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1

Research and Intervention Issues in the Examination of Ethnic Identity in African-American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years researchers have developed strategies to understand or promote ethnic identity in African-American youth. This paper discusses six studies or interventions which explored ethnic identity among African-American youth. These interventions were designed to produce positive changes in areas such as ethnic identity, academic…

Brookins, Craig C.

2

African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from West or West Central Africa than those found in eastern or southern Africa. Fewer than 14% of the African-American mtDNA sequences matched sequences from only West Africa or only West Central Africa. Conclusion Our database of sub-Saharan mtDNA sequences includes the most common haplotypes that are shared among ethnic groups from multiple regions of Africa. These common haplotypes have been found in half of all sub-Saharan Africans. More than 60% of the remaining haplotypes differ from the common haplotypes at a single nucleotide position in the HVS-I region, and they are likely to occur at varying frequencies within sub-Saharan Africa. However, the finding that 40% of the African-American mtDNAs analyzed had no match in the database indicates that only a small fraction of the total number of African haplotypes has been identified. In addition, the finding that fewer than 10% of African-American mtDNAs matched mtDNA sequences from a single African region suggests that few African Americans might be able to trace their mtDNA lineages to a particular region of Africa, and even fewer will be able to trace their mtDNA to a single ethnic group. However, no firm conclusions should be made until a much larger database is available. It is clear, however, that when identical mtDNA haplotypes are shared among many ethnic groups from different parts of Africa, it is impossible to determine which single ethnic group was the source of a particular maternal ancestor based on the mtDNA sequence. PMID:17038170

Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A

2006-01-01

3

Ethnic and American Identity as Predictors of Self-Esteem Among African American, Latino, and White Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among adolescents, we surveyed 669 American-born high school students (372 Latinos, 232 African Americans, and 65 Whites). Participants completed measures of self-esteem, ethnic identity, American identity, attitudes toward other groups, and demographic variables. Multiple regression analyses of self-esteem were carried out separately for each ethnic group, using ethnic

Jean S. Phinney; Cindy Lou Cantu; Dawn A. Kurtz

1997-01-01

4

Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

2013-01-01

5

Effects of Counseling and Ethnic Identity on Perceived Risk and Cancer Worry in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving breast screening behaviors in African American women is an important public health goal. To increase participation in screening, it is necessary to identify factors that contribute to reduced screening, including perceived risk and cancer worry. This paper presents predictors of changes perceived in risk and worry among African American women of differing ethnic identities as they undergo breast cancer

Deborah J. Bowen; Catherine L. Christensen; Diane Powers; Diane R. Graves; Cheryl A. M. Anderson

1998-01-01

6

Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented. PMID:24324283

Joyce, Jeneka A.; O’Neil, Maya E.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; McWhirter, Ellen H.; Dishion, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

7

Ethnicity, Cognitive Styles, and Math Achievement: Variability within African-American Post-Secondary Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive styles was examined. Past literature (Witkin, 1978) suggested that African Americans and other ethnic groups were field-dependent learners. However, more recent studies (Dunn & Dunn, 1991; Saracho, 1999) have given mixed results regarding processing. This study included a sample of 159 prerequisite math students at a large southeastern university. The sample

Yuma I. Tomes

2008-01-01

8

Emotion Socialization and Ethnicity: An Examination of Practices and Outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American Families  

PubMed Central

The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of “adaptive” and “maladaptive” emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed. PMID:23766738

Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2013-01-01

9

Applying Ethnic Equivalence and Cultural Values Models to African-American Teens' Perceptions of Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from African American adolescents. Analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self esteem, self reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models…

Lamborn, Susie D.; Felbab, Amanda J.

2003-01-01

10

Racism-Related Stress and Ethnic Identity as Determinants of African American College Students' Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…

Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia

2012-01-01

11

African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

2014-01-01

12

The Influence of College Choice on the Success, Ethnic Identity, and Professional Sense of Belonging of African American Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and…

DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

2012-01-01

13

The roles of ethnic identity, anti-white attitudes, and academic self-concept in African American student achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom in much of the educational and psychological literatures states that the ethnic and racial identity of\\u000a African American students is related to their academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ethnic\\u000a identity and anti-white attitudes predicted the academic achievement of African American students at a historically Black\\u000a university. A hypothesized path model was proposed

Kevin O. Cokley; Collette Chapman

2008-01-01

14

The Relation of Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Race-Related Stress among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among African American college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…

Johnson, Samon C.; Arbona, Consuelo

2006-01-01

15

Facial Expression Recognition and Social Competence among African American Elementary School Children: An Examination of Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the potential for cross-ethnic miscommunication of facial expressions, examining elementary students' ability to identify emotion in African American and white facial expressions and noting the relationship to social competence. Student data indicated that ability to read faces differing in ethnicity did not differ by children's…

Glanville, Denise N.; Nowicki, Steve

2002-01-01

16

African American women's safer sexual practices: the influence of ethnic-racial socialisation and body esteem.  

PubMed

African American women are disproportionately at risk for sexually transmitted infections (e.g., HIV and gonorrhoea). It is important therefore to explore cultural factors that may influence their sexual practices. The present study examined the relationship between safer sexual practices (i.e., using condoms and inquiring about partner sexual history), participants' ethnic-racial socialisation experiences with maternal and paternal caregivers, and body esteem. Participants were 262, largely middle-class, African American women (ages 18 to 78) from a Midwestern US city who completed an online questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences on measures of safer sexual practice based on relationship status. Regression results suggested that certain paternal cultural practices were negatively related to inquiring about a partner's sexual history. However, body esteem was positively associated with inquiry regarding partner's previous sexual history. Implications for intervention efforts and research are discussed. PMID:24654840

Brown, Danice L; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Cobb, Pamela Denise; Spaw, Devon; Aldridge, Kacee N

2014-01-01

17

Hepatitis and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... but remains an area of concern for the African American population. In 2010, non-Hispanic Blacks were 1.5 times as likely to die ... Hispanic Whites. Among all ethnic groups in 2011, African Americans had the highest rate of Hepatitis B. African ...

18

Breaking the chains: examining the endorsement of modern Jezebel images and racial-ethnic esteem among African American women.  

PubMed

The historical image of the Black Jezebel - a hypersexual, seductive and manipulative slave woman - has been one of the most pervasive and evolving images influencing the sexual socialization and perceptions of African American women today. This preliminary study examined generational differences in the endorsement of modern depictions of the Jezebel, as well as the relationship between racial-ethnic esteem and endorsement of this sexualised image. A total of 249 African American women completed an online, self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Results suggested that younger women (aged 18-34) may exhibit higher endorsement of the modern Jezebel depictions. Additionally, aspects of racial-ethnic esteem may be linked to lower endorsement of modern Jezebel depictions among younger and older (55 years and older) African American women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:23484482

Brown, Danice L; White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Griffin-Fennell, Felicia D

2013-01-01

19

Correlates of African American and Latino parents' messages to children about ethnicity and race: a comparative study of racial socialization.  

PubMed

Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old. PMID:12741687

Hughes, Diane

2003-03-01

20

African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing…

Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

2008-01-01

21

Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

2009-01-01

22

Linking Contextual Affordances: Examining Racial-Ethnic Socialization and Parental Career Support among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory investigation examined the link between self-reported racial-ethnic socialization experiences and perceived parental career support among African American undergraduate and graduate students. The results of two separate multivariate multiple regression analyses found that messages about coping with racism positively predicted…

Blackmon, Sha'Kema M.; Thomas, Anita Jones

2014-01-01

23

Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism. PMID:24482547

Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L.; Oser, Carrie B.

2012-01-01

24

Perceived familial socialization and ethnic identity: factors associated with physical activity, eating behavior patterns, and social physique anxiety in african american middle adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity related diseases than Caucasian American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions claim to be culturally sensitive, but do not address how ethnic identity and parental influences on body image and

Nutrena H. Tate

2011-01-01

25

Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skala K, Chuang RJ, Evans A, Hedberg AM, Dave J, Sharma S. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.

26

Ethnic Differences in Visceral Adipose Tissue and Type 2 Diabetes: Filipino, African-American, and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by computed tomography, and type 2 diabetes risk among 55- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women without known cardiovascular disease.Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were participants in the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 196), the Filipino Women’s Health Study (n = 181), and the Health Assessment Study of

Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

2005-01-01

27

Gene-Based Sequencing Identifies Lipid-Influencing Variants with Ethnicity-Specific Effects in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Although a considerable proportion of serum lipids loci identified in European ancestry individuals (EA) replicate in African Americans (AA), interethnic differences in the distribution of serum lipids suggest that some genetic determinants differ by ethnicity. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of five lipid candidate genes to identify variants with ethnicity-specific effects. We sequenced ABCA1, LCAT, LPL, PON1, and SERPINE1 in 48 AA individuals with extreme serum lipid concentrations (high HDLC/low TG or low HDLC/high TG). Identified variants were genotyped in the full population-based sample of AA (n?=?1694) and tested for an association with serum lipids. rs328 (LPL) and correlated variants were associated with higher HDLC and lower TG. Interestingly, a stronger effect was observed on a “European” vs. “African” genetic background at this locus. To investigate this effect, we evaluated the region among West Africans (WA). For TG, the effect size among WA was the same in AA with only African local ancestry (2–3% lower TG), while the larger association among AA with local European ancestry matched previous reports in EA (10%). For HDLC, there was no association with rs328 in AA with only African local ancestry or in WA, while the association among AA with European local ancestry was much greater than what has been observed for EA (15 vs. ?5 mg/dl), suggesting an interaction with an environmental or genetic factor that differs by ethnicity. Beyond this ancestry effect, the importance of African ancestry-focused, sequence-based work was also highlighted by serum lipid associations of variants that were in higher frequency (or present only) among those of African ancestry. By beginning our study with the sequence variation present in AA individuals, investigating local ancestry effects, and seeking replication in WA, we were able to comprehensively evaluate the role of a set of candidate genes in serum lipids in AA. PMID:24603370

Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Shriner, Daniel; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Mullikin, James C.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Hansen, Nancy F.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Maskeri, Baishali; Young, Alice C.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

2014-01-01

28

Gene-based sequencing identifies lipid-influencing variants with ethnicity-specific effects in African Americans.  

PubMed

Although a considerable proportion of serum lipids loci identified in European ancestry individuals (EA) replicate in African Americans (AA), interethnic differences in the distribution of serum lipids suggest that some genetic determinants differ by ethnicity. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of five lipid candidate genes to identify variants with ethnicity-specific effects. We sequenced ABCA1, LCAT, LPL, PON1, and SERPINE1 in 48 AA individuals with extreme serum lipid concentrations (high HDLC/low TG or low HDLC/high TG). Identified variants were genotyped in the full population-based sample of AA (n = 1694) and tested for an association with serum lipids. rs328 (LPL) and correlated variants were associated with higher HDLC and lower TG. Interestingly, a stronger effect was observed on a "European" vs. "African" genetic background at this locus. To investigate this effect, we evaluated the region among West Africans (WA). For TG, the effect size among WA was the same in AA with only African local ancestry (2-3% lower TG), while the larger association among AA with local European ancestry matched previous reports in EA (10%). For HDLC, there was no association with rs328 in AA with only African local ancestry or in WA, while the association among AA with European local ancestry was much greater than what has been observed for EA (15 vs. ? 5 mg/dl), suggesting an interaction with an environmental or genetic factor that differs by ethnicity. Beyond this ancestry effect, the importance of African ancestry-focused, sequence-based work was also highlighted by serum lipid associations of variants that were in higher frequency (or present only) among those of African ancestry. By beginning our study with the sequence variation present in AA individuals, investigating local ancestry effects, and seeking replication in WA, we were able to comprehensively evaluate the role of a set of candidate genes in serum lipids in AA. PMID:24603370

Bentley, Amy R; Chen, Guanjie; Shriner, Daniel; Doumatey, Ayo P; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Mullikin, James C; Blakesley, Robert W; Hansen, Nancy F; Bouffard, Gerard G; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Maskeri, Baishali; Young, Alice C; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N

2014-03-01

29

Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

2010-01-01

30

Stroke and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Stroke Stroke and African Americans African American adults are twice as likely to have a ... persons 18 years of age and over, 2011 African American White African American/ White Ratio Men and Women ...

31

The influence of college choice on the success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging of African American engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The research question was best answered through a qualitative, phenomenological study that depicted the lived experiences of individuals in their own voice. The governing interest was in discovering whether aspiring African American engineers, at this stage in their professional experience, favorably viewed their choice of HBCUs versus PWIs. Participants relayed how having a sense of belonging to their institution and having a supportive network of peers and faculty influenced and shaped their outlook on life. Several of the participants spoke of being resolute in achieving their goal to become an engineer despite the challenges faced in college and in the workforce. Whether participants attended an HBCU or PWI, they felt a sense of achievement and a competence to walk into any situation and succeed. Overwhelmingly, most participants expressed they would choose their undergraduate institution again if given the opportunity. African American engineers favorably viewed their undergraduate college choice as having given them an opportunity to achieve their professional aspirations.

DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

32

Skin color shades in advertising to ethnic audiences: The case of African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experimental studies were conducted to examine African Americans' (AA) perceptions and attitudes toward light-skinned and dark-skinned AA female models in print advertisements. Using convenience student samples from three universities in the southeastern USA, the first study examined the perceptions and attitudes of 299 AA males toward the advertising stimuli, while the second study explored the perceptions and attitudes of

Stevie Watson; Corliss G. Thornton; Brian T. Engelland

2010-01-01

33

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. Methods and Findings We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1) drug consumption; (2) income generation; (3) social and institutional relationships; and (4) personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s) when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its “War on Drugs.” African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled from their families when they began engaging in drug-related crime. These historical-structural conditions generated distinct presentations of self. Whites styled themselves as outcasts, defeated by addiction. They professed to be injecting heroin to stave off “dopesickness” rather than to seek pleasure. African Americans, in contrast, cast their physical addiction as an oppositional pursuit of autonomy and pleasure. They considered themselves to be professional outlaws and rejected any appearance of abjection. Many, but not all, of these ethnographic findings were corroborated by our epidemiological data, highlighting the variability of behaviors within ethnic categories. Conclusions Bringing quantitative and qualitative methodologies and perspectives into a collaborative dialog among cross-disciplinary researchers highlights the fact that clinical practice must go beyond simple racial or cultural categories. A clinical social science approach provides insights into how sociocultural processes are mediated by historically rooted and institutionally enforced power relations. Recognizing the logical underpinnings of ethnically specific behavioral patterns of street-based injectors is the foundation for cultural competence and for successful clinical relationships. It reduces the risk of suboptimal medical care for an exceptionally vulnerable and challenging patient population. Social science approaches can also help explain larger-scale patterns of health disparities; inform new approaches to structural and institutional-level public health initiatives; and enable clinicians to take more leadership in changing public policies that have negative health consequences. PMID:17076569

Bourgois, Philippe; Martinez, Alexis; Kral, Alex; Edlin, Brian R; Schonberg, Jeff; Ciccarone, Dan

2006-01-01

34

Cancer and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate of ... 8MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2006-2010) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

35

An Analysis of Stereotype Threat in African American Engineering Students at Predominantly White, Ethnically Diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…

Sparks, David M.

2013-01-01

36

The Relationship among Support, Ethnic Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations in African American High School Students: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…

Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

2006-01-01

37

HIV/AIDS among African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV A-Z Topics Share Compartir HIV Among African Americans Fast Facts African Americans are the racial/ethnic group most affected by HIV. The rate of new HIV infection in African Americans is 8 times that of whites based on ...

38

An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments that delineate race and gender stereotype threat as perceived by African American female STEM students.

Sparks, David M.

39

Ethnicity in American Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is comprised of three articles. (1) Ethnicity in American Life: The Historical Perspective, by John Hope Franklin, recounts the trends in the last three centuries. It is contended that ethnicity has extended and continues to extend beyond race; that at times it meant language, customs, religion, and national origin, but that it has…

Franklin, John Hope; And Others

40

African Americans and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... ENews Home > Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures African Americans Smoking among African Americans is a serious problem ... about the same amount. 2 Smoking Rates Among African Americans In 2008, about 5.6 million, or 21. ...

41

Diabetes in African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... and Titles : Diabetes in African Americans Diabetes in African Americans 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life ... to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Tips to help African Americans at risk for type 2 diabetes move more ...

42

Obesity and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the highest rates of being overweight ... in the U.S. About four out of five African American women are overweight or obese. In 2011, African ...

43

Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-ncome Hispanic and African American preschoolers  

PubMed Central

The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used to assess ethnic differences. Unhealthy foods were available for both groups. Hispanic families were more likely to have fresh vegetables (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.001), fruit (AOR = 2.0, P = 0.004), and soda available (AOR = 1.40, P = 0.001) compared to African-Americans. African-Americans families were more likely to restrict (AOR = 0.63, P = 0.001) and reward with dessert (AOR = 0.69, P = 0.001). Hispanic families consumed more family meals together (P = 0.003) and less meals in front of the television (P = 0.006). Health promotion interventions should consider the behavioral differences between ethnicities. PMID:22262411

Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-Marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

2012-01-01

44

Use of Hydralazine?Isosorbide Dinitrate Combination in African American and Other Race/Ethnic Group Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction  

PubMed Central

Background Hydralazine?isosorbide dinitrate (H?ISDN) therapy is recommended for African American patients with moderate to severe heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (<40%) (HFrEF), but use, temporal trends, and clinical characteristics associated with H?ISDN therapy in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results An observational analysis of 54 622 patients admitted with HFrEF and discharged home from 207 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure registry from April 2008 to March 2012 was conducted to assess prescription, trends, and predictors of use of H?ISDN among eligible patients. Among 11 185 African American patients eligible for H?ISDN therapy, only 2500 (22.4%) received H?ISDN therapy at discharge. In the overall eligible population, 5115 of 43 498 (12.6%) received H?ISDN at discharge. Treatment rates increased over the study period from 16% to 24% among African Americans and from 10% to 13% among the entire HFrEF population. In a multivariable model, factors associated with H?ISDN use among the entire cohort included younger age; male sex; African American/Hispanic ethnicity; and history of diabetes, hypertension, anemia, renal insufficiency, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower heart rate. In African American patients, these factors were similar; in addition, being uninsured was associated with lower use. Conclusions Overall, few potentially eligible patients with HFrEF are treated with H?ISDN, and among African?Americans fewer than one?fourth of eligible patients received guideline?recommended H?ISDN therapy. Improved ways to facilitate use of H?ISDN therapy in African American patients with HFrEF are needed. PMID:23966379

Golwala, Harsh B.; Thadani, Udho; Liang, Li; Stavrakis, Stavros; Butler, Javed; Yancy, Clyde W.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

2013-01-01

45

Our class will focus on Ethnic representations such as African American,  

E-print Network

.S. Our readings and films will examine and complicate the ways that we think about Ethnic experiences to increased border violence, this 2,000 mile wide region is not defined only by blood but by the unique bi, literature, and film, Mexico remains this country's most important trading partner and political ally

46

Depression and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... depressive illness. According to a Surgeon General report, African Americans are over-represented in populations that are particularly ... not a normal part of life for any African American, regardless of age or life situation. Unfortunately, depression ...

47

Mental Health: African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

African American communities across the United States are more culturally diverse now that any other time in history ... Caribbean, Central America and other countries. To ensure African American communities have access to adequate and affordable care, ...

48

Organ Donation and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... American > Organ and Tissue Donation Organ Donation and African Americans African Americans make up the largest group of minorities in need of an organ transplant. In 2011, African Americans made up 14 percent of the national population. ...

49

Oppression through the Eyes of a Haitian Americans and African American Male Students Oppression is an issue still facing ethnic minority groups in the United States (Watts, 2002). The present  

E-print Network

Oppression through the Eyes of a Haitian Americans and African American Male Students Oppression the meaning of oppression in Miami as seen by Haitian American and African American male college students (n

Boone, Randall B.

50

Facts about Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans over the age ... stroke. P.A.D. is more common in African Americans than any other racial or ethnic group. This ...

51

Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

2014-01-01

52

Osteoporosis and African American Women  

MedlinePLUS

... your browser. Home Osteoporosis Multicultural Communities Osteoporosis and African American Women Publication available in: PDF (154 KB) Related ... for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa African Americans Healthy Bones for African Americans Partner Resources Screening ...

53

African Americans and Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Kidney Quiz Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » African Americans and Kidney Disease Due to high rates of ...

54

Heart Disease and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are 40 percent more likely to have high blood ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease, as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. African American ...

55

Race, Gender and Class: Lyrics of American Ethnic Literature and Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines topical issues in the study of African American, Asian American, Native American, and Hispanic American cultures. Horizontally, the article discusses inter- and intra-cultural conflicts, use of two-toned language, and the fight for social justification as portrayed in American ethnic literatures. Vertically, the connection of these ethnic

Wang, Qun

2000-01-01

56

Results of the Heart Healthy and Ethnically Relevant Lifestyle Trial: A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Intervention for African American Women Attending Community Health Centers  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated a theory-based lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity and dietary fat intake among African American women at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods. The Heart Healthy and Ethnically Relevant Lifestyle trial (2005–2008) randomly assigned 266 low-income African American women aged 35 years and older who were patients of South Carolina community health care centers into comprehensive or standard care interventions. Comprehensive participants received standard care (stage-matched provider counseling and assisted goal setting) plus 12 months of telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Primary outcomes were 6- and 12-month self-reported physical activity and dietary fat intake. Results. Comprehensive participants were more likely than were standard care participants to decrease total physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 8.25) and increase leisure-time physical activity (OR = 3.82; 95% CI = 1.41, 10.3) at 6 months (no 12-month differences). Mean reductions in Dietary Risk Assessment score occurred in both groups but were greater among comprehensive participants than among standard care participants (6 months, ?8.50 vs ?5.34; 12 months, ?7.16 vs ?3.37; P < .001). Conclusions. The comprehensive intervention improved women's leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat intake, highlighting a replicable model to help primary care providers implement lifestyle counseling. PMID:21852629

Wilcox, Sara; Salinas, Jennifer; Addy, Cheryl; Fore, Elizabeth; Poston, Marybeth; Wilson, Dawn K.

2011-01-01

57

Educating African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American

Bell, Edward E.

2010-01-01

58

Asthma and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

In 2012, almost 2.8 million non-Hispanic Blacks reported that they currently have asthma. African Americans were 20 percent more likely to have asthma than non-Hispanic whites, in 2012. In 2013, African Americans were three times more likely to die from ...

