less frequently than European Americans. This difference could also exist in the incidence of this arrhythmia after cardiac surgery, but this possibility has been insufficiently examined. To test the association of such an ethnic difference, we compared the incidence of postoperative AF in a consecutive series of 2,312 AfricanAmericans and 6,054 European Americans who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting from July 2000 to June 2007. Raw differences between the cohorts in the incidence of new AF were adjusted to take into account the baseline differences. Postoperatively, new-onset AF developed in 504 (22%) of 2,312 African-American patients and in 1,838 (30%) of 6,054 European-American patients (p <0.01). After adjustment with logistic regression analysis for numerous baseline differences, AfricanAmericans remained less likely to develop AF (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.72; p <0.001). Risk was also adjusted using propensity matching. In that analysis, 457 (22%) of 2,059 African-American patients had postoperative AF, as did 597 (29%) of 2,059 matched European-American patients (p <0.01). In conclusion, AF was significantly less common among African-American patients than among European-American patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:21676370
Sun, Xiumei; Hill, Peter C; Lowery, Robert; Lindsay, Joseph; Boyce, Steven W; Bafi, Ammar S; Garcia, Jorge M; Haile, Elizabeth; Corso, Paul J
Although hypertension affects all racial and ethnic groups, its prevalence is highest in the African-American community. The goal of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce hypertension among AfricanAmericans from 40% to 16%. Although current levels remain high, culturally sensitive, community-based clinical projects might be helpful in addressing this problem. The goal of this study was to assess whether a community-based clinic's program was effective in improving blood pressure control among a sample of 134 African-American adults. The program design involved health education and physical fitness classes offered over a nine-month period, with blood pressure checks being conducted pre- and postphases to determine whether the program was effective in controlling high blood pressure. Health questionnaires were also administered pre- and posttest to assess whether health behaviors and perceived health status were influenced by the project. Two-thirds (70%) of the sample had high blood pressure at baseline and 43% at program conclusion. This was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003). Overall self-reported health survey results indicated improved health behaviors and health status changes. Findings suggest that culturally sensitive, community-based clinic programs that incorporate both health education and physical fitness might be effective in reducing hypertension among AfricanAmericans.
Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Martin, Arneatha; Shipp, Donna Dennis; Simpson, Donna Sanders
This study examined ethnic identities of Chinese?American children living in the Chicago and San Francisco Bay Areas. The instrument measuring Ethnic Identity consisted of twenty cultural indicators. The reliability and validity of using this instrument were discussed extensively. The results showed that a large majority of these children could be classified as “Bicultural, while fewer were classified as “Mostly Americanized,”;
Research suggests that that binge eating, stress, and depression are prevalent among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. However, ethnic differences in the prevalence of binge eating and binge eating disorder (BED) in this population remain unclear, as does the impact of depression and stress on any such relationship. Further, no studies to date have examined the prevalence of binge eating in Hispanic women presenting for bariatric surgery. This study sought to (a) compare the prevalence and severity of binge eating symptomatology and BED diagnosis in Hispanic, AfricanAmerican, and Caucasian women presenting for gastric bypass surgery, (b) examine the impact of depressive symptoms and stress on binge eating symptomatology, and (c) investigate whether ethnicity moderated any relationship between depression, stress, and binge eating. Results indicated that Hispanic women exhibited equal rates of binge eating symptomatology, BED, and depressive symptomatology as AfricanAmerican and Caucasian women. However, Caucasian women exhibited greater binge eating symptomatology than AfricanAmerican women, and AfricanAmerican women endorsed greater levels of stress than Caucasian women. Across all ethnic groups, depressive symptomatology, but not stress, significantly predicted binge eating severity. These findings suggest that Hispanic women presenting for bariatric surgery report binge eating rates equivalent to Caucasian and AfricanAmerican women, and that depressive symptoms are an important predictor of binge eating in female bariatric surgery candidates across ethnic groups. PMID:20188290
In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 AfricanAmerican hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in AfricanAmerican culture and the socialization of AfricanAmerican deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of AfricanAmerican hearing families. PMID:22792848
|Addresses issues that have perpetuated the underrepresentation of AfricanAmericans in gifted and talented programs, which include: inadequate definitions, standardized testing, nomination procedures, learning style preferences, family and peer influences, screening and identification, and gifted underachievers. Concludes by discussing…
The goal of the project was to contribute to the developmental literature by examining the ecological, situational, and cultural factors that shape behavior and set African-American children on certain development trajectories. Data was collected from 400...
... in the AfricanAmerican population • Culture biases against mental health professionals and health care professionals in general prevent ... disadvantage in terms of accessing both medical and mental health care: in 2006, one-third of working adult ...
Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated AfricanAmericans. At intervals of more than
Anjali G. Hinch; Arti Tandon; Nick Patterson; Yunli Song; Nadin Rohland; Cameron D. Palmer; Gary K. Chen; Kai Wang; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Melinda C. Aldrich; Christine B. Ambrosone; Christopher Amos; Elisa V. Bandera; Sonja I. Berndt; Leslie Bernstein; William J. Blot; Cathryn H. Bock; Eric Boerwinkle; Qiuyin Cai; Neil Caporaso; Graham Casey; L. Adrienne Cupples; Sandra L. Deming; W. Ryan Diver; Jasmin Divers; Myriam Fornage; Elizabeth M. Gillanders; Joseph Glessner; Curtis C. Harris; Jennifer J. Hu; Sue A. Ingles; William Isaacs; Esther M. John; W. H. Linda Kao; Brendan Keating; Rick A. Kittles; Laurence N. Kolonel; Emma Larkin; Loic Le Marchand; Lorna H. McNeill; Robert C. Millikan; Solomon Musani; Christine Neslund-Dudas; Sarah Nyante; George J. Papanicolaou; Bruce M. Psaty; Alex P. Reiner; Stephen S. Rich; Jorge L. Rodriguez-Gil; Jerome I. Rotter; Benjamin A. Rybicki; Ann G. Schwartz; Lisa B. Signorello; Margaret Spitz; Sara S. Strom; Michael J. Thun; Margaret A. Tucker; Zhaoming Wang; John K. Wiencke; John S. Witte; Margaret Wrensch; Xifeng Wu; Yuko Yamamura; Krista A. Zanetti; Wei Zheng; Regina G. Ziegler; Xiaofeng Zhu; Susan Redline; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Brian E. Henderson; Herman A. Taylor Jr.; Alkes L. Price; Hakon Hakonarson; Stephen J. Chanock; Christopher A. Haiman; James G. Wilson; David Reich; Simon R. Myers
his course examines the history of AfricanAmericans from the origins of slavery in America through the death of slavery during the Civil War. How could anyone (let alone the Founding Fathers) have traded human beings as chattel? How did African-descended people in America come to be both part of and yet perpetually marginalized in America? What does this say
Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of "biological night" that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and AfricanAmerican college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more "problems" with change in seasons than AfricanAmericans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in AfricanAmerican students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) responses, AfricanAmerican and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575) were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season) x 2 (sex) x 2 (ethnicity) x 2 (winter diagnosis group) ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and AfricanAmerican students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and AfricanAmerican students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands. PMID:17619774
Volkov, Janna; Rohan, Kelly J; Yousufi, Samina M; Nguyen, Minh-Chau; Jackson, Michael A; Thrower, Courtney M; Postolache, Teodor T
Indiana University's Archives of AfricanAmerican Music and Culture (AAAMC) contains a searchable and browsable collection of bibliographic records of its over 2500 sound recordings and 200 video cassettes, as well as a searchable-only collection of bibliographic records of its photographic archive. It also contains information about its Undine Smith Moore Collection of Original Scores and Manuscripts of Black Composers. AAAMC's usage policy is on the home page, as well as selected links to other AfricanAmerican Internet resources.
The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS) were administered to 150 male and female college students from four ethnic groups (AfricanAmerican; Asian American; Hispanic American; White American) to assess the influence of gender and ethnic group membership upon ego and ethnic…
Obesity is more prevalent among AfricanAmericans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the AfricanAmerican Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on AfricanAmericans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect AfricanAmerican or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions. PMID:17875256
Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Gary, Tiffany L; Prewitt, T Elaine; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Karanja, Njeri; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D
A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.
The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with AfricanAmericans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed AfricanAmericans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed AfricanAmericans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed AfricanAmericans.
Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R.; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P.; Christman, Michael F.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.
The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with AfricanAmericans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed AfricanAmericans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed AfricanAmericans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed AfricanAmericans. PMID:23028791
Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N
Among AfricanAmericans and Hispanics in the United States, coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent and is the single\\u000a most frequent cause of myocardial infarction and death in that population . However, multiple factors contribute to overall\\u000a poorer care and worse outcomes among AfricanAmericans and Hispanics when compared with whites. These factors include difference\\u000a in disease manifestation, socioeconomic
Tseday Sirak; Simbo Chiadika; Matthew Daka; Claude Simon
Approximately 50% of college students report a heavy drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. This pattern of heavy episodic drinking places them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. In addition, important ethnic differences exist between European American and AfricanAmerican college students in terms of drinking. European American college students report consuming more alcohol than AfricanAmerican college students, but little research exists on the differences in types and rates of problems. The current study sought to examine the differences in problems among 451 AfricanAmerican and European American college students using a comprehensive measure of alcohol-related problems. The effect of gender was also examined as research has found consistent gender differences in drinking. European American students experienced more problems overall and greater levels of social/interpersonal problems and risky behaviors even after controlling for drinking level. In addition, women reported significantly greater levels of problems in all domains except physical dependence, risky behaviors, and self-perception when drinking was controlled for. PMID:22679896
Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew; Dennhardt, Ashley A
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both AfricanAmericans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the AfricanAmerican and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among AfricanAmericans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212
The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in clinical practice to assess for memory dysfunction in the elderly. As part of the Mayo Older AfricanAmericans Normative Studies (MOAANS), we provide age and education adjusted normative data for the AVLT. The sample consists of 306 self-identified AfricanAmericans who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling and ranging in age from
Tanis J. Ferman; John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford
|The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting AfricanAmerican research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of AfricanAmerican college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…
Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan
|This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the AfricanAmerican community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class AfricanAmerican families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…
The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting AfricanAmerican research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of AfricanAmerican college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…
Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan
Issue 19 (Early Winter 1997) of the African - American Archaeology: Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network has been posted by the publisher, New South Associates. Contents include a case study on Slavery and Consumerism, notices of current excavations and research, Internet resources, book reviews and notes, and professional news and announcements.
