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1

Health Advantages of Ethnic Density for African American and Mexican American Elderly Individuals  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that greater ethnic density correlates with worse health among African Americans but better health among Hispanic Americans. These conflicting patterns may arise from Hispanic American samples being older than African American samples. We found that among 2367 Mexican American and 2790 African American participants older than 65 years, ethnic density predicted lower rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer, adjusting for covariates, showing that the health benefits of ethnic density apply to both minority communities.

Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Levy, Becca R.

2014-01-01

2

African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.  

PubMed

Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted. PMID:18680889

Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

2008-01-01

3

Ethnic and American Identity as Predictors of Self-Esteem Among African American, Latino, and White Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among adolescents, we surveyed 669 American-born high school students (372 Latinos, 232 African Americans, and 65 Whites). Participants completed measures of self-esteem, ethnic identity, American identity, attitudes toward other groups, and demographic variables. Multiple regression analyses of self-esteem were carried out separately for each ethnic group, using ethnic

Jean S. Phinney; Cindy Lou Cantu; Dawn A. Kurtz

1997-01-01

4

Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

2013-01-01

5

Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

Wright, Brian L.

2009-01-01

6

Effects of Counseling and Ethnic Identity on Perceived Risk and Cancer Worry in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving breast screening behaviors in African American women is an important public health goal. To increase participation in screening, it is necessary to identify factors that contribute to reduced screening, including perceived risk and cancer worry. This paper presents predictors of changes perceived in risk and worry among African American women of differing ethnic identities as they undergo breast cancer

Deborah J. Bowen; Catherine L. Christensen; Diane Powers; Diane R. Graves; Cheryl A. M. Anderson

1998-01-01

7

Ethnic and American Identity as Predictors of Self-Esteem among African American, Latino, and White Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic and American identity were studied as predictors of self-esteem for 372 Latino, 232 African American, and 65 White high school students. For all groups, ethnic identity was a significant predictor of self-esteem, although it accounted for a relatively small portion of the variance. (SLD)

Phinney, Jean S.; And Others

1997-01-01

8

Ethnic Matching, School Placement, and Mathematics Achievement of African American Students from Kindergarten through Fifth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators, administrators, and policymakers focus much attention on closing the achievement gap, and various approaches have been suggested. The present study focuses on one approach being suggested: student-teacher ethnic matching. The study focused on the long-term contributions of African American ethnic matching to mathematical test scores of…

Eddy, Colleen M.; Easton-Brooks, Donald

2011-01-01

9

Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

10

Experimentally Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based African-Centered Emancipatory Intervention on the Ethnic Identity of African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one's self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents' psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African

Lewis, Kelly M.; Andrews, Emily; Gaska, Karie; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Ellick, Kecia L.

2012-01-01

11

Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

Adelabu, Detris Honora

2008-01-01

12

Ethnic, Women's, and African American Studies Majors in U.S. Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…

Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole

2008-01-01

13

The Relation of Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Race-Related Stress among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among African American college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…

Johnson, Samon C.; Arbona, Consuelo

2006-01-01

14

Facial Expression Recognition and Social Competence among African American Elementary School Children: An Examination of Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the potential for cross-ethnic miscommunication of facial expressions, examining elementary students' ability to identify emotion in African American and white facial expressions and noting the relationship to social competence. Student data indicated that ability to read faces differing in ethnicity did not differ by children's…

Glanville, Denise N.; Nowicki, Steve

2002-01-01

15

Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2007-01-01

16

Biocatalytic analysis of biomarkers for forensic identification of ethnicity between Caucasian and African American groups.  

PubMed

A new biocatalytic assay analyzing the simultaneous presence of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was developed aiming at the recognition of biofluids of different ethnic origins for forensic applications. Knowing the difference in the concentrations of CK and LDH in the blood of healthy adults of two ethnical groups, Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA), and taking into account the distribution pattern, we mimicked the samples of different ethnic origins with various CK-LDH concentrations. The analysis was performed using a multi-enzyme/multi-step biocatalytic cascade where the differences in both included enzymes resulted in an amplified difference in the final analytical response. The statistically established analytical results confirmed excellent probability to distinguish samples of different ethnic origins (CA vs. AA). The standard enzymatic assay routinely used in hospitals for the analysis of CK, performed for comparison, was not able to distinguish the difference in samples mimicking blood of different ethnic origins. The robustness of the proposed assay was successfully tested on dried/aged serum samples (up to 24 h) - in order to mimic real forensic situations. The results obtained on the model solutions were confirmed by the analysis of real serum samples collected from human subjects of different ethnic origins. PMID:24003440

Kramer, Friederike; Halámková, Lenka; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Katz, Evgeny; Halámek, Jan

2013-11-01

17

AFRICAN AMERICAN ETHNICITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS ARE RELATED TO AORTIC PULSE WAVE VELOCITY PROGRESSION  

PubMed Central

Background Accelerated central arterial stiffening as represented by progression of aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) may be influenced by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Little is known about the relationships between CVD risk factors and PWV progression among women transitioning through the menopause, or whether these relationships vary by ethnicity. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a subgroup analysis of 303 African American and Caucasian participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart Study received PWV scans at baseline examination and at a follow-up examination an average of 2.3 years later. CVD risk factors were also assessed at baseline. Methods and Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and waist circumference were the strongest predictors of PWV progression, after adjustment for age, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glucose, and triglyceride levels. The magnitude of the influence of SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and glucose on PWV progression varied by ethnicity (difference in slopes: p=0.02 for SBP, p=0.0009 for DBP, p=0.005 for LDL-C, and p=0.02 for glucose). The positive relationship between SBP and PWV progression was significant among women of both ethnicities. LDL-C, DBP, and, to a lesser extent, glucose levels were positively associated with PWV progression only among African Americans. Conclusions Blood pressure, LDL-C, glucose, and excess body size may be important targets for improving vascular health and preventing clinical outcomes related to arterial stiffening, particularly among African American women.

Birru, M.S.; Matthews, K.A.; Thurston, R.C.; Brooks, M.M.; Ibrahim, S.; Barinas-Mitchell, E.; Janssen, I.; Sutton-Tyrrell, K.

2013-01-01

18

The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Low Income Detained African American Adolescent Females  

PubMed Central

This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using A-CASI technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for STIs, such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 25.6% and 5.6% respectfully. Findings indicated that controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity.

Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2012-01-01

19

Predictors of Unprotected Sex among Young Sexually Active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: The Importance of Ethnicity and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth,\\u000a few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports\\u000a on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15–22) from three racial\\/ethnic backgrounds (African American,\\u000a Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL

Jacob C. Warren; M. Isabel Fernández; Gary W. Harper; Marco A. Hidalgo; Omar B. Jamil; Rodrigo Sebastián Torres

2008-01-01

20

Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

2009-01-01

21

Correlates of African American and Latino parents' messages to children about ethnicity and race: a comparative study of racial socialization.  

PubMed

Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old. PMID:12741687

Hughes, Diane

2003-03-01

22

Ethnic Differences in the Measurement of Academic Self-Concept in a Sample of African American and European American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the validity and reliability of scores on the Academic Self-Concept Scale (W. Reynolds and others, 1980) in groups of 291 European American and 396 African American college students. Results suggest important ethnic differences in the structure of academic self-concept regarding beliefs about ability and the relationship between effort…

Cokley, Kevin; Komarraju, Meera; King, Aisha; Cunningham, Dana; Muhammed, Grace

2003-01-01

23

The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women’s suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women’s risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism.

Perry, Brea L.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.

2012-01-01

24

Predictors of Unprotected Sex among Young Sexually Active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: The Importance of Ethnicity and Culture  

PubMed Central

Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15–22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.

Fernandez, M. Isabel; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastian

2010-01-01

25

Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skala K, Chuang RJ, Evans A, Hedberg AM, Dave J, Sharma S. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.

26

Differences among African American Jr. High School Students: The Effects of Skin Tone on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Cross-Cultural Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assess differences among African American adolescents based on skin tone. It was hypothesized that the students would demonstrate differences in self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cross-cultural coping strategies based on their skin tones. One hundred thirteen African American adolescents…

Breland, Alfiee M.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.; Steward, Robbie J.

27

Ethnic Differences in Visceral Adipose Tissue and Type 2 Diabetes: Filipino, African-American, and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by computed tomography, and type 2 diabetes risk among 55- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women without known cardiovascular disease.Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were participants in the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 196), the Filipino Women’s Health Study (n = 181), and the Health Assessment Study of

Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

2005-01-01

28

Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

2010-01-01

29

Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

Greer, Tawanda M.

2008-01-01

30

The influence of college choice on the success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging of African American engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The research question was best answered through a qualitative, phenomenological study that depicted the lived experiences of individuals in their own voice. The governing interest was in discovering whether aspiring African American engineers, at this stage in their professional experience, favorably viewed their choice of HBCUs versus PWIs. Participants relayed how having a sense of belonging to their institution and having a supportive network of peers and faculty influenced and shaped their outlook on life. Several of the participants spoke of being resolute in achieving their goal to become an engineer despite the challenges faced in college and in the workforce. Whether participants attended an HBCU or PWI, they felt a sense of achievement and a competence to walk into any situation and succeed. Overwhelmingly, most participants expressed they would choose their undergraduate institution again if given the opportunity. African American engineers favorably viewed their undergraduate college choice as having given them an opportunity to achieve their professional aspirations.

DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

31

Are African-American High School Students Less Motivated to Learn Spanish than Other Ethnic Groups?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is some evidence in the vague literature available to indicate that African Americans are underrepresented in foreign language studies, this issue has never been investigated with a focus on Spanish. Six hundred and thirty-one students enrolled in high school Spanish in a racially diverse school district in West Texas were surveyed…

Pratt, Comfort

2012-01-01

32

Cancer and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... life expectancy for both African American men and African American women. In 2009, African American men were 1.3 ... compared to non-Hispanic white men. In 2009, African American women were 10% less likely to have been diagnosed ...

33

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. Methods and Findings We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1) drug consumption; (2) income generation; (3) social and institutional relationships; and (4) personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s) when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its “War on Drugs.” African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled from their families when they began engaging in drug-related crime. These historical-structural conditions generated distinct presentations of self. Whites styled themselves as outcasts, defeated by addiction. They professed to be injecting heroin to stave off “dopesickness” rather than to seek pleasure. African Americans, in contrast, cast their physical addiction as an oppositional pursuit of autonomy and pleasure. They considered themselves to be professional outlaws and rejected any appearance of abjection. Many, but not all, of these ethnographic findings were corroborated by our epidemiological data, highlighting the variability of behaviors within ethnic categories. Conclusions Bringing quantitative and qualitative methodologies and perspectives into a collaborative dialog among cross-disciplinary researchers highlights the fact that clinical practice must go beyond simple racial or cultural categories. A clinical social science approach provides insights into how sociocultural processes are mediated by historically rooted and institutionally enforced power relations. Recognizing the logical underpinnings of ethnically specific behavioral patterns of street-based injectors is the foundation for cultural competence and for successful clinical relationships. It reduces the risk of suboptimal medical care for an exceptionally vulnerable and challenging patient population. Social science approaches can also help explain larger-scale patterns of health disparities; inform new approaches to structural and institutional-level public health initiatives; and enable clinicians to take more leadership in changing public policies that have negative health consequences.