59

16 Extraordinary African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

Lobb, Nancy

60

African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

61

Genome-Wide Association Study of African and European Americans Implicates Multiple Shared and Ethnic Specific Loci in Sarcoidosis Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of granulomas in affected organs. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of this disease have been conducted only in European population. We present the first sarcoidosis GWAS in African Americans (AAs, 818 cases and 1,088 related controls) followed by replication in independent sets of AAs (455 cases and 557 controls) and European Americans (EAs, 442 cases and 2,284 controls). We evaluated >6 million SNPs either genotyped using the Illumina Omni1-Quad array or imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project data. We identified a novel sarcoidosis-associated locus, NOTCH4, that reached genome-wide significance in the combined AA samples (rs715299, PAA-meta?=?6.51×10?10) and demonstrated the independence of this locus from others in the MHC region in the same sample. We replicated previous European GWAS associations within HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DRB1, BTNL2, and ANXA11 in both our AA and EA datasets. We also confirmed significant associations to the previously reported HLA-C and HLA-B regions in the EA but not AA samples. We further identified suggestive associations with several other genes previously reported in lung or inflammatory diseases. PMID:22952805

Adrianto, Indra; Lin, Chee Paul; Hale, Jessica J.; Levin, Albert M.; Datta, Indrani; Parker, Ryan; Adler, Adam; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Moser, Kathy L.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Harley, John B.; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Montgomery, Courtney G.

2012-01-01

62

Colorectal Cancer in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal cancer in African Americans has an increased incidence and mortality relative to Whites. The mean age of CRC development in African Americans is younger than that of Whites. There is also evidence for a more proximal colonic distribution of cancers and adenomas in African Americans.African Americans are less likely to have undergone diagnostic testing and screening for colorectal cancer.

Sangeeta Agrawal; Anand Bhupinderjit; Manoop S. Bhutani; Lisa Boardman; Cuong Nguyen; Yvonne Romero; Radhika Srinvasan; Colmar Figueroa-Moseley

2005-01-01

63

African American History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mississippi State University African American History Archive is a great place to start for pointers to African American history sites, as well as an excellent repository of African American history primary documents. The sites include Adonis Productions' Black Pioneers page (with pages on African American pioneers in all fields), Great Day In Harlem (jazz), Mississippi State's AfriGeneas genealogy mailing list and Web site, Small Towns-Black Lives in New Jersey, African American pioneers in Kentucky law, and the International Museum of the Horse's Buffalo Soldier pages. Full text documents include Dr. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, Booker T. Washington's "Up From Slavery", Frederick Douglass' "Autobiography" and "My Escape from Slavery", and Henry David Thoreau's "A Plea for Captain John Brown" and "Slavery in Massachussetts", among others. The site also contains African American bibliographies in the arts, education, history, and science, as well as pointers to other African American sites. http://www.msstate.edu/Archives/History/USA/Afro-Amer/afro.html

1997-01-01

64

African American History Month  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

February is African American History Month, and, as the Library of Congress site notes, it's an area of history that should be incorporated into all discussions about American history. The Library of Congress listened to its own advice and created this most useful site to help students, teachers, and others to do just that. Visitors can read about a number of notable African Americans, including historian Carter G. Woodson and Congressman Major Owens. By clicking on the "Exhibits & Collections" area visitors can look through some of the digital collections related to various aspects of African American history. Additionally, the site also has other sections that provide primary materials on African Americans in the performing arts as well as oral histories from the Veterans History Project.

65

Symposium: Calcium-Related Chronic Diseases in Ethnic Minorities: Can Dairy Consumption Reduce Health Disparities? Low Calcium Intake Among African Americans: Effects on Bones and Body Weight1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review was performed to summarize and integrate the evidence relating calcium intake to health status in African Americans, with special attention to bone and fat. Despite lower average calcium intakes, African Americans typically have skeletons more massive than those of whites. This is the result of a relative resistance of the bony resorptive apparatus to parathyroid hormone, which forces

Robert P. Heaney

66

Alcohol-Related Consequences in African American and European American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50% of college students report a heavy drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. This pattern of heavy episodic drinking places them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. In addition, important ethnic differences exist between European American and African American college students in terms of drinking. European American college students report consuming more alcohol than African American college students,

Jessica R. Skidmore; James G. Murphy; Matthew Martens; Ashley A. Dennhardt

2012-01-01

67

JSTOR: African American Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

JSTOR has available this title in its collection of full-text, online journals. African American Review, the quarterly publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, is published by Indiana State University, and includes Volumes 1-33, 1967-1999. AAR continues Black American Literature Forum (1976-1991) and Negro American Literature Forum (1967-1976). Note: access to JSTOR content is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions.

68

Substance Abuse in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited attention to ethnicity in research on substance abuse and women has resulted in assumptions that may not fit the experience of women of color. This study employed a combined quantitative and qualitative design to investigate substance abuse in African American women ages 21 to 48. Life experiences of women with histories of chemical dependence were compared with women who

Harriet Curtis-Boles; Valata Jenkins-Monroe

2000-01-01

69

African-American Women's Mentoring Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention studies suggest that providing appropriate role models produces positive differences in ethnic minority members' levels of career maturity. The availability of appropriate role models is particularly important for African American women because of their double minority status; neither career interventions developed just for women nor…

Jackson, Cydney H.; And Others

70

Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

2008-01-01

71

Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward cancer among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been noted that the African American population in the U.S. bears disproportionately higher cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any racial and ethnic group for most major cancers. Many studies also document that decreased longevity is associated with low educational attainment and other markers of low socioeconomic status (SES), both of which are prevalent in African American

Natalie Thurman; Camille Ragin; Dwight E Heron; Renae J Alford; Cecile Andraos-Selim; Cornelius Bondzi; Jamila A Butcher; Jamison C Coleman; Charity Glass; Barbara Klewien; Aerie T Minor; Diana J Williams; Emanuela Taioli

2009-01-01

72

HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men  

MedlinePLUS

... African American gay and bisexual men. For example, Socioeconomic factors. African Americans are more likely than men of other races/ethnicities to encounter factors—such as limited access to and use of quality health care, lower income and educational attainment, and higher ...

73

Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

2012-01-01

74

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStreet-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the

Philippe Bourgois; Alexis Martinez; Alex Kral; Brian R Edlin; Jeff Schonberg; Dan Ciccarone

2006-01-01

75

Mental Health and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of Non-Hispanic Whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

76

African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... financial challenges n Find support when MS progresses African American Council The National MS Society mobilizes people and ... support this mission, the Society established the National African American Advisory Council — which advises on the best approaches ...

77

HIV among African American Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Control and Prevention CDC FACT SHEET HIV among African American Youth African American youth continue to be one of the groups ... HIV infection in the United States. In fact, black youth represent more than half (57 percent) of ...

78

Infant Mortality and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.3 times the infant mortality rate as non- ... Hispanic White mothers in 2005. At a glance – Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 ...

79

Do birds of a feather flock together? The variable bases for African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and tow for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but

Jill V. Hamm

2000-01-01

80

Novel recurrently mutated genes in African American colon cancers.  

PubMed

We used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to characterize somatic mutations in 103 colorectal cancers (CRC) from African Americans, identifying 20 new genes as significantly mutated in CRC. Resequencing 129 Caucasian derived CRCs confirmed a 15-gene set as a preferential target for mutations in African American CRCs. Two predominant genes, ephrin type A receptor 6 (EPHA6) and folliculin (FLCN), with mutations exclusive to African American CRCs, are by genetic and biological criteria highly likely African American CRC driver genes. These previously unsuspected differences in the mutational landscapes of CRCs arising among individuals of different ethnicities have potential to impact on broader disparities in cancer behaviors. PMID:25583493

Guda, Kishore; Veigl, Martina L; Varadan, Vinay; Nosrati, Arman; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Beard, Lydia; Willson, James K V; Sedwick, W David; Wang, Zhenghe John; Molyneaux, Neil; Miron, Alexander; Adams, Mark D; Elston, Robert C; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph E

2015-01-27

81

African Americans and Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

... while a 65 year old sibling of an African American has nearly a 20% chance of having glaucoma. Clearly brothers and sisters of patients with glaucoma can benefit from regular eye examinations with special attention to careful screening for glaucoma. -- Thanks to Joanne ...

82

Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... White women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2005-2009) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

83

Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

2013-01-01

84

Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent

Wendy S. Bibeau; Brit I. Saksvig; Joel Gittelsohn; Sonja Williams; Lindsey Jones; Deborah Rohm Young

85

Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

Walton, Emily

2012-01-01

86

Ethnicity, Nativity and the Health of American Blacks  

PubMed Central

Few national studies have empirically examined ethnic differences in health within the American Black population. We utilized logistic regression to examine the relationships among ethnicity, nativity, depressive symptoms, and physical health in the two largest ethnic groups of American Blacks, African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, an in-person national household survey representative of the non-institutionalized U.S. Black population. We found that African Americans, U.S.-born Caribbean Blacks, and Caribbean-born Blacks had significantly different self-ratings of their health and self-reports of being diagnosed with a chronic physical health condition. Whether assessed by self-rated health or the presence of at least one physician diagnosed chronic health condition, Caribbean-born Blacks had the best health outcomes and U.S.-born Caribbean Blacks had the worst. This finding remained significant even after considering self-reported depressive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering ethnic diversity, nativity and immigration as independent sources of variation in health status within the American Black population. PMID:21317512

Griffith, Derek M.; Johnson, Jonetta; Zhang, Rong; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S.

2012-01-01

87

African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

88

Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls. PMID:24967141

Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2013-01-01

89

Ethnicity and American Group Life. A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic

Weed, Perry L., Comp.

90

HIV\\/AIDS Prevention Education: Developing Culturally Competent Programs for African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans comprise one of the nation's largest ethnic communities. They also account for the highest number of HIV infection and AIDS cases among children, youth, and young adults across all racial, ethnic, and cultural populations. The purpose of this exploratory theory-based article is to discuss the extent of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in the African American community, variables that contribute

Jillian N. Ardley; Thomas W. Sileo

2009-01-01

91

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

92

Cross-Ethnic Measurement Equivalence of the SCARED in an Outpatient Sample of African American and Non-Hispanic White Youths and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the measurement equivalence of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a clinical sample of non-Hispanic White (NHW) and African American (AA) youths and parents. In addition, we explored the concurrent criterion validity of parent report on the SCARED to a parent diagnostic interview.…

Gonzalez, Araceli; Weersing, V. Robin; Warnick, Erin; Scahill, Lawrence; Woolston, Joseph

2012-01-01

93

Cancer and the African American Experience PDF  

Cancer.gov

African Americans bear an unequal burden of cancer. This is caused by a complex interplay of socio-economic, cultural, environmental, and biologic factors; the result is the persistence of inequalities in cancer care outcomes. These disparities encompass the entire spectrum of care, from screening and prevention activities, through diagnosis and treatment, to palliative and end of life care. Clinicians should be aware that concepts of race and ethnicity are social and political constructs, without a direct relationship to biology and genetics.

94

Kidney Disease Risks among African-Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Partners Search This Site Kidney Disease Risks Among African-Americans African-Americans are more at risk for kidney ... Fund doing to help? More Information Why are African-Americans more at risk? Although we are not exactly ...

95

Psychopathy Subtypes among African American County Jail Inmates  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the classification of “psychopath” captures a heterogeneous group of offenders. Although several studies have provided evidence for two distinct psychopath subtypes, these studies have inadequately addressed potentially important ethnic differences. A recent taxonomic study found evidence for primary and secondary psychopath subgroups in a sample of European American offenders (Swogger & Kosson, 2007). The present study used cluster analysis to attempt to replicate those findings in a sample of African American offenders. Results confirm the presence of primary and secondary subtypes in African Americans. However, differences between the clusters obtained in the present and previous studies suggest that caution is warranted in generalizing offender taxonomies across ethnicity. PMID:19458787

Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.

2009-01-01

96

African-Americans and Alzheimer's  

MedlinePLUS

... A A A Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning ... study today and help move research forward tomorrow. African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. ...

97

Elder Abuse among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

2006-01-01

98

What Women Need to Know about Breast Cancer - African American  

Cancer.gov

Yet, in 2013, more than 27,000 African American women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. The disease is the most common cancer among this group. And although African American women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women, those African American women who do develop the disease are more likely to die from it (more than 6,000 were projected to die in 2013) than women of any other racial or ethnic group in the United States.

99

Quit attempts among African American teenage smokers seeking treatment: gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. African Americans experience disproportionate smoking-related mortality. Because established smoking during youth predisposes to adult smoking and serious health consequences, characterizing ethnic differences in adolescent smokers' self-quit attempts may inform ethnic-specific approaches to youth smoking cessation.Methods. African American and European American teenage smokers applying to a teenage smoking cessation study (2000–2003) provided smoking-related data, including characteristics of previous cessation attempts

Eric T. Moolchan; Jennifer R. Schroeder

2004-01-01

100

Patterns of pain descriptor usage in African Americans and European Americans with chronic pain.  

PubMed

This study examined ethnic differences in the use of pain descriptors, comparing standardized pain assessment data from African American and European American patients with heterogeneous chronic pain syndromes. The measure was the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) including the embedded Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Exploratory factor analyses of SF-MPQ data identified differences in factor structure with the VAS loading on a different factor for each group. A 5-factor solution was obtained from the African American group and a 4-factor solution was obtained from the European American group. There was little overlap in the pattern matrices for African American and European American groups. Results suggest that the VAS is as sensitive to ethnic differences as other traditional pain measures. PMID:14992632

Cassisi, Jeffrey E; Umeda, Masataka; Deisinger, Julie A; Sheffer, Christine; Lofland, Kenneth R; Jackson, Cheryl

2004-02-01

101

Genetic Admixture, Self-Reported Ethnicity, Self-Estimated Admixture, and Skin Pigmentation Among Hispanics and Native Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between ethnicity and biology is of interest to anthropologists, biomedical scien- tists, and historians in understanding how human groups are constructed. Ethnic self-identification in recently admixed groups such as Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans (NA) is likely to be complex due to the heterogeneity in individual admixture proportions and social environments within these groups. This study examines

Yann C. Klimentidis; Geoffrey F. Miller; Mark D. Shriver

2008-01-01

102

Relationships Among Obesity, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in African Americans and West Africans  

PubMed Central

Several research studies in different populations indicate that inflammation may be the link between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, this relationship has not been adequately explored among African Americans, an ethnic group with disproportionately high rates of obesity and IR. In this study, we conducted a comparative study of the relationship among adiposity, inflammation, and IR in African Americans and West Africans, the ancestral source population for African Americans. The associations between obesity markers (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?), and IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR)) were evaluated in 247 West Africans and 315 African Americans. In average, African Americans were heavier than the West Africans (by an average of 1.6 BMI units for women and 3 BMI units for men). Plasma hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 (but not TNF-? level) were higher in African Americans than in West Africans. In both populations, BMI was associated with markers of inflammation and with HOMAIR, and these associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. However, the pattern of associations between measured inflammatory markers and IR was different between the two groups. In West Africans, hsCRP was the only inflammatory marker associated with IR. In contrast, hsCRP, haptoglobin, and IL-6 were all associated with IR in African Americans. Interestingly, none of the associations between markers of inflammation and IR remained significant after adjusting for BMI. This finding suggests that in African Americans, the relationship between inflammatory markers and IR is mediated by adiposity. PMID:19798069

Doumatey, Ayo P.; Lashley, Kerrie S.; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Amoah, Albert; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Oli, Johnnie; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Adebamowo, Clement A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Rotimi, Charles N.

2014-01-01

103

AFRICAN AMERICANAFRICAN AMERICANAFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIESSTUDIESSTUDIES  

E-print Network

Course (select one)** AMST 206: The Politics and Culture of the 1960s PSYC 462: Minority Mental Health, this museum allows students the chance to research and observe the history, art, and culture of African, concepts, and issues. AMST 285: African American Popular Culture -- Examines history of popular cultural

Krylov, Anna I.

104

Internalization of the Thin Ideal as a Predictor of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in African, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean Female College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was moderated by ethnicity, with the relationship significant only for the African-American group.

Stefanie C. Gilbert; Stacey Crump; Serge Madhere; William Schutz

2009-01-01

105

Elder Abuse Among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n = 25) and men (n = 10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly related to age in complex ways: the older the respondents, the more

Jesse J. Tauriac; Natoschia Scruggs

2006-01-01

106

Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

Talleyrand, Regine M.

2010-01-01

107

Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date,

Leigh A. Willis; David W. Coombs; William C. Cockerham; Sonja L. Frison

2002-01-01

108

Vitamin D and African Americans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

109

The Department of African and Afro-American Studies presents: Cosponsors  

E-print Network

and Ethnicity in America at Brown University, is an internationally respected scholar of post civil rights eraThe Department of African and Afro-American Studies presents: Cosponsors: Women's and Gender

Fraden, Seth

110

The online obstacle : a study of African-American enterprise on the Internet  

E-print Network

Iconic Web companies based in the US, along the likes of Google, Facebook, and Twitter, have exhibited some racial/ethnic diversity among their founders, yet there appears to be a dearth of African-Americans in the group. ...

Lamb, Allen T. (Allen Terrel)

2010-01-01

111

Critical Race Theory: A Counternarrative of African American Male Medical Students Attending Predominately White Medical Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…

Morgan, Adrienne L.

2013-01-01

112

A Critical Hermeneutic Study: Third Grade Elementary African American Students' Views of the Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third…

Walls, Leon

2009-01-01

113

Retention of African Americans in Gifted Education: Lessons Learned from Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predominately White institutions of higher education have focused a considerable amount of attention on the underrepresentation of African American and other ethnically diverse students in colleges and universities. To address this problem, colleges and universities have focused not just on recruitment but also on the retention of African American

Moore, James L., III; Ford, Donna Y.; Owens, Delila; Hall, Ted; Byrd, Melendez; Henfield, Malik; Whiting, Gilman W.

2006-01-01

114

Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

2011-01-01

115

Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

2004-01-01

116

"We Don't Feel Welcome Here": African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics…

Louie, Josephine

2005-01-01

117

Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men  

PubMed Central

African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men. PMID:22924797

Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

2014-01-01

118

African American Males. A Critical Link in the African American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans are experiencing extreme stress in the United States, and African-American males appear to suffer the most. The chapters in this volume examine some of the issues confronting African-American men today. They include: (1) "Introduction" (Dionne J. Jones); (2) "Reaffirming Young African American Males: Mentoring and Community…

Jones, Dionne J., Ed.

119

http://www.sil.si.edu/SILpublications/AfricanAmericanIndiansBibliography.pdf1 AFRICAN AMERICAN INDIANS  

E-print Network

http://www.sil.si.edu/SILpublications/AfricanAmericanIndiansBibliography.pdf1 AFRICAN AMERICAN." International Review of African American Art. 17, no. 1 (2000): 2-40. #12;http://www.sil.si.edu/SILpublications/AfricanAmericanIndiansBibliography.pdf to the `Rice Coast'." West Africa 22-28 January 1990, 97. Parry, Ellwood. The Image of the Indian and the Black

Mathis, Wayne N.

120

Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

Whitfield, Tracy N.

2010-01-01

121

African American Health  

MedlinePLUS

... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...

122

American Ethnic Groups: A Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides a survey of selective, recent literature on American ethnic groups. Emphasis is on the immigrant experience, political and social development, and contemporary rediscovery and resurgence. The majority of the literature in this last category is popular and journalistic but does provide a beginning to understanding recent…

Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.

123

Comparison of hospice use by European americans, african americans, and latinos: a follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the rate of hospice use by Latinos and African Americans relative to their prevalence in the general population between 2004 and 2010 as a follow-up to a previous investigation. Archival data (N = 2625) were collected on patients' race/ethnicity, gender, marital status, length of stay in hospice, and reason for discharge. In contrast to previous findings, African Americans were more likely to utilize hospice services, but Latinos were less likely to use hospice services compared to the other groups. There were no differences among the racial/ethnic groups in terms of length of stay or disposition at termination. Strengthening efforts to reach a larger racial/ethnic representation in hospice programs may increase the rate of hospice use by some racial/ethnic groups but not others. PMID:24219885

Colón, Merydawilda; Lyke, Jennifer

2015-03-01

124

Institutional obstacles to African economic development: State, ethnicity, and custom  

Microsoft Academic Search

To account for the African growth tragedy and, in particular, for its causes rooted in governance problems, the institutional legacy that African countries inherited from pre-colonial and colonial times must be considered. Three aspects are examined here. First, the relationship between ethnicity and state performance is bi-directional: if strong ethno-regional identities prevent the emergence of modern citizenship, they themselves constitute

Jean-Philippe Platteau

2009-01-01

125

Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

126

African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Sep 30,2014 Heart disease is theNo. 1 killer for all ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can improve ...

127

Health Conditions Common in African American Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > African-Americans Minority Women's Health African-Americans Health conditions common in African-American ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...

128

Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

2014-01-01

129

The Education of African-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 17 papers in this volume are products of a study group on the education of African Americans that was part of a national project, "The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans." The volume takes a comprehensive look at the education of African Americans, specifically early childhood through postsecondary education, and relevant public…

Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

130

Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

2013-01-01

131

African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy  

PubMed Central

Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts. PMID:12432159

Yerger, V; Malone, R

2002-01-01

132

African-American Studies 46. . . . . . . . . . . American Studies 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  

E-print Network

African-American Studies 46. . . . . . . . . . . American Studies 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History 182. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History of Science 202. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women's and Gender Studies 310. . . . . . . Critical Reasoning and Analytical Skills (CRAAS) Courses 316

Aalberts, Daniel P.

133

Alzheimer's Disease and African Americans  

E-print Network

to encourage active, long- term participation of African Americans in memory and aging studies. Volunteers from work or social activities 10.Changes in mood and personality Copyright © 2009 Alzheimer's Association® All Rights Reserved #12;And, exercise your brain! Challenge yourself with new activities

134

African American Men in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

2006-01-01

135

The African-American Church  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African-American church in America has stood between individuals and the larger society for blacks for over two hundred years. In so doing it has been a source of empowerment and mutual assistance and a center for considerable social change. An historical review of the church's development from its early form as an invisible institution during slavery to its present

Thorn Moore

1991-01-01

136

African-American Children's Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of representative stories told by black American children of West African descent in South Carolina shows that specific cultural motifs have been preserved in the oral tradition of black communities. Typical stories are tales of the supernatural, such as the Hag story about mortals who shed their skin at night to do evil deeds.…

Nichols, Patricia C.