Prosodic rhythm was measured for a sample of 20 AfricanAmerican and 20 European American speakers from North Carolina using the metric devised by Low, Grabe, and Nolan (2000), which involves comparisons of the durations of vowels in adjacent syllables. In order to gain historical perspective, the same technique was applied to the ex-slave recordings described in Bailey, Maynor, and
|The AfricanAmerican population has made remarkable progress since the 1960s, but recent trends may derail the progress of many American blacks. Compared to previous years, United States blacks, who number 30 million in 1991, are more educated, earn higher salaries, work in more prestigious jobs, and participate more fully in politics. However,…
This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured AfricanAmericans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations.
In the future, the largest proportional increase in the population will be among minority groups. To date, there are a number of studies which document the disparities in cancer incidence and survival existing between white Americans and minorities, especially AfricanAmericans. AfricanAmericans have the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States. Much of this difference can be directly related to socioeconomic status. There are also cultural differences which result in differing attitudes towards health care. In the future, interventions designed to encourage cancer prevention and screening behaviors must seek to overcome the barriers to access in a culturally sensitive fashion. PMID:8006497
Scroggins, T G; Bateman, M; Allen, S; Rittenberg, C N
Objectives Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes and subsequent complications are often attributed to culture; however, previous diabetes disparities research is restricted to in-depth ethnic-specific samples or to comparative study designs with limited belief assessment. The goal of this study is to improve understanding of the cultural basis for variation in diabetes beliefs. Design Cross-sectional Setting Rural North Carolina Participants Older adults (aged 60+) with diabetes, equally divided by ethnicity (White, AfricanAmerican, American Indian) and gender (N=593). Interventions Guided by Explanatory Models of Illness and Cultural Consensus research traditions, trained interviewers collected data using 38 items in four diabetes belief domains: causes, symptoms, consequences, and medical management. Items were obtained from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory (CSMDI). Main Outcome Beliefs about diabetes. Response options for each diabetes belief item were “agree,” “disagree” and “don’t know”. Collected data were analyzed using Anthropac (version 4.98) and Latent Gold (version 4.5) programs. Results There is substantial similarity in diabetes beliefs among AfricanAmericans, American Indians, and Whites. Diabetes beliefs were most similar in the “symptoms” and “consequences” domains compared to beliefs pertaining to “causes” and “medical management.” Although some discrete beliefs differed by ethnicity, systematic differences by ethnicity were observed for specific educational groups. Conclusions Socioeconomic conditions influence diabetes beliefs rather than “ethnicity” per se.
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Eddie H.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Saldana, Santiago; Reynolds, Teresa; Bell, Ronny A.; Kirk, Julienne K.; Quandt, Sara A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the variables of ethnic identity, collective self-esteem, person perception, individualism, collectivism, and prejudice in Caucasian (North and South), African-American, and Greek-Cypriot college students to determine implications in counseling ethnic minorities and Caucasians, as well as understanding the effects of these variables on the development and identity of each individual. Four hundred and
The study explores the social network/caregiver configuration of dementia-affected ethnic minority elderly from four ethnic minority groups, American Indian/Native Americans; Asian Americans, specifically in the study, Japanese Americans; Blacks/African A...
R. Valle L. Birba J. Yelder Y. Sakamoto-Kowalchuk R. Forquera
Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for AfricanAmerican students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and behavior in Caucasian and African
Chris Blanchard; Janet Fisher; Phil Sparling; Erich Nehl; Ryan Rhodes; Kerry Courneya; Frank Baker
European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do AfricanAmerican (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body
Paula C. Chandler-Laney; Gary R. Hunter; Nikki C. Bush; Jessica A. Alvarez; Jane L. Roy; Nuala M. Byrne; Barbara A. Gower
Over the past decade, there has been a surge of literature related to disparities in pain treatment between minority and non-minority patients. Conspicuously lacking from this body of literature is an effort to investigate the patient-level factors that might account for undertreatment of pain among minorities. The present qualitative descriptive study was designed to gain a preliminary understanding of the preference for analgesic treatment for cancer pain among AfricanAmericans and the factors shaping these preferences. The sample (n=35) was recruited from three outpatient oncology clinics in the Mid-Atlantic region. Inclusion was based on self-identified AfricanAmericans, >18 years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors, with self-reported cancer pain of at least one month, and no history of major surgery in the past three months. The data were gathered using demographics, the Brief Pain Inventory-Long Form, and in-depth semistructured interviews. Qualitative findings revealed that despite having overt access to pain medications, considerable intra-ethnic heterogeneity existed in the preference for analgesia among this group of AfricanAmericans. The subjective preference for analgesics for cancer pain was tied to a number of covert factors such as meaning of cancer pain treatment, past experience with pain relief and analgesic side effects, fears of dependency and tolerance, and past experience with providers and the health system. These factors should be the focus of future inquiry. PMID:17531436
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States.
A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of AfricanAmericans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger AfricanAmerican community, and provides boundaries for culturally acceptable behaviors. Three sub-themes were identified: one describes how health behaviors are “passed from generation to generation,” another reflects a sense of being “accountable” to others within the culture; and the third reflects negative views taken toward people who are “acting different,” moving outside the circle of culture. Findings provide an expanded perspective of the TPB by demonstrating the influence of culture and collective identify on attitude formation and health-related behaviors among AfricanAmericans.
Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.
The need for effective culturally responsive treatments has become more urgent as the number of ethnic minority clients continues to increase. Previous research with a clinically referred sample of substance- abusing AfricanAmerican inner-city teenagers found that treatment engagement increased when cultural content was incorporated in the therapeutic process (Jackson-Gilfort, Liddle, Tejeda, & Dakof, 2001). This article amplifies these findings
Howard A. Liddle; April Jackson-Gilfort; Francoise A. Marvel
This study examines the effect of race on place attach- ment to wildland areas. It is generally assumed that AfricanAmericans have a more negative impression of wildlands, compand to white ethnic groups. Studies from past decades report that blacks show less aesthetic preference for wild- land, unstructured environments and are also less environ- mentally aware than whites. While it
|Theories of ethnic minority development have largely suggested that AfricanAmerican parents engage in a combination of practices that include culturally distinctive socialization as well as behaviors that are characteristic of more universal forms of academic socialization. However, few studies have examined how these socialization dimensions…
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although AfricanAmericans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD
Monnica T. Williams; Dante Proetto; Delane Casiano; Martin E. Franklin
|Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for AfricanAmerican women and suggest ways that future…
Explores the culture of a summer writing course (at the University of Texas) for first-year ethnic minority students that is designed to help induct them gradually into the academic culture and improve retention rate. Observes and records behavior and discourses of the class's AfricanAmerican students. Focuses on learning strategies displayed in…
Racial and ethnic minorities, older people, and women are differentially affected by chronic pain. This study aimed to identify the experiences of adult AfricanAmericans and whites with chronic pain while identifying patient clusters on the basis of clinical characteristics as well as race, age, and gender influences within and between clusters. Three clusters of patients with chronic pain were
Carmen R Green; S. Khady Ndao-Brumblay; Andrew M Nagrant; Tamara A Baker; Edward Rothman
|The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…
Objective: This study was undertaken to compare urodynamic findings and the rate of incontinence diagnoses among various ethnic groups. Study Design: Data were collected for all new patients referred to the urogynecology clinic during a 10-year period. One hundred ninety-five Hispanic, 95 white, 66 Asian, and 59 AfricanAmerican women had urodynamic testing and were included in the study. All
An increasing amount of scholarship has documented the salience of culturally relevant teaching practices for ethnically and linguistically diverse students. However, research examining these students' perceptions and interpretations of these learning environments has been minimal at best. In this article, the author details the findings from a study that sought to assess African-American elementary students' interpretations of culturally relevant teachers
|Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between AfricanAmericans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical…
Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G.
This article describes a multiethnic group for high school students that were developed to promote tolerance, understanding, and healing among AfricanAmerican and Jewish adolescents. Social group work was used as the practice method, with a focus on ethnic-sensitive practice strategies that support cross-cultural relations and initiatives. The article explains the context surrounding the development of the group and describes
Although the incidence of breast cancer is high among Caucasian women, AfricanAmerican women continue to experience higher breast cancer mortality and lower survival rate in comparison to Caucasian women of the same age. Research regarding breast cancer screening among ethnic minority women from lower socioeconomic groups is extensive, but there is a lack of research that investigates barriers to
Theories of ethnic minority development have largely suggested that AfricanAmerican parents engage in a combination of practices that include culturally distinctive socialization as well as behaviors that are characteristic of more universal forms of academic socialization. However, few studies have examined how these socialization dimensions…
AfricanAmerican women (AAW) have the highest breast cancer mortality rate than any other racial or ethnic group. Limited access to care reduces mammography screening for AAW. Despite barriers, some AAW engage in breast cancer screening (BCS) behaviors like mammography. The salutogenic theory of health focuses on positive health behaviors and offers a framework to understand personal factors which allow
The ability of US museums to attract and engage ethnically diverse audiences, including AfricanAmericans is a problem that has plagued museums for decades (Falk, 1993; Philipp, 1999). Scholars have sought to understand traditional visitors' perceptions of museums in order to better to increase visitations and promote lifelong learning, but…
|Examines behaviors related to AIDS protection and contraception among African-American, Hispanic, and White women through a national alcohol survey in 1991 and 1992. Results indicate that a significant proportion of women and their partners in each ethnic group did not use any form of protection during their recent sexual encounter. (Author/MKA)|
The concept of acculturation has been used to understand differences in health behaviors between and within a variety of racial and ethnic immigrant groups. Few studies, however, have examined the potential impact of acculturation on health behaviors among AfricanAmericans. The present study has two goals: 1) to reconfirm relations between acculturation and cigarette smoking; 2) to investigate the impact
Josephine S. Guevarra; Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Tricia S. Tang; Heiddis B. Valdimarsdottir; Harold P. Freeman; Dana H. Bovbjerg
We have collected blood samples from 65 African-American men with prostate cancer and 80 ethnically matched control healthy men with questionnaire data on demographics, general health and cancer family history. We chose six biomarkers PSA, KLK2, KLK14, IL...
This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 AfricanAmerican college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…
Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.
Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and AfricanAmericans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…
This study compared person risk factors among the following groups of low-income, AfricanAmerican adults in an urban, public hospital: (a) suicide attempters and nonattempters, (b) male and female attempters, and (c) all 4 groups (50 female attempters, 50 female nonattempters, 50 male attempters, and 50 male nonattempters). Participants completed psychological distress, aggression, substance use, cognitive processes, religiosity\\/spirituality, and ethnic
Nadine J. Kaslow; Ann Webb Price; Sarah Wyckoff; Marnette Bender Grall; Alissa Sherry; Sharon Young; Larry Scholl; Venus Millington Upshaw; Akil Rashid; Emily B. Jackson; Kafi Bethea
|The Healthy People 2010 guidelines identify substance abuse as a major public health problem in need of effective interventions for diverse populations including racial and ethnic minorities. However, the literature with regard to substance abuse in the AfricanAmerican community is rather scant. This article discusses the need for a research…
Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality is higher among AfricanAmerican (AA) men compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. There is compelling evidence that the higher mortality is due to the greater likelihood of AA men being diagnosed with adva...