Bourgois, Philippe; Martinez, Alexis; Kral, Alex; Edlin, Brian R; Schonberg, Jeff; Ciccarone, Dan

2006-01-01

34

Ethnicity-Specific Pharmacogenetics: The Case of Warfarin In African Americans  

PubMed Central

Using a derivation cohort (N=349), we developed the first warfarin dosing algorithm that includes recently discovered polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 associated with warfarin dose requirement in African Americans (AAs). We tested our novel algorithm in an independent cohort of 129 AAs and compared the dose prediction to the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) dosing algorithms. Our algorithm explains more of the phenotypic variation (R2 = 0.27) than the IWPC pharmacogenomics (R2 = 0.15) or clinical (R2 = 0.16) algorithms. Among high dose patients, our algorithm predicted a higher proportion of patients within 20% of stable warfarin dose (45% vs. 29% and 2% in the IWPC pharmacogenomics and clinical algorithms respectively). In contrast to our novel algorithm, a significant inverse correlation between predicted dose and percent West African ancestry (WAA) was observed for the IWPC pharmacogenomics algorithm among patients requiring ?60 mg/week (? = ?2.04, p=0.02).

Hernandez, Wenndy; Gamazon, Eric R.; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Patel, Shitalben; O'Brien, Travis J.; Harralson, Art F.; Kittles, Rick A.; Barbour, April; Tuck, Matthew; McIntosh, Samantha D.; Douglas, Jacqueline N.; Nicolae, Dan; Cavallari, Larisa H.; Perera, Minoli A.

2014-01-01

35

Ethnicity-specific pharmacogenetics: the case of warfarin in African Americans.  

PubMed

Using a derivation cohort (N=349), we developed the first warfarin dosing algorithm that includes recently discovered polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 associated with warfarin dose requirement in African Americans (AAs). We tested our novel algorithm in an independent cohort of 129 AAs and compared the dose prediction to the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) dosing algorithms. Our algorithm explains more of the phenotypic variation (R(2)=0.27) than the IWPC pharmacogenomics (R(2)=0.15) or clinical (R(2)=0.16) algorithms. Among high-dose patients, our algorithm predicted a higher proportion of patients within 20% of stable warfarin dose (45% vs 29% and 2% in the IWPC pharmacogenomics and clinical algorithms, respectively). In contrast to our novel algorithm, a significant inverse correlation between predicted dose and percent West African ancestry was observed for the IWPC pharmacogenomics algorithm among patients requiring ?60?mg per week (?=-2.04, P=0.02). PMID:24018621

Hernandez, W; Gamazon, E R; Aquino-Michaels, K; Patel, S; O'Brien, T J; Harralson, A F; Kittles, R A; Barbour, A; Tuck, M; McIntosh, S D; Douglas, J N; Nicolae, D; Cavallari, L H; Perera, M A

2014-06-01

36

Use of Hydralazine-Isosorbide Dinitrate Combination in African American and Other Race/Ethnic Group Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction  

PubMed Central

Background Hydralazine?isosorbide dinitrate (H?ISDN) therapy is recommended for African American patients with moderate to severe heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (<40%) (HFrEF), but use, temporal trends, and clinical characteristics associated with H?ISDN therapy in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results An observational analysis of 54 622 patients admitted with HFrEF and discharged home from 207 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure registry from April 2008 to March 2012 was conducted to assess prescription, trends, and predictors of use of H?ISDN among eligible patients. Among 11 185 African American patients eligible for H?ISDN therapy, only 2500 (22.4%) received H?ISDN therapy at discharge. In the overall eligible population, 5115 of 43 498 (12.6%) received H?ISDN at discharge. Treatment rates increased over the study period from 16% to 24% among African Americans and from 10% to 13% among the entire HFrEF population. In a multivariable model, factors associated with H?ISDN use among the entire cohort included younger age; male sex; African American/Hispanic ethnicity; and history of diabetes, hypertension, anemia, renal insufficiency, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower heart rate. In African American patients, these factors were similar; in addition, being uninsured was associated with lower use. Conclusions Overall, few potentially eligible patients with HFrEF are treated with H?ISDN, and among African?Americans fewer than one?fourth of eligible patients received guideline?recommended H?ISDN therapy. Improved ways to facilitate use of H?ISDN therapy in African American patients with HFrEF are needed.

Golwala, Harsh B.; Thadani, Udho; Liang, Li; Stavrakis, Stavros; Butler, Javed; Yancy, Clyde W.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

2013-01-01

37

Heart Healthy and Ethnically Relevant (HHER) Lifestyle Trial for Improving Diet and Physical Activity in Underserved African American Women  

PubMed Central

Background African American women are at increased risk for CVD morbidity and mortality relative to white women. Physical inactivity and poor dietary habits are modifiable health behaviors shown to reduce CVD risk. Community health centers have the potential to reach large numbers of African Americans to modify their risk for CVD, yet few lifestyle counseling interventions have been conducted in this setting. Methods The HHER Lifestyle trial is a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of a standard care intervention (provider counseling, nurse goal setting, and educational materials) to a comprehensive intervention (standard care intervention plus 12 months of telephone counseling and tailored print materials) on changes in physical activity and dietary fat consumption in financially disadvantaged African American women at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes are body mass index, central adiposity, and total cholesterol. Potential mediators of outcome are self-efficacy for overcoming barriers, social support, and decisional balance. Results African American women (N=266; 130 standard care, 136 comprehensive intervention) 35 years and older from nine clinics within two community health centers were enrolled. Most participants were overweight or obese with existing chronic health conditions. Conclusion The HHER Lifestyle trial is unique in that it targets financially disadvantaged African American women from community health centers, incorporates a standard care intervention into a routine clinical appointment, and includes a comprehensive process evaluation. The design will allow us to examine the added effect of regular telephone counseling and tailored print materials to a primary care provider and nurse intervention.

Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara; Wilson, Dawn K.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Felton, Gwen; Poston, Mary Beth

2009-01-01

38

Stroke and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... content can be found in the these categories: Content Index > Data/Statistics > Data by Health Topic > Stroke Content Index > Health Topics > Stroke > Stroke Data/Statistics Stroke and African Americans African American adults ...

39

Immunizations and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... content can be found in the these categories: Content Index > Data/Statistics > Data by Health Topic > Immunizations Content Index > Health Topics > Immunizations > Immunizations Data/Statistics Immunizations and African Americans African American adults ...

40

Ethnic Disparities in Americans of European descent versus Americans of African descent related to Polymorphic ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1 and PARP1  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) pathways are DNA repair pathways that are important in carcinogenesis and in response to DNA damaging chemotherapy. ERCC1 and ERCC2 are important molecular markers for NER; XRCC1 and PARP1 are important molecular markers for BER. Functional polymorphisms have been described that are associated with altered expression levels of these genes, and with altered DNA repair capability. We assayed genomic DNA from 156 Americans of European descent (EAs) and 164 Americans of African descent (AAs), for the allelic frequencies of specific polymorphisms of ERCC1 N118N (500C>T), ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC2 K751Q (2282A>C), XRCC1 R399Q (1301G>A), XRCC1 R194W (685C>T) and PARP1 V762A (2446T>C). Differences were observed between EAs and AAs in the allelic frequencies of the ERCC1 N118N polymorphism (p=0.000000). Differences were also observed between these two ethnic groups for ERCC2 K751Q (p=0.006675), XRCC1 R399Q (p=0.000000), PARP1 V762A (p=0.000001). The ERCC1 N118N polymorphic variant that is seen most commonly in EAs is associated with a measurable reduction in NER function. ERCC1 mediated reduction in NER functionality impacts the repair of cisplatin-DNA lesions.

Gao, Rui; Price, Douglas K.; Sissung, Tristan; Reed, Eddie; Figg, William D.

2013-01-01

41

Transcript African Americans and Lung Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Transcript African Americans and Lung Cancer Hello. I’m Dr. Christopher Lathan of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Of all ethnic/racial and gender groups in the United States, African American men are the most likely to develop lung cancer and also to die

42

Counseling Preferences of African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American women hold the greatest need for mental health services among ethnic groups but receive effective counseling least often. This study investigated their preferences of counseling services. Results revealed that the type of service delivery might not be as salient to African American women as counselor-client racial similarity.

Smith, Jacqueline R.; Wermeling, Linda

2007-01-01

43

African American Single Mothers: Understanding Their Lives and Families. Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research on African American single mothers and their families has been conducted using conventional paradigms based upon models of the dominant culture. This practice has resulted in the creation of stereotypes and misconceptions about "the Black family." In this collection of original work by an interdisciplinary group of scholars, the…

Dickerson, Bette J.

44

Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

2009-01-01

45

Combination of racial/ethnic and etiology/disease-specific factors is associated with lower survival following liver transplantation in African Americans: an analysis from UNOS/OPTN database.  

PubMed

Higher rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence and lower response to HCV antiviral therapy contribute to the lower post-liver transplantation (LT) survival among African Americans with HCV. The current study aims to evaluate race/ethnicity-specific and etiology-specific factors contributing to lower post-LT survival among African Americans in the USA. The 2002-2012 United Network for Organ Sharing registry was utilized to evaluate race/ethnicity-specific post-LT survival among patients with HCV, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis. From 2002 to 2012, HCV was the leading indication for LT. While African Americans accounted for 9.5% of all LT during this period, they had the lowest overall and etiology-specific five-yr post-LT survival. On multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, African Americans had significantly lower post-LT survival compared with non-Hispanic whites among patients with HCV (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.19-1.41), HCC (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.25-1.79), and ALD (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.94). In conclusion, African Americans had the lowest post-LT survival among patients with HCV, HCC, and ALD. Race/ethnicity and the etiology of chronic liver disease were observed to have a combined detrimental effect leading to lower survival following LT in African Americans. PMID:24750171

Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz

2014-07-01

46

Do Gender Differences in Help Avoidance Vary by Ethnicity? An Examination of African American and European American Students during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses…

Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena; Lampkins-uThando, Shawn A.; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Thompson, Geneene N.

2009-01-01

47

Do Gender Differences in Help Avoidance Vary by Ethnicity? An Examination of African American and European American Students During Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses indicated that help avoidance

Allison M. Ryan; S. Serena Shim; Shawn A. Lampkins-uThando; Sarah M. Kiefer; Geneene N. Thompson

2009-01-01

48

Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

2009-01-01

49

Parent Support and African American Adolescents' Career Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that African American adolescents are not being prepared to enter the workforce at the same rates as adolescents from other ethnic groups. While educational and career options were unavailable to African Americans in previous eras, today educational and career opportunities abound, yet many young African Americans are not in a…

Alliman-Brissett, Annette E.; Turner, Sherri L.; Skovholt, Thomas M.

2004-01-01

50

Mental Health and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... are Non-Hispanic Blacks. The death rate from suicide for African American men was almost four times ... for African American women, in 2009. However, the suicide rate for African Americans is 60% lower than ...

51

Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

2014-01-01

52

Educating African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American

Bell, Edward E.

2010-01-01

53

16 Extraordinary African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

Lobb, Nancy

54

Celiac Disease in African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is generally under diagnosed in the United States and it is unclear whether the disease is encountered in ethnic minorities. Our purpose is to describe a case series of African-American patients with celiac disease. Nine (1.3%) African-American patients with celiac disease were identified from a prospectively generated database of 700 patients with biopsy proven celiac disease and seen

Pardeep Brar; Ann R. Lee; Suzanne K. Lewis; Govind Bhagat; Peter H. R. Green

2006-01-01

55

Infant Mortality and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... African Americans, 2009. (Rates per 100,000 live births) Cause of Death (By rank) # African American Deaths African American Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White Deaths Non- Hispanic White Death Rate African American/ Non- Hispanic White Ratio (1) Low-Birthweight 1,734 284.5 1,629 73. ...