137

Wellness among African American Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

2007-01-01

138

Classic African American Children's Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

McNair, Jonda C.

2010-01-01

139

Mapping the African American Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mapping the African American Past (MAAP) project, produced by a team of researchers and specialists at Columbia University, offers a marriage of African American history and geography in New York City. The project was funded by JPMorganChase, and it allows users to navigate through sites of importance to the African American community throughout the city's past. New visitors may wish to start by watching the short film, "Introduction to MAAP", and then move on over to the "Place in Focus" feature. Here they can learn about places like Five Points, the Abyssinian Baptist Church, and the home of David Ruggles. They can also use an interactive map to toggle through places associated with certain time periods, such as the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Additionally, the site also contains lesson plans that address topics that include African American community and culture and "Building New York". The site is rounded out by a series of podcasts which cover all 52 locations featured on the MAAP website.

140

Ethnicity and acculturation as moderators of the relationship between media exposure, awareness, and thin-ideal internalization in African American women  

E-print Network

The moderating effects of ethnicity and acculturation on three relationships: media exposure and awareness of sociocultural appearance norms, awareness of social ideals and thin-ideal internalization, and thin-ideal internalization and body...

Henry, Keisha Denythia

2006-10-30

141

Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward cancer among African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background It has been noted that the African American population in the U.S. bears disproportionately higher cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any racial and ethnic group for most major cancers. Many studies also document that decreased longevity is associated with low educational attainment and other markers of low socioeconomic status (SES), both of which are prevalent in African American communities across the nation. Evidence suggests that this phenomenon may be due to attitudes that reflect a lack of knowledge surrounding facts about cancer awareness and prevention. This study was designed to yield data concerning the general population's attitudes toward cancer, taking into consideration racial and/or socioeconomic differences in the population studied. Results Two hundred and fifteen subjects participated in the survey, of which 74% (159/215) defined themselves as African-American, 20% were White, and 6% were of other races. While only 38% of the study population was able to identify at least 5 risk factors associated with cancer, a lower proportion of African Americans identified at least 5 risk factors than whites (34% vs. 53%, p = 0.03). In addition, a slightly higher percentage of African Americans (10%) were not aware of the definition of a clinical trial when compared to whites (8%, p > 0.1). Of those aware of the definition of a clinical trial, African Americans were more reluctant to participate in clinical trials, with 53% answering no to participation compared to 15% of whites (p = 0.002). Conclusion When comparing results to a similar study conducted in 1981, a slight increase in cancer knowledge in the African American population was observed. Our results suggest that while knowledge of cancer facts has increased over the years amongst the general population, African Americans and lower income populations are still behind. This may affect their risk profile and cancer early detection. PMID:19208206

Thurman, Natalie; Ragin, Camille; Heron, Dwight E; Alford, Renae J; Andraos-Selim, Cecile; Bondzi, Cornelius; Butcher, Jamila A; Coleman, Jamison C; Glass, Charity; Klewien, Barbara; Minor, Aerie T; Williams, Diana J; Taioli, Emanuela

2009-01-01

142

Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization among Low-Income African American Adolescents: Closing the Gap by Enhancing Practitioner’s Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of racial and ethnic match as a barrier to care in mental health treatment services has received considerable attention. In systems of care, which provide public mental health services to African American adolescents, the provider base is largely non-African American. This difference presents a challenge for African American adolescents and their parents who want a provider who is

Valire Carr Copeland

2006-01-01

143

An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American

Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

2014-01-01

144

An Exploratory Study of the Career Decisions of African American and Hispanic Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need for culturally diverse teachers. Weiher (2000) studied the relationship between African American and Hispanic student achievement and schools with teachers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated the greater the difference between the percentage of ethnically diverse teachers and the percentage of diverse students, the…

Waller, Johnnye

2010-01-01

145

Apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele frequency in young Africans of Ugandan descent versus African Americans.  

PubMed Central

Through its role in lipid metabolism, Apolipoprotein epsilon4 (ApoE4) may affect "brain repair" in stroke, brain hemorrhage, Alzheimer's disease, and other brain injury syndromes for which African Americans may have greater morbidity and mortality. Cross-cultural evaluations of these and other genetic factors may provide insight on possible ethnic differences in risk of morbidity to acute central nervous system (CNS) injury and chronic neurodegenerative processes. As an initial step toward expanding knowledge of ApoE allele frequencies for persons of African descent, we compared ApoE genotype of a group of 70 young Ugandans to 59 (subset of a larger group of 342 African Americans of all ages) age-matched African Americans and to published frequencies for Caucasians and Asians. We found that the ApoE4 and epsilon2 alleles are more frequent in Ugandans (U) than Caucasians (C) or Asians (A) with corresponding alleles showing significant elevations of epsilon2 (U 15.71%, C 8.40%, A 4.20%) and 14 (U 25%, C 13.70%, A 8.90%) (p < .001). Comparing the differences between Ugandans and age-appropriate African Americans (AA) was not statically significant, but this outcome may be due to small sample size. These results provide the only published ApoE frequencies for Ugandans and the complete set of data provides the largest published community group of ApoE frequencies for African Americans. PMID:12656452

Willis, Floyd; Graff-Radford, Neill; Pinto, Martin; Lawson, LaShaune; Adamson, Jennifer; Epstein, Dawn; Parfitt, Francine; Hutton, Mike; O'Brien, Peter C.

2003-01-01

146

Outcomes Among African-American\\/Non-African-American Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Report From the Cancer and Leukemia Group B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Among patients diagnosed with advanced non- small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), African-Americans have lower survival rates than non-African-Americans. Whether this difference is due to innate characteristics of the disease in the two ethnicities or to disparities in health care is not known. We investigated whether the disparity in sur- vival would persist when patients were treated with similar systemic therapies

A. William Blackstock; James E. Herndon II; Electra D. Paskett; Michael C. Perry; Stephen L. Graziano; Joseph J. Muscato; Michael P. Kosty; Wallace L. Akerley; Jimmie Holland; Stewart Fleishman; Mark R. Green

2002-01-01

147

Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

1992-01-01

148

Patterns of Pain Descriptor Usage in African Americans and European Americans With Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined ethnic differences in the use of pain descriptors, comparing standardized pain assessment data from African American and European American patients with heterogeneous chronic pain syndromes. The measure was the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF–MPQ) including the embedded Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Exploratory factor analyses of SF–MPQ data identified differences in factor structure with the VAS loading on

Jeffrey E. Cassisi; Masataka Umeda; Julie A. Deisinger; Christine Sheffer; Kenneth R. Lofland; Cheryl Jackson

2004-01-01

149

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâ??s oral traditions.

150

American Indian College Students' Ethnic Identity and Beliefs about Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-seven American Indian and 96 European-American undergraduate students responded to questions about their educational and ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their mother's and father's support for education. The American Indian participants completed some additional items regarding their ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their…

Okagaki, Lynn; Helling, Mary Kay; Bingham, Gary E.

2009-01-01

151

Undervaccinated African-American preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify factors associated with undervaccination of African-American preschoolers, to describe the number of vaccination visits made by undervaccinated children and the number of visits needed to be series complete, and to describe the children who did not receive the single dose of measles-containing vaccine recommended for preschoolers.Methods: We used the 1999 National Immunization Survey (NIS) to describe vaccination

Danni Daniels; Ruth B Jiles; R. Monina Klevens; Guillermo A Herrera

2001-01-01

152

The African-American house as a vehicle of discovery for an African-American architecture  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is three-fold: (1) This thesis seeks to uncover evidence of a distinctly African-American architectural form. The primary building type observed will be the house, or the housing of African-Americans ...

Clarke, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

1996-01-01

153

Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer among whites and African Americans.  

PubMed

African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer among all US racial and ethnic groups. Dietary factors, lifestyle factors, obesity, variability in screening rates, socioeconomic differences, barriers to screening, and differences in access to health care may be contributory factors to racial and ethnic disparities. African Americans are more likely to demonstrate microsatellite instability in their colorectal tumors leading to malignancy. However, these differences do not completely explain all the variances. Ample evidence implicates insulin resistance and its associated conditions, including elevated insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in colorectal carcinogenesis. African Americans have a high risk for and a high prevalence of insulin resistance and subsequent overt type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical studies revealed that ethnic differences between whites and African Americans in early diabetes-related conditions including hyperinsulinemia already exist during childhood. African Americans have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than whites throughout their life spans. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with higher rates of diabetes and colorectal cancer, particularly in individuals with high serum insulin and IGF-1 levels. Moreover, African Americans have lower insulin sensitivity in tissues, independent of obesity, fat distribution, and inflammation. Further development of measures of biomarkers of tumor biology and host susceptibility may provide further insight on risk stratification in African Americans. PMID:22562539

Tsai, Chung-Jyi; Giovannucci, Edward L

2012-10-01

154

Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

2009-01-01

155

Parent-School Involvement and School Performance: Mediated Pathways among Socioeconomically Comparable African American and Euro-American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines children's social and academic competencies as mediators to explain the often positive relation between parent-school involvement and achievement. Ethnic variation was examined. For African Americans, academic skills mediated the relations between school involvement and math performance. For Euro-Americans, social competence mediated the…

Hill, Nancy E.; Craft, Stacie A.

2003-01-01

156

Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

Muhammad, Rhonda K.

2012-01-01

157

Linking Beauty and Health Among African American Women: Using Focus Group Data to Build Culturally and Contextually Appropriate Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality compared to Caucasian women. Addressing racial\\/ethnic disparities in health requires the engagement of African-American women in the development of interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate. Three age groups of African-American women who attend beauty salons (18-29; 30-49; 50+) were recruited into six focus groups. Participants reviewed a series of

Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Laura Linnan; Noel Kulik; Veronica Carlisle; Zoe Enga; Margaret Bentley

2007-01-01

158

African Americans and Pancreatic Cancer: Things to Know  

MedlinePLUS

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND PANCREATIC CANCER: THINGS TO KNOW By the National Cancer Institute BETHESDA, MD ? When NFL Hall ... on a disease that, although rare, disproportionately affects African Americans. Pancreatic cancer is diagnosed in African Americans more ...

159

Do You See What I See? Effects of Group Consciousness on African American Women's Attributions to Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…

King, Kimberly R.

2003-01-01

160

The Media as a System of RacializationExploring Images of African American Women and the New Racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the media perpetuate ideas about race and ethnicity that place African American women at a clear disadvantage. Beginning with the welfare queen image during the Reagan administration and moving to the porno chick represented in current videos, society views a daily discourse on race, gender, and class that continues to reproduce dominant and distorted views of African American womanhood

Marci Bounds Littlefield

2008-01-01

161

DISTURBANCES IN THE SOCIAL BODYDifferences in Body Image and Eating Problems among African American and white Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging body of research comparing body image disturbance and eating problems among African American and white women suggests that there are major ethnic differences in these areas. African American women appear to be more satisfied with their weight and appearance than are white women, and they are less likely to engage in unhealthy weight control practices, yet they are

MEG LOVEJOY

2001-01-01

162

Body Composition of African American and White Children: A 2Year Follow-Up of the BAROC Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the 2-year changes in body composition of white and African American boys and girls.Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 114 boys and girls ages 12 to 14 years with equal sex and ethnic distribution between African American and white races participated in measurements of body composition using DXA, underwater weighing (densitometry), skinfold thickness, corporal diameters, circumferences,

George A. Bray; James P. DeLany; David W. Harsha; Julia Volaufova; Catherine M. Champagne

2001-01-01

163

Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

2014-01-01

164

The Effort-Outcome Gap: Differences for African American and Hispanic Community College Students in Student Engagement and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little in higher education seems more intractable than the access and achievement gaps between ethnic groups. White students consistently outdistance African Americans and Hispanics in both enrollment and academic performance. Despite the negative relationships between minority status and academic performance, African American and Hispanic…

Greene, Thomas G.; Marti, C. Nathan; McClenney, Kay

2008-01-01

165

Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

2009-01-01

166

Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

2010-01-01

167

AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS African-American Career World, http://www.eop.com/mags-AACW.php, is the  

E-print Network

AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS African-American Career World, http Collegian Online, http://www.blackcollegian.com/ Career and job search site for African-American college students Black Equal Opportunity Employment Journal, http

Arnold, Jonathan

168

A REVIEW OF THE ETHNIC GROUPS IN AMERICAN LIFE SERIES  

E-print Network

This essay is a review and analysis of seven textbooks published in the Prentice-Hall Ethnic Groups in American Life series under the editorship of Milton Gordon. This series is seen as a way to inform Americans, in an ...

Renzi, Mario

1982-04-01

169

Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

2008-01-01

170

HYPERTENSION TELEMANAGEMENT IN AFRICAN AMERICANS  

PubMed Central

Background We propose evaluation of a multi-component home automated telemanagement (HAT) system providing integrated support to both clinicians and patients in implementing hypertension treatment guidelines. Methods In a randomized clinical study 550 African Americans with hypertension are followed for 18 months. The major components of the intervention and control groups are identical and are based on the current standard of care. For the purpose of this study, we define “standard of care” as the expected evidence-based care provided according to the current hypertension treatment guidelines. While intervention and control groups are similar in terms of their care components, they differ in the mode of care delivery. For the control group the best attempt is made to deliver all components of a guideline-concordant care in a routine clinical environment whereas for the intervention group the routine clinical environment is enhanced with Health Information Technology (IT) that assists clinicians and patients in working together in implementing treatment guidelines. The HAT system guides patients in following their individualized treatment plans and helps care coordination team in monitoring the patient progress. The study design is aimed at addressing the main question of this trial: whether the addition of the IT-enhanced care coordination in the routine primary care setting can improve delivery of evidence-based hypertension care in African Americans. The outcome parameters include quality of life, medical care utilization, treatment compliance, psychosocial variables and improvement in blood pressure control rates. Conclusions The trial will provide insight on the potential impact of IT-enhanced care coordination in African Americans with poorly controlled hypertension. PMID:20031848

Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eunme

2009-01-01

171

Adverse Birth Outcomes in African American Women: The Social Context of Persistent Reproductive Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed

Tyan Parker Dominguez

2010-01-01

172

National African American Photographic Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glorious collection is a collaborative effort between the University Libraries, University of Memphis and Ampro Industries, Inc. of Memphis. The project's goal is "to collect, scan, and make available to the public photographs and informative metadata illustrating the daily and work lives and social activities of African Americans." Currently the project has over 450 items that are searchable by name or available for browsing. First-time visitors may want to start by looking at the Robert R. Church Family of Memphis slideshow. This visual vignette features studio portraits of the Church family and images taken in a variety of settings. [KMG

173

African Americans and the Industrial Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

2000-01-01

174

Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

2009-01-01

175

African American Women in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American women hold a unique position as members of two groups that have been treated in a peripheral manner by postsecondary education (Moses, 1989). Membership in both marginalized groups often makes African American women invisible in colleges and universities. Given the complex intersection of race and gender, more attention should be…

Zamani, Eboni M.

2003-01-01

176

African American Muslim Women: An Invisible Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is written about Islam and African American women or men from a psychosocial perspective. Most of the literature is on the historical and political development of the Nation of Islam, and the differences among the male leaders. This focus obscures the fact that the majority of African Americans Muslims belong to traditional Islamic groups. Drawing upon a variety of

Karen Fraser Wyche

2004-01-01

177

African Americans Should Oppose Racial Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's not clear how supportive African Americans are of racial preferences. Supporters of preferences like to use the term "affirmative action," which is supported by most African Americans, but it is not the same thing. The old forms of affirmative action--positive, proactive measures to end discrimination, and aggressive outreach and recruiting…

Clegg, Roger

2004-01-01

178

Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

2004-01-01

179

Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

Mims, Adrian B.

2010-01-01

180

African Americans in the Early Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

Nash, Gary B.

2000-01-01

181

A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

Cannon Dawson, Candice

2012-01-01

182

Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

Gundaker, Grey

2007-01-01

183

Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

2009-01-01

184

African American Oral History Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Telling the story of Louisville's African American community is an ambitious goal and the University of Louisville's Oral History Center has done a fine job with this website. The process began in the 1970s with funding from the Kentucky Oral History Commission, which supported the collection's first batch of interviews. A wide range of people was interviewed for the project, including politicians, doctors, musicians, and educators as well as "regular folks." Currently, there are 27 interviews, and visitors can browse through them to get a sense of the offerings. One particularly fascinating interviewee is Dr. Jesse Bell, a longtime physician in Louisville. The collection will intrigue historians, urbanologists, and others with a passion for the American experience.

2010-01-01

185

Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students’ previous direct and indirect\\u000a experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European\\u000a American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer African American and Asian\\u000a American college students had sought professional psychological services, knew someone

Akihiko Masuda; Page L. Anderson; Michael P. Twohig; Amanda B. Feinstein; Ying-Yi Chou; Johanna W. Wendell; Analia R. Stormo

2009-01-01

186

Traditional African Informal Instructional Paradigm in African and African-American Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the use of African storytelling for informal teaching of African traditions and values in today's African-American community. The instruction is shown in content and context in three literary works: "An African Night's Entertainment,""The Passport of Mallam Ilia," and "The Secret of Gumbo Grove." (MMU)

Osa, Osayimwense

1997-01-01

187

Condom beliefs in urban, low income, African American and Hispanic youth.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the condom beliefs of low income, urban African American and Hispanic youth living in the Midwest. The condom beliefs under investigation were derived from prior research with members of this population and through consultation with African American and Hispanic youth and service providers. Significant gender, ethnic, and acculturation differences were found among beliefs related to frequency of condom use in the past year (p < .05). These differences indicated that women, African American respondents, and Hispanic respondents high in acculturation tended to have more neutral or more positive views about condoms than other types of respondents. PMID:8188492

Norris, A E; Ford, K

1994-01-01

188

Symposium: Calcium-Related Chronic Diseases in Ethnic Minorities: Can Dairy Consumption Reduce Health Disparities? Reducing Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease Risk of African Americans with Diet: Focus on the Facts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is more common and more severe in African Americans than in other population groups in the United States, placing them at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and end-stage renal disease. Whereas past efforts to reduce blood pressure (BP) via the diet centered on manipulating isolated nutrients, there are now conclusive data demonstrating that it is not single dietary

Molly E. Reusser; David A. McCarrony

189

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? (African American Men)  

MedlinePLUS

... See other items in the "Oral Cancer: What African American Men Need to Know" campaign Print Materials: Brochure: Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know This brochure alerts African ...

190

Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

191

Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

2009-01-01

192

Science Enrichment for African-American Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author administered a survey to African-American students enrolled in elective science classes in four public high schools in a Middle Atlantic state during the 1998-1999 school year. These students were surveyed because according to research literature, they were more likely to major in science in college (Farmer et al. 1995) and because of the disproportionately low number of African-American science majors in higher education compared to other populations. This survey identified some of the factors that contributed to their achievement and provided insight into what can help motivate African-American students to pursue careers in science.

Juanita Jo Matkins

2004-02-01

193

Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study  

PubMed Central

A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

2013-01-01

194

Norwegian-American Ethnicity and Ethnic Clothing, Textiles, and Household Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between ownership of ethnic articles by a sample of Norwegian American women and predictive factors such as educational level of husband, social class, generation, travel to Norway, communication with relatives in Norway, and endogamy. (MC)

Jacobsen, Mary Ann; Gates, Ruth E.

1979-01-01

195

THE HEALTH STATUS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY A BLACK PAPER FOR THE URBAN LEAGUE OF PITTSBURGH  

E-print Network

of eliminating racial/ethnic health status disparities in Allegheny County. We used four methods to determine the same health status goals. One of the primary goals of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate all racial/ethnic disparities in health by 2010. This report examines the health conditions of African Americans in Allegheny

Sibille, Etienne

196

African American College Women in the San Francisco Bay Area: Perceptions of Cross's Nigrescence Model and Potential Leadership Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although more African American women are pursuing a college education, how are they coping with their double minority status on predominantly White college campuses? As they become more aware of their identity, how does their interaction change with students and groups of a different ethnic background? The possible relationship between ethnic

Picou-Broadnax, Amber

2010-01-01

197

Barriers to employment of african american professionals in hospice: a qualitative study with african american social work students.  

PubMed

A major barrier to African American hospice utilization is the lack of African American hospice professionals. This qualitative study with 10 female African American social work students in a Midwestern university explored whether the participants were interested in hospice employment. Results provided information about reasons for the overall lack of diversity in hospice, reasons for the lack of African American staff in hospice, reasons for the lack of African American patients in hospice, and avenues toward knowledge about hospice by African American professionals. Barriers to African American employment included a lack of hospice content in social work education, differences between African American cultural and religious beliefs and hospice philosophy, and that the lack of African American hospice patients resulted in a lack of desire for employment in hospice. Strategies for recruiting and retaining African American hospice social workers are proposed. PMID:25115218

Munoz, Bridget; Garrett, Elizabeth; Reese, Dona; Roberts, Meaghan

2015-05-01

198

Factors influencing enrollment of African Americans in the Look AHEAD trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many factors have been identified that influence the recruitment of African Americans into clinical trials; however, the influence of eligibility criteria may not be widely appreciated. We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process to examine the differential impact eligibility criteria had on the enrollment of African Americans compared to other volunteers. Methods Look AHEAD is a large randomized clinical trial to examine whether assignment to an intensive lifestyle intervention designed to produce and maintain weight loss reduces the long-term risk of major cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes. Differences in the screening, eligibility, and enrollment rates between African Americans and members of other racial/ethnic groups were examined to identify possible reasons. Results Look AHEAD screened 28,735 individuals for enrollment, including 6226 (21.7%) who were self-identified African Americans. Of these volunteers, 12.9% of the African Americans compared to 19.3% of all other screenees ultimately enrolled (p < 0.001). African Americans no more often than others were lost to follow-up or refused to attend clinic visits to establish eligibility. Furthermore, the enrollment rates of individuals with histories of cardiovascular disease and diabetes therapy did not markedly differ between the ethnic groups. Higher prevalence of adverse levels of blood pressure, heart rate, HbA1c, and serum creatinine among African American screenees accounted for the greater proportions excluded (all p < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to non-African Americans, African American were more often ineligible for the Look AHEAD trial due to comorbid conditions. Monitoring trial eligibility criteria for differential impact, and modifying them when appropriate, may ensure greater enrollment yields. PMID:22064686

Mount, David L; Davis, Cralen; Kennedy, Betty; Raatz, Susan; Dotson, Kathy; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Thomas, Sheikilya; Johnson, Karen C; Espeland, Mark A

2013-01-01

199

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans New Hanover Regional Medical Center Coastal Area Health Education Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Carolina at Wilmington Report given at the Program Steering Committee

200

Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style  

E-print Network

....................................................................... ............................................................ ............................................................... ........................................................................................... ................................................................................ ....................................................................................... ...................................................................................... .............................................................................. .......................................................... Good-for-You Cornbread ............................................................................. 4 ......................................................................... 36 #12;Introduction Good food is one of life's great joys. And good meals are a shared pleasure African American favorite recipes, prepared in a heart healthy way, lower in saturated fat, cholesterol

Bandettini, Peter A.