African-Americans and Latinos make up about 60% of Chicago's population. This research looks at how these groups view local TV news coverage of their communities. A random telephone survey of 340 blacks and bilingual Latinos reveals that only 35% think their race or ethnic group is accurately portrayed on local TV news. They rate local news as \\
Numerous studies have indicated that there is an association between cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and depression. However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how demographic factors, such as socioeconomic status and ethnicity, influence these relationships. To address this gap in the literature, cigarette and alcohol use were examined in a sample of AfricanAmericans from an urban area. A
Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in AfricanAmerican men's lives from the perspectives of AfricanAmerican men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 AfricanAmerican men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 AfricanAmerican women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an AfricanAmerican man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of AfricanAmerican men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that AfricanAmerican men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races. PMID:23462019
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober
The code of the street theory, developed by Yale professor Elijah Anderson, presents an explanation for high rates of violence among African-American adolescents. Observing life in a Philadelphia African-American neighborhood, Anderson saw that economic d...
A sample of 18 AfricanAmerican female caregivers and 24 noncaregivers were recruited for the purpose of exploring the relationships among caregiver status, demands, resources, sociodemographics, and cardiovascular responses. The principle finding of the study were that there were no significant relationships between caregiver status, daily hassles, total chronic conditions, total antihypertensives, learned resourcefulness, age, income, education, pulse, systolic, and diastolic blood pressures. Longitudinal studies of AfricanAmerican female caregivers' and noncaregivers' cardiovascular responses are needed to determine whether caregiving is related to increased cardiovascular responses. Nursing interventions that support caregivers in managing care recipient deficits in instrumental activities of daily living and cognitive impairment are needed. PMID:9384098
Pharmaceutical development and medical research continues at a fevered pitch. Historically, however, AfricanAmericans and other minorities have not been adequately represented in the studies determining a drug's safety and efficacy in humans. A history of misuse in the medical research systems (most notably the Tuskeegee study of syphillis in a population of illiterate, poor black men) have left many blacks wary of the health care system. However, attempts to address the health disparities faced by AfricanAmericans must include processes for including wider representation of blacks--as patients as well as investigators--in clinical trials.
Examines the extent to which four indices of African self-consciousness are operating in suburban African-American families. It presents examples of African self-consciousness illustrating how the perceptions of African-American children living in predominantly White suburbs are shaped by family, church, school, and social interactions. Parental…
The elimination of health disparities for African Amer- icans requires culturally relevant, empirical knowl- edge, which in turn requires including African Ameri- cans in research studies. However, power-difference barriers and conceptual barriers continue to inhibit the recruitment of AfricanAmericans. The purpose of this article is to define and discuss certain barriers to the recruitment of AfricanAmericans into research
Barbara L. Dancy; JoEllen Wilbur; Marie Talashek; Gloria Bonner; Cynthia Barnes-Boyd
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine misreporting of total energy intake in older African-American men and women using the double-labeled water procedure; and (2) to identify significant physiological and demographic determinants of total energy intake misreporting in older AfricanAmericans.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining gender differences and determinants of misreporting of total energy intake in older African-American men and women.SUBJECTS: Sixty-four, older African-American
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from AfricanAmericans and others. Charges of over-concentration of alcohol bill- boards in African-American neighbor- hoods have prompted protests and leg- islative fights in Chicago, Milwaukee, Baltimore, Los Angeles and elsewhere.1 Battles over the heavy marketing to the African-American community of
D. Jernigan; P. Wright; B. Gallegos; A. Tate; J. Streicker; M. Lee; J. F. Mosher
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Prostate cancer incidence and associated mortality are highest in AfricanAmerican men in comparison to other races. The observed differences in incidence and disease aggressiveness at presentation support a potential role for different pathways of prostate carcinogenesis between AfricanAmerican and Caucasian men. This review focuses on some of the recent molecular biology discoveries, which have been investigated in prostate carcinogenesis and their likely contribution to the known discrepancies across race and ethnicity. Key discussion points include the androgen receptor gene structure and function, genome-wide association studies and epigenetics. The new observations of the ethnic differences of the ERG oncogene, the most common prostate cancer gene, are providing new insights into ERG based stratification of prostate cancers in the context of ethnically diverse patient populations. This rapidly advancing knowledge has the likely potential to benefit clinical practice. Current and future work will improve the ability to sub-type prostate cancers by molecular alterations and lead to targeted therapy against this common malignancy.
Farrell, James; Petrovics, Gyorgy; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv
Professional AfricanAmerican women are vastly understudied in sociology. We address that omission by examining how the intersection of race with the structure of elite, male-dominated occupations shapes family and work trajectories for a sample of 203 AfricanAmerican female attorneys. Like the general population of AfricanAmerican women, respondents with partners and with children do not seem to suffer
The authors use three disciplinary categories--history, philosophy, and adult learning and development--to categorize materials related to AfricanAmerican adult education. The sources provide an examination of adult education from a culturally grounded AfricanAmerican experiential perspective. The authors suggest that these sources can be used in a separate course on AfricanAmerican adult education or may be infused into an
Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of AfricanAmerican males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on AfricanAmerican single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of AfricanAmerican single…
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from AfricanAmericans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among AfricanAmericans. One hundred eighty-seven AfricanAmerican students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the AfricanAmerican Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…
Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan
|Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding AfricanAmericans and domestic violence, many questions remain about AfricanAmerican perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores AfricanAmerican women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services…
Breast cancer is an emotionally challenging disease for women. Little is known about AfricanAmerican women's emotional responses to breast cancer. This exploratory study focuses on the emotional responses of AfricanAmerican women throughout their breast cancer experience. Sixty-six AfricanAmerican women, age 35 to 76, living in the southeastern United States participated in focus group interviews. There were five
|Because of the scarcity of knowledge about middle-class AfricanAmerican adolescents, the present study explored psychological and parental factors in relation to academic performance. The participants were 336 middle-class AfricanAmerican students and their biological mothers. The findings suggest that for AfricanAmerican middle-class…
Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an AfricanAmerican female and mother of an AfricanAmerican daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing AfricanAmerican females is the double and sometimes triple…
|The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from AfricanAmericans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
|The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by AfricanAmericans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study AfricanAmerican hospice use, obstacles to AfricanAmerican participation in hospice that have been identified, and…
Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan
and by appointment Because over 80% of NBA basketball players are AfricanAmerican and the style of play that emerged from African-American communities dominates the professional game, basketball is culturally marked as black. Larry Bird, a three-time NBA MVP, and the best non-AfricanAmerican player of the last thirty years maintained that basketball is \\
|This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises…
The purpose of the present study was to examine disordered eating behaviors in a population of AfricanAmerican women at a Historically Black University (HBCU). Past research has indicated that AfricanAmerican women at a predominantly White university meet diagnostic criteria for eating disorders at the same rates as Caucasian women (Mulholland & Mintz, 2001). Because AfricanAmerican women at
This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the AfricanAmerican community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in AfricanAmerican communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the AfricanAmerican
Attention to spirituality is especially important for nurses when providing care to AfricanAmericans. Spirituality is deeply embedded in their rich cultural heritage. For many AfricanAmericans, spirituality is intertwined into all aspects of life, including beliefs about health and illness. Therefore, it is imperative that nurses understand the relationship between AfricanAmerican spirituality, health, and self-management of illness to
Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, AfricanAmerican males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on AfricanAmerican families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on AfricanAmerican fathers' instrumental
|Reviews two exhibits of visual art at the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Art Museum, "Works by African-Americans," which showcases the contributions of nineteenth- and twentieth-century African-American artists; and "Pertaining to Philadelphia," acquisitions from the collection of Julius Bloch, an artist and mentor to many AfricanAmerican artists…
African-American women face a lower risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer as compared to Caucasian-American women, yet they paradoxically face an increased breast cancer mortality hazard. An increased incidence rate for early-onset disease has also been documented. This manuscript review sum- marizes the socioeconomic, environmental, genetic, and possible primary tumor biologic factors that may explain these disparities. The Oncologist
|Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing AfricanAmerican-White American disparities in mental health…
Over the past 40 years, increasing numbers of Americans have benefited from cancer prevention, early detection, and improved treatment. But a review of site-specific cancer data from 1950 to the present shows that contemporary African-Americans have the highest age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence and mortality of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Compared to whites, blacks have significantly higher incidence rates for cancers of the lung, prostate, breast (under age 40), colon, pancreas, esophagus, cervix, larynx, stomach, and multiple myeloma. Blacks have significantly higher mortality rates for cancers of the lung, prostate, breast (all ages), colon, pancreas, esophagus, cervix, uterine corpus, larynx, stomach, and multiple myeloma. Moreover, the gap between whites and blacks is widening dramatically. These startling statistics suggest that cancer researchers and policymakers, and the institutions they represent, may not fully appreciate the black cancer experience. PMID:8485263
Most work on ethnicity tends to focus on daytime health rather than how aspects of ethnicity affect nighttime functioning. The current study examined how discrimination and ethnic identity relate to sleep architecture and fatigue in 37 AfricanAmericans and 56 Caucasian Americans. The authors conducted sleep monitoring with standard polysomnography. AfricanAmericans had less slow-wave sleep and reported more physical
KaMala S. Thomas; Wayne A. Bardwell; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Joel E. Dimsdale
Despite a decline in births, adolescent pregnancy continues to be a concern for parents, policymakers, and social service providers. Although the future of young mothers in general has been proven to be bleak, some research suggests that the negative impact of adolescent pregnancy is less severe in AfricanAmerican families. Hypotheses have been formulated in prior literature to explain this
|Pastoral counseling can enable African-American men to adopt a different identity by presenting a model of holism that allows men to access both masculine and feminine sides of their identities, becoming whole persons who respond to the world from within rather than reacting to external pressures. (SLD)|
Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an AfricanAmerican female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…
AfricanAmerican youth today are facing a fast changing world of high technology and diminishing opportunities. This generation brings a new attitude and a challenging perspective to service providers and policy makers. The policies and interventions of the past may need an upgrade to meet the needs of this new generation. The issues of poverty and meaningful opportunities are important
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 AfricanAmericans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
|Six AfricanAmerican female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
Six AfricanAmerican female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…
This article reviews pertinent factors, such as the need to encourage a positive home environment, transform peer group influences, establish goals early in life, foster racial pride and awareness, use African-American culture to foster achievement, encourage a sense of self-control, initiate and expand mentor programs, and cultivate academic…
How do children acquire AfricanAmerican English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…
Much has been written on Black minstrels, vaudeville and early Black Musicals, but little is devoted to the religious influences of ritual in the black community and its expression of identity through gospel music in the AfricanAmerican theatre experience.^ Vinnette Carroll's contributions to theatre, musical theatre and Broadway are impressive especially her work as developer of the song play
|This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 AfricanAmerican high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and…
|By selecting appropriate reading materials, teachers can engage AfricanAmerican adolescent males with text, particularly students who have not mastered the skills, strategies, and knowledge that will lead to positive life outcomes. This approach takes into account students' four literacy needs--academic, cultural, emotional, and social--and…
This study explored the relationship between family interactions, personality variables, and courtship violence. AfricanAmerican college students who were dating were administered the Conflict Tactics Scale and a series of other measures. Findings indicate that more than half of the Afncan Americanfemales and males had insulted, refused to talk to, or made spiteful comments to a dating partner Females reported
M. L. Clark; Joyce Beckett; Mabel Wells; Delores Dungee-Anderson
... t S tigma: The stigma associated with HIV and homosexuality may help to spread HIV in AfricanAmerican communities. Fear of disclosing risk behavior or sexual orientation prevents many from seeking testing, treatment and support from friends and family. As a ...