56

Genome-Wide Association Study of African and European Americans Implicates Multiple Shared and Ethnic Specific Loci in Sarcoidosis Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of granulomas in affected organs. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of this disease have been conducted only in European population. We present the first sarcoidosis GWAS in African Americans (AAs, 818 cases and 1,088 related controls) followed by replication in independent sets of AAs (455 cases and 557 controls) and European Americans (EAs, 442 cases and 2,284 controls). We evaluated >6 million SNPs either genotyped using the Illumina Omni1-Quad array or imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project data. We identified a novel sarcoidosis-associated locus, NOTCH4, that reached genome-wide significance in the combined AA samples (rs715299, PAA-meta?=?6.51×10?10) and demonstrated the independence of this locus from others in the MHC region in the same sample. We replicated previous European GWAS associations within HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DRB1, BTNL2, and ANXA11 in both our AA and EA datasets. We also confirmed significant associations to the previously reported HLA-C and HLA-B regions in the EA but not AA samples. We further identified suggestive associations with several other genes previously reported in lung or inflammatory diseases.

Adrianto, Indra; Lin, Chee Paul; Hale, Jessica J.; Levin, Albert M.; Datta, Indrani; Parker, Ryan; Adler, Adam; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Moser, Kathy L.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Harley, John B.; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Montgomery, Courtney G.

2012-01-01

57

Diabetes in African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Moving towards prevention of Type 2 Diabetes This music CD helps African Americans incorporate more physical activity ... move more. Three songs from the popular Movimiento music CD also are included. This CD also contains ...

58

JSTOR: African American Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

JSTOR has available this title in its collection of full-text, online journals. African American Review, the quarterly publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, is published by Indiana State University, and includes Volumes 1-33, 1967-1999. AAR continues Black American Literature Forum (1976-1991) and Negro American Literature Forum (1967-1976). Note: access to JSTOR content is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions.

1999-01-01

59

African-Americans and Alzheimer's  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

60

Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

2009-01-01

61

African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior  

PubMed Central

With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-ethnicity peers when they had fewer same-ethnicity classmates. African American children’s segregation was positively associated with same-ethnicity social preference and perceived popularity and with cross-ethnicity perceived popularity. European American children’s segregation was positively associated with same-ethnicity social preference but negatively associated with cross-ethnicity social preference and perceived popularity.

Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

62

African American and European American children in diverse elementary classrooms: social integration, social status, and social behavior.  

PubMed

With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American--but not European American--children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-ethnicity peers when they had fewer same-ethnicity classmates. African American children's segregation was positively associated with same-ethnicity social preference and perceived popularity and with cross-ethnicity perceived popularity. European American children's segregation was positively associated with same-ethnicity social preference but negatively associated with cross-ethnicity social preference and perceived popularity. PMID:21848954

Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C

2011-01-01

63

Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Detroit Partnership: Improving Diabetes-Related Outcomes Among African American and Latino Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine the effects of a community-based, cultur- ally tailored diabetes lifestyle intervention on risk factors for diabetes complica- tions among African Americans and Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Methods. One hundred fifty-one African American and Latino adults with dia- betes were recruited from 3 health care systems in Detroit, Michigan, to partici- pate in the Racial

Edith C. Kieffer; Mike Anderson; Brandy Sinco; Nancy Janz; Michele Heisler; Mike Spencer; Ricardo Guzman; Janice Thompson; Kimberlydawn Wisdom; Sherman A. James

64

Racial(ized) Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Afrocentric Values: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Understanding African American Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the literature reveals that there is conceptual confusion and inconsistent and sometimes inappropriate usage of the terms racial identity, ethnic identity, and Afrocentric values. This study explored the extent to which Black racial(ized) identity attitudes were related to ethnic identity and Afrocentric cultural values. Two hundred…

Cokley, Kevin O.

2005-01-01

65

Variations in Bicultural Identification among African American and Mexican American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 46 middle- and working-class Mexican American students and 52 middle-class African American students from ethnically diverse high schools in southern California as to American identity, other-group attitudes, self-concept, anxiety, and demographic characteristics. Found varied types of identification manifested by ethnic minority…

Phinney, Jean S.; Devitch-Navarro, Mona

1997-01-01

66

Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

2005-04-01

67

Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

2012-01-01

68

The Role of Ethnic Identity and Self-Construal in Coping among African American and Caucasian American Seventh Graders: An Exploratory Analysis of Within-Group Variance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how ethnicity, a discrete variable, and the continuous variables of a person's ethnic identity and self-construal contribute to the use of particular coping strategies. Results supported the hypothesis that ethnicity as a discrete variable is not associated with coping, but that ethnic identity and self-construal are. (Contains 48…

Zaff, Jonathan F.; Blount, Ronald L.; Phillips, Layli; Cohen, Lindsey

2002-01-01

69

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStreet-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the

Philippe Bourgois; Alexis Martinez; Alex Kral; Brian R Edlin; Jeff Schonberg; Dan Ciccarone

2006-01-01

70

Instructing African American Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Closing the educational achievement gap has been a schooling issue since Brown v. Board of Topeka, Kansas decision. Generally, the learning achievement of elementary and secondary African-American student has been an issue in majority school populations across the United States. And evidence of performance of these students appears to be more…

Young, Clara Y.; Wright, James V.; Laster, Joseph

2005-01-01

71

African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

2011-01-01

72

African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p?=?0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p?=?0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry.

Pino-Yanes, Maria; Wade, Michael S.; Perez-Mendez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

2012-01-01

73

Ethnicity and American Group Life. A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic

Weed, Perry L., Comp.

74

Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

2013-01-01

75

Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent

Wendy S. Bibeau; Brit I. Saksvig; Joel Gittelsohn; Sonja Williams; Lindsey Jones; Deborah Rohm Young

76

Cancer and the African American Experience PDF  

Cancer.gov

African Americans bear an unequal burden of cancer. This is caused by a complex interplay of socio-economic, cultural, environmental, and biologic factors; the result is the persistence of inequalities in cancer care outcomes. These disparities encompass the entire spectrum of care, from screening and prevention activities, through diagnosis and treatment, to palliative and end of life care. Clinicians should be aware that concepts of race and ethnicity are social and political constructs, without a direct relationship to biology and genetics.

77

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

78

Cross-Ethnic Measurement Equivalence of the SCARED in an Outpatient Sample of African American and Non-Hispanic White Youths and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the measurement equivalence of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a clinical sample of non-Hispanic White (NHW) and African American (AA) youths and parents. In addition, we explored the concurrent criterion validity of parent report on the SCARED to a parent diagnostic interview.…

Gonzalez, Araceli; Weersing, V. Robin; Warnick, Erin; Scahill, Lawrence; Woolston, Joseph

2012-01-01

79

Statistical Profile of Older African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... African American men and 61 percent of older African American women reported good, very good, or excellent health status. ... among those aged 85 or older. Similarly, among African American women, this rate declined from 65 percent at ages ...

80

Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2013-01-01

81

Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.  

PubMed

In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. PMID:23386565

DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

2013-05-01

82

Relationship between discourse and Western Aphasia Battery performance in African Americans with aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a need for discourse research with African Americans who have aphasia, highlighted by ethnic group differences in stroke prevalence, and potential ethnic group differences in dialect. Identification of ethnic dialect is critical to differentiate communication changes associated with pathology from normal communicative differences associated with ethnicity. Also, preliminary research on adults with aphasia indicates an uncertain relationship

Hanna Ulatowska; Gloria Streit Olness; Robert Wertz; Agnes Samson; Molly Keebler; Karen Goins

2003-01-01

83

Heart Disease and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... in the these categories: Content Index > Data/Statistics > Data by Health Topic > Heart Disease Content Index > Health Topics > Heart Disease > Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are 40 percent more likely to have high blood pressure, they are half as likely than ...

84

African-American Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to define psychological health from the individual perspectives of African-American women and men of different age groups, and to develop a global definition for all African-Americans. The findings suggest that characteristics of psychological health may be the same across race, although specific interpretations and…

Edwards, Karen L.

1989-01-01

85

Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm.  

PubMed

Four custom Axiom genotyping arrays were designed for a genome-wide association (GWA) study of 100,000 participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health. The array optimized for individuals of European race/ethnicity was previously described. Here we detail the development of three additional microarrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity. For these arrays, we decreased redundancy of high-performing SNPs to increase SNP capacity. The East Asian array was designed using greedy pairwise SNP selection. However, removing SNPs from the target set based on imputation coverage is more efficient than pairwise tagging. Therefore, we developed a novel hybrid SNP selection method for the African American and Latino arrays utilizing rounds of greedy pairwise SNP selection, followed by removal from the target set of SNPs covered by imputation. The arrays provide excellent genome-wide coverage and are valuable additions for large-scale GWA studies. PMID:21903159

Hoffmann, Thomas J; Zhan, Yiping; Kvale, Mark N; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Lu, Yontao; Mei, Gangwu; Purdy, Matthew M; Quesenberry, Charles; Rowell, Sarah; Shapero, Michael H; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Larry; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A; Finn, Andrea; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

2011-12-01

86

Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American

Yin, Robert K.

87

The Nguzo Saba as a Foundation for African American College Student Development Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes the consideration of the Nguzo Saba as a foundation for African American college student development theory, focusing on: racial/ethnic identity theories; the history of Kwanzaa; the origins of Kwanzaa (African and African American origins); and practical applications of the Nguzo Saba's seven principles (unity, self-determination,…

Johnson, Vanessa D.

2001-01-01

88

HIV among African American Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... of new infections among young black males and accounting for more new infections (4,800 in 2010) ... and family. Socioeconomic factors: The stark social and economic realities that exist in some African American communities ...