201

Heart Truth for African American Women  

MedlinePLUS

... need to take medication. THE HEART TRUTH® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN One good eating plan, ... Learn More.” High Blood Cholesterol. Nearly half of black women have a total cholesterol that’s too high. ...

202

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans Update for RTOG in Tampa Feb 2, 2007 Patrick D. Maguire, MD New Hanover Regional (NHRMC) Update for NHRMC Feb 2, 2007 I. Radiotherapy (RT) Clinical Trials II. Publications III. Partnership & Telesynergy IV. Patient

203

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans Update for RTOG in Miami Jan 20, 2006 Patrick D. Maguire, MD New Hanover Regional (NHRMC) Update for NHRMC January 20, 2006 I. Radiotherapy (RT) Clinical Trials II. Publications III. Partnership & Telesynergy IV. Patient

204

African American Women in Iowa Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital celebration of African American women in 20th century Iowa represents the collaborative efforts of the Iowa Women's Archives and the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa. On the site, visitors can learn about the experiences of African American women in Iowa through photographs, scrapbooks, pamphlets, oral histories, and newsletters. Visitors can perform detailed searches, or they can look at the documents through topical listings. The "Highlights" area is a true delight, as visitors can dip into items like a photograph of young women curtseying in the 1920s and the scrapbook of Althea Beatrice Moore Smith, who was an African American student at Iowa State University. The site also contains links to related collections and several archival guides for researchers seeking for more detailed scholarly resources.

205

Multiple Loci Associated with Renal Function in African Americans  

PubMed Central

The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans. PMID:23028791

Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R.; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P.; Christman, Michael F.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

2012-01-01

206

Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.  

PubMed

The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans. PMID:23028791

Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N

2012-01-01

207

African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

Mahan, Meredith Grace

2014-01-01

208

AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND MIDDLE EAST BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As descendants of enslaved Africans in America, African Americans are perhaps uniquely positioned to help improve America's relationship with Middle Eastern Muslims. Using the reconciliatory wisdom and leadership that derives from their particular history of racial struggle, they should be able to contribute to effective public approaches to the political, ecclesiastical, and pastoral challenges posed by contemporary U.S. Middle-East relations.

Frederick J. Streets

2008-01-01

209

Renal artery repair in African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This retrospective review examines the results of atherosclerotic renal artery (RA) repair in consecutive hypertensive African-Americans treated at our center and compares these results with Caucasians treated during the same period.Methods: From Jan. 1987 through Sep. 1996, a total of 485 patients underwent operative RA repair. Of these, 28 African-Americans and 370 Caucasians were managed for atherosclerotic renovascular disease.

Jonathan S. Deitch; Kimberley J. Hansen; Timothy E. Craven; John M. Flack; Richard G. Appel; Richard H. Dean

1997-01-01

210

Archives of African American Music and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Indiana University's Archives of African American Music and Culture (AAAMC) contains a searchable and browsable collection of bibliographic records of its over 2500 sound recordings and 200 video cassettes, as well as a searchable-only collection of bibliographic records of its photographic archive. It also contains information about its Undine Smith Moore Collection of Original Scores and Manuscripts of Black Composers. AAAMC's usage policy is on the home page, as well as selected links to other African American Internet resources.

Indiana University. Bloomington. Archives of African American Music and Culture.

1998-01-01

211

Caveats in the neuropsychological assessment of African Americans.  

PubMed Central

This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured African Americans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations. PMID:12126285

Campbell, Alfonso L.; Ocampo, Carlota; DeShawn Rorie, Kashemi; Lewis, Sonya; Combs, Shawn; Ford-Booker, Phyllis; Briscoe, Juanita; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Brown, Andrew; Wood, Don; Dennis, Gary; Weir, Roger; Hastings, Alicia

2002-01-01

212

Cultural Self Meets Cultural Other in the African American Experience: Teachers' Responses to a Curriculum Content Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses certain complexities of personal transformation among people implementing African and African American curriculum content reform in the Buffalo (New York) public schools, highlighting individual teachers' understanding of and responses to the reform and noting that attitudes about their own and other people's ethnicity proved important…

Shujaa, Mwalimu J.

1995-01-01

213

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

2010-01-01

214

Late-life Depression in Older African Americans: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological and Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Objective The population of older African Americans is expected to triple by 2050, highlighting the public health importance of understanding their mental health needs. Despite evidence of the negative impact of late-life depression, less is known of how this disorder affects the lives of older African Americans. Lack of studies focusing on how depression presents in older African Americans and their subsequent treatment needs lead to a gap in epidemiologic and clinical knowledge for this population. In this review, we aim to present a concise report of prevalence, correlates, course, outcomes, symptom recognition, and treatment of depression for these individuals. Method We performed a literature review of English-language articles identified from PubMed and Medline published between January 1990 and June 2012. Studies included older adults and contained the key words “geriatric depression in African Americans,” “geriatric depression in Blacks,” and geriatric depression in minorities.” Results Although in most studies older African Americans had higher or equivalence prevalence of depression compared to Caucasian Americans, we also found lower rates of recognition of depression and treatment. Many studies reported worse outcomes associated for depression among older African Americans compared older Caucasians. Conclusions Serious racial and ethnic disparities persist in the management of older African Americans with depression. Understanding their unmet needs and improving depression care for these individuals is necessary to reduce these disparities. PMID:23225736

Pickett, Yolonda R.; Bazelais, Kisha N.; Bruce, Martha L.

2013-01-01

215

The Development of Ethnic Identity During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N = 420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were assessed—group-esteem was found to rise for both early and

Sabine Elizabeth French; Edward Seidman; LaRue Allen; J. Lawrence Aber

2006-01-01

216

for african and african-american students at arizona state university  

E-print Network

for african and african-american students at arizona state university aresourceguide #12;Welcome and helped to forge the modern American west through significant efforts like those of the Buffalo Soldiers, organizations and businesses that support our local African and African-American communities. We look forward

217

Overrepresentation of African American Students in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overrepresentation of ethnic minority students, particularly African American males, in the exclusionary discipline consequences of suspension and expulsion has been consistently documented during the past three decades. Children of poverty and those with academic problems are also overrepresented in such discipline consequences. Sadly, a…

Fenning, Pamela; Rose, Jennifer

2007-01-01

218

Special Education Referrals for African American Students: Behavior versus Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A higher percentage of African American students in a local school district were referred to special education than were students in other ethnic groups. Placement of a student in a special education program results in that student receiving a curriculum that has modified achievement standards. This correlational study examined patterns in…

Curtis, Charmaine D.

2012-01-01

219

Differences in Risk Factors for Suicidality between African American and White Patients Vulnerable to Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty.…

Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G.

2007-01-01

220

The Association between Racelessness and Achievement among African American Deaf Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of "racelessness" (the lack of a strong ethnic identification) as a factor in school success among African-American deaf adolescents (N=32) attending public schools. There was no significant relationship between racelessness and achievement. The questionnaire used is appended. (DB)

Hall, C. Jean Mosley

1998-01-01

221

Substance Abuse in African Americans: In Search of a Culturally Competent Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Healthy People 2010 guidelines identify substance abuse as a major public health problem in need of effective interventions for diverse populations including racial and ethnic minorities. However, the literature with regard to substance abuse in the African American community is rather scant. This article discusses the need for a research…

Sharma, Manoj; Atri, Ashutosh

2006-01-01

222

Association of BMI and Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in the Elderly African-American Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to estimate the association of BMI and risk of systemic hypertension in African-American females aged 65 years and older. In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, medical charts were randomly reviewed after obtaining institutional review board approval and data collection was conducted for height, weight, BMI, age, ethnicity, gender, and hypertension. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. The mean

Fahad Javed; Emad F. Aziz; Manpreet S. Sabharwal; Girish N. Nadkarni; Shahzeb A. Khan; Juan P. Cordova; Alexandre M. Benjo; Dympna Gallagher; Eyal Herzog; Franz H. Messerli; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

2011-01-01

223

Head and Brain Injuries Experienced by African American Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of ethnicity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most serious, prevalent, and often undiagnosed results of intimate partner violence. Greater severity of violence, coupled with inadequate health care, places battered African American women at increased risk for head injuries. Accordingly, we review the symptoms associated with head injuries in battered women, with a focus on the experiences

Martha E. Banksm; Rosalie J. Ackerman

2002-01-01

224

A Composite Counterstorytelling: Memoirs of African American Military Students in Hawaii Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are social, educational and behavioral problems for African American students in Hawaii public schools. Utilizing Critical Race Theory as a lens for analysis, the perceptions and experiences of these students regarding race, ethnic identity, military lineage, and self-definition are addressed. A composite counterstory of the researcher's and…

Hairston, Kimetta R.

2010-01-01

225

Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

2010-01-01

226

African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

Wells, Tesia Denis

2012-01-01

227

Mayo's Older African American Normative Studies: Auditory Verbal Learning Test norms for African American Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in clinical practice to assess for memory dysfunction in the elderly. As part of the Mayo Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS), we provide age and education adjusted normative data for the AVLT. The sample consists of 306 self-identified African Americans who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling and ranging in age from

Tanis J. Ferman; John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

228

Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

2009-01-01

229

A comparison of type 2 diabetes risk allele load between African Americans and European Americans.  

PubMed

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is greater in populations of African descent compared to European-descent populations. Genetic risk factors may underlie the disparity in disease prevalence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >60 common genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk in populations of European, Asian, African and Hispanic descent. These studies have not comprehensively examined population differences in cumulative risk allele load. To investigate the relationship between risk allele load and T2D risk, 46 T2D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 loci from GWAS in European, Asian, and African-derived populations were genotyped in 1,990 African Americans (n = 963 T2D cases, n = 1,027 controls) and 1,644 European Americans (n = 719 T2D cases, n = 925 controls) ascertained and recruited using a common protocol in the southeast United States. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed from the cumulative risk alleles for each individual. In African American subjects, risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.024 to 0.964. Risk alleles from 26 SNPs demonstrated directional consistency with previous studies, and 3 SNPs from ADAMTS9, TCF7L2, and ZFAND6 showed nominal evidence of association (p < 0.05). African American individuals carried 38-67 (53.7 ± 4.0, mean ± SD) risk alleles. In European American subjects, risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.084 to 0.996. Risk alleles from 36 SNPs demonstrated directional consistency, and 10 SNPs from BCL11A, PSMD6, ADAMTS9, ZFAND3, ANK1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, PRC1, FTO, and BCAR1 showed evidence of association (p < 0.05). European American individuals carried 38-65 (50.9 ± 4.4) risk alleles. African Americans have a significantly greater burden of 2.8 risk alleles (p = 3.97 × 10(-89)) compared to European Americans. However, GRS modeling showed that cumulative risk allele load was associated with risk of T2D in European Americans, but only marginally in African Americans. This result suggests that there are ethnic-specific differences in genetic architecture underlying T2D, and that these differences complicate our understanding of how risk allele load impacts disease susceptibility. PMID:25273842

Keaton, Jacob M; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Palmer, Nicholette D; Freedman, Barry I; Langefeld, Carl D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Bowden, Donald W

2014-12-01

230

Treatment Disparities among African American Men with Depression: Implications for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724

Hankerson, Sidney H.; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K.

2015-01-01

231

Treatment Disparities among African American Men with Depression: Implications for Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724

Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K

2015-01-01

232

Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*  

PubMed Central

Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

233

The Effects of African American Women's Sexual Revictimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of African American women's sexual revictimization experiences in the context of historical and sociocultural factors. African American and White American women have been socialized differently about the history of race in America and stereotypes about who meets the societal-criteria's for rape victims today. In order to better understand the cumulative impact of African American women's

Gail Elizabeth Wyatt; Cindy M. Notgrass; Gwen Gordon

1995-01-01

234

Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body

Paula C. Chandler-Laney; Gary R. Hunter; Nikki C. Bush; Jessica A. Alvarez; Jane L. Roy; Nuala M. Byrne; Barbara A. Gower

2009-01-01

235

Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

2008-01-01

236

A Qualitative Inquiry on the Multidimensional Racial Development among First-Year African American College Students Attending a Predominately White Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While persistence and completion rates in postsecondary education are on the rise, gaps based on racial/ethnic demographics remain. This is particularly evident at predominately White institutions (PWIs), despite increasing enrollment of African Americans at these institutions. Previous studies have linked psychosocial health of African American

Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

2012-01-01

237

I Know Who I Am, Do You?: Identity and Academic Achievement of Successful African American Male Adolescents in an Urban Pilot High School in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores racial-ethnic identity and academic achievement of five young African American men in 11th and 12th grade in an urban pilot high school. Data gathered through individual and group interviews and a questionnaire were analyzed to understand how academically successful African American male adolescents interpret their social and…

Wright, Brian L.

2011-01-01

238

Saving Our Sons: The Impact of a Single Gender Public School on the Social, Emotional and Academic Progress of Young African American Males from Low Socioeconomic Urban Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…

Murphy, Robert L.

2013-01-01

239

Surveillance Instructions and Knowledge Among African American Colorectal Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: African Americans are less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to receive appropriate surveillance, an important component of care to achieve better long-term outcomes and well-being after colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. This study explored survivors' understanding of surveillance instructions and purpose. Patients and Methods: Interviews with 60 African American CRC survivors were recorded and transcribed. Compliance with surveillance guidelines was defined by disease stage and self-reported tests. Four coders (blind to compliance status) independently reviewed transcripts. Frequency of themes was reported by compliance status. Results: Survivors (4 to 6 years postdiagnosis; women, 57%; age ? 65 years, 60%; rural location, 57%; early-stage disease, 62%) were 48% noncompliant. Most survivors reported receiving surveillance instructions from providers (compliant, 80%; noncompliant, 76%). There was variation in recommended frequency of procedures (eg, every 3 or 12 months) and in importance of surveillance stressed by physicians. Most survivors understood the need for follow-up (compliant, 87%; noncompliant, 79%). Lack of knowledge of/interest in surveillance was more common among noncompliant individuals (compliant, 32%; noncompliant, 52%). Conclusion: Patients' limited understanding about the importance of CRC surveillance and procedures may negatively affect compliance with recommendations in African American CRC survivors. Clear and enhanced communications about post-treatment recommendations in this population are warranted. PMID:24385336

Pisu, Maria; Holt, Cheryl L.; Brown-Galvan, Aquila; Fairley, Temeika; Smith, Judith Lee; White, Arica; Hall, Ingrid J.; Oster, Robert A.; Martin, Michelle Y.

2014-01-01

240

Strategies for enrollment of african americans into cancer genetic studies.  

PubMed

The enrollment of ethnically diverse populations in genetic and genomic research is vital to the parity of benefits resulting from research with biological specimens. Herein, we discuss strategies that may effectively improve the recruitment of African Americans into genetics studies. Specifically, we show that engaging physicians, genetic counselors, and community members is essential to enrolling participants into genetic studies. We demonstrate the impact of utilizing African American genetic counselors on study enrollment rates and implementing a two-page consent form that improved on a lengthy and inefficient consenting process. Lastly, we provided participants with the option of donating saliva instead of blood for study purposes. Descriptive statistics were used. Using the aforementioned strategies, recruitment goals for the Genetic Basis of Breast Cancer Subtype Study at Howard University (HU) were met. Our overall results yielded 182 participants in 18 months. Recruitment strategies that involve the engagement of physicians, genetic counselors, and community members may help researchers increase the enrollment of ethnically diverse and hard-to-reach participants into genetic studies. PMID:24882437

Ewing, Altovise; Thompson, Nicole; Ricks-Santi, Luisel

2015-03-01

241

Genome-Wide Association of BMI in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with obesity in Europeans but results in other ethnicities are less convincing. Here, we report a two-stage GWAS of BMI in African Americans. The GWAS was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform in 816 nondiabetic and 899 diabetic nephropathy subjects. 746,626 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with BMI after adjustment for age, gender, disease status, and population structure. Sixty high scoring SNPs that showed nominal association in both GWAS cohorts were further replicated in 3,274 additional subjects in four replication cohorts and a meta-analysis was computed. Meta-analysis of 4,989 subjects revealed five SNPs (rs6794092, rs268972, rs2033195, rs815611, and rs6088887) at four loci showing consistent associations in both GWAS (P < 0.0001) and replication cohorts (P < 0.05) with combined P values range from 2.4 × 10?6 to 5 × 10?5. These loci are located near PP13439-TMEM212, CDH12, MFAP3-GALNT10, and FER1L4 and had effect sizes between 0.091 and 0.167 s.d. unit (or 0.67–1.24 kg/m2) of BMI for each copy of the effect allele. Our findings suggest the presence of novel loci potentially associated with adiposity in African Americans. Further replication and meta-analysis in African Americans and other populations will shed light on the role of these loci in different ethnic populations. PMID:21701570

Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Hester, Jessica M.; Wing, Maria R.; Li, Jiang; Xu, Jianzhao; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Lu, Lingyi; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Palmer, Nichole D.; Bowden, Donald W.

2012-01-01

242

Alcohol Dependence and Health Care Utilization in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objective Ethnic and cultural differences in patterns of alcohol use disorders must be understood in order to address improvement in prevention of such disorders and accessibility to health care services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the utilization of medical and mental health services among alcohol-dependent and non alcohol–dependent African Americans. Method A cohort of 454 African Americans was evaluated. Alcohol-dependent participants were recruited from various inpatient treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and through advertisement and word of mouth. Non–alcohol-dependent participants were recruited by advertisements. Each participant was administered the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism to assess alcohol dependency and the Family History Assessment module to access family history of alcoholism. ?2 Test and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results Alcohol dependence was more prevalent among men, those with lower income, those with less education, and they utilized mental health counseling as opposed to medical-based therapy. Increased reports of medical conditions such as migraine (p < .001), loss of consciousness (p = .001), and sexually transmitted diseases (p < .001) were also associated with alcohol dependency. Other factors, including visits to inpatient treatment programs, were directly related to incidence of alcohol dependency regardless of gender status (p < .001). Conclusions This study suggests an association exists among alcohol dependence, medical conditions, health care, and mental care utilization among African Americans. Future research may benefit from investigating if an association exists between alcohol use disorders and health care utilization for other ethnic groups. PMID:23862295

Marshall, Vanessa J.; Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Scott, Denise M.; Cain, Gloria E.; Hill, Karen; Hesselbrock, Victor; Ferguson, Clifford L.; Taylor, Robert E.

2013-01-01

243

78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 Presidential...8992 of May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President...lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our...

2013-06-06

244

Ten Ways African Americans Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Ten Ways African Americans Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes by the National Diabetes Education Program The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) is ... to have a heart attack or stroke. Although African Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, ...

245

On the Move to Better Heart Health for African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

On the Move to Better Heart Health for African Americans DISCRIMINATION PROHIBITED: Under provisions of applicable public laws ... On the Move to Better Heart Health for African Americans NIH Publication No. 08-5829 April 2008 Table ...

246

Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans, 2013-2014  

MedlinePLUS

... Offices Close + - Text Size Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans 2013-2014 This report provides the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans during 2013, as well as current statistics on ...

247

Improving Your Health: Tips for African American Men and Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Adobe Acrobat Reader Improving Your Health: Tips for African Americans Introduction Am I overweight? Could my weight lead ... Am I overweight? More than three in four African American adults are overweight or obese. The body mass ...

248

Colorectal Cancer Is Preventable: Information for African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... May 2012 Colorectal Cancer is Preventable: Information for African Americans By the National Cancer Institute Many people who ... effectively if it is found early enough. Regrettably, African Americans (both men and women) are more likely than ...

249

What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

... vision. The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in the world. High blood pressure affects more than 40 percent of African Americans. It also develops earlier in life in blacks ...

250

Depression in African-American patients with kidney disease.  

PubMed Central

There are few data on the epidemiology, consequences and treatment of depression in African-American patients with kidney disease in the US, even though such patients disproportionately bear the burden of this illness. This paper reviews data on the diagnosis and pathogenesis of depression and its consequences in patients with and without kidney disease, in addition to work on the epidemiology of depression in the African-American population and in the US End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) program. African Americans are thought to have similar susceptibility to the development of depression as other populations in the US, but diminished access to care for this group of patients may be associated with differential outcomes. Data are presented from longitudinal studies of psychosocial outcomes in a population comprising primarily African-American patients with ESRD, and is reviewed the treatment of depression in patients with and without kidney disease. There are few studies of the management of depression that focus on minority populations. The authors agree with recommendations that treatment trials should include minority patients, patients with medical comorbidities, and the elderly, and assess function and quality of life as outcomes. The relationships between age, marital status and satisfaction, ethnicity, and perception of quality of life and depressive affect level and diagnosis of depression, and medical outcomes have not been determined in ESRD patients, or in African-American patients with ESRD. There are few studies of drugs for the treatment of depression in ESRD patients, and only one small randomized controlled trial. These have shown that therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors appears to be a safe treatment option for patients with ESRD. The long-term effectiveness of therapy, and its association with clinically important outcomes such as perception of quality of life, compliance, and survival have not been evaluated in ESRD patients. Also, therapeutic effectiveness and outcomes have not been assessed in minority populations with ESRD. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the management of depression in African Americans with kidney disease. PMID:12152919

Kimmel, Paul L.; Patel, Somir S.; Peterson, Rolf A.

2002-01-01

251

Black or African American Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.” In data collection and presentation, federal agencies are required to use ... and Human Services (HHS) published final standards for data collection on race, ethnicity, sex, primary language and disability ...

252

Misreporting of total energy intake in older African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine misreporting of total energy intake in older African-American men and women using the double-labeled water procedure; and (2) to identify significant physiological and demographic determinants of total energy intake misreporting in older African Americans.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining gender differences and determinants of misreporting of total energy intake in older African-American men and women.SUBJECTS: Sixty-four, older African-American

NJ Tomoyasu; MJ Toth; ET Poehlman

2000-01-01

253

Complex syntax production of African American preschoolers.  