Elder maltreatment, an unfortunate manifestation of the graying of our nation's population, has been well documented during the last decade; but, a clear definition or understanding of the phenomenon has not been forthcoming. This lack of clarity is particularly evident among older African-Americans and especially among this minority group in rural communities. This paper describes an exploratory study of 10
A family process model was used to link mothers' and fathers' psychological functioning to sibling relationship quality in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old AfricanAmerican youth (N=85) living in the rural Southeastern United States. Better parental psychological functioning was linked to more supportive relationships in the family, and youth in…
Brody, Gene H.; Stoneman, Zolinda; Smith, Trellis; Gibson, Nicole Morgan
This literature review focuses on the prevalence rates of teen dating violence in the United States, emergence of dating violence research, reasons of teen dating violence in the AfricanAmerican community, consequences of it regarding physical and mental health, and the impact of it on psychological and physical health. The research shows a trickledown effect of racism, low socio-economic status,
Many young AfricanAmerican males have a passion for video games, but they don't often translate that passion into learning about computing. Part of the problem is that they do not identify with computing as a social norm within their peer group. This disidentification with computing can negatively impact academic performance and limit opportunities for upward mobility. We developed a
Betsy James DiSalvo; Sarita Yardi; Mark Guzdial; Tom McKlin; Charles Meadows; Kenneth Perry; Amy Bruckman
|To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 AfricanAmerican female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 AfricanAmerican female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
The purpose of this research was to examine and describe the relationships among health status, marital status, income level, education level, age, and body mass index (BMI) with the added influence of spirituality on the health promotion behaviors of AfricanAmerican women, living in South Florida. The sample consisted of 137 women, 18 to 64 years of age, who were
|The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 AfricanAmericans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
|The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among AfricanAmerican children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted.…
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by AfricanAmerican adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
|This study explored the family dynamics of persistent AfricanAmerican college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among AfricanAmerican children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
|Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to AfricanAmericans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)|
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in breast lumps excised from AfricanAmerican teenagers.Methods: The authors reviewed the pathology records at King's County Hospital Center between January 1982 and December 1992. The pathology reports and charts of all patients who had breast masses excised during this period were reviewed. Data for this study
This study assessed physical activity patterns in a sample of urban AfricanAmericans, whose participation in physical activity has not previously been well-described. From questions administered by interviewers during health fair screenings in 19 churches in East Baltimore, information regarding participation in regular, leisure-time activity (defined as 30 minutes of activity, 5 days per week), time spent walking on the
Deborah Rohm Young; Kevin W. Miller; Lora B. Wilder; Lisa R. Yanek; Diane M. Becker
|It is generally true that when people are deprived of their own cultural forms and are coerced into adopting the cultural forms of others, disorder, stress, and even disability will occur. Conversely, the basic strength of any people results from their experience of historical and cultural continuity. The strengths of African-American children…
BACKGROUND: AfricanAmerican women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant AfricanAmerican women which integrated multiple
Kathy S Katz; Susan M Blake; Renee A Milligan; Phyllis W Sharps; Davene B White; Margaret F Rodan; Maryann Rossi; Kennan B Murray
The purpose of this paper is to add to the knowledge base on prevention programming by explicating the characteristics of 12 programs (out of 47) serving AfricanAmerican youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). Findings show that AfricanAmerican youth exhibit lower use rates than most other ethnic and racial groups, but by the time they
Sandra S. Chipungu; John Hermann; Soledad Sambrano; Mary Nistler; Elizabeth Sale; J. Fred Springer
|Despite increases in transracial adoption, AfricanAmerican children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an AfricanAmerican child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an AfricanAmerican child in a sample…
This dissertation explores the culture of sport among AfricanAmerican male football players as well as AfricanAmerican perspectives on sport and success. A case study of six AfricanAmerican, Division 1 FBS (Football Bowl Subdivision) collegiate student athletes was conducted along with seventeen supplemental interviews with community members, parents, coaches and former athletes and fans. The participants answered questions
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit AfricanAmerican health chances and that AfricanAmericans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in AfricanAmericans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for AfricanAmericans.
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit AfricanAmerican health chances and that AfricanAmericans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in AfricanAmericans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for AfricanAmericans. PMID:20724679
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is commonly thought of as a disorder of White females. Despite evidence indicating similar\\u000a prevalence rates across races and genders, no study has examined the experience of BPD among ethnic minorities and how this\\u000a differs from Whites. The affective and behavioral symptoms of BPD were studied in 17 AfricanAmericans and 27 White Americans\\u000a with the
Christina E. Newhill; Shaun M. Eack; Kyaien O. Conner
AfricanAmericans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent AfricanAmericans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult AfricanAmericans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the AfricanAmerican OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to AfricanAmericans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the AfricanAmerican participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers. PMID:22410094
The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506
Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K
Because of the devastating morbidity, mortality, and social dislocations associated with alcohol abuse in many African-American communities, the prevention of alcohol abuse represents a critical component of the public health agenda for AfricanAmericans. This article reviews African-American cultural issues pertinent to alcohol use and abuse and the information available regarding the excess medical and social complications experienced by AfricanAmericans secondary to alcohol abuse. Some recommendations are made for a specific research agenda for the prevention of alcohol abuse with relevance to AfricanAmericans.
Violence disproportionately affects AfricanAmerican men and their communities. Research is needed to inform programming efforts\\u000a to reduce racial\\/ethnic disparities in violence exposure, involvement, and victimization. The current study examined involvement\\u000a in and perceptions of neighborhood violence and relation to perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample\\u000a of urban, AfricanAmerican men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were
Elizabeth Reed; Jay G. Silverman; Seth L. Welles; Maria Christina Santana; Stacey A. Missmer; Anita Raj
This qualitative study, based on data collected from focus groups of ethnically and racially diverse gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescents (53% Hispanic\\/Latino\\/Latina, 35% Black\\/AfricanAmerican, 11% Caucasian\\/White, and 1% South Asian-Indian), serves to expand knowledge about experiences of diverse adolescents when coming out to their parents. Varying aspects of such reactions, particularly among Hispanic\\/Latino\\/Latina and AfricanAmerican participants,
Daniel Potoczniak; Margaret Crosbie-Burnett; Nikki Saltzburg
H-Afro-Am is a new H-Net sponsored, moderated discussion list for professionals, faculty, and advanced students in AfricanAmerican Studies. The discussion list will focus on the African Diaspora, mainly on the US experience. H-Afro-Am is also the official voice of the Collegium for AfricanAmerican Research in Europe (CAAR), established in 1992 to promote AfricanAmerican scholarship from an international perspective.
Reviews the contributions of African-American poetry to the development of English literature from the earliest Black orator through the works of Langston Hughes. Emphasizes the work of Phillis Wheatley, Paul Lawrence Dunbar,"The New Negro" writers, and Hughes. (FMW)
Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to AfricanAmericans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among AfricanAmericans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated AfricanAmericans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B). Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in AfricanAmericans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in AfricanAmericans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.
Children's early emotion regulation strategies (ERS) have been related to externalizing problems; however, most studies have included predominantly European American, middle-class children. The current study explores whether ERS use may have differential outcomes as a function of the mother's ethnic culture. The study utilizes two diverse samples of low-income male toddlers to examine observed ERS during a delay of gratification task in relation to maternal and teacher reports of children's externalizing behavior 2 to 6 years later. Although the frequencies of ERS were comparable between ethnic groups in both samples, the use of physical comfort seeking and self-soothing was positively related to AfricanAmerican children's later externalizing behavior but negatively related to externalizing behavior for European American children in Sample 1. Data from Sample 2 appear to support this pattern for self-soothing in maternal, but not teacher, report of externalizing behavior. Within group differences by income were examined as a possible explanatory factor accounting for the ethnic differences, but it was not supported. Alternative explanations are discussed to explain the pattern of findings. PMID:19338690
|In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of AfricanAmericans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
?2-Adrenergic receptor (?2AR) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with various asthma-related traits in different racial\\/ethnic populations. However, it is unknown whether ?\\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a AR genetic variants are associated with asthma in AfricanAmericans. In this study, we have examined whether there is association between ?\\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a AR genetic variants and asthma in AfricanAmericans. We have recruited
Hui-Ju Tsai; Nishat Shaikh; Jennifer Y. Kho; Natalie Battle; Mariam Naqvi; Daniel Navarro; Henry Matallana; Craig M. Lilly; Celeste S. Eng; Gunjan Kumar; Shannon Thyne; H. George Watson; Kelley Meade; Michael LeNoir; Shweta Choudhry; Esteban G. Burchard
Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among AfricanAmerican high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of AfricanAmericans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of AfricanAmerican urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about AfricanAmerican urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on AfricanAmerican urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve AfricanAmerican urban high school achievement in science was gained.
The death rate from heart and blood vessel disease among AfricanAmericans is 33.6% higher among AfricanAmerican men and 38.5% higher among AfricanAmerican women. (U.S. 2003: American Heart Association). Excessive rates of hypertension, psychosocial and socio-environmental stresses contribute to high rate of CVD morbidity and mortality in this population. According to Tennessee Primary Care Association in Davidson County,
Using data collected on 190 patients in a hospital-based substance abuse treatment center in a large midwestern city, this study compared psychiatric symptomatology between AfricanAmericans and Caucasians. Although the 2 groups were equivalent in consumption and frequency of usage, African-American alcoholics in the study used significantly more substances (beyond alcohol) than did Caucasians. With regard to psychiatric symptomatology, African
Thomas W. Pavkov; Mark P. McGovern; John S. Lyons; Eric S. Geffner
|Explores the future of African-American studies. African-American studies should be the home of free inquiry into the complexity of being of African descent in the world, rather than a closed-shop or a resurrected version of thought police. A true proliferation of ideologies and methodologies is required. (SLD)|
|A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of AfricanAmerican teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female AfricanAmerican educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…
Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.