89

Ethnicity, Coping, and Distress Among Korean Americans, Filipino Americans, and Caucasian Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined appraisal, coping, and distress among Korean American, Filipino American, and Caucasian American Protestants. No interaction effects emerged among ethnic groups, but there were significant ethnic main effects for appraisal and coping. Compared with the Caucasian Americans, both Asian American groups appraised stressors as more challenging, and the Korean Americans appraised them also as greater losses. Both Asian

Jeffrey P. Bjorck; William Cuthbertson; John W. Thurman; Yung Soon Lee

2001-01-01

90

Diabetes in African American Youth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To report the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among African American youth and to describe demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based, multicenter observational study of youth with clinically diagnosed diabetes aged 0–19 years, were used to estimate the prevalence for calendar year 2001 (692 cases) and incidence based on 748 African American case subjects diagnosed in 2002–2005. Characteristics of these youth were obtained during a research visit for 436 African American youth with type 1 diabetes and 212 African American youth with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS—Among African American youth aged 0–9 years, prevalence (per 1,000) of type 1 diabetes was 0.57 (95% CI 0.47–0.69) and for those aged 10–19 years 2.04 (1.85–2.26). Among African American youth aged 0–9 years, annual type 1 diabetes incidence (per 100,000) was 15.7 (13.7–17.9) and for those aged 10–19 years 15.7 (13.8–17.8). A1C was ?9.5% among 50% of youth with type 1 diabetes aged ?15 years. Across age-groups and sex, 44.7% of African American youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. Among African American youth aged 10–19 years, prevalence (per 1,000) of type 2 diabetes was 1.06 (0.93–1.22) and annual incidence (per 100,000) was 19.0 (16.9–21.3). About 60% of African American youth with type 2 diabetes had an annual household income of <$25,000. Among those aged ?15 years, 27.5% had an A1C ?9.5%, 22.5% had high blood pressure, and, across subgroups of age and sex, >90% were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Type 1 diabetes presents a serious burden among African American youth aged <10 years, and African American adolescents are impacted substantially by both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Beyer, Jennifer; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Lawrence, Jean M.; Liese, Angela D.; Liu, Lenna; Marcovina, Santica; Rodriguez, Beatriz

2009-01-01

91

Social Integration between African American and European American Children in Majority Black, Majority White, and Multicultural Elementary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors use social network analysis and multilevel modeling to examine a central feature of classroom social organization: the ethnic composition of the classroom. They examine classroom ethnic composition as it relates to patterns of social integration between African American and European American children. They asked…

Rodkin, Philip C.; Wilson, Travis; Ahn, Hai-Jeong

2007-01-01

92

Lay Theories of Suicide: An Examination of Culturally Relevant Suicide Beliefs and Attributions among African Americans and European Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine African Americans' lay beliefs and attributions toward suicide. The Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, Life Ownership Orientation Questionnaire, Stigma Questionnaire, and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire were administered to 251 undergraduate college students. Beliefs about stigma associated with suicide were comparable across ethnic groups. However, African American college students were significantly less likely than European

Rheeda L. Walker; David Lester; Sean Joe

2006-01-01

93

Trial and Lifetime Smoking Risks among African American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed African American college students regarding cigarette use magnitude, risk factors, and predictors. Over half had smoked at least once, and 9.3 percent were lifetime smokers. More women than men smoked. For trial smoking, predictors were current residence, parent smoking status, and friends' smoking. For lifetime smoking, race/ethnicity,…

Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, S. Carrol; Rhodes, Warren A.; Sydnor, Kim Dobson

2001-01-01

94

African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination.

Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

2012-01-01

95

African American Community Mental Health Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 percent of psychologists and 4 percent of social workers in the United States are African American. • African Americans tend to rely on family, religious and social communities for emotional support rather than turning to ...

96

Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

Whitfield, Tracy N.

2010-01-01

97

Statistical Profile of Older African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... relatives, and 28 percent lived alone. For older African American women, 24 percent lived with their spouses, 35 percent ... 39 percent lived alone. The percentage of older African American women living alone (39 percent) is almost twice that ...

98

African-American Attitudes Concerning African-American English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past 25 years, controversy has developed over the value and use of African-American (AA) English. This study examined the opinions of AAs from a variety of backgrounds and communities in California and Georgia to obtain their views on AA English; its place in the school, in the community, and in AA heritage; and its role in the futures of…

Carter, Linda Carol

99

Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American\\/African Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however,\\u000a is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may\\u000a operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an examination of within-group differences\\u000a and similarities, counselors can be better prepared to assist

Beth A. Durodoye; Angela D. Coker

2008-01-01

100

Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

2014-01-01

101

The Education of African-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 17 papers in this volume are products of a study group on the education of African Americans that was part of a national project, "The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans." The volume takes a comprehensive look at the education of African Americans, specifically early childhood through postsecondary education, and relevant public…

Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

102

Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

103

Complex Syntax Production of African American Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined changes in the complex syntax production of 85 African American preschoolers and the role of child (gender, age, African American English) and family (home environment) factors. Age, gender, and home environment effects were found for the amount of complex language used. African American English was not related to amount of…

Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

2001-01-01

104

African Americans and Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... especially heavy toll on African Americans, particularly young African American women and men. For example, blacks represent just 14 ... in poverty. t Higher rates of incarceration among African American men have led to imbalanced ratios of men to women in black communities, which can help fuel the ...

105

Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... and IBD cancer than non-Hispanic White men. African American women are 1.4 times more likely to die ... Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – Women Cancer African American Women Non-Hispanic White Women African American/Non-Hispanic ...

106

Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

2011-01-01

107

"We Don't Feel Welcome Here": African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial discrimination is an ongoing reality in the lives of African Americans and Hispanics in Metro Boston. Although the region has experienced significant growth in racial and ethnic diversity over the past several decades, racial minority groups continue to struggle for full acceptance and equal opportunity. African Americans and Hispanics…

Louie, Josephine

2005-01-01

108

Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

2004-01-01

109

Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

2007-01-01

110

Recommendations for the Use of Online Social Support for African American Men  

PubMed Central

African American men face greater psychosocial stressors than African American women and men of other racial and ethnic groups, which place them at higher risk for psychological distress. Yet, research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilize professional mental health services because of their mistrust of the health care system and their need for more specialized and innovative services. Supplemental resources aimed at positive coping and social support for African American men may reduce the likelihood that they experience psychological distress, which could lead to more severe mental disorders. This article proposes the use of online social support for African American men who are in early, nonsevere stages of psychological distress. We examine the unique experiences of African American men, discuss distress among this underserved group, and finally, offer recommendations for achieving an online community for African American men.

Watkins, Daphne C.; Jefferson, S. Olivia

2014-01-01

111

Mapping the African American Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mapping the African American Past (MAAP) project, produced by a team of researchers and specialists at Columbia University, offers a marriage of African American history and geography in New York City. The project was funded by JPMorganChase, and it allows users to navigate through sites of importance to the African American community throughout the city's past. New visitors may wish to start by watching the short film, "Introduction to MAAP", and then move on over to the "Place in Focus" feature. Here they can learn about places like Five Points, the Abyssinian Baptist Church, and the home of David Ruggles. They can also use an interactive map to toggle through places associated with certain time periods, such as the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Additionally, the site also contains lesson plans that address topics that include African American community and culture and "Building New York". The site is rounded out by a series of podcasts which cover all 52 locations featured on the MAAP website.

112

African American Women and Mentoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mentoring experiences of African American women and the potential of mentoring for improving their circumstances are explored. To develop insight into mentoring, a brief pilot survey was designed using a definition of mentoring derived from the literature, specifically from the characteristics described by J. E. Blackwell. The 21-item…

Howard-Vital, Michelle R.; Morgan, Rosalind

113

Classic African American Children's Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

McNair, Jonda C.

2010-01-01

114

Suicide among African American Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents empirical contributions to the scholarship on African American suicide, particularly among men. Discusses the secular trends in suicide completion and method-specific suicide patterns; the prevalence of ideation and attempts; suicide-related risk factors; evidence-based recommendations for suicide prevention; the need for more effective…

Joe, Sean; Kaplan, Mark S.

2001-01-01

115

Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. Methods and Results Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Conclusions The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current markers. Notably, pathways related to tumor angiogenesis and chemotaxis could be functionally different in these two patient groups.

Martin, Damali N.; Boersma, Brenda J.; Yi, Ming; Reimers, Mark; Howe, Tiffany M.; Yfantis, Harry G.; Tsai, Yien Che; Williams, Erica H.; Lee, Dong H.; Stephens, Robert M.; Weissman, Allan M.; Ambs, Stefan

2009-01-01

116

African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy  

PubMed Central

Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reasons for providing such support were unknown. Objective: To understand how and for what purposes the tobacco industry sought to establish and maintain relationships with African American leaders. Methods: Review and analysis of over 700 previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet. Results: The tobacco industry established relationships with virtually every African American leadership organisation and built longstanding social connections with the community, for three specific business reasons: to increase African American tobacco use, to use African Americans as a frontline force to defend industry policy positions, and to defuse tobacco control efforts. Conclusion: As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. Helping groups anticipate such efforts, confront industry co-optation, and understand the hidden costs of accepting tobacco industry largesse should be part of worldwide tobacco control efforts.

Yerger, V; Malone, R

2002-01-01

117

The aftermath of child sexual abuse of African American and white American women: The victim's experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of the victim's personal experience in the aftermath of child sexual abuse are described. Subject recruitment involved a multi-stage stratified probability sample of 126 African American and 122 White women, ages 18 to 36 years in Los Angeles County, matched on education, marital status, and the presence of children. Few ethnic differences were related to the initial response

Gail Elizabeth Wyatt

1990-01-01

118

African Americans and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 A A A Share Print State of Tobacco Control 2014 Bring the Fight for Air to your smartphone. Top Stories More about Smoking Cessation My First Cigarette, and My Last May 30, 2014 CVS Ends Tobacco Sales February 21, 2014 » More American Lung ...

119

Freedom of choice and adherence to the health regimen for African Americans with hypertension.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans exceeds that of all other racial/ethnic groups in the world. Hypertension in African Americans is less likely to be controlled and this problem is further complicated by failure to adhere to prescribed hypertension management regimens. Oftentimes, health care providers give African American patients with hypertension multiple health "rules" to follow that may arouse reactance behaviors: that is, patients may choose to do the opposite of what they are told to do. The theory of psychological reactance offers a framework for understanding the relationship between freedom of choice and adherence to hypertension regimens in African Americans. PMID:22918261

Abel, Willie M; Barksdale, Debra J

2012-01-01

120

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâÂÂs oral traditions.

121

Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Reactivity to Ethnically Matched and Ethnically Mismatched Film Clips  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether individuals from 4 major ethnic groups within the United States (African American, Chinese American, European American, and Mexican American) showed greater subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to emotional film clips (amusement, sadness, and disgust) with actors from their own ethnic group (ethnically matched) compared with actors from the other 3 ethnic groups (ethnically mismatched). Evidence showed

Nicole A. Roberts; Robert W. Levenson

2006-01-01

122

Cultural Expressions of the African American Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpretations of the differences between the African American child and the Caucasian child in North America follow two major trends. In one the differences in the African American child are viewed as deviance from the Euro-American norm and therefore inferior or pathological. In the other, the differences are viewed as deviant but adaptive…

Akbar, Na'im

123

In Quest of African American Political Woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American women, political activists for their entire history on the American continent but long denied the right to vote and hold office, have resorted to nontraditional politics. This article explores the nature and extent of African American women's political participation, beginning with the slave era. As victims of racial and sexual discrimination, these women have been active in the

Jewel L. Prestage

1991-01-01

124

An Exploratory Study of the Career Decisions of African American and Hispanic Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need for culturally diverse teachers. Weiher (2000) studied the relationship between African American and Hispanic student achievement and schools with teachers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated the greater the difference between the percentage of ethnically diverse teachers and the percentage of diverse students, the…

Waller, Johnnye

2010-01-01

125

Parenting, Social-Emotional Development, and School Achievement of African American Youngsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, with the passage of No Child Left Behind Act (2001) (NCLB), renewed attention has been devoted to the achievement gap and the school achievement of ethnic minority children and youth. Ethnic differences in academic performance appear when children are young and continue into adulthood. For example, there are significant differences in the vocabulary scores of African American

Ronald D. Taylor

126

Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

1992-01-01

127

Coming of Age: African American Male Rites-of-Passage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of issues confronting the African American male, along with a strategy to nurture a new generation of African American males. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the social status and new demographics of the African American male and the external threats that are devastating to the African American male and the African American

Hill, Paul, Jr.