PubMed

This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 3- and 4-year-old African American children and the role of child (i.e., gender, age, African American English) and family (i.e., home environment) factors. The mean percentage of utterances containing one or more complex syntax forms was 6.2% at 3 years and 11.7% at 4 years. Girls produced more complex syntax forms than did boys. Complex syntax production increased significantly between age 3 and age 4 and correlated positively with mean length of utterance in words. Children from more responsive and stimulating home environments produced more complex syntax at 4 years. African American English was not related to the amount of complex syntax used. PMID:11708529

Jackson, S C; Roberts, J E

2001-10-01

254

Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans.  

PubMed Central

Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofactors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communities of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person. Studies from Africa have suggested that T. vaginalis infection may increase the rate of HIV transmission by approximately twofold. Available data indicate that T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among African-Americans in major urban centers of the United States and is often the most common sexually transmitted infection in black women. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small amount, this could translate into an important amplifying effect since Trichomonas is so common. Substantial HIV transmission may be attributable to T. vaginalis in African-American communities of the United States. PMID:11747718

Sorvillo, F.; Smith, L.; Kerndt, P.; Ash, L.

2001-01-01

255

Genetic and Molecular Differences in Prostate Carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian American Men  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Prostate cancer incidence and associated mortality are highest in African American men in comparison to other races. The observed differences in incidence and disease aggressiveness at presentation support a potential role for different pathways of prostate carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian men. This review focuses on some of the recent molecular biology discoveries, which have been investigated in prostate carcinogenesis and their likely contribution to the known discrepancies across race and ethnicity. Key discussion points include the androgen receptor gene structure and function, genome-wide association studies and epigenetics. The new observations of the ethnic differences of the ERG oncogene, the most common prostate cancer gene, are providing new insights into ERG based stratification of prostate cancers in the context of ethnically diverse patient populations. This rapidly advancing knowledge has the likely potential to benefit clinical practice. Current and future work will improve the ability to sub-type prostate cancers by molecular alterations and lead to targeted therapy against this common malignancy. PMID:23892597

Farrell, James; Petrovics, Gyorgy; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv

2013-01-01

256

Heart rate and blood pressure responses to tobacco smoking among African-American adolescents.  

PubMed Central

Ethnic differences in both physiological response to and health consequences of tobacco smoking-some of which have been attributed to ethnic preferences for menthol cigarettes-have been described in the literature. We compared acute physiological responses to smoking in African-American and European-American adolescent menthol cigarette smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. One-hundred- twenty-eight adolescents (32% African-American, 71% female; mean age 15.16 +/- 1.32 years, mean Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score 6.73 +/- 1.53, cigarettes per day (CPD) 16.9 +/- 2.64) participated in an experimental session during which they smoked one menthol cigarette of their usual brand. Blood pressure, heart rate, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured before and after smoking; mean puff volume (mL), puff duration (sec) and maximal puff velocity (mL/sec) during smoking were also determined. Two sample t-tests were performed to assess ethnic differences in smoking topography; analysis of covariance was used to determine whether heart rate and blood pressure after smoking one menthol cigarette varied by ethnicity, after controlling for baseline physiological measures. No significant ethnic differences were observed in either smoking topography or acute cardiovascular response to smoking. These preliminary findings warrant extension to a broader group of nontreatment-seeking adolescent smokers of both ethnicities. PMID:15233486

Moolchan, Eric T.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Sehnert, Shelley S.

2004-01-01

257

Barriers to Treatment Among African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

African Americans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent African Americans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult African Americans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the African American OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to African Americans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the African American participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers. PMID:22410094

Williams, M.T.; Domanico, J.; Marques, L.; Leblanc, N.J.; Turkheimer, E.

2012-01-01

258

Approaches to Addressing Plagiarism Department of African American and African Diaspora Studies  

E-print Network

Approaches to Addressing Plagiarism Department of African American and African Diaspora Studies The Department of African American and African Diaspora Studies offers the following option for satisfying must be cited in footnotes or endnotes. This includes not just quotes but also ideas, opinions

Indiana University

259

Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

2004-01-01

260

African American Males in Counseling: Who's Pulling the Trigger Now?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American males face numerous challenges to their physical and psychological well-being. This project is a survey of the literature and trends relative to African American males from 1987 to the present. In reviewing the fifteen years since Parham and McDavis published their now famous article on African American men as an endangered…

Bethea-Whitfield, Patricia

261

Going to School: The African-American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…

Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

262

Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

2013-01-01

263

Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

Adkison-Bradley, Carla

2011-01-01

264

Acculturation and cigarette smoking among African American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between acculturation and cigarette smoking among African Americans was examined with 444 adults. Results revealed that African American smokers were more traditional (less acculturated) than their nonsmoking counterparts, irrespective of gender, and that acculturation was a better predictor of smoking than status variables such as income and education. The prevalence of smoking among traditional African Americans was 33.6%

Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

1996-01-01

265

Decline of African American rural landowners: Trends and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land ownership among African Americans has declined drastically at rates uncomparable to any other group. Research has begun to examine the perceptions of African Americans toward owning land, with the objective of understanding how and why the decline occurred. The specific objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the characteristics of selected rural African American landowners in Tennessee, (2)

Reuben Josephe Tapp

1998-01-01

266

From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

Bates, Marcie Ann

2012-01-01

267

African-American Males' Health Perceptions and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on African American men's health is limited. Perception and knowledge of health may have a significant effect on health seeking behavior and self care. This study was designed to examine factors that may influence health perception and knowledge among African American males. This is a cross-sectional study of 343 African American males…

McNeal, CoSandra; Perkins, Isaac; Lyons, Shenia

2006-01-01

268

Substance Use Among African American Adolescents in the Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the attitudes and substance use behaviors of African American adolescents living in the Midwest. A baseline survey was administered to 463 African American teens between the ages of 11–19. The article examines the relationship between attitudes toward drugs and drug-using behavior in this African American sample. Drug use will be compared to

Rhonda K. Lewis; Felecia A. Lee; Chris M. Kirk; Michelle Redmond

2011-01-01

269

African American Fathers and Incarceration: Paternal Involvement and Child Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental

Armon R. Perry; Mikia Bright

2012-01-01

270

Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

2005-01-01

271

Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

272

CHRISTIAN ENCOUNTER WITH ISLAM AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS IN PRISON  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American prison inmates convert to Islam at a rate faster than any other demographic group in the United States. In this paper, I focus on the Christian encounter with Islam among African Americans in prison. First I examine the wider demographic and historical context influencing the rise of Islam among prisoners. I trace the tendency of African American prisoners

David J. Feddes

273

African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

2000-01-01

274

Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

2003

275

BLACK MASCULINITY AND BASKETBALL AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDIES 398DT  

Microsoft Academic Search

and by appointment Because over 80% of NBA basketball players are African American and the style of play that emerged from African-American communities dominates the professional game, basketball is culturally marked as black. Larry Bird, a three-time NBA MVP, and the best non-African American player of the last thirty years maintained that basketball is \\

Damion Thomas

276

Beating the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on African American males presents the first step in an ongoing exploration of the relationship between parenting and academic achievement among African American children. Subjects of the study were high-achieving members of the Meyerhoff Scholars, young African Americans distinguished for their achievement. The Meyerhoff Scholar program…

Hrabowski, Freemen A., III; Maton, Kenneth I.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

277

Impact of biomedical research on African Americans.  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical development and medical research continues at a fevered pitch. Historically, however, African Americans and other minorities have not been adequately represented in the studies determining a drug's safety and efficacy in humans. A history of misuse in the medical research systems (most notably the Tuskeegee study of syphillis in a population of illiterate, poor black men) have left many blacks wary of the health care system. However, attempts to address the health disparities faced by African Americans must include processes for including wider representation of blacks--as patients as well as investigators--in clinical trials. PMID:12653393

Harrison, R. W.

2001-01-01

278

Impact of biomedical research on African Americans.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical development and medical research continues at a fevered pitch. Historically, however, African Americans and other minorities have not been adequately represented in the studies determining a drug's safety and efficacy in humans. A history of misuse in the medical research systems (most notably the Tuskeegee study of syphillis in a population of illiterate, poor black men) have left many blacks wary of the health care system. However, attempts to address the health disparities faced by African Americans must include processes for including wider representation of blacks--as patients as well as investigators--in clinical trials. PMID:12653393

Harrison, R W

2001-03-01

279

AFRICAN AMERICANS HAVE A GREATER SENSITIVITY TO ALPHA1-ADRENOCEPTOR-MEDIATED VENOCONSTRICTION COMPARED TO CAUCASIANS  

PubMed Central

African Americans have increased hemodynamic responses to both physiologic and pharmacologic adrenergic stimulation compared to Caucasians, and this may contribute to the greater prevalence of hypertension in this ethnic group. A small study suggested enhanced ?1-adrenoreceptor-mediated arterial vasoconstriction in the forearm vasculature of African Americans compared to Caucasians, but it is unknown whether this reflects a generalized vascular phenomenon. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in venous ?1-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Using a linear variable differential transformer, we measured local dorsal hand vein responses to increasing doses of the selective ?1-adrenoreceptor agonist, phenylephrine, in 106 subjects (64 Caucasians and 42 African Americans). There was wide interindividual variability in responses to phenylephrine. The dose that produced 50% of maximal constriction (ED50) ranged from 11 to 5442 ng/min, and maximal venoconstriction (Emax) ranged from 13.5% to 100%. African Americans (geometric mean ED50=172 ng/min; 95% CI, 115 to 256 ng/min) were more sensitive to phenylephrine than Caucasians (310 ng/min; 95% CI, 222 to 434 ng/min; unadjusted P=0.026; adjusted P=0.003). Median Emax was slightly higher in African Americans (89%; IQR, 82% to 98%) compared to Caucasians (85%; IQR, 75% to 95%; P=0.07). Taken together with previous findings in arterial vessels, our results suggest a generalized increased sensitivity to ?1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in African Americans. Increased vascular ?-adrenoreceptor sensitivity could predispose to hypertension, and future studies addressing this mechanism’s contribution to ethnic differences in the prevalence of hypertension will be of interest. PMID:23399717

Adefurin, Abiodun; Ghimire, Laxmi V.; Kohli, Utkarsh; Muszkat, Mordechai; Sofowora, Gbenga G.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Stein, C. Michael; Kurnik, Daniel

2013-01-01

280

Responses to tiotropium in African-American and Caucasian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Sparse information exists about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes among different ethnic groups. To determine whether the effect of tiotropium on COPD exacerbation differs between African Americans and Caucasians, we performed a post hoc analysis of African-American (n = 150) and Caucasian (n = 1670) subgroups from a previously reported 6-month trial of tiotropium in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. Compared with placebo, tiotropium reduced the likelihood of having at least 1 exacerbation in the entire group (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99, P = 0.037) with no statistically significant difference between African-American and Caucasian subgroups (P = 0.34). For African Americans, tiotropium significantly reduced the number of antibiotic days for COPD, hospitalizations for exacerbations, and hospitalization days for COPD. For Caucasians, tiotropium significantly reduced the number of exacerbations, exacerbation days, unscheduled clinic visits for COPD, and hospitalizations for exacerbations. Tiotropium reduced the frequencies of antibiotic days and of COPD hospital days to a significantly greater extent in African Americans compared with Caucasians (P = 0.027 and P = 0.025, respectively). No statistically significant ethnic-related differences were observed in the effect of tiotropium on the frequencies of exacerbations, exacerbation days, systemic corticosteroid days, unscheduled clinic visits, or COPD hospitalizations. Spirometry improved to a similar extent in both subgroups for the entire duration of the 6-month trial. African Americans used fewer respiratory medications than Caucasians in this study. We conclude that tiotropium reduces COPD exacerbations and associated health-care use to a similar extent in African Americans compared with Caucasians. PMID:18674743

Rice, Kathryn L; Leimer, Inge; Kesten, Steven; Niewoehner, Dennis E

2008-08-01

281

Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls  

PubMed Central

Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundlyamong minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, runningor jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls’physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group. PMID:16397158

Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

2008-01-01

282

A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

Kober, Nancy

2010-01-01

283

The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health  

PubMed Central

Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

Meyer, Ilan H.

2010-01-01

284

The myth of meritocracy and African American health.  

PubMed

Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

2010-10-01

285

Never-pregnant african american adolescent girls' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy.  

PubMed

Despite the decrease in adolescent pregnancy rates, rates among African American girls remain higher than other racial/ethnic adolescent groups. This descriptive qualitative study explored never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions about adolescent pregnancy. Sixty-four participants participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interviews examined beliefs about adolescent pregnancy and perceptions of life changes resulting from becoming pregnant during adolescence. Focus groups were held to validate findings from the interviews. Participants agreed that becoming pregnant during adolescence would negatively impact their education, family, and peers. Participants anticipated feelings of shame and embarrassment in the event that they became pregnant. PMID:25236337

Childs, Gwendolyn D; Knight, Candace; White, Reashanda

2015-01-01

286

WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes  

PubMed Central

Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

2015-01-01

287

Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

Jones, Sheila Kay

2007-12-01

288

Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

2004-01-01

289

Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans  

PubMed Central

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

2011-01-01

290

Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.  

PubMed

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

2010-01-01

291

Strengths: African-American Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally true that when people are deprived of their own cultural forms and are coerced into adopting the cultural forms of others, disorder, stress, and even disability will occur. Conversely, the basic strength of any people results from their experience of historical and cultural continuity. The strengths of African-American children and…

Hilliard, Asa G., III

292

African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

293

Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

2010-01-01

294

African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

2011-01-01

295

African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

Johnson, Bernadeia H.

2012-01-01

296

African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

2003-01-01

297

African-American Axioms and Maxims.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

Zulu, Itibari M.

1998-01-01

298

Distinguished African American Political and Governmental Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive directory profiles more than 100 African American political and governmental leaders from the mid-19th century to the present. Each entry includes the following information, where applicable: birth date and place; parents' names and history; current status; education; anecdotes; national or local events; awards and honors;…

Haskins, James

299

Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.  

PubMed

Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically. PMID:25575321

Woody, Imani

2015-01-01

300

H-Afro-Am: African-American Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H-Afro-Am is a new H-Net sponsored, moderated discussion list for professionals, faculty, and advanced students in African American Studies. The discussion list will focus on the African Diaspora, mainly on the US experience. H-Afro-Am is also the official voice of the Collegium for African American Research in Europe (CAAR), established in 1992 to promote African American scholarship from an international perspective.

301

Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

302

Math Blitz Afterschool Program: Reclaiming Excellence for African American Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An academic achievement gap exists between European American and African American students in the United States elementary educational system. At present, the achievement gap is currently being measured by local, state, and national standardized assessments and reveals that there is a great disparity among African American and European American

Smalls, Ruth R.

2013-01-01

303

Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide.  

PubMed

African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been inconclusive and existing suicide interventions appear to have no effect on reducing this behavior among young African-Americans. This paper synthesizes classical (Durkheim, Suicide, 1979, Free Press, New York) and postmodern (Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992, Sage, London; Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1991) social theories in order to provide a more complete theoretical explanation for the increase in the suicide rate among adolescent African-American males. Postmodern society is typified by: (1) institutional deconstruction; (2) decreased collectivism; (3) increased normlessness and helplessness; and (4) exacerbated personal risk for stress. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that postmodernity characteristically loosens the bonds between the individual and society, thereby increasing vulnerability to depression, related pathologies (such as substance abuse), and suicide. African-Americans tend to be more affected/vulnerable because they are concentrated in resource-poor, low income areas, and institutions that provided social support (family, religious, community) and protected individuals from societal risk factors, have gradually been dissolving in postmodern societies. We argue that young African-American males of today are more exposed to stressors which increase psychological distress thus increasing depression and related pathological behaviors such as suicide. The main reason behind this increase is found in the inability of institutions to offer protection from psychological distress. Overall, this paper presents a postmodern, macro-level framework to explain the increase in suicide among African-American male adolescents. PMID:12220093

Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Cockerham, William C; Frison, Sonja L

2002-09-01

304

3 CFR 8627 - Proclamation 8627 of February 1, 2011. National African American History Month, 2011  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to African Americans, but African Americans would not let their dreams be denied. Though Jim Crow segregation slowed the onward march of history and expansion of the American dream, African Americans braved bigotry and violence to...

2012-01-01

305

Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

2013-01-01

306

The Development of Ethnic Identity in Mexican-American Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of cognitive social learning, cognitive developmental, and self-system theories were integrated into a theoretical framework for the study of ethnic identity and its development in Mexican-American children. Two studies were conducted, one with preschool children attending Head Start, and another with elementary school children age 6 to 10 years. The second study incorporated methodological refinements based on the first

Martha E. Bernal; George P. Knight; Camille A. Garza; Katheryn A. Ocampo; Marya K. Cota

1990-01-01

307

Examining the Bicultural Ethnic Identity of American Indian Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indians have the unique challenge of living and thriving in two distinct, cultural environments: their Native environment, and the White (i.e. mainstream) environment. They learn to identify with two cultures, and this duality of identification demonstrates their bicultural ethnic identity. As adolescence is typically a time of serious…

Brown, Carrie M.; Smirles, Kimberly Eretzian

308

Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.  

PubMed

Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women. PMID:25079012

Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

2014-09-01

309

The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.  

PubMed

Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

2015-01-01

310

Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment  

SciTech Connect

Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

Krossa, C.D. [San Francisco Univ. (United States)

1996-09-01

311

Comparative Ethnic Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

processes of migration and identity; role of law as `gatekeeping'; history of nativism, interethnic concepts such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality are given meaning. The program examines to complete the certificate. Each student takes: · Ethnic 101 ­ The Making of American Cultures: Africans

Saldin, Dilano

312

THEORIES OF ETHNIC SOCIAL DISTANCE: COMPARATIVE EMPIRICAL TESTS FOR THREE DISTINCT ETHNIC GROUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science theories of ethnic division and antipathy are tested empirically using survey and zip code data for representative samples of whites, African Americans, and Mexican Americans in Texas. Ordered logistic regression tests estimate the effects of theoretically relevant variables on probabilities of racial and ethnic out-group social distance. Competing social science theories of ethnic and racial social distance are

Arnold Vedlitz; Sammy Zahran

2007-01-01

313

African American Studies & Research Center and Latin American & Latino Studies  

E-print Network

Symposium on African American Culture & Philosophy "Afro"Afro--Latin America:Latin America: Rethinking Stewart Center, 3rd Floor West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 #12;"Afro-Latin America: Rethinking Identity for Women of Color through Afro-Latina Hybridity. 2. Immigration, Settlement, & the Dynamics of Trans

Pittendrigh, Barry

314

African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the perceptions of 55 African American undergraduates about Black English. Students identified as not having a committed Black identity evaluated Black English as lower in status than those students with a committed Black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. (SLD)

White, Michael J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Becker, Maria L.; Overstreet, Belinda G.; Temple, Linda E.; Hagan, Kelly L.; Mandelbaum, Emily P.

1998-01-01

315

Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations Among Rural African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through

Velma McBride Murry; Cady Berkel; Gene H. Brody; Shannon J. Miller; Yi-fu Chen

2009-01-01

316

Genes count: attenuated cerebral vasodilator capacity in young African Americans.  

PubMed

Compared to Caucasian Americans, African Americans present increased risk of cerebrovascular events such as stroke (Roger et al. 2011), even after controlling for age, insulin dependent diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and education (Sacco et al. 1995). The mechanisms explaining this increased prevalence of cerebral vascular disease in African Americans therefore remain elusive, though African Americans do demonstrate impaired endothelial function of systemic conductance arteries (Perregaux et al. 2000). If similar dysfunction exists in the cerebral circulation of African Americans it could impair cerebral blood flow regulation and predispose to, or possibly trigger, cerebrovascular events. PMID:25398708

White, Michael J

2014-11-13

317

The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans  

PubMed Central

Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

2008-01-01

318

The recruitment of breast cancer survivors into cancer control studies: a focus on African-American women.  

PubMed Central

The recruitment of African Americans into cancer prevention and control studies has presented a major challenge to scientific investigators. Scientific findings, whether biomedical or behavioral, may not be appropriate and applicable to ethnic minority populations unless they are adequately represented as study participants. Moreover, the need to involve greater numbers of ethnic minorities is quite urgent due to the poor morbidity and mortality outcomes associated with ethnic minority group membership. Such is the case with breast cancer survivorship. The purpose of the study was to test a personalized recruitment strategy on response rate in African-American women. The response rate of 45% (n = 117) African Americans and 64% (n = 161) white subjects indicated only limited success in the recruitment of the African-American breast cancer survivors. The recruitment result suggests that culturally relevant recruitment strategies (e.g., inclusion of African-American investigators, culturally consistent letter of recruitment) may be insufficient in adequately increasing research participation. Therefore, further studies on investigating factors that influence research participation (eg, type of incentives, and schedule of payment as well as type of stationery and stamps used) are needed. PMID:10365546

Ashing-Giwa, K.

1999-01-01

319

Epidemiology, Determinants, and Consequences of Cigarette Smoking in African American Women: An Integrative Review  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW. PMID:20061090

Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.

2010-01-01

320

Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-07-01

321

Mutation analysis of BRCA1 gene in African-American patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

An estimated 7% of all breast cancers and 10% of all ovarian cancers are associated with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The mutations of a breast cancer-susceptible gene, BRCA1, confers increased risk of breast cancer in young women. Numerous studies have reported specific mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the white population. However, there are very few studies on African-American and other ethnic minority groups. The goal of this study is to identify whether African-American patients with breast cancer carry some common mutations reported in other ethnic groups and whether they carry some novel mutations. We screened hot-region mutations on exons 2, 5, 11, 16, and 20 of BRCA1 gene in 54 African-American patients with breast cancer by NIRCA and SSCP methods. Our data revealed one novel frameshift mutation (3331 insG) and three missense sequence variants (A3537G, A3667G, and C4009T) on exon 11. Each sequence change was confirmed by automatic DNA sequencing. One rare sequence variant, A3537G, has been revealed in high frequency (3/54). Our data suggested that African-American patients with breast cancer carry some unique BRCA1 gene mutations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10800284

Shen, D.; Wu, Y.; Subbarao, M.; Bhat, H.; Chillar, R.; Vadgama, J. V.

2000-01-01

322

African-American Poetry, 1760-1900  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing software developed at the University of Chicago, this online database of African-American poetry is a fine resource for people looking for a compendium of poems by numerous notable 18th and 19th century African-American poets. First-time users will want to read the users manual, which explains the software used to design the database, and how to best utilize the available search engine, which allows for a number of detailed searching methods. The database itself contains 12 million words from a total of 86 works. Visitors looking to browse the online works should consult the bibliography section, as it contains a detailed description of the authors and works covered within the database. Visitors familiar with this genre will note the inclusion of many notable poets, including Paul Dunbar, James Corrothers, and Albery Allson Whitman.