Because existing risk prediction models for lung cancer were developed in white populations, they may not be appropriate for predicting risk among African-Americans. Therefore, a need exists to construct and validate a risk prediction model for lung cancer that is specific to African-Americans. We analyzed data from 491 African-Americans with lung cancer and 497 matched African-American controls to identify specific risks and incorporate them into a multivariable risk model for lung cancer and estimate the 5-year absolute risk of lung cancer. We performed internal and external validations of the risk model using data on additional cases and controls from the same ongoing multiracial/ethnic lung cancer case-control study from which the model-building data were obtained as well as data from two different lung cancer studies in metropolitan Detroit, respectively. We also compared our African-American model with our previously developed risk prediction model for whites. The final risk model included smoking-related variables [smoking status, pack-years smoked, age at smoking cessation (former smokers), and number of years since smoking cessation (former smokers)], self- reported physician diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or hay fever, and exposures to asbestos or wood dusts. Our risk prediction model for African-Americans exhibited good discrimination [75% (95% confidence interval, 0.67?0.82)] for our internal data and moderate discrimination [63% (95% confidence interval, 0.57?0.69)] for the external data group, which is an improvement over the Spitz model for white subjects. Existing lung cancer prediction models may not be appropriate for predicting risk for African-Americans because (a) they were developed using white populations, (b) level of risk is different for risk factors that African-American share with whites, and (c) unique group-specific risk factors exist for African-Americans. This study developed and validated a risk prediction model for lung cancer that is specific to African-Americans and thus more precise in predicting their risks. These findings highlight the importance of conducting further ethnic-specific analyses of disease risk.
Etzel, Carol J.; Kachroo, Sumesh; Liu, Mei; D'Amelio, Anthony; Dong, Qiong; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Hong, Waun Ki; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Spitz, Margaret R.
AfricanAmerican women (n = 42) and European American women (n = 46) were queried regarding their comfort level discussing various sexual health topics with hypothetical counselors who\\u000a were varied by race (AfricanAmerican vs. European American) or counseling value (culturally sensitive vs. knowledgeable).\\u000a Contrary to hypotheses, European American participants were more comfortable with the knowledgeable AfricanAmerican counselor\\u000a and the culturally sensitive European
Utilizing software developed at the University of Chicago, this online database of African-American poetry is a fine resource for people looking for a compendium of poems by numerous notable 18th and 19th century African-American poets. First-time users will want to read the users manual, which explains the software used to design the database, and how to best utilize the available search engine, which allows for a number of detailed searching methods. The database itself contains 12 million words from a total of 86 works. Visitors looking to browse the online works should consult the bibliography section, as it contains a detailed description of the authors and works covered within the database. Visitors familiar with this genre will note the inclusion of many notable poets, including Paul Dunbar, James Corrothers, and Albery Allson Whitman.
In a cross-sectional study we investigated the correlates of gambling habits among a sample of 80 independently living African-American elderly persons. The participants were selected from two Senior Citizen Centers that provide inexpensive or free pleasure trips from Los Angeles, California to gambling sites in Nevada. The data for this study were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted by three trained
Mohsen Bazargan; Shahrzad H. Bazargan; Mahfuja Akanda
Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofac- tors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communi- ties of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person.
Frank Sorvillo; Lisa Smith; Peter Kerndt; H Lawrence Ash
This article reviews a book written by Lisa Nikol Nealy entitled: AfricanAmerican Women Voters: Racializing Religiosity, Political Consciousness and Progressive Political Action in U.S. Presidential\\u000a Elections from 1964 Through 2008 (2009). I extracted the following themes from the book: (1) the importance and influence of the Black church or religious\\u000a organizations and their leaders on the level of political
This study examined the relationship between stress and the likelihood of quitting among 300 urban AfricanAmerican smokers\\u000a enrolled in the placebo arm of a controlled randomized trial assessing the efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation. Participants\\u000a were predominantly female, middle-aged, and of lower income. Participants received 7 weeks of placebo treatment and counseling\\u000a as well as a self-help guide.
Brian K. Manning; Delwyn Catley; Kari Jo Harris; Matthew S. Mayo; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia
In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnicAmerican associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnicAmerican associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963
Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J
OBJECTIVES:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising primarily of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent in racial and ethnic minorities. This study was undertaken to characterize racial differences in disease phenotype in a predominantly adult population.METHODS:Phenotype data on 830 non-Hispanic white, 127 non-Hispanic AfricanAmerican, and 169 Hispanic IBD patients, recruited from six academic centers, were abstracted from
Geoffrey C. Nguyen; Esther A. Torres; Miguel Regueiro; Gillian Bromfield; Alain Bitton; Joanne Stempak; Themistocles Dassopoulos; Philip Schumm; Federico J. Gregory; Anne M. Griffiths; Stephen B. Hanauer; Jennifer Hanson; Mary L. Harris; Sunanda V. Kane; Heather Kiraly Orkwis; Raymond Lahaie; Maria Oliva-Hemker; Pierre Pare; Gary E. Wild; John D. Rioux; Huiying Yang; Richard H. Duerr; Judy H. Cho; A. Hillary Steinhart; Steven R. Brant; Mark S. Silverberg
BACKGROUND: More than one million Americans suffer osteoporotic fractures yearly, resulting in a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite a decrease in bone mineral density with increasing age in all ethnic groups and both genders, preventative and therapeutics efforts in osteoporosis have been focused on caucasian and Asian women. This study assesses the osteoporosis screening practices and the frequency of low bone density in a primarily African-American population of older women. METHODS: Medical records of 252 women at risk for osteoporosis were reviewed for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, prior osteoporosis screening, prior breast cancer screening, and the use of calcium, vitamin D or estrogen. Subsequently, 128 women were assessed for risk factors for osteoporosis, and their bone mineral density was measured using a peripheral bone densitometer. RESULTS: Osteoporosis screening had been performed in 11.5% of the subjects. Of the women evaluated by peripheral bone densitometry, 44.5% of all women, 40.4% of African-American women, and 53.3% of caucasian women had abnormally low bone density measurements. The frequency of abnormal bone density increased with both increasing age and decreasing body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Although few women in this population were previously screened for osteoporosis, low bone density occurred in African-American women at substantial rates. Increasing age and low body mass are important risk factors for low bone density in African-American women. Ethnicity should not be used as an exclusion criterion for screening for osteoporosis.
Objective Recent reports suggest that ghrelin regulation may differ by ethnicity and age. This study was designed to examine circulating ghrelin among overweight AfricanAmerican females across different age groups. Methods Eleven overweight peri-pubertal girls, 17 overweight pubertal girls, and a control group of 18 overweight AA premenopausal women ingested a standard liquid meal following an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and for 4 hours post-challenge. Participants rated appetite by a visual analog scale. Results Peri-pubertal girls demonstrated higher postprandial ghrelin and lesser ghrelin suppression compared to adults (p<0.05), corresponding with greater desire to eat across the test period (p=0.017). Fasting ghrelin tended to be inversely related to fasting estradiol (r=?0.264, p=0.076). Conclusion Compared to overweight AfricanAmerican women, peri-pubertal girls had higher ghrelin as well as greater appetite after a standard meal. These results may suggest a dysregulation in ghrelin reflective of demands of growth.
Ellis, Amy C.; Casazza, Krista; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Gower, Barbara A.
This is the first paper to document the effect of health on the migration propensities of AfricanAmericans in the American past. Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of AfricanAmericans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy
The William & Anita Newman Library at Baruch College (The City University of New York) has recently added this exhibit to its digital collection. African-Native Americans: We Are Still Here is a photo exhibit that profiles people of joint AfricanAmerican and Native American heritage, with text by Eve Winddancer and photographs by Louis B. Myers.
iven the historical and contemporary existence of racism in American society, one might suspect there would be an equally substantial literature examining the effects of racism on AfricanAmericans. Yet, research exploring the biological, psychological, and social effects of racism among AfricanAmericans is virtually nonexistent. The purpose of this article was threefold: (a) to provide a brief overview of
Rodney Clark; Norman B. Anderson; Vernessa R. Clark; David R. Williams
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for AfricanAmerican men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 AfricanAmerican men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
|Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for AfricanAmerican men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 AfricanAmerican men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
This study was the first to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–IV;American Psychiatric Association, 1994) prevalence rates for eating disorders by targeting an entire sample of AfricanAmerican college women. Participants were 413 AfricanAmerican women enrolled at a large, predominantly Caucasian public university in the midwestern United States. Participants were given the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder
Abstract This study explores perceptions about telemedicine among urban underserved AfricanAmerican and Latino populations. Telemedicine has been advanced as a vehicle to increase access to specialty care among the urban underserved, yet little is known about its acceptability among these populations. We conducted 10 focus groups with AfricanAmerican and Latino participants (n?=?87) in urban Los Angeles in order to explore perceptions about this novel type of care. We found that concerns about telemedicine varied between the two racial/ethnic groups. These findings have implications for important issues such as adoption of telemedicine, patient satisfaction, and doctor–patient interaction. It will be critical to consider perceptions of this healthcare innovation in the development of strategies to market and implement telemedicine among urban, underserved AfricanAmerican and Latino populations.
There are a disproportionate number of African-Americans on transplant waiting lists across the country. The outcomes of a transplant are greatly improved when the donor and the recipient are from the same ethnic group. Sadly, the demand for cadaver organs in the African-American community exceeds the supply. Researchers in the past have sought to identify barriers to organ and tissue donation. To date, the studies have been conducted in the eastern and southern regions of the United States. This study examines whether the previously identified barriers are applicable in the African-American communities of California. A revised version of the Bone Marrow Donation Intention Tool was administered both in person and online. A t-test was used for analysis. The findings revealed statistically significant agreement/disagreement statements. These statements indicated that the barriers to organ donation from other areas of the United States were not representative of the respondents on the west coast. PMID:23061171
The ethnicity patterns and adaptive strategies of 10 economically successful Mexican Americans were studied over a 1-year period in San Jose, California. Employed by a federally-funded community development project, the 10 held positions from secretary to chief program administrator, with salaries ranging from $6,000 to $20,000 per year. A formal…
|Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Providing information and activities designed to dispel sex role socialization, myths, and stereotypes as bases for prejudiced views, this teaching guide focuses on the American woman's image and diverse roles in our society. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are…
From educational institutions to the media, images about AfricanAmerican men are transmitted throughout society with few,\\u000a if any, positive portrayals. These myths, misconceptions, and stereotypes have been carried over to the developmental and\\u000a socialization processes experienced by AfricanAmerican men. More systematic and comprehensive ways of explaining the plight\\u000a of the AfricanAmerican male are needed in his quest
Because of the scarcity of knowledge about middle-class AfricanAmerican adoles- cents, the present study explored psychological and parental factors in relation to ac- ademic performance. The participants were 336 middle-class AfricanAmerican stu- dents and their biological mothers. The findings suggest that for AfricanAmerican middle-class adolescents, educational expectations and school engagement have the strongest relation to academic performance.