128

Outcomes Among African-American\\/Non-African-American Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Report From the Cancer and Leukemia Group B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Among patients diagnosed with advanced non- small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), African-Americans have lower survival rates than non-African-Americans. Whether this difference is due to innate characteristics of the disease in the two ethnicities or to disparities in health care is not known. We investigated whether the disparity in sur- vival would persist when patients were treated with similar systemic therapies

A. William Blackstock; James E. Herndon II; Electra D. Paskett; Michael C. Perry; Stephen L. Graziano; Joseph J. Muscato; Michael P. Kosty; Wallace L. Akerley; Jimmie Holland; Stewart Fleishman; Mark R. Green

2002-01-01

129

Ethnic Choices and the Intergenerational Progress of Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using microdata from the 1990 U.S. Census, we show that U.S.-born Mexican Americans who marry non-Mexicans are substantially more educated, on average, than are Mexican Americans who marry co-ethnics (whether they be Mexican Americans or Mexican immigrants). The educational selectivity of Mexican-American intermarriage generates corresponding differences in the employment and earnings of Mexican Americans according to the ethnicity of their

Brian Duncan; Stephen J. Trejo

2004-01-01

130

Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization among Low-Income African American Adolescents: Closing the Gap by Enhancing Practitioner’s Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of racial and ethnic match as a barrier to care in mental health treatment services has received considerable attention. In systems of care, which provide public mental health services to African American adolescents, the provider base is largely non-African American. This difference presents a challenge for African American adolescents and their parents who want a provider who is

Valire Carr Copeland

2006-01-01

131

Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community.

Crosby, Alex; Molock, Sherry Davis

2006-01-01

132

Overlooked role of African-American males' hypermasculinity in the epidemic of unintended pregnancies and HIV/AIDS cases with young African-American women.  

PubMed Central

This article looks at multiple lines of converging evidence relevant to the 72% unintended pregnancy rate, and recently emerged heterosexually-based HIV/AIDS epidemic with young African-American women. Evidence recently reveals a convergence of these epidemics, in a vulnerable subpopulation segment of African-American women. Overlooked, as a unique contributing factor in these epidemics is the hypermasculine behaviors of African-American males. Among the risky behaviors linked with this hypermasculinity are a greater tendency with African-American males to have more multiple sexual partners, and a stronger aversion to condom use than other male ethnic groups. As a contributing factor in these epidemics, African-American males' hypermasculinity has several implications for intervention strategies to reduce the epidemics, which are discussed.

Wolfe, William A.

2003-01-01

133

Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions.

Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

2013-01-01

134

The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

2008-01-01

135

Environmental health and African Americans.  

PubMed Central

As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results.

Walker, B

1991-01-01

136

National African American Photographic Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glorious collection is a collaborative effort between the University Libraries, University of Memphis and Ampro Industries, Inc. of Memphis. The project's goal is "to collect, scan, and make available to the public photographs and informative metadata illustrating the daily and work lives and social activities of African Americans." Currently the project has over 450 items that are searchable by name or available for browsing. First-time visitors may want to start by looking at the Robert R. Church Family of Memphis slideshow. This visual vignette features studio portraits of the Church family and images taken in a variety of settings. [KMG

137

Health-related Quality of Life of African American Breast Cancer Survivors Compared to Healthy African American Women  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on Caucasian samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Even when African American BCS have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American women BCS to African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). Methods A total of 140 women (62 BCS and 78 control), ages 18 years or older and 2–10 years post-diagnosis, was recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a one-time survey based on Brenner’s (1995) proximal-distal health-related quality of life model. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, African American BCS experienced more fatigue (p=0.001), worse hot flashes (p<0.001) and worse sleep quality (p<0.001), but more social support from their partner (p=0.028) and more positive change (p=0.001) compared to African American women controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that African American women BCS may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socio-economic status and body mass index. Implications for Practice Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions.

Von Ah, Diane M.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zhao, Qianqian; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D.; Giesler, R. Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L.

2011-01-01

138

AIDS among African Americans: A Social Epidemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the history of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the United States. Surveillance data are given for several groups of African Americans, including women and men who have sex with men. AIDS cumulative incidence among African Americans in the next several years is projected. (SLD)

Jenkins, Bill; And Others

1993-01-01

139

African Americans and the Industrial Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

2000-01-01

140

African-American Literature for Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of African-American literature for young people. Describes the setbacks resulting from cutbacks of federal funds for schools and libraries, as publishers cut back on materials they did not consider marketable. Suggests bibliographic resources for discovering works for children by or about African Americans. (DK)

Drew, Margaret A.

1992-01-01

141

Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

Mims, Adrian B.

2010-01-01

142

The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

1989-01-01

143

African Americans in the Early Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

Nash, Gary B.

2000-01-01

144

Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

2009-01-01

145

A Critical Care Collection for African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines health concerns affecting African Americans, and presents an annotated bibliography of 22 resources written for African Americans and arranged under the subheadings of general information, statistical data, keeping healthy, AIDS, social issues, community involvement, reference sources, periodicals, and databases. (LRW)

Hamberg, Cheryl

1995-01-01

146

Designing and Implementing Ethnic Congregate Nutrition Programs for Older Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montgomery County in Maryland is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the United States. Since the 1970s, traditional American and Kosher meals have been offered at congregate sites in this County, but few seniors of varied ethnicity participated. This article describes creative approaches used in the County Senior Nutrition Program within the Older Americans Act from 1990 to

Marilyn T. Mower

2008-01-01

147

Marital Satisfaction Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings From the National Survey of American Life*  

PubMed Central

This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women reported overall higher levels of marital satisfaction than African American women. The findings amply demonstrate the significance of ethnic diversity within the Black population in the United States. Difficulties with finances (budgeting, credit issues, and debt management) are one of the key issues that generate conflict in marriages; stress generated as a result of financial problems can lower marital satisfaction. Because these issues are salient for couples at any given time in the family life cycle, counseling at critical points in the marriage (birth of children, launching of children from home, and retirement) may be helpful.

Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

2010-01-01

148

Do You See What I See? Effects of Group Consciousness on African American Women's Attributions to Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…

King, Kimberly R.

2003-01-01

149

Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

2014-01-01

150

Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

2009-01-01

151

The Effort-Outcome Gap: Differences for African American and Hispanic Community College Students in Student Engagement and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little in higher education seems more intractable than the access and achievement gaps between ethnic groups. White students consistently outdistance African Americans and Hispanics in both enrollment and academic performance. Despite the negative relationships between minority status and academic performance, African American and Hispanic…

Greene, Thomas G.; Marti, C. Nathan; McClenney, Kay

2008-01-01

152

Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

2009-01-01

153

Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

2009-01-01

154

Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study of African Americans and Latin Americans.  

PubMed Central

This study compared the clinical and serologic features in two different ethnic groups of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One hundred seventy-one SLE patients comprised the study population; 61 (55 girls and 6 boys) were African American with age at onset of 13 +/- 2.9 years, and 110 (97 girls and 13 boys) were Latin American (Colombian) with age at onset of 13 +/- 3.2 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were obtained by chart review using a standard data collection form. African-American patients more commonly manifested discoid skin lesions, malar rash, pulmonary fibrosis, and pleuritis, and less commonly manifested photosensitivity, livedo reticularis, and vascular thrombosis than did Latin Americans. In addition, there was a higher frequency of anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, and anti-Ro positivity among African-Americans compared with Latin-American patients. These results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in the clinical expression of SLE.

Gedalia, A.; Molina, J. F.; Molina, J.; Uribe, O.; Malagon, C.; Espinoza, L. R.

1999-01-01

155

Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

2009-01-01

156

Vitamin D and African Americans.  

PubMed

Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans (blacks) than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D production in the skin. Also, from about puberty and onward, median vitamin D intakes of American blacks are below recommended intakes in every age group, with or without the inclusion of vitamin D from supplements. Despite their low 25(OH)D levels, blacks have lower rates of osteoporotic fractures. This may result in part from bone-protective adaptations that include an intestinal resistance to the actions of 1,25(OH)2D and a skeletal resistance to the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, these mechanisms may not fully mitigate the harmful skeletal effects of low 25(OH)D and elevated PTH in blacks, at least among older individuals. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that vitamin D protects against other chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some cancers, all of which are as prevalent or more prevalent among blacks than whites. Clinicians and educators should be encouraged to promote improved vitamin D status among blacks (and others) because of the low risk and low cost of vitamin D supplementation and its potentially broad health benefits. PMID:16549493

Harris, Susan S

2006-04-01

157

African-American clinicians providing HIV care: the experience of the National HIV/AIDS Clinicians' Consultation Center.  

PubMed

This analysis compares patient and provider characteristics of African-American clinicians and non-African-American clinicians who called the National HIV Telephone Consultation Service (Warmline). In 2004, a total of 2,077 consultations were provided for 1,020 clinicians, 70 (6.9%) of whom were African American. Compared to the non-African-American group, a higher percentage of African-American clinicians were nurses (20.0% vs. 8.8%, p=0.002). A significantly lower percentage of African-American physicians were infectious disease specialists (3.5% vs. 25.6%, p=0.007). African-American clinicians were more likely to work in a community clinic (48.5% vs. 34.1%, p=0.015). Both African-American and non-African American clinicians reported caring for a similar number of HIV-infected patients. Patient-provider racial concordance was common among African-American clinicians (76.4%), whereas non-African-American clinicians called about patients of more diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. African-American clinicians who called Warmline exhibited differences in patient and provider characteristics when compared to all other clinicians. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on HIV providers in the United States. PMID:18672554

Mahoney, Megan R; Sterkenburg, Cynthia; Thom, David H; Goldschmidt, Ronald H

2008-07-01

158

Dietary implications of oral health decrements among African?American and white older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Older African?Americans are at disproportionate risk of chronic, nutritionally?related diseases. To begin to understand factors that may contribute to the disproportionate prevalence of life?threatening illnesses among African?Americans, this study investigates ethnic differences in the prevalence of oral health decrements.Design. The Florida Dental Care Study (FDCS), a longitudinal study of changes in the oral health of 873 subjects age 45

Nancy E. Schoenberg; Gregg H. Gilbert

1998-01-01

159

Adverse Birth Outcomes in African American Women: The Social Context of Persistent Reproductive Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed

Tyan Parker Dominguez

2010-01-01

160

Culturally Distinctive and Academic Socialization: Direct and Interactive Relationships with African American Adolescents’ Academic Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of ethnic minority development have largely suggested that African American parents engage in a combination of practices\\u000a that include culturally distinctive socialization as well as behaviors that are characteristic of more universal forms of\\u000a academic socialization. However, few studies have examined how these socialization dimensions interact to influence the academic\\u000a adjustment of African American adolescents. The current study explored

Shauna M. Cooper; Ciara Smalls

2010-01-01

161

Associations between reasons for living and diminished suicide intent among african-american female suicide attempters.  

PubMed

African-American women are at high risk for suicide ideation and suicide attempts and use emergency psychiatric services at disproportionately high rates relative to men and other ethnic groups. However, suicide death rates are low for this population. Cultural variables in the African-American community may promote resilience and prevent fatal suicidal behavior among African-American women. The present study evaluated self-reported reasons for living as a protective factor against suicidal intent and suicide attempt lethality in a sample of African-American female suicide attempters (n = 150). Regression analyses revealed that reasons for living were negatively associated with suicidal intent, even after controlling for spiritual well-being and symptoms of depression. These results indicate that the ability to generate and contemplate reasons for valuing life may serve as a protective characteristic against life-threatening suicidal behavior among African-American women. Implications for research and clinical practice are further discussed. PMID:25010106

Flowers, Kelci C; Walker, Rheeda L; Thompson, Martie P; Kaslow, Nadine J

2014-08-01

162

Weight changes in African American college students: a review of literature.  