323

Postpartum depression among African-American women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2003-01-01

324

African-American Band Music and Recordings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, a number of African American musicians and bandleaders had garnered the attention of the music-going public, and names such as Eubie Blake and Scott Joplin remain familiar to this very day. This rather fine online collection offered by the Library of Congress's Performing Arts division brings together a number of so-called "stock" arrangements for bands or small orchestras written by African Americans during that period. Visitors to the site should start by reading one of the four informative essays offered here, and then search through the actual music. There are over 206 pieces of music here, including "After the Cake Walk" from 1901 and the 1905 number, "Banana Man". Additionally, visitors can read any number of composer and bandleader biographies.

325

Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model  

Microsoft Academic Search

iven the historical and contemporary existence of racism in American society, one might suspect there would be an equally substantial literature examining the effects of racism on African Americans. Yet, research exploring the biological, psychological, and social effects of racism among African Americans is virtually nonexistent. The purpose of this article was threefold: (a) to provide a brief overview of

Rodney Clark; Norman B. Anderson; Vernessa R. Clark; David R. Williams

1999-01-01

326

77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 By the President...long-cherished piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story...tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special...

2012-06-07

327

African-Native Americans : We Are Still Here  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The William & Anita Newman Library at Baruch College (The City University of New York) has recently added this exhibit to its digital collection. African-Native Americans: We Are Still Here is a photo exhibit that profiles people of joint African American and Native American heritage, with text by Eve Winddancer and photographs by Louis B. Myers.

328

Understanding the African-American Experience: An Interdisciplinary, Multimedia Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological and historical perspectives on what W.E.B. Du Bois described as "double-consciousness" or "twoness" offer distinct yet complementary viewpoints of the African American experience. A counseling psychologist and an American historian examined the issue of African American identity using an interdisciplinary teaching approach. The…

Bauman, Stephanie SanMiguel; Bauman, Robert A.

329

Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

2011-01-01

330

Unfair Treatment, Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Ethnic Identification, and Smoking Among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the relations of self-report of general unfair treatment and self-report of race/ethnicity-specific discrimination with current smoking among Asian Americans. We investigated whether ethnic identification moderated either association. Methods. Weighted logistic regressions were performed among 1977 Asian Americans recruited to the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002–2003). Results. In weighted multivariate logistic regression models including both general unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination, odds of current smoking were higher among Asian Americans who reported high levels of unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13, 6.95) and high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination (OR=2.40; 95% CI=0.94, 6.12) compared with those who reported no unfair treatment and discrimination, respectively. High levels of ethnic identification moderated racial/ethnic discrimination (F3 =3.25; P =.03). High levels of ethnic identification were associated with lower probability of current smoking among participants reporting high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that experiences of unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination are risk factors for smoking among Asian Americans. Efforts to promote ethnic identification may be effective in mitigating the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination on smoking in this population. PMID:18235073

Chae, David H.; Takeuchi, David T.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Bennett, Gary G.; Lindsey, Jane; Krieger, Nancy

2008-01-01

331

Adiponectin and Ghrelin Levels and Body Size in Normoglycemic Filipino, African-American, and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Prior studies have reported ethnic differences in adiponectin and ghrelin, but few have assessed the role of body size in normoglycemic women. We compared fasting adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations in normoglycemic 40- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women.Methods: Participants included women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 143), the University of California-San Diego Filipino Women’s Health Study

Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

2007-01-01

332

African American Women in Iowa Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fruitful collaboration between the Iowa Women's Archive and the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa has produced this enlightening website containing over 200 items including links to "scrapbooks," "photographs," "pamphlets" "oral histories" and "newsletters." The "Recent Additions" area allows visitors to click on any of the thumbnails in the line up of items shown, to see the image enlarged. By simply double clicking on the thumbnail, users can also access bibliographic data about the item.

333

African American Women's Unique Divorce Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative study explored African American working women's pre-divorce, divorce and postdivorce experiences. A total of thirty divorced women were interviewed face-to-face by a social worker in a Member's Assistance Program where the women had received free legal and social work services. The findings demonstrate that the women face emotional and financial problems as a result of low salaries, lack

Olga Molina

2000-01-01

334

Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofac- tors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communi- ties of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person.

Frank Sorvillo; Lisa Smith; Peter Kerndt; H Lawrence Ash

2001-01-01

335

Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official Impact on Black Businesses"…

Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

336

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Main Content Are African ... should you do if you have symptoms? Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? Yes, African ...

337

Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

1993-01-01

338

The Influence of Africentric Values and Neighborhood Satisfaction on the Academic Self-Efficacy of African American Elementary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examined the relationships between Africentric values, racial/ethnic identity, neighborhood satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy beliefs among 88 African American elementary school children. Results indicated that Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction were both predictive of academic self-efficacy beliefs.…

Shin, Richard Q.

2011-01-01

339

Estimates of African, European and Native American Ancestry in Afro-Caribbean Men on the Island of Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The Tobago Afro-Caribbean population is a valuable resource for studying the genetics of diseases that show significant differences in prevalence between populations of African descent and populations of other ancestries. Empirical confirmation of low European and Native American admixture may help in clarifying the ethnic variation in risk for such diseases. We hypothesize that the degree of European and

Iva Miljkovic-Gacic; Robert E. Ferrell; Alan L. Patrick; Candace M. Kammerer; Clareann H. Bunker

2005-01-01

340

The journey of African-Americans on th path toward the doctoral degree: a revelation of underlying factors and themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation developed from an awareness of the continuing census gap in the award of doctorates between African-Americans and Caucasians. In a 2006 summary report of doctorate recipients from United States universities by race and ethnicity over the years 1986, 1996, and 2006, there was a decline in the number of doctorates awarded whites from 91% in 1986 to 80%

Jacobs Jr Walter R

2008-01-01

341

Personal, social, and physical environmental correlates of physical activity in African-American women in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLittle is known about the correlates of physical activity among African-American women living in the southeastern United States. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of personal, social, cultural, environmental, and policy variables with physical activity among women in ethnic minority groups.

Barbara E Ainsworth; Sara Wilcox; Winifred W Thompson; Donna L Richter; Karla A Henderson

2003-01-01

342

The Effort“Outcome Gap: Differences for African American and Hispanic Community College Students in Student Engagement and Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for community college students from various racial\\/ethnic groups (n = 3,143). Results suggest an Effort–Outcome Gap may exist for African American students—the result of having to expend more effort in attempting to overcome myriad barriers to academic success.

C. Nathan Marti Thomas G. Greene; Kay McClenney

2008-01-01

343

The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic

Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

2009-01-01

344

YOUR Blessed Health: A Faith-Based CBPR Approach to Addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite substantial federal, state, and local efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS, African Americans experience higher rates of infection than any other ethnic or racial group in the United States. It is imperative to develop culturally and ecologically sensitive interventions to meet the sexual health needs of this population.…

Griffith, Derek M.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober

2010-01-01

345

Alternative medicine utilization by African Americans and improving life expectancy: is there a correlation?  

PubMed

The life expectancy of African Americans and Caucasians has been increasing in the United States and in many other countries around the world since the late 1800s. However, as long as statistics have been accrued on race and ethnicity, the life expectancy of African Americans and Blacks in general has been significantly lower than that of Caucasians. Basic public health and medical preventive education is needed because higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates is one of the primary reasons for the differences between life expectancy between African Americans and Caucasians. It is also of an apparent separate but perhaps related interest that several recent preliminary studies suggest that African Americans, more than any other race, may have some of the lowest uses of alternative medicine due to skepticism, as well as educational efforts and trust in their health care professional. Despite a common belief that African Americans harbor profound distrust of specific areas of the medical profession, it is of interest that this finding has not held validity in the area of alternative medicine. Therefore, since lifestyle changes are considered alternatives in most of these studies, this would suggest that a greater educational emphasis on behavioral modification could establish a foundation or a model of preventive medical education that can be utilized for underserved populations around the world. PMID:17990625

Moyad, Mark A; Lusk, William; Schwartz, Lawrence R

2007-10-01

346

Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study  

PubMed Central

Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase) required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate). Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations. PMID:20085641

2010-01-01

347

Reproductive and menstrual factors and mammographic density in African American, Caribbean, and white women  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the associations between reproductive and menstrual risk factors for breast cancer and mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a predominantly ethnic minority and immigrant sample. Methods We interviewed women (42% African American, 22% African Caribbean, 22% White, 9% Hispanic Caribbean, 5% other) without a history of breast cancer during their mammography appointment (n = 191, mean age = 50). We used a computer-assisted method to measure the area and percentage of dense breast tissue from cranio-caudal mammograms. We used multivariable linear regression analyses to estimate the associations between reproductive and menstrual risk factors and mammographic density. Results Age was inversely associated with percent density and dense area, and body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with percent density. Adjusting for age, BMI, ethnicity and menopausal status, later age at menarche (e.g., ? = ?7.37, 95% CI: ?12.29, ?2.46 for age ?13 years vs. ? 11 years), and any use of hormonal birth control (HBC) methods (? = ?5.10, 95% CI: ?9.37, ?0.84) were associated with reduced dense area. Ethnicity and nativity (foreign- vs. US-born) were not directly associated with density despite variations in the distribution of several risk factors across ethnic and nativity groups. Conclusions The mean level of mammographic density did not differ across ethnic and nativity groups, but several risk factors for breast cancer were associated with density in ethnic minority and immigrant women. PMID:21327938

Reynolds, Diane; Flom, Julie; Fulton, Loralee; Liao, Yuyan; Kudadjie-Gyamfi, Elizabeth; Terry, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

348

Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

349

Exploring Decision-Making of HIV-Infected Hispanics and African Americans Participating in Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Underrepresentation of HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials seriously limits our understanding of the benefits and risks of treatment in these populations. This qualitative study examined factors that racial/ethnic minority patients consider when making decisions regarding research participation. Thirty-five HIV-infected Hispanic and African American patients enrolled in clinical research protocols at the National Institutes of Health were recruited to participate in focus groups and in-depth interviews. The sample of mostly men (n = 22), had a mean age of 45, nearly equal representation of race/ethnicity, and diagnosed 2 to 22 years ago. Baseline questionnaires included demographics and measures of social support and acculturation. Interviewers had similar racial/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds as the participants. Four major themes around participants’ decisions to enroll in clinical trials emerged: Enhancers, Barriers, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Context. Results may help researchers develop strategies to facilitate inclusion of HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials. PMID:21256054

Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Stoll, Pamela; Grady, Christine; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.

2011-01-01

350

Engaging African American breast cancer survivors in an intervention trial: culture, responsiveness and community  

PubMed Central

Introduction Younger breast cancer survivors often lead extremely busy lives with multiple demands and responsibilities, making them difficult to recruit into clinical trials. African American women are even more difficult to recruit because of additional historical and cultural barriers. In a randomized clinical trial of an intervention, we successfully used culturally informed, population-specific recruitment and retention strategies to engage younger African-American breast cancer survivors. Methods Caucasian and African American breast cancer survivors were recruited from multiple communities and sites. A variety of planned recruitment and retention strategies addressed cultural and population-specific barriers and were guided by three key principals: increasing familiarity with the study in the communities of interest; increasing the availability and accessibility of study information and study participation; and using cultural brokers. Results Accrual of younger African-American breast cancer survivors increased by 373% in 11 months. The steepest rise in the numbers of African-American women recruited came when all strategies were in place and operating simultaneously. Retention rates were 87% for both Caucasian and African American women. Discusssion/Conclusions To successfully recruit busy, younger African American cancer survivors, it is important to use a multifaceted approach, addressing cultural and racial/ethnic barriers to research participation; bridging gaps across cultures and communities; including the role of faith and beliefs in considering research participation; recognizing the demands of different life stages and economic situations and the place of research in the larger picture of peoples’ lives. Designs for recruitment and retention need to be broadly conceptualized and specifically applied. Implications for Cancer Survivors For busy cancer survivors, willingness to participate in and complete research participation is enhanced by strategies that address barriers but also acknowledge the many demands on their time by making research familiar, available, accessible and credible. PMID:20886374

Mishel, Merle H.; Alexander, G. Rumay; Jenerette, Coretta; Blyler, Diane; Baker, Carol; Vines, Anissa I.; Green, Melissa; Long, Debra G.

2011-01-01

351

African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a

Loretta J. Ross

1992-01-01

352

African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a

Co-Founder Loretta J. Ross

1992-01-01

353

African-American Muslim Women and Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muslims constitute a growing proportion of the African-American population. This paper explores the health practices, health behaviors, and code of ethics as informed by the Islamic religion within the context of African-American Muslim women's lives. An overview of the history of Islam in the world, and in the U.S., the main Islamic tenets, and the socio-cultural context of African-American Muslim

Shireen S. Rajaram; Anahita Rashidi

2003-01-01

354

Religion and Feminist Attitudes Among African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a 1988 telephone survey of randomly selected African-American residents of Washington, D.C., we test the association between religious attitudes and practices of African-American women and support for gender equality and abortion. We find that religious involvement and orthodoxy are strong predictors of opposition to legal abortion among African-American women, but are not associated with opposition to gender

Clyde Wilcox; Sue Thomas

1992-01-01

355

Descriptors and Perception of Dyspnea in African-American Asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores self-reported perception of asthma symptoms in African-Americans. Methods Qualitative methodology was used to analyze the responses from African-Americans within focus groups from Nashville, Tennessee. Results Common symptoms were chest tightness, “breathing problems,” and wheeze. Less commonly reported symptoms included cough, chest pain, dizziness, sweating, and “short of breath.” A single participant reported nocturnal wheezing. Conclusions This study provides insight into the descriptors and perception of asthma symptoms in African-Americans. Understanding the descriptors of symptoms and disease severity in African-American patients may lead to more accurate diagnosis, treatment, and reduced mortality within this high-risk population. PMID:18097855

Trochtenberg, D. Scott; BeLue, Rhonda

2010-01-01

356

African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

1997-01-01

357

Culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment for parenting African American women.  

PubMed

Culturally appropriate strategies have been deemed necessary for the treatment of substance abuse among African American women. This qualitative study was conducted utilizing a grounded theory methodology within a womanist theoretical framework to explore the process by which parenting African American women participate in formal substance abuse treatment programs. Study findings yielded significant insights into this process and support the notion that culturally appropriate frameworks are necessary to help substance-abusing African American women enter into treatment programs and remain in recovery. In addition, specific interventions for treating substance-abusing African American women within a culturally relevant framework are discussed. PMID:15204890

Lewis, Lisa M

2004-01-01

358

Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.  

PubMed

This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations. PMID:8718416

Davis, S P

1995-01-01

359

77 FR 45471 - White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...improving educational outcomes for African Americans of all ages, and to help ensure that all African Americans receive an education...ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Over the course of America's history, African American men and women...

2012-08-01

360

African American Women’s Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers  

PubMed Central

Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women’s birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women’s mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women’s preparation for birthing. PMID:22211059

Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed

2011-01-01

361

Normative Changes in Ethnic and American Identities and Links with Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…

Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.

2013-01-01

362

Beliefs About Smoking Among Adolescents–Gender and Ethnic Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consistent 20-year trend in adolescent tobacco use is that African American youth smoke cigarettes at a lower rate than other ethnic groups. To better understand this difference, our study identified gender and ethnic beliefs about cigarette smoking and abstention from smoking. In a multiethnic sample of adolescents, based on qualitative analysis of 63 in depth interviews with African American,

Wendell C. Taylor; Candace L. Ayars; Alicia P. Gladney; Ron J. Peters Jr; Jacqulin R. Roy; Alexander V. Prokhorov; Robert M. Chamberlain; Ellen R. Gritz

1999-01-01

363

What College Students Really Think About Ethnic Student Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examined European, Hispanic, and African American college students' attitudes toward ethnic student organizations (ESOs). Based on data from Study 1 (N = 750), it was found that students across ethnic groups expressed uncertainty about whether ESOs were beneficial\\/necessary, fair\\/acceptable, and about their interest in joining an ESO. As a group, Hispanic and African American students

Charles Negy; Rachael A. Lunt

2008-01-01

364

Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

2006-01-01

365

76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...slowed the onward march of history and expansion of the American dream, African Americans braved bigotry and violence to organize schools, churches, and neighborhood organizations. Bolstered by strong values of faith and community, black...

2011-02-04

366

Racial Narratives, Group Identity, and African-American Political Behavior  

E-print Network

My dissertation seeks to advance the racial politics and political behavior literatures in American politics by focusing on the role of "racial narratives" in explaining historical changes in African-American political ...

Delehanty, William

2010-05-13

367

Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms Among African American Men  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18–34), middle (35–54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results Discrimination was significantly related to depressive symptoms for men ages 35 to 54 and mastery was found to be protective against depressive symptoms for all men. Compared to African American men in the young and late adult groups, discrimination remained a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms for men in the middle group once mastery was included. Implications Findings demonstrate the distinct differences in the influence of discrimination on depressive symptoms among adult African American males and the need for future research that explores the correlates of mental health across age groups. Implications for social work research and practice with African American men are discussed. PMID:24436576

Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

2013-01-01

368

The psychiatric rehabilitation of African Americans with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

African Americans make up approximately 12% of the U.S. population, a total of around 36 million people. Evidence suggests that African Americans suffer from significant and persistent disparities within the mental health system. African Americans with severe mental illness are less likely than Euro-Americans to access mental health services, more likely to drop out of treatment, more likely to receive poor-quality care, and more likely to be dissatisfied with care. Dominant patterns of treatment for African Americans with psychiatric disabilities are often least suited to long-term rehabilitation. To be successful, interventions must simultaneously target three levels: macro, provider, and patient. Five domains are posited that cut across these levels. These are cross-cultural communication, discrimination, explanatory models, stigma, and family involvement. These need appropriate research and action to enhance the psychiatric rehabilitation of African Americans. Potential solutions to overcome barriers raised within these domains are suggested. PMID:20439373

Whitley, Rob; Lawson, William B

2010-05-01

369

Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.  

PubMed

Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade. PMID:20080753

Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

2010-01-12

370

Interventions to increase medication adherence in African-American and Latino populations: a literature review.  

PubMed

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence in ethnic minority populations. A literature search from January 2000 to August 2012 was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms used included: medication (MeSH), adherence, medication adherence (MeSH), compliance (MeSH), persistence, race, ethnicity, ethnic groups (MeSH), minority, African-American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, and intervention. Studies which did not have ?75% of the sample population comprised of individuals of any one ethnic background were excluded, unless the authors performed sub-group analyses by race/ethnicity. Of the 36 studies identified, 20 studies showed significant post-intervention differences. Sample population sizes ranged from 10 to 520, with a median of 126.5. The studies in this review were conducted with patients of mainly African-American and Latino descent. No studies were identified which focused on Asians, Pacific Islanders, or Native Americans. Interventions demonstrating mixed results included motivational interviewing, reminder devices, community health worker (CHW) delivered interventions, and pharmacist-delivered interventions. Directly observed therapy (DOT) was a successful intervention in two studies. Interventions which did not involve human contact with patients were ineffective. In this literature review, studies varied significantly in their methods and design as well as the populations studied. There was a lack of congruence among studies in the way adherence was measured and reported. No single intervention has been seen to be universally successful, particularly for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:24470982

Hu, Daniel; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yeboah, Michelle; Castillo, Theresa P

2014-01-01

371

Interventions to Increase Medication Adherence in African-American and Latino Populations: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence in ethnic minority populations. A literature search from January 2000 to August 2012 was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms used included: medication (MeSH), adherence, medication adherence (MeSH), compliance (MeSH), persistence, race, ethnicity, ethnic groups (MeSH), minority, African-American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, and intervention. Studies which did not have ?75% of the sample population comprised of individuals of any one ethnic background were excluded, unless the authors performed sub-group analyses by race/ethnicity. Of the 36 studies identified, 20 studies showed significant post-intervention differences. Sample population sizes ranged from 10 to 520, with a median of 126.5. The studies in this review were conducted with patients of mainly African-American and Latino descent. No studies were identified which focused on Asians, Pacific Islanders, or Native Americans. Interventions demonstrating mixed results included motivational interviewing, reminder devices, community health worker (CHW) delivered interventions, and pharmacist-delivered interventions. Directly observed therapy (DOT) was a successful intervention in two studies. Interventions which did not involve human contact with patients were ineffective. In this literature review, studies varied significantly in their methods and design as well as the populations studied. There was a lack of congruence among studies in the way adherence was measured and reported. No single intervention has been seen to be universally successful, particularly for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:24470982

Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yeboah, Michelle; Castillo, Theresa P

2014-01-01

372

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

2005-01-01

373

Do you see what I see?: An exploration of inter-ethnic ideal body size comparisons among college women.  

PubMed

The present study explored African American (n=16) and European American (n=19) college women's ideal body size perceptions for their own and the other ethnic group along with reasons behind their selections. Respondents completed an ethnically-neutral figure rating scale and then participated in ethnically-homogenous focus groups. European Americans mostly preferred a curvy-thin or athletic ideal body while most African American students resisted notions of a singular ideal body. European Americans suggested that African Americans' larger ideal body sizes were based on greater body acceptance and the preferences of African American men. African Americans used extreme terms when discussing their perceptions of European Americans' thin idealization, celebrity role models, and weight management behaviors. African Americans' perceptions of European Americans' body dissatisfaction were also attributed to the frequent fat talk they engaged in. Implications for promoting the psychosocial well-being of ethnically-diverse emerging adult females attending college are discussed. PMID:23608124

Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Chou, Ying-Yi; Adams, Lauren

2013-06-01

374

Exercise, self-efficacy, and exercise behavior in hypertensive older African-Americans.  