This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, AfricanAmerican adolescents (mean age (SD)=12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% AfricanAmerican non-Hispanic; and 9% AfricanAmerican Hispanic). Youths' fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy).
Jennifer Di Noia; Steven P. Schinke; Isobel R. Contento
This article examines attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in AfricanAmerican youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation\\u000a surrounding ADHD in the AfricanAmerican community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There\\u000a is a lot of conflicting information about how AfricanAmericans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies\\u000a some of the misconceptions and offers some
Rahn K. Bailey; Shahid Ali; Shagufta Jabeen; Hilary Akpudo; Jaymie U. Avenido; Theresa Bailey; Jessica Lyons; Amelia A. Whitehead
There are little available data on African-American children with anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking African-American (n=30) and white children (n=139), with a current DSM-III-R anxiety disorder, were compared on sociodemographic background variables, clinical characteristics, and lifetime rates of specific DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Overall, results suggested that the anxiety-disordered African-American and white children who sought treatment from an outpatient mental health facility were
Renal perfusion and function in healthy AfricanAmericans.BackgroundDespite their increased risk of nephropathy, remarkably little is known about renal perfusion and function in healthy AfricanAmericans.MethodsWe enrolled 32 healthy AfricanAmericans and compared renal perfusion and function in 82 age-matched healthy Caucasians. Studies were performed on a diet containing 200 mmol of sodium and 100 mmol of potassium per day.
Deborah A Price; Naomi D L Fisher; Suzette Y Osei; Maria Cecilia Lansang; Norman K Hollenberg
AfricanAmericans continue to die disproportionately from chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease.\\u000a Eating fruits and vegetables have been shown to reduce those risks yet little is known about the health attitudes of African\\u000a American adolescents and their eating habits and engagement in physical activity. A survey was administered to AfricanAmerican\\u000a adolescents in a Midwestern city
Rhonda K. Lewis-Moss; Angelia Paschal; Michelle Redmond; B. Lee Green; Chakema Carmack
A genome scan for diabetic nephropathy in AfricanAmericans.BackgroundThere is substantial evidence for a genetic contribution to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in the AfricanAmerican population, but little is known about location or identity of susceptibility genes.MethodsDNA samples were collected from 206 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)\\/nephropathy-affected sib pairs from 166 AfricanAmerican families (355 affected individuals).
DONALD W BOWDEN; CARLA J COLICIGNO; CARL D LANGEFELD; MICHÈLE M SALE; ADRIENNE WILLIAMS; PAMELA J ANDERSON; STEPHEN S RICH; BARRY I FREEDMAN
Although AfricanAmericans (AA) smoke fewer average cigarettes per day (CPD) than European Americans (EA), they carry a disproportionate tobacco related morbidity and mortality burden. Objective To evaluate ethnic differences in markers of nicotine addiction, including rates of lifetime nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms, current smoking and smoking during pregnancy across different levels of peak lifetime cigarette consumption. Methods Data from 237 EA (N=118) and AA (N=119) mothers participating in the Missouri Family Study (2003-2005), an ethnically diverse family study of offspring outcomes in high and low risk families, were used to contrast prevalence of ND symptoms and other smoking behaviors between EA and AA women at low (1-10 CPD), moderate (11-19 CPD), and high (? 20 CPD) levels of lifetime peak daily cigarette consumption. Results Compared with EA smokers, AAs had lower lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV ND (68% v. 54%, p<.05), consumed fewer CPD during their heaviest lifetime consumption (18% EA v. 58% AA smoked ? 10 CPD, p<.0001), but did not differ in overall rates of smoking during pregnancy or current smoking. However, stratifying by categories of peak lifetime daily cigarette use, AA mothers who smoked ? 10 CPD reported greater lifetime ND symptoms and current smoking than their EA counterparts. In addition, nearly two-thirds of AA mothers in this smoking category smoked during pregnancy and 30% smoked throughout an entire pregnancy. The respective prevalence estimates in EA mothers were 38% and 0%. Conclusions Stratifying the sample into categories of lifetime peak daily cigarette use revealed significant ethnic/racial differences in smoking prevalence during pregnancy that were obscured in overall analysis. Substantial public health risks warranting clinical attention exist among light smokers, particularly AA women.
Edens, Ellen L.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated AfricanAmericans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10?245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9.
Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.
This study explores AfricanAmerican adults' understanding of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their motivations for making lifestyle changes. AfricanAmericans have a greater risk for components of MetS, such as hypertension. Three focus groups were conducted with AfricanAmerican adults (n = 11) with MetS. Content analysis revealed five themes: Threat of Poor Health, Building Trust With Providers, Gaining Social Support, Seeking Culturally Acceptable Alternatives, and Getting on Track and Staying on Track. Lifestyle interventions for AfricanAmericans with MetS need to focus on building trust, developing self-monitoring skills, social support, and identifying low-cost/convenient opportunities for physical activity. PMID:20220030
Objective To investigate whether differences in admixture in AfricanAmerican (AFA) and Hispanic American (HA) adult women are associated with adiposity and adipose distribution. Design The proportion of European, sub– Saharan African and Amerindian admixture was estimated for AFA and HA women in the Women's Heath Initiative using 92 ancestry informative markers. Analyses assessed the relationship between admixture and adiposity indices. Subjects 11712 AFA and 5088 HA self– identified post– menopausal women. Results There was a significant positive association between body mass index (BMI) and African admixture when BMI was considered as a continuous variable, and age, education, physical activity, parity, family income and smoking were included covariates (p < 10? 4). A dichotomous model (upper and lower BMI quartiles) showed that African admixture was associated with a high odds ratio [OR = 3.27 (for 100% admixture compared to 0% admixture), 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08 – 5.15]. For HA there was no association between BMI and admixture. In contrast, when waist to hip ratio (WHR) was used as a measure of adipose distribution, there was no significant association between WHR and admixture in AFA but there was a strong association in HA (p<10? 4; OR Amerindian admixture = 5.93, CI = 3.52 – 9.97). Conclusion These studies show that 1) African admixture is associated with BMI in AFA women; 2) Amerindian admixture is associated with WHR but not BMI in HA women; and 3) it may be important to consider different measurements of adiposity and adipose distribution in different ethnic population groups.
Nassir, Rami; Qi, Lihong; Kosoy, Roman; Garcia, Lorena; Allison, Matthew; Ochs- Balcom, Heather M.; Tylavsky, Fran; Manson, JoAnn E.; Shigeta, Russell; Robbins, John; Seldin, Michael F.
Imputation of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to a larger known reference panel of SNPs has become a standard and an essential part of genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about the behavior of imputation in AfricanAmericans with respect to the different imputation algorithms, the reference population(s) and the reference SNP panels used. Genome-wide SNP data (Affymetrix 6.0) from 3207 AfricanAmerican samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was used to systematically evaluate imputation quality and yield. Imputation was performed with the imputation algorithms MACH, IMPUTE and BEAGLE using several combinations of three reference panels of HapMap III (ASW, YRI and CEU) and 1000 Genomes Project (pilot 1 YRI June 2010 release, EUR and AFR August 2010 and June 2011 releases) panels with SNP data on chromosomes 18, 20 and 22. About 10% of the directly genotyped SNPs from each chromosome were masked, and SNPs common between the reference panels were used for evaluating the imputation quality using two statistical metrics—concordance accuracy and Cohen’s kappa (?) coefficient. The dependencies of these metrics on the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and specific genotype categories (minor allele homozygotes, heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes) were thoroughly investigated to determine the best panel and method for imputation in AfricanAmericans. In addition, the power to detect imputed SNPs associated with simulated phenotypes was studied using the mean genotype of each masked SNP in the imputed data. Our results indicate that the genotype concordances after stratification into each genotype category and Cohen’s ? coefficient are considerably better equipped to differentiate imputation performance compared with the traditionally used total concordance statistic, and both statistics improved with increasing MAF irrespective of the imputation method. We also find that both MACH and IMPUTE performed equally well and consistently better than BEAGLE irrespective of the reference panel used. Of the various combinations of reference panels, for both HapMap III and 1000 Genomes Project reference panels, the multi-ethnic panels had better imputation accuracy than those containing only single ethnic samples. The most recent 1000 Genomes Project release June 2011 had substantially higher number of imputed SNPs than HapMap III and performed as well or better than the best combined HapMap III reference panels and previous releases of the 1000 Genomes Project.
Chanda, Pritam; Yuhki, Naoya; Li, Man; Bader, Joel S; Hartz, Alex; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kao, WH Linda; Arking, Dan E
Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored AfricanAmerican women’s birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 AfricanAmerican maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant AfricanAmerican women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward AfricanAmericans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women’s mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for AfricanAmerican women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant AfricanAmerican women’s preparation for birthing.
Disparities in survival among people with AIDS continue in the treatment era, with a higher rate of death among AfricanAmericans than among Whites, Latinos, and Asians/Pacific Islanders (API). Few studies have been able to identify underlying reasons for this disparity. The authors' objectives were to determine the extent of disparities in AIDS-related death by race/ethnicity, and examine factors that may contribute to or explain these differences. Using San Francisco surveillance data, racial/ethnic differences in survival among residents diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2002 were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards regression techniques. The data confirm that a disparity in survival after AIDS persists between AfricanAmericans and Whites, Latinos, and APIs in San Francisco. Underlying causes of this disparity are multiple, but many of them are amenable to intervention and should be addressed. PMID:16960317
Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to AfricanAmericans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that AfricanAmericans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.
Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in AfricanAmericans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. AfricanAmerican women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male AfricanAmerican counterparts on biopsychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and AfricanAmerican men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW. PMID:20061090
Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M
|Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)|
Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)
Objectives. We sought to disentangle the relationships between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and unmet medical care needs. Methods. Data from the 2003–2004 Community Tracking Study Household Survey were used to examine associations between unmet medical needs and SES among AfricanAmerican and White women. Results. No significant racial/ethnic differences in unmet medical needs (24.8% of Whites, 25.9% of AfricanAmericans; P = .59) were detected in bivariate analyses. However, among women with 12 years of education or less, AfricanAmericans were less likely than were Whites to report unmet needs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.79). Relative to AfricanAmerican women with 12 years of education or less, the odds of unmet needs were 1.69 (95% CI = 1.24, 2.31) and 2.18 (95% CI = 1.25, 3.82) among AfricanAmerican women with 13 to 15 years of education and 16 years of education or more, respectively. In contrast, the relationship between educational level and unmet needs was nonsignificant among White women. Conclusions. Among AfricanAmerican women, the failure to recognize unmet medical needs is related to educational attainment and may be an important driver of health disparities, representing a fruitful area for future interventions.