PubMed

Over one-third of all adults in the United States are obese and African Americans represent over 49.5% of these cases. Young adults with some college education show the most rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, with African Americans leading among all groups. The purpose of this paper is to consider why students gain weight in college and if racial and ethnic differences exist in the context of weight gain. Both physical environment and psychological factors affect the college students' weight-related behaviors. College students experience significant increases in their weight and African Americans are disproportionately affected. However, the role of race and ethnicity is under-examined. Future research should explore racial and ethnic differences in weight gain in college students. PMID:24660314

Darden, Shavon

2014-01-01

163

Evaluating the impact of a hypertension program for African Americans.  

PubMed Central

Although hypertension affects all racial and ethnic groups, its prevalence is highest in the African-American community. The goal of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce hypertension among African Americans from 40% to 16%. Although current levels remain high, culturally sensitive, community-based clinical projects might be helpful in addressing this problem. The goal of this study was to assess whether a community-based clinic's program was effective in improving blood pressure control among a sample of 134 African-American adults. The program design involved health education and physical fitness classes offered over a nine-month period, with blood pressure checks being conducted pre- and postphases to determine whether the program was effective in controlling high blood pressure. Health questionnaires were also administered pre- and posttest to assess whether health behaviors and perceived health status were influenced by the project. Two-thirds (70%) of the sample had high blood pressure at baseline and 43% at program conclusion. This was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003). Overall self-reported health survey results indicated improved health behaviors and health status changes. Findings suggest that culturally sensitive, community-based clinic programs that incorporate both health education and physical fitness might be effective in reducing hypertension among African Americans.

Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Martin, Arneatha; Shipp, Donna Dennis; Simpson, Donna Sanders

2006-01-01

164

Traditional African Informal Instructional Paradigm in African and African-American Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the use of African storytelling for informal teaching of African traditions and values in today's African-American community. The instruction is shown in content and context in three literary works: "An African Night's Entertainment,""The Passport of Mallam Ilia," and "The Secret of Gumbo Grove." (MMU)

Osa, Osayimwense

1997-01-01

165

Discussing cancer: communication with african americans.  

PubMed

Regular screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) facilitates earlier detection, lowers mortality, and may reduce incidence through detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Optimizing health professional delivery of CRC screening information and recommendations can assist in reducing CRC disparity in the African-American community. This article presents qualitative data on African Americans' attitudes about health professional CRC communications based on the analysis of focus groups (N = 79). Using a social-ecological framework, colorectal cancer and professional communication themes are examined to offer four general and nine cancer-specific theoretically based and culturally appropriate strategies for improving health professional cancer communication with African Americans. PMID:25050658

Caito, Nikki; Hood, Sula; Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

2014-07-01

166

Science Enrichment for African-American Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author administered a survey to African-American students enrolled in elective science classes in four public high schools in a Middle Atlantic state during the 1998-1999 school year. These students were surveyed because according to research literature, they were more likely to major in science in college (Farmer et al. 1995) and because of the disproportionately low number of African-American science majors in higher education compared to other populations. This survey identified some of the factors that contributed to their achievement and provided insight into what can help motivate African-American students to pursue careers in science.

Matkins, Juanita J.; Miles, Rhea

2004-02-01

167

Symposium: Calcium-Related Chronic Diseases in Ethnic Minorities: Can Dairy Consumption Reduce Health Disparities? Reducing Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease Risk of African Americans with Diet: Focus on the Facts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is more common and more severe in African Americans than in other population groups in the United States, placing them at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and end-stage renal disease. Whereas past efforts to reduce blood pressure (BP) via the diet centered on manipulating isolated nutrients, there are now conclusive data demonstrating that it is not single dietary

Molly E. Reusser; David A. McCarrony

168

Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.  

PubMed

In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families. PMID:22792848

Borum, Valerie

2012-01-01

169

Informing Cancer Prevention Strategies for African Americans: The Relationship of African American Acculturation to Fruit, Vegetable, and Fat Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acculturation has been associated with health-related behaviors in African Americans. We sought to determine if there is a relationship between acculturation and dietary intake in African Americans. African Americans in the PREMIER trial completed the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) and 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n = 238). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and canonical correlation were used to assess

Jamy D. Ard; Celette Sugg Skinner; Chuhe Chen; Mikel Aickin; Laura P. Svetkey

2005-01-01

170

Measuring African American women's trust in provider during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Significant racial disparities exist in pregnancy outcomes, but few researchers have examined the relationship between trust in providers and pregnancy outcomes. The Trust in Physician Scale (TPS), the most widely used tool, has not been tested in pregnancy. We assessed the psychometric properties of the TPS and identified correlates of trust in 189 pregnant African American women. Evidence supports internal consistency reliability (>.85) and internal structure of the TPS (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .05; ?(2) (42) = 65.93, p = .001), but TPS scores did not predict pregnancy outcomes. African American women reported a high level of trust in obstetric providers. Trust did not differ by provider type (physician or midwife) but was related to the women's history of perceived racism and strength of ethnic identity. PMID:24395526

Peters, Rosalind M; Benkert, Ramona; Templin, Thomas N; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

2014-04-01

171

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans Update for RTOG in Tampa Feb 2, 2007 Patrick D. Maguire, MD New Hanover Regional (NHRMC) Update for NHRMC Feb 2, 2007 I. Radiotherapy (RT) Clinical Trials II. Publications III. Partnership & Telesynergy IV. Patient

172

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African Americans Update for RTOG in Miami Jan 20, 2006 Patrick D. Maguire, MD New Hanover Regional (NHRMC) Update for NHRMC January 20, 2006 I. Radiotherapy (RT) Clinical Trials II. Publications III. Partnership & Telesynergy IV. Patient

173

Reaching African American men: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

African American men are disproportionately affected by most illnesses and associated complications. These men are also less likely to participate in primary and secondary prevention interventions. Little is known about reaching them. The purpose of this study(1) was to explore factors associated with effectively reaching African American men. Ethnographic methods were used. Key and general informants from an urban Northeastern community were recruited for this study. The data revealed 3 major themes as essential to reaching African American men: a trusted and respected community member providing the outreach, a perceived safe and caring environment during outreach, and a perceived benefit from participating in the outreach. The findings from this study provided a foundation for designing community interventions that will increase participation among African American men. Future research efforts should focus on operationalizing these findings in the community. PMID:16863400

Plowden, Keith O; John, Wendell; Vasquez, Elias; Kimani, James

2006-01-01

174

African American Women in Iowa Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital celebration of African American women in 20th century Iowa represents the collaborative efforts of the Iowa Women's Archives and the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa. On the site, visitors can learn about the experiences of African American women in Iowa through photographs, scrapbooks, pamphlets, oral histories, and newsletters. Visitors can perform detailed searches, or they can look at the documents through topical listings. The "Highlights" area is a true delight, as visitors can dip into items like a photograph of young women curtseying in the 1920s and the scrapbook of Althea Beatrice Moore Smith, who was an African American student at Iowa State University. The site also contains links to related collections and several archival guides for researchers seeking for more detailed scholarly resources.

175

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans  

Cancer.gov

Improving Cancer Outcomes for African-Americans New Hanover Regional Medical Center Coastal Area Health Education Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Carolina at Wilmington Report given at the Program Steering Committee

176

Seasonal changes in sleep duration in African American and African college students living in Washington, D.C.  

PubMed

Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of "biological night" that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more "problems" with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575) were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season) x 2 (sex) x 2 (ethnicity) x 2 (winter diagnosis group) ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands. PMID:17619774

Volkov, Janna; Rohan, Kelly J; Yousufi, Samina M; Nguyen, Minh-Chau; Jackson, Michael A; Thrower, Courtney M; Postolache, Teodor T

2007-01-01

177

Archives of African American Music and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Indiana University's Archives of African American Music and Culture (AAAMC) contains a searchable and browsable collection of bibliographic records of its over 2500 sound recordings and 200 video cassettes, as well as a searchable-only collection of bibliographic records of its photographic archive. It also contains information about its Undine Smith Moore Collection of Original Scores and Manuscripts of Black Composers. AAAMC's usage policy is on the home page, as well as selected links to other African American Internet resources.

Culture., Indiana U.

1998-01-01

178

Cultural Awareness and Ethnic Loyalty among Mexican American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 364 Mexican-American college students were used to study the adequacy of Keefe and Padilla's model and measure of cultural change. Keefe and Padilla developed an empirical measure yielding two divergent factors, labeled as Cultural Awareness and Ethnic Loyalty. An additional factor, labeled Ethnic Social Orientation, referred to…

Arbona, Consuelo; And Others

179

Alcohol-related consequences in African American and European American college students.  

PubMed

Approximately 50% of college students report a heavy drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. This pattern of heavy episodic drinking places them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. In addition, important ethnic differences exist between European American and African American college students in terms of drinking. European American college students report consuming more alcohol than African American college students, but little research exists on the differences in types and rates of problems. The current study sought to examine the differences in problems among 451 African American and European American college students using a comprehensive measure of alcohol-related problems. The effect of gender was also examined as research has found consistent gender differences in drinking. European American students experienced more problems overall and greater levels of social/interpersonal problems and risky behaviors even after controlling for drinking level. In addition, women reported significantly greater levels of problems in all domains except physical dependence, risky behaviors, and self-perception when drinking was controlled for. PMID:22679896

Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew; Dennhardt, Ashley A

2012-01-01

180

Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.  

PubMed

Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212

Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

2013-01-01

181

Linking of Ethnic Minority Elderly with Dementia to Long Term Care (LTC) Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study explores the social network/caregiver configuration of dementia-affected ethnic minority elderly from four ethnic minority groups, American Indian/Native Americans; Asian Americans, specifically in the study, Japanese Americans; Blacks/African A...

R. Valle L. Birba J. Yelder Y. Sakamoto-Kowalchuk R. Forquera

1989-01-01

182

Ethnic identity and mental health in American Indian youth: examining mediation pathways through self-esteem, and future optimism.  

PubMed

Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53% American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38% female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture. PMID:23929530

Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Webber, Kristina C

2014-03-01

183

Factors influencing enrollment of African Americans in the Look AHEAD trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many factors have been identified that influence the recruitment of African Americans into clinical trials; however, the influence of eligibility criteria may not be widely appreciated. We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process to examine the differential impact eligibility criteria had on the enrollment of African Americans compared to other volunteers. Methods Look AHEAD is a large randomized clinical trial to examine whether assignment to an intensive lifestyle intervention designed to produce and maintain weight loss reduces the long-term risk of major cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes. Differences in the screening, eligibility, and enrollment rates between African Americans and members of other racial/ethnic groups were examined to identify possible reasons. Results Look AHEAD screened 28,735 individuals for enrollment, including 6226 (21.7%) who were self-identified African Americans. Of these volunteers, 12.9% of the African Americans compared to 19.3% of all other screenees ultimately enrolled (p < 0.001). African Americans no more often than others were lost to follow-up or refused to attend clinic visits to establish eligibility. Furthermore, the enrollment rates of individuals with histories of cardiovascular disease and diabetes therapy did not markedly differ between the ethnic groups. Higher prevalence of adverse levels of blood pressure, heart rate, HbA1c, and serum creatinine among African American screenees accounted for the greater proportions excluded (all p < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to non-African Americans, African American were more often ineligible for the Look AHEAD trial due to comorbid conditions. Monitoring trial eligibility criteria for differential impact, and modifying them when appropriate, may ensure greater enrollment yields.

Mount, David L; Davis, Cralen; Kennedy, Betty; Raatz, Susan; Dotson, Kathy; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Thomas, Sheikilya; Johnson, Karen C; Espeland, Mark A

2013-01-01

184

Caveats in the neuropsychological assessment of African Americans.  