PubMed

Older African-Americans have very high rates of hypertension, and they experience one of the highest hypertension-related death rates of all American ethnic groups. They are also one of the most physically inactive groups, which contributes to their hypertension-related health problems. Interventions are needed to assist them in increasing their exercise activities and thereby gaining better hypertension control. This study evaluated the relationship between physical activity level and exercise self-efficacy for this group. Findings support a strong association and suggest that interventions that address exercise self-efficacy would be helpful for increasing the level of exercise in older African-Americans. Suggested nursing interventions, based on theory, are proposed. PMID:17004422

Cromwell, Sandra L; Adams, Marion Meta

2006-07-01

375

Solitary drinking, social isolation, and escape drinking motives as predictors of high quantity drinking, among Anglo, African American and Mexican American males.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the phenomenon of 'solitary drinking', considering whether Anglo, African American and Mexican American male regular drinkers differ in the propensity to drink in solitary contexts and whether such differences may help to explain observed ethnic variation in patterns of heavy drinking. Further, the paper considers whether apparent relationships between solitary drinking and drinking patterns are explained by individual personality characteristics such as social isolation and/or by endorsement of 'escape drinking' motives. Data were analysed from a random community sample of 481 adult male regular drinkers in San Antonio, Texas, USA. Contingency table and logistic regression analyses indicated that initially observed ethnic differences in high quantity and high maximum drinking were largely eliminated by controls for education, escape motives and solitary drinking. Ethnic variation in the role of solitary drinking was suggested as well, with solitary drinking more strongly related to high quantity consumption, in particular, among African Americans than among Mexican Americans. The nature of the observed interactions suggests that fundamental differences between Anglos and African Americans in the roles of solitary drinking and escape drinking motives may underlie seemingly similar frequent, lower quantity drinking patterns in these groups that appear more frequently than among Mexican American males. PMID:9131890

Neff, J A

1997-01-01

376

Comparison of Regional Fat Distribution and Health Risk Factors in Middle-Aged White and African American Women: The Healthy Transitions Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Both ethnicity and menopause appear to influence intra-abdominal fat distribution. This study evaluated intra-abdominal fat distribution and obesity-related health risks in perimenopausal white and African American women.Research Methods and Procedures: Baseline data from a longitudinal study of changes in body composition and energy balance during menopause are reported. Healthy women (55 African Americans and 103 whites) who were on

Jennifer C. Lovejoy; Steven R. Smith; Jennifer C. Rood

2001-01-01

377

Parent Report of Binge Eating in Hispanic, African American and Caucasian Youth  

PubMed Central

Binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth. However, there are limited data on the relationship between binge eating and weight in racial or ethnically diverse youth. We therefore examined 409 obese (BMI ? 95th percentile for age and sex) treatment-seeking Hispanic (29.1%), Caucasian (31.7%), and African American (39.2%), boys and girls (6-18y). Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat were measured to assess body composition. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children’s Depressive Inventory and disordered eating cognitions were measured with the Children’s Eating Attitudes Test. Accounting for age, sex, body fat mass, and height, the odds of parents reporting that their child engaged in binge eating were significantly higher among Caucasian compared to African American youth, with Hispanic youth falling non-significantly between these two groups. Youth with binge eating had greater body adiposity (p = .02), waist circumference (p = .02), depressive symptoms (p = .01), and disordered eating attitudes (p = .04), with no difference between racial or ethnic group. We conclude that, regardless of race or ethnicity, binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth and is associated with adiposity and psychological distress. Further research is required to elucidate the extent to which binge eating among racially and ethnically diverse youth differentially impacts weight loss outcome. PMID:23265393

Elliott, Camden A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mirza, Nazrat M.

2013-01-01

378

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

379

Revisiting safe sleep recommendations for African-American infants: why current counseling is insufficient.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS. PMID:24889117

Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George

2015-03-01

380

Understanding the findings of resilience-related research for fostering the development of African American adolescents.  

PubMed

African American youth face a number of challenges to prosocial development that the majority of American youth never encounter. Despite this, the research clearly documents that African American youth often are resilient in the face of these challenges. This article explores various factors associated with resilience in African American children and their implications for practitioners. An ecologic framework described by Bronfenbrenner is used as an organizing framework for understanding interventions at the micro-, mezzo-, and exo-system levels. In this article, the importance of identity formation, maintenance of social networks, and exposure to safe and supportive environments is expressed in conjunction with recommendations for practitioners. Practitioners are encouraged to stress the promotion of ethnic and racial identity and self-efficacy with the youth and their family and the involvement of the youth and family in meaningful activities through local community centers, schools, churches, and other organizations serving youth. A case study of an African American girl, from age 16 into adulthood and motherhood, is presented to illustrate the interplay between protective and risk factors. PMID:17349515

Barrow, Frederica H; Armstrong, Mary I; Vargo, Amy; Boothroyd, Roger A

2007-04-01

381

CTNS Mutations in African American Patients with Cystinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, is rarely diagnosed in African Americans. The disease results from mutations in the gene CTNS; at least 55 such mutations have been reported. By far the most common is a 57,257-bp deletion of Northern European origin encompassing most of the CTNS gene. We performed mutation analysis on DNA from four African American patients

Robert Kleta; Yair Anikster; Cynthia Lucero; Vorasuk Shotelersuk; Marjan Huizing; Isa Bernardini; Margaret Park; Jess Thoene; Jerry Schneider; William A. Gahl

2001-01-01

382

Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

383

These Hallowed Halls: African American Women College and University Presidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…

Bates, Gerri

2007-01-01

384

Standing Up and Speaking Out: African American Women's Narrative Legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on extensive excerpts from texts that are a part of a larger study of elderly African American women's oral narratives, the following paper examines the manner in which African American women speak out about and suppress accounts of racism and sexism in their professional and private lives. The narratives suggest that the very act of telling their own life

Gwendolyn Etter-Lewis

1991-01-01

385

Racialized Sexual Harassment in the Lives of African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, scholars who investigate sexual harassment have been disturbingly silent about issues facing women of color. The current study describes results of a qualitative study of sexual and racial harassment conducted with 37 African American women. These data indicate that African American women cannot easily separate issues of race and gender when considering their personal accounts of victimization, which

Nicole T. Buchanan; Alayne J. Ormerod

2002-01-01

386

Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

McGee, Zina T.

1999-01-01

387

Explorative study of African Americans and internet dating  

E-print Network

EXPLORATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND INTERNET DATING A Thesis by KAMESHA SONDRANEK SPATES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Sociology EXPLORATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND INTERNET DATING A Thesis by KAMESHA SONDRANEK SPATES...

Spates, Kamesha Sondranek

2005-02-17

388

African Americans, U. S. History, and the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses changing views taken by contemporary history texts and courses of African-Americans, and other minorities. Warns that the subject of slavery can be an uncomfortable one to teach but needs to be addressed. Provides reviews of World Wide Web sites that provide a good overview of African-American history. (DSK)

Risinger, C. Frederick

1998-01-01

389

Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

390

Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

2012-01-01

391

Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

2009-01-01

392

Culture: A Possible Predictor of Morality for African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the ways in which cultural orientation (communalism and material well-being) and empathy influence the moral reasoning of African American middle to late adolescents. Specifically, this study utilized path analysis to investigate Ward's (1995) hypothesis that a communal orientation would promote morality among African American

Humphries, Marisha L.; Jagers, Robert J.

2009-01-01

393

General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

394

Brother to Brother: Success for African-American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Brother to Brother, a program designed to help African-American men stay in college and graduate. St. Petersburg College formed this program seven years ago as a means not only of recruiting male African-American students, but also to identify issues that cause them to be at risk for dropping out and to use retention…

Henningsen, Stephanie

2005-01-01

395

African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

Hunter, Herbert M.

1990-01-01

396

Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

Kusimo, Patricia S.

397

75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President...United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story, assuage our sorrows...including the African- American community, music unites individuals through a shared...

2010-06-07

398

76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President...United States of America A Proclamation The music of our Nation has always spoken to the...shared values. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the...

2011-06-07

399

20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

Bardeen, Tara

2008-01-01

400

African-American Girls’ Dietary Intake while Watching Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Television viewing has been associated with childhood obesity, although the mechanisms that link television viewing to higher BMI have not been established. Therefore, our objectives, in this report, were to describe the amount and types of foods that African-American girls consume while watching television and to examine the associations between African-American girls’ BMI and the food they consume while

Donna M. Matheson; Yun Wang; Lisa M. Klesges; Bettina M. Beech; Helena C. Kraemer; Thomas N. Robinson

2004-01-01

401

Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.  

PubMed

African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PMID:25486153

Snowden, Lonnie R

2014-11-01

402

African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate that, although African American women do not need different skills sets than non-minority

Sharon K. Epps

2008-01-01

403

African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today’s Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate that, although African American women do not need different skills sets than non-minority

Sharon K. Epps

2008-01-01

404

Department Summary GenEd Form African American Studies  

E-print Network

Rights Movement and beyond. AAS 262 African American History to 1865 Requesting Historical and Cultural from Reconstruction through the twentieth century. AAS 450 Prayer and Civil Rights New course for changes in the African American experience over time from slavery through reconstruction to the Civil

Vonessen, Nikolaus

405

Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

2013-01-01

406

Experiences of African American Empowerment: A Jamesian Perspective on Agency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay draws from the work of William James and three African American pragmatists, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ralph Ellison and Cornel West, to explore the moral relevance of the self as an empowered agent among African American youth. The focus is on Jamesian agency as a function of the individual's awareness of options in context, the self-empowerment…

Curtis-Tweed, Phyllis

2003-01-01

407

Homelessness: Its Impact on African American Children, Youth, and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a 1991 study that collected descriptive data on over 209 African-American homeless children and youth in Seattle, Washington. A review of the literature indicates that disproportionate numbers of African-Americans are homeless. Discussion in the paper concerns risk factors and conditions that affect…

James, William H.; And Others

408

African American Parental Involvement in Their Children's Middle School Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence African American parents' involvement in their children's middle school experiences. Two focus group interviews were conducted with African American parents. While the participants viewed parent involvement as important, they reported that family structure and socioeconomic…

Archer-Banks, Diane A. M.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.

2008-01-01

409

Explaining the School Performance of African-American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the hypothesis that African-American adolescents' school achievement is detrimentally influenced by their perception of a discriminatory "job ceiling" affecting their employment opportunities. Found that the more aware of discrimination the African American adolescents were, the less important they perceived academic achievement to be,…

Taylor, Ronald D.; And Others

1994-01-01

410

African-American Females: A Theory of Educational Aspiration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although 76% of African-American students graduate from high school, only 25% of these graduates enter institutions of higher education. A systematic analysis of the aspirations among African-American females for post-high-school education was conducted. Initial portions of the study focused on characteristics of support in the areas of familial…

Ponec, Debra L.

411

Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

Scott, Kimberly Ann

2012-01-01

412

A Snapshot of African Americans in Higher Education. Mini Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recognition of national African-American History Month, the Institute for Higher Education Policy wishes to highlight the trends and present-day experiences of African-American college students. Recognizing that the society benefits tremendously from an educated citizenry, there must be a renewed commitment to ensuring educational opportunity,…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

413

African American Men and College: Understanding How They Succeed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: This study used qualitative methods to discover the reasons and factors these African American men persisted to degree completion, while the large majority of this group fail. The participants for this study were eight African American males who have successfully graduated from an accredited, predominantly white…

Gilkey, Eschelle

2012-01-01

414

AAS 372: African American Identity Guidelines for Writing Assignments  

E-print Network

African American cultures; identity issues of "mixed-race" people; the effect of media stereotypes aboutAAS 372: African American Identity Guidelines for Writing Assignments General Overview topics in this course that are of interest to you. Many questions, issues, and topics will be raised

Vonessen, Nikolaus

415

"Workin' on the Railroad": African American Labor History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2003, the author worked with a team of eighth grade teachers at Asheville Middle School in North Carolina on a project that combined fine art, music, the history of the railroads, and the African American experience in the state and nation. In her classroom, students interviewed a retired train conductor, who was African American,…

Maher, Rebecca

2004-01-01

416

Judgement Accuracy in Body Preferences among African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether African Americans accurately estimated levels of thinness preferred by the opposite gender. College students rated pictures of figures approximating their current figure, their ideal figure, the figure most likely to attract the opposite gender, and the opposite gender figure they found most attractive. African American women…

Patel, Kushal A.; Gray, James J.

2001-01-01

417

Plenary-AA : Cancer and the African American Experience  

Cancer.gov

The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

418

Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

419

The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

2007-01-01

420

African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

2005-01-01

421

Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

Love, Keisha McGhee

2008-01-01

422

African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

2004-01-01

423

Board Books Featuring African Americans: Vanishing but Not Entirely Gone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of infant and toddler board books (books printed on heavy cardboard and laminated for durability) featuring African Americans and published from 1990 to 2002. Provides a brief overview of the development of board books in general, and suggests criteria for evaluating board books that feature African Americans in…

Mongo, Jonella A.

2002-01-01

424

Jazz Consumption Among African Americans from 1982 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to answer two questions. First, who within the African American community is consuming jazz music? Second, are African American jazz consumers cultural snobs or cultural omnivores? Nationally representative data sets from the Cultural Policy and National Data Archives for the years 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2008 were used to answer these questions. Using classification and regression tree

Roderick Graham

2011-01-01

425

Race and gender in play practices: young African American males  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a study with young African American men, to gain a better understanding of the impacts of cultural and gender identity on play practices and to explore the relationship between cultural play practices and interest in computing. Our findings indicate that while young African American men play video games frequently, their objectives in playing may be

Betsy DiSalvo; Amy Bruckman

2010-01-01

426

Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

Waites, Cheryl

2009-01-01

427

African American Perspectives and Informal Science Educational Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the perspectives of African American parents as it pertained to informal science education. The following questions guided this study: (1) What are the desires of African American parents/guardians with respect to informal science programs and experiences for their children?; (2) What happens in Jordan Academy, an…

Simpson, Jamila S.; Parsons, Eileen Carlton

2009-01-01

428

The College Life Experiences of African American Women Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes,

Robert M. Sellers; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Alphonse Damas

1997-01-01

429

HIV Treatment in African Americans: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the current standard of care for HIV infection as well as how health disparities in the HIV care of African Americans present challenges for both providers and patients. The potential side effects in these antiretroviral treatment regimens that may be a source of additional challenges in treating African Americans are highlighted. A brief review of these issues

Victoria A. Cargill; Valerie E. Stone; M. Renee Robinson

2004-01-01

430

Raising African American Student Achievement: California Goals, Local Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…

EdSource, 2008

2008-01-01

431

Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

2011-01-01

432

African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

2002-01-01

433

The Classroom and the Community: African American Youth Speak Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In studying urban schools, researchers have identified several critical curriculum issues related to the miseducation and alienation of African American students. This paper looks at three such issues: the disconnection between the school curriculum and African American students' cultural backgrounds and environments (e.g., black dialect versus…

Clardy, Pauline; Cole-Robinson, Cynthia; Jones, Terrence O'C.; Michie, Gregory

434

African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

2005-01-01

435

Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2009-01-01

436

Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

2012-01-01

437

Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

2008-01-01

438

Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia Among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial to measure paranoia on a continuum, but few

Dennis R. Combs; David L. Penn; Jeffrey Cassisi; Chris Michael; Terry Wood; Jill Wanner; Scott Adams

2006-01-01

439

Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

2006-01-01

440

Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

2010-01-01

441

Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

2011-01-01

442

Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources Among African American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international environmental issues. In general, African American college students were modestly proenvironmental, as determined by the

E. Bun Lee

2008-01-01

443

Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income white, african american, and mexican american toddlers.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated that spanking (but not verbal punishment) at age 1 predicted child aggressive behavior problems at age 2 and lower Bayley mental development scores at age 3. Neither child aggressive behavior problems nor Bayley scores predicted later spanking or verbal punishment. In some instances, maternal race/ethnicity and/or emotional responsiveness moderated the effects of spanking and verbal punishment on child outcomes. PMID:19765008

Berlin, Lisa J; Ispa, Jean M; Fine, Mark A; Malone, Patrick S; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

2009-01-01

444

The VERB campaign's strategy for reaching African-American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian children and parents.  

PubMed

The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described. PMID:18471600

Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie

2008-06-01

445

The Experiences of African Americans and Euro-Americans with Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the experiences of 76 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans who have multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic neurological disease which affects 250,000–350,000 Americans. Although the majority of people with MS are young to middle-aged women of Northern European origin, African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans also have MS. This qualitative study explores the impact of race

Christine A. Loveland

1999-01-01

446

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of asthma in ethnically diverse North American populations.  

PubMed

Asthma is a common disease with a complex risk architecture including both genetic and environmental factors. We performed a meta-analysis of North American genome-wide association studies of asthma in 5,416 individuals with asthma (cases) including individuals of European American, African American or African Caribbean, and Latino ancestry, with replication in an additional 12,649 individuals from the same ethnic groups. We identified five susceptibility loci. Four were at previously reported loci on 17q21, near IL1RL1, TSLP and IL33, but we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that these loci are associated with asthma risk in three ethnic groups. In addition, we identified a new asthma susceptibility locus at PYHIN1, with the association being specific to individuals of African descent (P = 3.9 × 10(-9)). These results suggest that some asthma susceptibility loci are robust to differences in ancestry when sufficiently large samples sizes are investigated, and that ancestry-specific associations also contribute to the complex genetic architecture of asthma. PMID:21804549

Torgerson, Dara G; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Chiu, Grace Y; Gauderman, W James; Gignoux, Christopher R; Graves, Penelope E; Himes, Blanca E; Levin, Albert M; Mathias, Rasika A; Hancock, Dana B; Baurley, James W; Eng, Celeste; Stern, Debra A; Celedón, Juan C; Rafaels, Nicholas; Capurso, Daniel; Conti, David V; Roth, Lindsey A; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Togias, Alkis; Li, Xingnan; Myers, Rachel A; Romieu, Isabelle; Van Den Berg, David J; Hu, Donglei; Hansel, Nadia N; Hernandez, Ryan D; Israel, Elliott; Salam, Muhammad T; Galanter, Joshua; Avila, Pedro C; Avila, Lydiana; Rodriquez-Santana, Jose R; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Diette, Gregory B; Adkinson, N Franklin; Abel, Rebekah A; Ross, Kevin D; Shi, Min; Faruque, Mezbah U; Dunston, Georgia M; Watson, Harold R; Mantese, Vito J; Ezurum, Serpil C; Liang, Liming; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ford, Jean G; Huntsman, Scott; Chung, Kian Fan; Vora, Hita; Li, Xia; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Sienra-Monge, Juan J; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Deichmann, Klaus A; Heinzmann, Andrea; Wenzel, Sally E; Busse, William W; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Beaty, Terri H; Bleecker, Eugene R; Raby, Benjamin A; Meyers, Deborah A; London, Stephanie J; Gilliland, Frank D; Burchard, Esteban G; Martinez, Fernando D; Weiss, Scott T; Williams, L Keoki; Barnes, Kathleen C; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L

2011-09-01

447

Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members  

PubMed Central

African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894

Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

2013-01-01

448

African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system  

PubMed Central

African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans. PMID:25276290

Williams, Sandra F; Nicholas, Susanne B; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

2014-01-01

449

Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of Angiotensin receptor blocker/diuretic combination therapy in obese, hypertensive African American and white patients.  

PubMed

A clinical trial showed comparable blood pressure (BP) lowering by valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in obese hypertensive patients. Relative to amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide reduced the hyperglycemic response to glucose challenge. An objective of this post hoc analysis was to determine whether this benefit extended to African Americans and whites. Treatments (160/12.5 mg of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide force titrated to 320/25 mg of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide at week 4 or 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide force titrated to 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide at week 4 with 5 and 10 mg of amlodipine added at weeks 8 and 12, respectively) were administered once daily. Both treatments reduced clinic BP from baseline to all visits (P < 0.0001), regardless of race/ethnicity (126 African Americans, 212 whites). In African Americans, there were no significant between-treatment differences in clinic or ambulatory BP lowering at weeks 8 or 16. Whites responded better to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide. In both racial/ethnic subgroups, the addition of valsartan but not amlodipine mitigated the hyperglycemic response to hydrochlorothiazide through enhanced insulin secretion. Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide was as effective as amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide was in reducing BP in obese, hypertensive African Americans and better than amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in whites. In both racial/ethnic subgroups, the addition of valsartan to hydrochlorothiazide reduced the negative metabolic effects associated with thiazide therapy. PMID:22248871

Ofili, Elizabeth O; Zappe, Dion H; Purkayastha, Das; Samuel, Rita; Sowers, James R

2013-01-01

450

Neighbourhood ethnic composition and diet among Mexican-Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives We explore the association between a neighbourhood's ethnic composition and the foods and nutrients consumed by Mexican-Americans. Design Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample. from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94), was linked to the 1990 Census. The outcomes were food frequencies and serum levels of micronutrients. The variable of interest was percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level. Setting United States. Subjects A total of 5306 Mexican-American men and women aged 17-90 years. Results Increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with less consumption of fruits, carrots, spinach/greens and broccoli and with lower serum levels of Se, Iycopene, ?-carotene, vitamin C and folate. By conrrast, increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with more consumption of corn, tomatoes, hot red chilli peppers and legumes such as beans, lentils or chickpeas. Conclusions An increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with less consumption of selective foods (e.g. some fruits, broccoli) and low levels of serum Se or vitamin C, but it was associated with more consumption of other foods (e.g. legumes, tomatoes, corn products) that may have positive effects on health in this population. PMID:19254428

Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ju, Hyunsu; Eschbach, Karl; Kuo, Yang-Fang; Gaadwin, James S

2011-01-01

451

Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women An Interim Report From the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the

Bradford B. Worrall; Karen C. Johnston; Gail Kongable; Elena Hung; DeJuran Richardson; Philip B. Gorelick

452

Say Adios to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification

Thierry Devos; Kelly Gavin; Francisco J. Quintana

2010-01-01

453

Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas  

PubMed Central

Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

2013-01-01

454

Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Ethnicities within Black populations have not been distinguished in most nutrition studies. We sought to examine dietary differences between African Americans (AA) and Haitian Americans (HA) with and without type 2 diabetes using the Healthy Eating Index, 2005 (HEI-05), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The design was cross-sectional N = 471 (225 AA, 246 HA) and recruitment was by community outreach. The eating indices were calculated from data collected with the Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. African Americans had lower HEI-05 scores ? = ?10.9 (?8.67, 13.1); SE = 1.12, P < .001 than HA. Haitian American females and AA males had higher AHEI than AA females and HA males, respectively, (P = .006) adjusting for age and education. Participants with diabetes had higher adherence to the HEI-05 ? = 3.90 (1.78, 6.01), SE = 1.08, P < .001 and lower adherence to the AHEI ? = ?9.73 (16.3, ?3.19), SE = 3.33, P = .004, than participants without diabetes. The findings underscore the importance of disaggregating ethnicities and disease state when assessing diet. PMID:22187639

Huffman, Fatma G.; De La Cera, Maurcio; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Exebio, Joel; Gundupalli, Deva; Shaban, Lamya

2011-01-01

455

Ethnic boundaries in national literary histories: Classification of ethnic minority fiction authors in American, Dutch and German anthologies and literary history books, 1978–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the classification of ethnic minority fiction writers in American, Dutch and German literary anthologies and literary history books for the period of 1978–2006. Using content analyses, ethnic boundaries are much stronger in Dutch and German textbooks than in their American counterparts. While, across the entire period, Dutch and German textbooks under-represent ethnic minority authors – relative to

Pauwke Berkers

2009-01-01

456

Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America. Studies in American Folklife, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports the findings of the Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools Project undertaken by the American Folklife Center in 1982. Twenty-one researchers used participant observation to study ethnic schools in different parts of the United States. The project studied schools that correspond to Fishman's classification of ethnic education…

Bradunas, Elena; Topping, Brett, Ed.