Person, Sharina D.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Allison, Jeroan J.
Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural AfricanAmerican families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through
Velma McBride Murry; Cady Berkel; Gene H. Brody; Shannon J. Miller; Yi-fu Chen
The AfricanAmerican (AA) gene pool is primarily the result of gene flow between two biologically disparate groups: West Africans (WA) and Americans of western European descent (EA). This research utilizes characteristics of dental morphology to trace genetic relationships among WA, western Europeans (EU), AA, and European Americans. Dental morphological traits are useful for this purpose because they are heritable, do not remodel during life (although they can be lost to wear or pathology), and can be compared equally among samples from past and present populations. The results of this research provide new information about human microevolution through time and space in a biocultural setting. The mean measure of divergence is used to analyze dental morphological data from 1,265 individuals in 25 samples grouped by ancestry and time. Three hypotheses associated with admixture in AA are tested. When compared with known history, results from dental morphological data are equivocal in documenting admixture in AA. Dental morphological traits do appear to reflect admixture in AA. However, changes in trait frequencies do not closely correspond with important cultural events and trends such as the institutionalized racism of the Civil War and Jim Crow era. Results are mixed concerning whether AA with greater admixture were more likely to take part in the Great Migration to southern urban centers and to the North. PMID:17243125
AfricanAmerican women are more likely than any other racial or ethnic group to present with a later stage of breast cancer\\u000a at initial diagnosis. Delay in breast cancer detection is a critical factor in diagnosis at a later stage. Available data\\u000a indicate a delay of 3 months or more is a significant factor in breast cancer mortalty. Numerous factors
Mary Magee Gullatte; Otis Brawley; Anita Kinney; Barbara Powe; Kathi Mooney
A number of studies have assessed the association between race and ethnicity and psychological health status following exposure to a stressful event. However, some of these studies indicate racial and ethnic minorities have poorer mental health relative to Whites, while others show no differences or that minorities may actually have better psychological health. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we collected data on a random sample of city residents (N = 2368). The dependent variables were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), PTSD symptom severity, major depression, panic attack, and general physical and mental well–being. We categorized our respondents as Non–Hispanic White, Non–Hispanic AfricanAmerican, Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanics. Bivariate results indicated racial/ethnic differences for PTSD symptom severity, depression, general physical and mental health, and panic attack. Using logistic regression and controlling for possible confounding factors, most of these associations were rendered non–significant. That is, we found no post-disaster racial/ethnic differences for PTSD, PTSD symptom severity, or physical health. AfricanAmericans and Other Hispanics were less likely to meet criteria for major depression or to be classified as unhealthy on the self–report SF–12 mental health scale compared to Whites. Only for panic attack were AfricanAmericans and Puerto Ricans more likely to meet criteria for this outcome. Thus, our study found little support for the hypothesis that Latinos or AfricanAmericans consistently suffered from poorer psychological and physical well–being in the aftermath of traumatic events, relative to Whites.
African-Americans (AA) tend to have a lesser antihypertensive response than other ethnic groups to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Valsartan is a potent, highly selective angiotensin II receptor blocker. This study examines the antihypertensive efficacy of valsartan among AA and non-AA groups. An integrated analysis was performed using data from nine randomized placebo-controlled valsartan trials of similar design. 4067 patients with hypertension
Attribution theorists propose that negative actions of others perceived as intended elicit anger, and anger then functions as a motivator of hostile behavior. We examined the understanding of these attribution-affect-action linkages among young ethnic minority adolescents. Forty-four Latino and African-American middle-school children labeled as aggressive and a matched group of nonaggressives read causally ambiguous scenarios describing negative outcomes initiated by
Objective: Prior studies have reported ethnic differences in adiponectin and ghrelin, but few have assessed the role of body size in normoglycemic women. We compared fasting adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations in normoglycemic 40- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women.Methods: Participants included women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 143), the University of California-San Diego Filipino Women’s Health Study
Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor
This study examined alcohol use and correlates of alcohol use among AfricanAmerican and White siblings over a 4-year period. A multiple-group multilevel latent growth model of family alcohol use across the two ethnic groups was specified which explicitly modeled the within-level and between-level covariance matrices in sibling alcohol use over time. The White sample comprised 700 siblings (292 families),
Objective: To examine the role of parental diabetes mellitus (DM) in the development of type 2 DM among children and adolescents from high-risk ethnic groups. Study design: A population-based dataset of insulin-treated diabetes among AfricanAmerican and Latino children <18 years old yielded 243 cases who completed an interview. A subset with features of type 2 DM was identified (n
|This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using AfricanAmerican Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official Impact on Black Businesses"…
Breast cancer tumours among AfricanAmericans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities. PMID:21106486
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although AfricanAmericans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit AfricanAmerican adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 AfricanAmerican adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. AfricanAmericans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig’s List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting AfricanAmericans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations.
Williams, Monnica T.; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin
We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in AfricanAmerican women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, AfricanAmerican women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for AfricanAmerican women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for AfricanAmerican women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by AfricanAmerican women in behavioral lifestyle interventions. PMID:23691286
Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela
Many health communications target AfricanAmericans in an attempt to remediate race-based health disparities. Such materials often assume that AfricanAmericans are culturally homogeneous; however, research indicates that AfricanAmericans are heterogeneous in their attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. The Black Identity Classification Scale (BICS) was designed as a telephone-administered tool to segment AfricanAmerican audiences into 16 ethnic identity types. The BICS was pretested using focus groups, telephone pretests, and a pilot study (n=306). The final scale was then administered to 625 Black adults participating in a dietary intervention study, where it generally demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. The construct validity of the BICS was also explored by comparing participants’ responses to culturally associated survey items. The distribution of the 16 BICS identity types in the intervention study is presented, as well as select characteristics for participants with core identity components. Although additional research is warranted, these findings suggest that the BICS has good psychometric properties and may be an effective tool for identifying AfricanAmerican audience segments.
DAVIS, RACHEL E.; ALEXANDER, GWEN; CALVI, JOSEPHINE; WIESE, CHERYL; GREENE, SARAH; NOWAK, MIKE; CROSS, WILLIAM E.; RESNICOW, KEN
To determine the association between the -265 T to C substitution in the apolipoprotein A-II (APOA-II) gene and levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a group of premenopausal African-American and white women, we genotyped 237 women (115 African-American and 122 white) for this polymorphism. Body composition was assessed by DXA, and VAT was determined from a single computed tomography scan. In addition to VAT, we examined the association between the polymorphism and other phenotypes (total body fat, total abdominal adipose tissue, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). The mutant C allele in the APOA-II gene was less frequent in African-American compared with white women, 23% vs. 36%, respectively (p < 0.01). VAT was significantly higher in carriers of the C allele compared with noncarriers after adjustment for total body fat (p < 0.05). When separate analyses by ethnic group were conducted, the association between the polymorphism and VAT was observed in white (p < 0.05) but not African-American (p = 0.57) women. There was no association between the polymorphism and the other phenotypes. These results indicate a significant association between the T265C APOA-II polymorphism and levels of VAT in premenopausal women. This association is present in white but not African-American women. PMID:15833935
Lara-Castro, Cristina; Hunter, Gary R; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Gower, Barbara A; Fernández, José R
We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in AfricanAmerican women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, AfricanAmerican women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for AfricanAmerican women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for AfricanAmerican women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by AfricanAmerican women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela
Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase) required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate). Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.
Home- and community-based services (HCBS) are underused by minority seniors and their caregivers, despite greater rates of disability. We examined racial/ethnic variation among 1,749 Hispanics, AfricanAmericans, and Whites receiving Older Americans Act Title III caregiver services in 2009. In addition, we identified the volume of services used by caregivers, their unmet hours of respite care, and the relationship between service use and seniors' ability to live independently. Minority caregivers cared for seniors in urban areas who had higher rates of disability, poverty, and Medicaid coverage. Hispanics had the highest rate of unmet hours of care, while caregiver services were less likely to help AfricanAmericans remain at home. Minorities sought services through community agencies and were more educated than demographically similar national cohorts. Greater efforts to reach minority caregivers of less educated, disabled seniors in urban areas and through community agencies may reduce unmet needs and support independent living. PMID:23438508
Introduction Younger breast cancer survivors often lead extremely busy lives with multiple demands and responsibilities, making them difficult to recruit into clinical trials. AfricanAmerican women are even more difficult to recruit because of additional historical and cultural barriers. In a randomized clinical trial of an intervention, we successfully used culturally informed, population-specific recruitment and retention strategies to engage younger African-American breast cancer survivors. Methods Caucasian and AfricanAmerican breast cancer survivors were recruited from multiple communities and sites. A variety of planned recruitment and retention strategies addressed cultural and population-specific barriers and were guided by three key principals: increasing familiarity with the study in the communities of interest; increasing the availability and accessibility of study information and study participation; and using cultural brokers. Results Accrual of younger African-American breast cancer survivors increased by 373% in 11 months. The steepest rise in the numbers of African-American women recruited came when all strategies were in place and operating simultaneously. Retention rates were 87% for both Caucasian and AfricanAmerican women. Discusssion/Conclusions To successfully recruit busy, younger AfricanAmerican cancer survivors, it is important to use a multifaceted approach, addressing cultural and racial/ethnic barriers to research participation; bridging gaps across cultures and communities; including the role of faith and beliefs in considering research participation; recognizing the demands of different life stages and economic situations and the place of research in the larger picture of peoples’ lives. Designs for recruitment and retention need to be broadly conceptualized and specifically applied. Implications for Cancer Survivors For busy cancer survivors, willingness to participate in and complete research participation is enhanced by strategies that address barriers but also acknowledge the many demands on their time by making research familiar, available, accessible and credible.
Mishel, Merle H.; Alexander, G. Rumay; Jenerette, Coretta; Blyler, Diane; Baker, Carol; Vines, Anissa I.; Green, Melissa; Long, Debra G.
On the basis of in-depth interviews with 30 low-income AfricanAmerican mothers who told their children Brer Rabbit stories, this article discusses the moral values the women conveyed. During sto rytelling, the women distanced themselves from Christian views of the absolute evil of tricks to interpret Brer Rabbit's tricks as clever and protective of the small and defenseless. Intervention strategies
|Lists a sample of materials on African-American women available at the Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection of Temple University (Pennsylvania). Focuses on sources of biographical data and various types of anthologies. (MMU)|
This monograph will argue that Black Americans, who have historically enlisted in the Army in overwhelming proportions with respect to national populations, are now pursuing other opportunities outside of the Army. The U.S. Army and AfricanAmericans have...