PubMed Central

This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured African Americans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations.

Campbell, Alfonso L.; Ocampo, Carlota; DeShawn Rorie, Kashemi; Lewis, Sonya; Combs, Shawn; Ford-Booker, Phyllis; Briscoe, Juanita; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Brown, Andrew; Wood, Don; Dennis, Gary; Weir, Roger; Hastings, Alicia

2002-01-01

185

Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.  

PubMed

Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal communication for patient satisfaction among American Indians. Results will be of special interest to health researchers, clinicians, and policy makers working in fields related to minority health. PMID:15450700

Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

2004-12-01

186

African American College Women in the San Francisco Bay Area: Perceptions of Cross's Nigrescence Model and Potential Leadership Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although more African American women are pursuing a college education, how are they coping with their double minority status on predominantly White college campuses? As they become more aware of their identity, how does their interaction change with students and groups of a different ethnic background? The possible relationship between ethnic

Picou-Broadnax, Amber

2010-01-01

187

Designing and implementing ethnic congregate nutrition programs for older Americans.  

PubMed

Montgomery County in Maryland is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the United States. Since the 1970s, traditional American and Kosher meals have been offered at congregate sites in this County, but few seniors of varied ethnicity participated. This article describes creative approaches used in the County Senior Nutrition Program within the Older Americans Act from 1990 to 2007 to develop nutrition sites targeted to seniors in Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese communities. The services provided are culturally sensitive, and the meals meet both nutritional and food safety standards. With secure funding, programs can be made available to other ethnic groups. PMID:19042583

Mower, Marilyn T

2008-01-01

188

African-American Archaeology: Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network, Number 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Issue 19 (Early Winter 1997) of the African - American Archaeology: Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network has been posted by the publisher, New South Associates. Contents include a case study on Slavery and Consumerism, notices of current excavations and research, Internet resources, book reviews and notes, and professional news and announcements.

1997-01-01

189

Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

2009-01-01

190

The Pedagogy of African American Parents: Learning from Educational Excellence in the African American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study of how parents teach their children to excel academically in the African American community seeks to establish the validity of the pedagogical practices of working class African American families by investigating the educational leadership of two families on Chicago's south side. The study acknowledges the significance of…

Watkins, Audrey P.

2006-01-01

191

Ethnic Identification, Intermarriage, and Unmeasured Progress by Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Census and CPS data, we show that U.S.-born Mexican Americans who marry non-Mexicans are substantially more educated and English proficient, on average, than are Mexican Americans who marry co-ethnics (whether they be Mexican Americans or Mexican immigrants). In addition, the non-Mexican spouses of intermarried Mexican Americans possess relatively high levels of schooling and English proficiency, compared to the spouses

Brian Duncan; Stephen J. Trejo

2005-01-01

192

Ethnic Identification, Intermarriage, and Unmaresured Progress by Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Census and CPS data, we show that U.S.-born Mexican Americans who marry non- Mexicans are substantially more educated and English proficient, on average, than are Mexican Americans who marry co-ethnics (whether they be Mexican Americans or Mexican immigrants). In addition, the non-Mexican spouses of intermarried Mexican Americans possess relatively high levels of schooling and English proficiency, compared to the

Brian Duncan; Stephen Trejo

2006-01-01

193

African Americans in the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The African American population has made remarkable progress since the 1960s, but recent trends may derail the progress of many American blacks. Compared to previous years, United States blacks, who number 30 million in 1991, are more educated, earn higher salaries, work in more prestigious jobs, and participate more fully in politics. However,…

O'Hare, William P.; And Others

1991-01-01

194

Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

2008-01-01

195

Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

Anderson, Bridget L.

2002-01-01

196

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

2010-01-01

197

Perceived Racism and Career Self-Efficacy in African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American adolescents' perceptions of racism and career self-efficacy relationships are examined. Participants in a southwestern urban high school completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Racism and Life Experiences Scale-Personal and -Group, and career decision and career task self-efficacy scales. Results indicate that…

Rollins, Vanessa B.; Valdez, Jesse N.

2006-01-01

198

Telling Their Side of the Story: African-American Students' Perceptions of Culturally Relevant Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of scholarship has documented the salience of culturally relevant teaching practices for ethnically and linguistically diverse students. However, research examining these students' perceptions and interpretations of these learning environments has been minimal at best. In this article, the author details the findings from a study that sought to assess African-American elementary students' interpretations of culturally relevant teachers

Tyrone C. Howard

2001-01-01

199

African American Racial Identity across the Lifespan: Identity Status, Identity Content, and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cluster analytic methods were used to create 4 theorized ethnic identity statuses (achieved, foreclosed, moratorium, and diffused) among 940 African American adolescents (13-17 years old), college students (18-23 years old), and adults (27-78 years old). Evidence for the existence of 4 identity statuses was found across the 3 age groups. The…

Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

2006-01-01

200

Beyond Invisibility of African American Males: The Effects on Women and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author responds to the issue of invisibility syndrome raised in this special issue of "The Counseling Psychologist." Extends the discussion to address how invisibility affects African American men, and in turn, influences their partners' and their children's sense of self, ethnic identity, and sexual responsibility. (GCP)

Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth

1999-01-01

201

Reaching beyond the Pale: Towards an Understanding of African-Americans' Mental Models of Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of US museums to attract and engage ethnically diverse audiences, including African Americans is a problem that has plagued museums for decades (Falk, 1993; Philipp, 1999). Scholars have sought to understand traditional visitors' perceptions of museums in order to better to increase visitations and promote lifelong learning, but…

Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

2010-01-01

202

Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar

Mira Grieser; Maihan B. Vu; Ariane L. Bedimo-Rung; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Jamie Moody; Deborah Rohm Young; Stacey G. Moe

2006-01-01

203

Safe Houses in the Contact Zone: Coping Strategies of African-American Students in the Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the culture of a summer writing course (at the University of Texas) for first-year ethnic minority students that is designed to help induct them gradually into the academic culture and improve retention rate. Observes and records behavior and discourses of the class's African American students. Focuses on learning strategies displayed in…

Canagarajah, A. Suresh

1997-01-01

204

Barriers to Accounting as a Career Choice for African-American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the AICPA and accounting firms have recognized that an ethnically diverse profession is better able to serve its clients, diversity gains have been meager over the last 35 years. Career choices made by African-American students may cause this trend. The current study uses social cognitive career theory as a framework to set forth propositions for why traditional recruiting of

Kevin L. James

205

Prostate Cancer in African-American Men: Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection Using Nanoparticles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have blood samples from 40 African-American men with prostate cancer and 30 ethnically-matched control healthy men with questionnaire data on demographics, general health and cancer family history. Our total accrual goal is 100 cases and 200 controls. ...

C. M. Phelan

2008-01-01

206

Prostate Cancer in African-American Men: Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection Using Nanoparticles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have collected blood samples from 65 African-American men with prostate cancer and 80 ethnically matched control healthy men with questionnaire data on demographics, general health and cancer family history. We chose six biomarkers PSA, KLK2, KLK14, IL...

C. M. Phelan

2009-01-01

207

African American and Caucasian Preschoolers' Use of Decontextualized Language: Literate Language Features in Oral Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Low-income preschoolers' use of literate language features in oral narratives across three age groups (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) and two ethnic groups (Caucasian and African American) was examined. Method: Sixty-seven preschoolers generated a story using a wordless picture book. The literate language features examined were simple and…

Curenton, Stephanie M.; Justice, Laura M.

2004-01-01

208

Physical Activity among African American Women: Change and Ways of Knowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for African American women and suggest ways that future…

Henderson, Karla A.

2011-01-01

209

Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American

Bostic, Shenice S.

2010-01-01

210

African-American School Counselors in Majority School Districts: A Qualitative Perspective of Their Lived Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation will focus on the lived experiences of African-American school counselors in majority school districts and the lack of retention among this population. The lack of retention and representation of ethnic minorities in the workforce has been the subject of much discussion throughout the United States (Ingersoll, 2004). The…

Wingate, Crystal Nicole

2011-01-01

211

Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.  

PubMed

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children. PMID:23170933

Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

2013-01-01

212

78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 Presidential...8992 of May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President...lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our...

2013-06-06

213

Code of the Street and African-American Adolescent Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The code of the street theory, developed by Yale professor Elijah Anderson, presents an explanation for high rates of violence among African-American adolescents. Observing life in a Philadelphia African-American neighborhood, Anderson saw that economic d...

E. A. Stewart R. L. Simons

2009-01-01

214

Genome-Wide Association of BMI in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with obesity in Europeans but results in other ethnicities are less convincing. Here, we report a two-stage GWAS of BMI in African Americans. The GWAS was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform in 816 nondiabetic and 899 diabetic nephropathy subjects. 746,626 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with BMI after adjustment for age, gender, disease status, and population structure. Sixty high scoring SNPs that showed nominal association in both GWAS cohorts were further replicated in 3,274 additional subjects in four replication cohorts and a meta-analysis was computed. Meta-analysis of 4,989 subjects revealed five SNPs (rs6794092, rs268972, rs2033195, rs815611, and rs6088887) at four loci showing consistent associations in both GWAS (P < 0.0001) and replication cohorts (P < 0.05) with combined P values range from 2.4 × 10?6 to 5 × 10?5. These loci are located near PP13439-TMEM212, CDH12, MFAP3-GALNT10, and FER1L4 and had effect sizes between 0.091 and 0.167 s.d. unit (or 0.67–1.24 kg/m2) of BMI for each copy of the effect allele. Our findings suggest the presence of novel loci potentially associated with adiposity in African Americans. Further replication and meta-analysis in African Americans and other populations will shed light on the role of these loci in different ethnic populations.

Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Hester, Jessica M.; Wing, Maria R.; Li, Jiang; Xu, Jianzhao; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Lu, Lingyi; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Palmer, Nichole D.; Bowden, Donald W.

2012-01-01

215

Alcohol Dependence and Health Care Utilization in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objective Ethnic and cultural differences in patterns of alcohol use disorders must be understood in order to address improvement in prevention of such disorders and accessibility to health care services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the utilization of medical and mental health services among alcohol-dependent and non alcohol–dependent African Americans. Method A cohort of 454 African Americans was evaluated. Alcohol-dependent participants were recruited from various inpatient treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and through advertisement and word of mouth. Non–alcohol-dependent participants were recruited by advertisements. Each participant was administered the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism to assess alcohol dependency and the Family History Assessment module to access family history of alcoholism. ?2 Test and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results Alcohol dependence was more prevalent among men, those with lower income, those with less education, and they utilized mental health counseling as opposed to medical-based therapy. Increased reports of medical conditions such as migraine (p < .001), loss of consciousness (p = .001), and sexually transmitted diseases (p < .001) were also associated with alcohol dependency. Other factors, including visits to inpatient treatment programs, were directly related to incidence of alcohol dependency regardless of gender status (p < .001). Conclusions This study suggests an association exists among alcohol dependence, medical conditions, health care, and mental care utilization among African Americans. Future research may benefit from investigating if an association exists between alcohol use disorders and health care utilization for other ethnic groups.

Marshall, Vanessa J.; Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Scott, Denise M.; Cain, Gloria E.; Hill, Karen; Hesselbrock, Victor; Ferguson, Clifford L.; Taylor, Robert E.

2013-01-01

216

Health and Mental Health Policies' Role in Better Understanding and Closing African American-White American Disparities in Treatment Access and Quality of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health…

Snowden, Lonnie R.