457

Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity on Mexican American College Students' Psychological Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…

Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

2009-01-01

458

Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

2010-01-01

459

Clinical aspects of dementia in African-American, Hispanic, and white patients.  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between ethnicity, cognitive deficits, functional impairment, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia. The data are from a cross-sectional study of patients evaluated at the Northern California Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADC). Using the ADC database of patient information, the authors compared sociodemographic and clinical variables in 187 African-American patients, 69 Hispanic patients, and 1317 white patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), ischemic vascular dementia (IVD), and mixed dementia (AD/IVD). Multivariate analysis indicated the following results: 1. African-American patients and Hispanic AD patients had lower risk of depressed mood compared to white patients; 2. African-American patients had lower risk for anxiety than whites; 3. Hispanic patients with mixed dementia had lower rates of apathy compared to whites. Future studies are needed to examine how ethnic group differences in dementia are based on the interaction of cultural differences; effects of age, education, and psychosocial variables; and biological differences in the course of dementia. PMID:10800282

Hargrave, R.; Stoeklin, M.; Haan, M.; Reed, B.

2000-01-01

460

Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.  

PubMed

Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture. PMID:24352586

Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

2015-01-01

461

Marriage Among African Americans: What Does the Research Reveal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reveals that African Americans are the least likely to marry, when they marry, they do so later and spend less\\u000a time married than White Americans, and they are the least likely to stay married. Factors contributing to the marriage status\\u000a of African Americans include structural, cultural, individual and interactive factors. Structural factors include the disparity\\u000a in sex ratios

Patricia Dixon

2009-01-01

462

Promoting Healthy Behavior from the Pulpit: Clergy Share Their Perspectives on Effective Health Communication in the African American Church  

PubMed Central

African Americans continue to suffer disproportionately from health disparities when compared to other ethnicities (ACS 2010; CDC 2007). Research indicates that the church and the pastor in the African American community could be enlisted to increase effectiveness of health programs (Campbell et al. in Health Edu Behav 34(6):864–880, 2007; DeHaven et al. in Am J Public Health 94(6):1030–1036, 2004). The objective of this study was to investigate African American pastors’ perceptions about health promotion in the church and how these perceptions could serve as a guide for improving health communication targeting African Americans. Semi-structured interviews with African American clergy revealed that pastors feel strongly about the intersection of health, religion and spirituality; they also believe that discussing health screening and other health issues more frequently from the pulpit and their own personal experiences will ultimately impact health behavior among congregants. This study suggests that African American clergy see themselves as health promoters in the church and believe this communication (i.e., pastor-endorsed health information materials) will impact health behavior among underserved and minority populations. PMID:21965057

Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine; Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Neuhaus, Kris

2012-01-01

463

Promoting healthy behavior from the pulpit: clergy share their perspectives on effective health communication in the African American church.  

PubMed

African Americans continue to suffer disproportionately from health disparities when compared to other ethnicities (ACS 2010; CDC 2007). Research indicates that the church and the pastor in the African American community could be enlisted to increase effectiveness of health programs (Campbell et al. in Health Edu Behav 34(6):864-880, 2007; DeHaven et al. in Am J Public Health 94(6):1030-1036, 2004). The objective of this study was to investigate African American pastors' perceptions about health promotion in the church and how these perceptions could serve as a guide for improving health communication targeting African Americans. Semi-structured interviews with African American clergy revealed that pastors feel strongly about the intersection of health, religion and spirituality; they also believe that discussing health screening and other health issues more frequently from the pulpit and their own personal experiences will ultimately impact health behavior among congregants. This study suggests that African American clergy see themselves as health promoters in the church and believe this communication (i.e., pastor-endorsed health information materials) will impact health behavior among underserved and minority populations. PMID:21965057

Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine; Mabachi, Natabhona M; Neuhaus, Kris

2013-12-01

464

Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women. PMID:12514315

Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L

2003-01-01

465

Family-focused physical activity, diet, and obesity interventions in African American girls: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African American girls aged 5–18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format, and behavior change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviors were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data do not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step. PMID:23057473

Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Adams-Wynn, Alexis W.; DiSantis, Katherine I.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

2012-01-01

466

Awareness and use of the prostate-specific antigen test among African-American men.  

PubMed Central

Although African-American men have a greater burden of prostate cancer than whites and other racial and ethnic groups, few studies on the burden of prostate cancer have focused on African Americans specifically. We used a sample of African-American men (N = 736) who participated in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to explore their awareness of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Among African-American men aged > or = 45 with no history of prostate cancer, 63% had heard of the PSA test and 48% had been tested. Bivariate analyses showed significant associations between sociodemographic, family composition, health status and perceived risk with having heard of the PSA test and having been tested. The multivariate model showed significant associations between having heard of the PSA test and age, level of education, living in an MSA, and having private or military health insurance. For ever being tested, the multivariate model showed significant associations for age, private or military health insurance, being in fair or poor health, and having a family history of prostate cancer. Some of the correlates, such as age, increased levels of education and being married, were consistent with previous studies, but other correlates, such as metropolitan statistical area, health status and perceived risk, differed from previous studies. PMID:16080666

Ross, Louie E.; Uhler, Robert J.; Williams, Kymber N.

2005-01-01

467

Differences between African Americans and Whites in their attitudes toward genetic testing for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The possibility of predictive genetic testing for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has prompted examination of public attitudes toward this controversial new health-care option. This is the first study to examine differences between Whites and African Americans with regard to: (1) interest in pursuing genetic testing for AD, (2) reasons for pursuing testing, (3) anticipated consequences of testing, and (4) beliefs about testing. We surveyed a convenience sample of 452 adults (61% white; 39% African American; 78% female; mean age = 47 years; 33% with family history of AD). Both racial groups indicated general interest in predictive genetic testing for AD, viewed it as having many potential benefits, and believed it should be offered with few restrictions. However, in comparison to whites, African Americans showed less interest in testing (p < 0.01), endorsed fewer reasons for pursuing it (p < 0.01), and anticipated fewer negative consequences from a positive test result (p < 0.001). These preliminary findings show important distinctions between whites and African Americans in their attitudes toward genetic testing for AD. These differences may have implications for how different racial and ethnic groups will respond to genetic testing programs and how such services should be designed. Future research in real-life testing situations with more representative samples will be necessary to confirm these racial and cultural differences in perceptions of genetic testing. PMID:12820701

Hipps, Yvonne G; Roberts, J Scott; Farrer, Lindsay A; Green, Robert C

2003-01-01

468

Partnerships for health in the African American community: moving toward community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Health disparities related to ethnicity are attributed to the complex interaction of social and physical environments, which influence minority health. The prevalence of health problems such as cardiovascular disease, strokes, diabetes, and maternal and child health outcomes exist among African Americans contributing to health disparities. Extensive support systems within the African American community, however, serve to resist disparities in healthcare and improve the health and well-being of community members. This article is an analytical review of current research addressing key factors of the home, the church, the community, and the healthcare system for creating partnerships to enhance community- based research in the African American community. The results of this literature review provide culturally appropriate approaches to eliminating health disparities by building upon the strengths and resources within the African American community. Best practices involve recognizing the pastor as the entry into the community, utilizing a Community-Based Participatory Research process, and establishing trust through open communication and relationship building. PMID:22288213

Parrill, Rachel; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

2011-01-01

469

“HOW ASIAN AM I?” ASIAN AMERICAN YOUTH CULTURES, DRUG USE, AND ETHNIC IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION*  

PubMed Central

This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American ethnicity and drug use, seeing their own consumption as exceptional. The second argues their drug consumption is a natural outgrowth of their Asian American identity, allowing them to navigate the liminal space they occupy in American society. The final group presents Asian American drug use as normalized and constructs identity through taste and lifestyle boundary markers within social contexts of the dance scenes. These three narratives share a sense of ethnicity as dynamic, provisional, and constructed, allowing us to go beyond the static, essentialist models of ethnic identity that underlie much previous research on ethnicity, immigration, and substance use. PMID:21822339

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

2010-01-01

470

Sub-Ethnic Differences in the Menopausal Symptom Experience: Asian American Midlife Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the menopausal symptom experiences of sub-ethnic groups of Asian American midlife women. Design A cross-sectional study among 91 Asian American women online. Questions about background characteristics, ethnic identity, and health and menopausal status, and the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index were used. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings The most frequently reported and the most severe symptoms differed by sub-ethnicity. The total number of symptoms differed by sub-ethnicity, as did total severity scores for the symptoms. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Practice Researchers and clinicians should be aware of sub-ethnic differences. PMID:20220032

Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seung Hee; Chee, Wonshik

2009-01-01

471

Female and Relationship Devaluation among African American and Latino American Youth: Is What's Normal Really Normal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study used focus group interviews to examine beliefs and social norms regarding female and relationship devaluation among a sample of economically challenged male African American and Latino American youth (N = 57; aged 15–17 years). Most Latino boys felt women are devalued in relationships because Latina women like to be physically or verbally abused. Among African American male

Ronald Peters; Regina Jones Johnson; Charles Savage; Angela Meshack; Paula Espinoza; Troy Jefferson

2010-01-01

472

African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs About Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The authors examined mothers’ beliefs about their children's negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices. Design. A total of 65 African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children's negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results. African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was

Jackie A. Nelson; Esther M. Leerkes; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Stuart Marcovitch

2012-01-01

473

Variations in disaster aid acquisitions among ethnic groups in a rural community  

E-print Network

based on ethnicity: Anglo, African-American, and Hispanic. The disaster-recovery process assessed if variations exist the disaster-aid acquisition process of households which correlate with ethnicity. During the investigation, researchers examined...

Galindo, Kim Blanca

2009-06-02

474

A Smoking Cessation Project for African American Women: Implications for Relational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking cessation among African Americans is a primary health objective for the nation. African American women are more likely than their counterparts to have a high dependency upon nicotine. Studies with African American women report lower quit rates than those for whites. A culturally sensitive pilot project was designed for African American women to investigate smoking, perception of family environment

Suzanne Midori Hanna; Patricia W. Walker; Jerome F. Walker; Jacalyn A. Claes; Cheryl K. Stewart; Ann M. Swank; L. Jane Goldsmith

2003-01-01

475

The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English Plural Marking: A…

Poplack, Shana, Ed.

476

African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

477

Communication Development and Disorders in African American Children: Research, Assessment, and Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of papers on language development and African-American children includes: "The Challenges of Conducting Language Research with African American Children" (Holly K. Craig); "Issues in Recruiting African American Participants for Research" (Joyce L. Harris); "Issues in Assessing the Language Abilities of African American Children"…

Kamhi, Alan G., Ed.; And Others

478

Gender-Based Salary Differences in African American Senior Student Affairs Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined representation and salary differences related to gender for African American Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs). Data from a national survey revealed gender and institutional size significantly affect mean SSAO salary for African American respondents. African American women SSAOs make significantly less than African American

Reason, Robert D.

2003-01-01

479

The Professional Preparation of African American Graduate Students: A Student Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though growth relationships include traditional aspects of academic mentoring, without emphasizing personal development, professional growth is incomplete. Most African American faculty are overloaded with teaching, research, and advising responsibilities and, therefore, are unable to adequately mentor African American graduate students without jeopardizing their careers. Non–African Americans can provide adequate mentoring to African American students; however, because of the lack

Katrina L. Walker; Gary Wright; Jerome H. Hanley

2001-01-01

480

Survival Disparities within American and Israeli Dialysis Populations: Learning from Similarities and Distinctions across Race and Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

There are counterintuitive but consistent observations that African American maintenance dialysis patients have greater survival despite their less favorable socioeconomic status, high burden of cardiovascular risks including hypertension and diabetes, and excessively high chronic kidney disease prevalence. The fact that such individuals have a number of risk factors for lower survival and yet live longer when undergoing dialysis treatment is puzzling. Similar findings have been made among Israeli maintenance dialysis patients, in that those who are ethnically Arab have higher end-stage renal disease but exhibit greater survival than Jewish Israelis. The juxtaposition of these two situations may provide valuable insights into racial/ethnic-based mechanisms of survival in chronic diseases. Survival advantages of African American dialysis patients may be explained by differences in nutritional status, inflammatory profile, dietary intake habits, body composition, bone and mineral disorders, mental health and coping status, dialysis treatment differences, and genetic differences among other factors. Prospective studies are needed to examine similar models in other countries and to investigate the potential causes of these paradoxes in these societies. Better understanding the roots of racial/ethnic survival differences may help improve outcomes in both patients with chronic kidney disease and other individuals with chronic disease states. PMID:21175833

Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Golan, Eliezer; Shohat, Tamy; Streja, Elani; Norris, Keith C.; Kopple, Joel D.

2013-01-01

481

Family Socialization and the Ethnic Identity of Mexican-American Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focused on the role of the ethnic family background and ethnic socialization in the social cognitive development of ethnic identity in Mexican-American children. Aspects of a theoretical model of the socialization of ethnic identity were tested in forty-five 6- to 10-year-old children and their mothers. Individually administered scales assessed parental generation of migration; parental education; mothers' cultural orientation;

George P. Knight; Martha E. Bernal; Camille A. Garza; Marya K. Cota; Katheryn A. Ocampo

1993-01-01

482

Oxford African American Studies Center: Focus on Women and Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oxford African American Studies Center has created this website to house its comprehensive collection of scholarship documenting the many and varied experiences that make up African and African American history and culture. Along with over 10,000 articles, 2,500 images, and 200 maps, the site features an excellent "Focus On" series each month, in which the editors compile various short articles, picture essays, and links on a designated topic. The Focus on Women and Literature is particularly noteworthy. Here, visitors can explore the life and works of influential women in American literature, from Phillis Wheatley to Toni Morrison. The site can be easily navigated by subject or by specific biography, with suggestions for related sources and content provided in each section. Additionally, curious visitors will find links to all of the previously featured subjects within the series, ranging from African Americans in Science and Technology to Black Homesteading in the American Western Frontier.

483

African American renal transplant recipients benefit from early corticosteroid withdrawal under modern immunosuppression.  

PubMed

African Americans have historically been considered high-risk renal transplant recipients due to increased rejection rates and reduced long-term graft survival. Modern immunosuppression has reduced rejections and improved graft survival in African Americans and may allow successful corticosteroid withdrawal. Outcomes in 56 African Americans were compared to 56 non-African Americans enrolled in early withdrawal protocols. Results are reported as African American versus non-African American. Acute rejection at 1 year was 23% and 18% (P = NS), while patient and graft survival was 96% versus 98% and 91% versus 91% (P = NS), respectively. In conclusion, early withdrawal in African Americans is associated with acceptable rejection rates and excellent patient and graft survival, indicating that the risks and benefits of early withdrawal are similar between African Americans and non-African Americans. Additional followup is needed to determine long-term renal function, graft survival, and cardiovascular risk in African Americans with early steroid withdrawal. PMID:15848541

Boardman, R E; Alloway, R R; Alexander, J W; Buell, J F; Cardi, M; First, M R; Hanaway, M T; Munda, R; Rogers, C C; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Susskind, B; Trofe, J; Woodle, E S

2005-03-01

484

Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

2012-01-01

485

The Development of the Sentiment for Ethnic Studies in American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The roots of the current movement for ethnic studies in American education can be traced to the early colonial period of American history. The Dutch appear to be the earliest settlers with an interest in ethnic studies. The efforts to resist the dominant English culture began in New York in about 1660. Education became one of the ways non-English…

Crouchett, Lawrence P.

486

Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

Allen, Talbott

487

Perceptions of genetics research as harmful to society: differences among samples of African-Americans and European-Americans.  

PubMed

Genetics has the potential not only to find cures for diseases, but to possess the mechanisms to change the bio-social make-up of populations. A specific question that has arisen on this issue is how developments in genetic technology may intersect with existing race and ethnic relations. Evidence of the racialization of some genetic disorders has been demonstrated elsewhere. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast African-American and European-American attitudes on the benefits of genetics research for society. Findings show that African-Americans were more likely to say genetics research is harmful for society. This relationship remained statistically significant after controls were introduced in a regression model. Demographic characteristics and self-rated knowledge of genetics had no effect on attitudes among African-Americans. A willingness to use genetic services correlated with favorable attitudes. Differences in social position may lead some groups to opposing interpretations and symbolic meanings of genetics. This may be true in the context of this study because the social meanings of genetics may be tainted by racialization, historical attempts at eugenics, and the potential abuse of genetics targeting groups partially defined by superficial genetic characteristics. PMID:12180073

Furr, L Allen

2002-01-01

488

A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans.  

PubMed

The Jknun (Jk-3) phenotype, attributable to null or silenced alleles, has predominantly been found in persons of Polynesian descent. With the increased use of molecular genotyping, many new silencing mutations have been identified in persons of other ethnic backgrounds. To date, only two JK null alleles have been reported in African Americans, JK*01N.04 and JK*OlN.OS.A comparative study was undertaken to determine whether JK mutations were present in the regional African American population. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens. PMID:24689685

Billingsley, Katrina L; Posadas, Jeff B; Moulds, Joann M; Gaur, Lakshmi K

2013-01-01

489

Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Profiled here are African American men and women who have contributed to the advancement of science and engineering. The accomplishments of the past and present can serve as pathfinders to present and future engineers and scientists. African American chemists, biologists, inventors, engineers, and mathematicians have contributed in both large and small ways that can be overlooked when chronicling the history of science. By describing the scientific history of selected African American men and women we can see how the efforts of individuals have advanced human understanding in the world around us.

Mitchell C Brown (University of California- Irvine)

1995-01-01

490

African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.  

PubMed

African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system. PMID:12413108

Rozie-Battle, Judith L

2002-01-01

491

Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care.  

PubMed Central

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study continues to cast its long shadow on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community. Numerous reports have argued that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is the most important reason why many African Americans distrust the institutions of medicine and public health. Such an interpretation neglects a critical historical point: the mistrust predated public revelations about the Tuskegee study. This paper places the syphilis study within a broader historical and social context to demonstrate that several factors have influenced--and continue to influence--African American's attitudes toward the biomedical community. PMID:9366634

Gamble, V N

1997-01-01

492

African-American Women: Online Archival Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University has a wealth of digitized materials related to African American women. This particular collection brings together three noteworthy collections: Elizabeth Johnson Harris: Life Story; Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson: Slave Letters; and Vilet Lester Letter. This last item is particularly noteworthy as it is a very rare item indeed: a letter written by a female slave. The Elizabeth Johnson Harris: A Life Story area brings together the full text of her memories, along with several poems and vignettes published in various newspapers in her lifetime. She was born in 1867 to parents who had been slaves, and the memoir includes information about her own childhood and the importance of religion and education in her life. Finally, the last section brings together letters written by Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson to their mistresses and other slave family members in Abingdon, Virginia.

2011-11-11

493

Engaging depressed African American adolescents in treatment: lessons from the AAKOMA PROJECT.  

PubMed

The authors describe and illustrate means of engaging depressed African American adolescents in treatment. Twenty-eight youth participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Using grounded theory and transcript based analysis, they derived 5 themes describing African American adolescents' experience of depression and suggested mechanisms for improving African American youth treatment engagement. Practitioners can educate African American youth about depression as a medical disorder, build trust, and apply innovative approaches to recognizing differential manifestations of depression in African American youth. PMID:20564682

Breland-Noble, Alfiee M; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H Kathy

2010-08-01

494

Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.  

PubMed

Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. PMID:25147096

Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

2014-08-20

495

Relationship between waking–sleep blood pressure and catecholamine changes in African–American and European–American women  

PubMed Central

Background A blunted decline in waking to sleep blood pressure (BP) is more common in African–American (AA) than European–American (EA) women. The causes of reduced BP ‘dipping’ in AA women are not known, although several factors including ethnic differences in catecholamine sensitivity have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible contribution of catecholamine influences on BP to ethnic differences in BP dipping in a sample of working women. Participants and methods Healthy female participants wore ambulatory BP monitors over the course of 1 work day and night. Urine samples for assay of epinephrine and norepinephrine were collected at work (approximately 11.00–15.00 h), home (approximately 06.00–22.00 h) and during sleep (approximately 22.00–06.00 h). Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationships between changes in BP and the catecholamines by ethnicity. Results AA women (n= 51; age = 38.9 ± 8.5 years) had smaller proportional BP changes from work to sleep and home to sleep than EA women (n =110; age = 37.1 ±9.2 years). Overall, the work to sleep change in epinephrine excretion was positively associated with changes in both SBP (P <0.003) and DBP (P < 0.001); however, there was an ethnic difference in the epinephrine–BP relationship. For AA women, these associations were highly positive and significant, but for EA women, there was little correlation. Nonetheless, the analysis also revealed that overall, the work to sleep BP changes were not directly related to ethnic differences in catecholamine variation. Conclusion The AA–EA difference in waking–sleep BP changes (dipping) is not directly related to ethnic differences in catecholamine variation; however, AA seem to have a greater BP sensitivity to epinephrine. PMID:18799950

van Berge-Landry, Helene M.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; James, Gary D.

2009-01-01

496

Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization  

PubMed Central

Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship. PMID:20161575

Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

2009-01-01

497

African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening  

MedlinePLUS

AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer Institute ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate cancer ...

498

African Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite remarkable improvements in the overall health of the nation during the past two decades, compelling evidence suggests that the nation's racial and ethnic minority Americans suffer increasing disparities in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and adverse health outcomes compared with white Americans. The 1998…

Copeland, Valire Carr

2005-01-01

499

Predictors of Psychological Health among Rural-Residing African Americans  

E-print Network

The current study examined whether obesity contributed significantly to the prediction of depression and health status independent of other relevant factors such as sex, age, and perceived racism in a sample of 198 African Americans residing within...

Cook, Helene

2012-10-19

500

African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.  

PubMed

The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

2014-10-01