Objective To test psychosocial mediators of the effects of an intervention in reducing the rate of growth of violence among adolescents. Method Five hundred and seventy-one AfricanAmerican adolescent males participated in this randomized trial. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to ascertain both intervention and mediated effects. Results Intervention significantly reduced rate of growth of violence and 5 social and psychological factors in the treatment group relative to the control group. Four of these social and psychological factors were found to be complete mediators between the intervention and its preventive effects. Conclusion Changing psychological mediating variables is central to reducing youth violence.
Ngwe, Job E.; Liu, Li C.; Flay, Brian R.; Segawa, Eisuke
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by AfricanAmerican males can support the academic development of AfricanAmerican male students. Since AfricanAmerican male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for AfricanAmerican male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 AfricanAmerican males who had mentored or were currently mentoring AfricanAmerican male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring AfricanAmerican males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful AfricanAmerican males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as AfricanAmerican male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of AfricanAmerican male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.
Underrepresentation of HIV-infected Hispanics and AfricanAmericans in clinical trials seriously limits our understanding of the benefits and risks of treatment in these populations. This qualitative study examined factors that racial/ethnic minority patients consider when making decisions regarding research participation. Thirty-five HIV-infected Hispanic and AfricanAmerican patients enrolled in clinical research protocols at the National Institutes of Health were recruited to participate in focus groups and in-depth interviews. The sample of mostly men (n = 22), had a mean age of 45, nearly equal representation of race/ethnicity, and diagnosed 2 to 22 years ago. Baseline questionnaires included demographics and measures of social support and acculturation. Interviewers had similar racial/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds as the participants. Four major themes around participants’ decisions to enroll in clinical trials emerged: Enhancers, Barriers, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Context. Results may help researchers develop strategies to facilitate inclusion of HIV-infected Hispanics and AfricanAmericans into clinical trials.
Objective To determine whether lower childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with fewer psychosocial resources independent of adult SES, and whether these associations differed by race/ethnicity. Design Cross-sectional study of 342 middle-aged (mean = 60.5 + 4.7) AfricanAmerican (n = 49) and Caucasian (n = 293) adults. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed: (a) 6 days of ecological momentary assessment via electronic diaries to assess social support and the number of social interactions, (b) self-report measures of social support, social network diversity, and coping – specifically, active, planning, and emotion focused coping. Results The interaction term for childhood SES and race/ethnicity significantly predict several psychosocial resources. Lower childhood SES was associated with less perceived social support in daily life, a less diverse social network, and more limited use of proactive coping strategies in adulthood among AfricanAmericans, regardless of adult SES. Comparable associations were not observed among Caucasians. Conclusions Childhood SES is associated with psychosocial resources in adulthood among AfricanAmericans, independent of SES in adulthood. Given emerging associations between childhood SES and health in adulthood, future studies to disentangle the role of psychosocial resources as a mediating pathway and to further examine racial/ethnic variations across these associations is warranted.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the African-American nursing student's perception of an ideal mentor to facilitate a study centered mentoring program. A secondary purpose was to determine the necessity of cultural inclusiveness in such a program. The percentage of ethnic minorities graduating from baccalaureate nursing programs has continued to decline since 1990 (National League of Nursing, 1995).
|Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for AfricanAmerican students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…
|Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 AfricanAmerican and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…
Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank
This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for AfricanAmerican women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church participating in the intervention. One focus group was
Alicia K. Matthews; Nerida Berrios; Julie S. Darnell; Elizabeth Calhoun
This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for AfricanAmerican women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…
Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth
Previous clinical trials have demonstrated the important influence of ethnicity and dietary salt on the antihypertensive efficacy of drugs that block the renin angiotensin system. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are a new therapeutic entity that have not been widely studied in AfricanAmerican hypertensives, either alone, or in combination with other therapies such as diuretics or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
Matthew R. Weir; David H. G. Smith; Joel M. Neutel; Martin P. Bedigian
This dissertation developed from an awareness of the continuing census gap in the award of doctorates between African-Americans and Caucasians. In a 2006 summary report of doctorate recipients from United States universities by race and ethnicity over the years 1986, 1996, and 2006, there was a decline in the number of doctorates awarded whites from 91% in 1986 to 80%
|Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among AfricanAmerican early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…
Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas
|This exploratory study examined the relationships between Africentric values, racial/ethnic identity, neighborhood satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy beliefs among 88 AfricanAmerican elementary school children. Results indicated that Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction were both predictive of academic self-efficacy beliefs.…
Critics contend college graduates are not prepared to work in a global society. In response, higher education leaders identify the need to transform curriculum and teaching techniques (Bikson & Law, 1994). AfricanAmerican faculty are more likely than their White colleagues to employ teaching strategies that introduce students to diversity coursework and expose them to knowledge about race and ethnicity
Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 AfricanAmerican and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking assessment 1 week later. After removing 35 students who reported smoking at
Eric J. Nehl; Chris M. Blanchard; Chao-Ying J. Peng; Ryan E. Rhodes; Janet Kupperman; Phillip B. Sparling; Kerry Courneya; Frank Baker
This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…
Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.
This study examined the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for community college students from various racial\\/ethnic groups (n = 3,143). Results suggest an Effortâ€“Outcome Gap may exist for AfricanAmerican studentsâ€”the result of having to expend more effort in attempting to overcome myriad barriers to academic success.
Background\\/Aims: The Tobago Afro-Caribbean population is a valuable resource for studying the genetics of diseases that show significant differences in prevalence between populations of African descent and populations of other ancestries. Empirical confirmation of low European and Native American admixture may help in clarifying the ethnic variation in risk for such diseases. We hypothesize that the degree of European and
Iva Miljkovic-Gacic; Robert E. Ferrell; Alan L. Patrick; Candace M. Kammerer; Clareann H. Bunker
Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in AfricanAmerican populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger AfricanAmerican mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to AfricanAmerican mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen AfricanAmerican mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence. PMID:20824319
|This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for AfricanAmerican women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…
Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth
Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among AfricanAmerican early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…
Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas
|This qualitative study examines 26 White middle school teachers' perceptions of their experiences in a predominantly White middle school with a growing AfricanAmerican student population. Utilizing in-depth focus group interviews, teachers elaborated on their experiences with navigating racial, ethnic and cultural boundaries as they attempted to…
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescent adjustment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23231687
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C
This article summarizes the experiences of 76 Euro-Americans and 24 AfricanAmericans who have multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic neurological disease which affects 250,000–350,000 Americans. Although the majority of people with MS are young to middle-aged women of Northern European origin, AfricanAmericans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans also have MS. This qualitative study explores the impact of race
Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and AfricanAmericans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from AfricanAmericans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among AfricanAmericans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th–75th percentiles: 11.6–27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual AfricanAmericans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.
This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect AfricanAmerican parentsâ€™ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty AfricanAmerican parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson; Lauren D. Arnold; Sheri R. Notaro
|The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence AfricanAmerican parents' involvement in their children's middle school experiences. Two focus group interviews were conducted with AfricanAmerican parents. While the participants viewed parent involvement as important, they reported that family structure and socioeconomic…
Archer-Banks, Diane A. M.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.
This article discusses Brother to Brother, a program designed to help African-American men stay in college and graduate. St. Petersburg College formed this program seven years ago as a means not only of recruiting male African-American students, but also to identify issues that cause them to be at risk for dropping out and to use retention…
The scholarship on historical and contemporary African-American teachers highlights the emphasis on community connections in their work. As such, the scholarship portrays African-American teachers almost exclusively as "givers" without fully considering what teachers derive from community connections. This paper describes a qualitative study in…
|This collection brings together articles by AfricanAmerican authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting AfricanAmerican children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…
The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of AfricanAmerican preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 AfricanAmerican children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in
Dorian E. Traube; Kelly Taber Chasse; Mary M. McKay; Anjali M. Bhorade; Roberta Paikoff; Stacie D. Young
|AfricanAmericans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some AfricanAmericans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…
|Examined whether AfricanAmericans accurately estimated levels of thinness preferred by the opposite gender. College students rated pictures of figures approximating their current figure, their ideal figure, the figure most likely to attract the opposite gender, and the opposite gender figure they found most attractive. AfricanAmerican women…
|Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among AfricanAmerican youth. Ninth-grade AfricanAmerican adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…
Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The education of AfricanAmerican ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles AfricanAmericans faced were primarily in the South and were incurred by
It is perplexing why natural disasters, as important life-altering events, are seldom viewed as a catalyst for social change in the United States in general but particularly for AfricanAmericans. This article addresses a gap in literature by proposing natural disasters as a variable to help understand the AfricanAmerican experience. The authors argue that the first post-Civil War migration
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population of the United States. Recent findings indicate that the prevalence of certain anxiety disorders may be higher in AfricanAmericans. In addition, anxiety disorders in AfricanAmericans may be manifested differently. Despite the high prevalence and the suggestion of different patterns of manifestation, a paucity of research exists
The current study assessed the moral orientation of AfricanAmerican college students. In addition, we examined whether or not they exhibit the gender difference in moral orientation hypothesized by Gilligan. One hundred sixty-six AfricanAmerican undergraduates at an historically Black university completed the Moral Orientation Scale, which measures care versus justice moral orientation. The students selected an average of 4.39
|This collection of essays represents new scholarship in AfricanAmerican studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and AfricanAmerican cultural studies are addressed.…
Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.
The aim of this study was to establish cephalometric norms for African-American males and females, to compare these measurements with the findings of Alexander's ?Alabama analysis,” and to construct mesh templates for various age groups. The sample we evaluated included 71 African-Americans, divided into four groups: girls (8 to 12 years), boys (8 to 12 years), adolescent females (13 to
Summary form only given. The goal of this panel session is to share the firsthand experiences of AfricanAmerican women faculty in engineering. It will facilitate a dialogue between AfricanAmerican women faculty and other faculty and administrators on the challenges they face as members of the academy. The dialogue will also discuss how these challenges might be addressed as
S. Adams; C. Berry; C. Brown; C. Grant; P. Mead; S. Smith; I. S. Omer
|Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income AfricanAmerican women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of AfricanAmerican mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
|Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among AfricanAmericans. Data from AfricanAmericans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…
The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the AfricanAmerican population. Research related to health disparities experienced by AfricanAmericans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional
|Discusses the development of infant and toddler board books (books printed on heavy cardboard and laminated for durability) featuring AfricanAmericans and published from 1990 to 2002. Provides a brief overview of the development of board books in general, and suggests criteria for evaluating board books that feature AfricanAmericans in…
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional AfricanAmerican culture. Data suggest that AfricanAmerican adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
Describes the use of negation in three corpora representative of early to mid-19th-century AfricanAmerican English. The study examines the negative form "ain't," negative concord to indefinites and verbs, negative inversion and negative postposing. Findings reveal that the negation system of early AfricanAmerican English derived directly from…