2012-01-01

217

Developing suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches.  

PubMed

Suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches may have broad appeal because: (1) the Black Church has a strong history of helping community members, regardless of church membership; (2) African Americans have the highest level of public and private religiousness; and (3) the church can help shape religious and cultural norms about mental health and help-seeking. The proposed gatekeeper model trains lay helpers and clergy to recognize the risk and protective factors for depression and suicide, to make referrals to the appropriate community mental health resources, and to deliver a community education curriculum. Potential barriers and suggestions for how to overcome these barriers are discussed. PMID:18611131

Molock, Sherry Davis; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal; Puri, Rupa; Lyles, Joseph

2008-06-01

218

Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

Pittman, Chavella T.

2010-01-01

219

African-American Developmental Disability Discourses: Implications for Policy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal developmental disabilities services are often underutilized, especially by low-income African-American families. This study examined the basis for interactions and service use preferences of African-American woman who cared for an adult female child with a disability. Diverse African-American perspectives were observed by analyzing the…

Terhune, Peggy S.

2005-01-01

220

An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

2011-01-01

221

Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

Syrquin, Anna F.

2006-01-01

222

Beating the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on African American males presents the first step in an ongoing exploration of the relationship between parenting and academic achievement among African American children. Subjects of the study were high-achieving members of the Meyerhoff Scholars, young African Americans distinguished for their achievement. The Meyerhoff Scholar program…

Hrabowski, Freemen A., III; Maton, Kenneth I.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

223

African American Males in Dance, Music, Theater, and Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of African American males in the entertainment industry begins with the African background and extends through the transatlantic slave trade and to the various aspects of the black presence in the Americas. African American males have contributed enormously to the American cultural wealth in dance, music, theater, and film. Minstrelsy, the cakewalk, the Charleston, the lindy hop, the

I. Peter Ukpokodu

2000-01-01

224

Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

225

Empowerment Groups for Urban African American Girls: A Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the author wanted to read Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo's article in an objective sense, her response to their article is most likely influenced by her own experiences as an African American female and mother of an African American daughter. To her, the paramount issue facing African American females is the double and sometimes triple…

Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

2005-01-01

226

Spirituality and Self-Management of Diabetes in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention to spirituality is especially important for nurses when providing care to African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded in their rich cultural heritage. For many African Americans, spirituality is intertwined into all aspects of life, including beliefs about health and illness. Therefore, it is imperative that nurses understand the relationship between African American spirituality, health, and self-management of illness to

Rebecca Polzer; Margaret Shandor Miles

2005-01-01

227

Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

2004-01-01

228

Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

2003

229

BLACK MASCULINITY AND BASKETBALL AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDIES 398DT  

Microsoft Academic Search

and by appointment Because over 80% of NBA basketball players are African American and the style of play that emerged from African-American communities dominates the professional game, basketball is culturally marked as black. Larry Bird, a three-time NBA MVP, and the best non-African American player of the last thirty years maintained that basketball is \\

Damion Thomas

230

Going to School: The African-American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents the views of a range of African-American educators on questions related to African-American academic achievement. The concern in this volume is with the persistent, pervasive, and disproportionate underachievement of African-American students. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Problem Identification," comprises the…

Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

231

Conducting Children's Health Insurance Outreach in African American Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, 19.7 percent of African American children were uninsured. Since a majority of African American children live in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty line, they are eligible for free or low-cost insurance coverage. This report presents strategies for facilitating the recruitment and enrollment of African American

Patterson, Jacqueline

232

Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

2013-01-01

233

Insights: Emphasizing Issues that Affect African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter continues and expands the dialogue regarding the oppressions experienced by African American women in higher education. Stakeholders of postsecondary education are invited to use this dialogue to become more aware of the needs of African American women on college campuses, as well as African American people in general.

Hughes, Robin L.; Howard-Hamilton, Mary F.

2003-01-01

234

Retention of African American Faculty in Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most literature on the American professorate provides a culture of evidence that suggests that the above account represents the typical experience endured by many African American faculty members and other faculty of color. African American faculty remain under-represented in predominantly White research universities. The number of African

Awe, Clara

2006-01-01

235

African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

2000-01-01

236

Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

2005-01-01

237

Business United in Leadership Development: Alumni Perceptions of a Program Promoting Business as a Degree Program and Career for African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a recent Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) study, racial and ethnic minorities, to include African Americans, are represented on only about 4% of Fortune 500 company boards of directors. The underrepresentation of African Americans in leadership roles in business has implications that reach far beyond the boundaries of…

Brandi, Jay T.

2004-01-01

238

Prevention Programming for African American Youth: A Review of Strategies in CSAP's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined characteristics of 12 substance abuse prevention programs serving African American youth. Findings indicated that African American youth exhibited lower use rates than most other ethnic groups, but by age 16-18 years, use was prevalent. Africentric principles and themes integrated into the prevention programs contributed to higher rates…

Chipungu, Sandra S.; Hermann, John; Sambrano, Soledad; Nistler, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Springer, J. Fred

2000-01-01

239

African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

Johnson, Bernadeia H.

2012-01-01

240

Subjective Memory in Older African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater

Regina C. Sims; Keith E. Whitfield; Brian J. Ayotte; Alyssa A. Gamaldo; Christopher L. Edwards; Jason C. Allaire

2011-01-01

241

Depressive Symptoms in African-American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…

Reed, Michael K.; And Others

1996-01-01

242

The African American Public Policy Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)

McAlpine, Robert; And Others

1992-01-01

243

Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

2013-01-01

244

Paranoid Ideation among Elderly African American Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross sectional study involving 998 independently living elderly African Americans used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure paranoid ideation and 14 independent variables including demographic characteristics, cognitive deficit, and depression. Paranoid ideation was found in 10% of the sample. Regression analysis revealed 6 of 14 independent…

Bazargan, Mohsen; Bazargan, Shahrzad; King, Lewis

2001-01-01

245

Computational Mathematical Abilities of African American Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied racial and sex differences in mathematics performance among elementary school students using data from the 1996 California Achievement Test in Louisiana for 4,670 fourth graders and 2,542 sixth graders. Results show some superiority in computation for African Americans, with the highest performance by black girls. Whites performed better…

Park, Hae-Seong; Bauer, Scott

1999-01-01

246

Careers of African Americans in Academic Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though traditionally the field of academic astronomy has belonged almost exclusively to whites, today several black scholars are beginning to make their mark in this scientific discipline. Profiles a group of contemporary African American scholars who are astronomers and astrophysicists, noting that there are at least four black graduate students…

Fikes, Robert Jr.

2000-01-01

247

The Complexity of African American Racial Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed adult African Americans regarding four parameters of racial identification (psychological, physical, cultural, and sociopolitical). Results indicated generally high levels of racial identification across participants, though scores varied across parameters. The highest level of racial identification was obtained on the cultural…

Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

2001-01-01

248

African Americans and Teen Dating Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review focuses on the prevalence rates of teen dating violence in the United States, emergence of dating violence research, reasons of teen dating violence in the African American community, consequences of it regarding physical and mental health, and the impact of it on psychological and physical health. The research shows a trickledown effect of racism, low socio-economic status,

Racine Renee Henry; Senem Zeytinoglu

2012-01-01

249

African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

250

2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

2000-01-01

251

2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, the planning committee for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon gather in the lobby. At the far left is Mack McKinney, chief, Programs Resources Management, who was chairperson for the event.

2000-01-01

252

2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

2000-01-01

253

Obstacles to Reducing AIDS among African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores hindrances to sustaining African-American mobilization against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Major obstacles include the following: (1) objective conditions; (2) attitudes toward sexuality; (3) perceptions about substance abuse and AIDS; and (4) conflicting policy views. Public health education has not been sufficient in the…

Quimby, Ernest

1993-01-01

254

African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

2011-01-01

255

African Americans in Television: An Afrocentric Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that, historically and contemporarily, African Americans were and are severely underrepresented in the Eurocentric press, portrayed stereotypically, depicted in low-status occupational roles, and denied news or public affairs programs to adequately serve their informational needs. Theories on mass media's impact on society and individuals…

Tait, Alice A.; Perry, Robert L.

1994-01-01

256

Helping African American Males: The Cure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the current plight of the African-American male, exploring the role of the dominant culture, mass media, and low self-esteem. Describes a possible cure, citing five areas for action, calling for year-round school in some urban areas, exploring Afrocentric curricula, and considering rites of passage programs. (JB)

Gill, Walter

1992-01-01

257

Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this volume use their own stories to demonstrate success of one institution, the Catholic school system, in educating many African Americans who have gone on to make important contributions to the community. Their own experiences are the starting points for their reflections on the historical and sociological treatment of the…

Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan, Ed.; Foster, Michele, Ed.

258

Barriers to Treatment Among African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

African Americans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent African Americans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult African Americans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the African American OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to African Americans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the African American participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers.

Williams, M.T.; Domanico, J.; Marques, L.; Leblanc, N.J.; Turkheimer, E.

2012-01-01

259

Barriers to treatment among African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

African Americans are underrepresented in OCD treatment centers and less likely to experience a remission of symptoms. This study examines the barriers that prevent African Americans with OCD from receiving treatment. Seventy-one adult African Americans with OCD were recruited and administered the modified Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) and the Barriers to Treatment Questionnaire (BTQ). Comparing the BTQ between a European American Internet sample (N=108) and the African American OCD sample (N=71) revealed barriers unique to African Americans, including not knowing where to find help and concerns about discrimination. A Mokken Scale Analysis of the BTPS in the African American participants identified seven major barriers, including the cost of treatment, stigma, fears of therapy, believing that the clinician will be unable to help, feeling no need for treatment, and treatment logistics (being too busy or treatment being too inconvenient). Pearson and point-biserial correlations of the scales and demographic and psychological variables were conducted. Significant relationships emerged between age, gender, income, education, insurance status, and ethnic affirmation/belonging among several of the Mokken scales. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that concerns about cost were significantly greater for those without insurance, versus those with public or private plans. Suggestions for overcoming barriers are presented, including community education, affordable treatment options, and increasing cultural competence among mental health providers. PMID:22410094

Williams, Monnica T; Domanico, Julian; Marques, Luana; Leblanc, Nicole J; Turkheimer, Eric

2012-05-01

260

The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health  

PubMed Central

Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy—the belief that all may obtain the American Dream—and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

Meyer, Ilan H.

2010-01-01

261

The myth of meritocracy and African American health.  

PubMed

Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

2010-10-01

262

Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.  

PubMed

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

2010-01-01

263

Say "Adios" to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans  

PubMed Central

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society.

Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

2011-01-01

264

Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

2009-01-01

265

Hepatitis B and C in African Americans: Current Status and Continued Challenges.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis remains a public health concern in the United States, resulting in excess morbidity and mortality for the individual and representing a burden to societies as evidenced by billions of dollars in health care expenditures. As with many chronic diseases, race and ethnicity influence various aspects of disease pathogenesis, including mechanisms of persistence, disease progression, disease sequelae, and response to therapy. For hepatitis B and C infections, African Americans disproportionately bear a large burden of disease in the United States. The role and importance of African American race, however, have been less well-characterized in the literature among the population of viral hepatitis-infected individuals. The differences in epidemiology, manifestations of liver disease, response to therapy, and differential trends in liver transplantation in African Americans compared with other racial and ethnic groups deserve special attention. This review will address the current status of hepatitis B and C infection in African Americans in the United States and identify some of the remaining challenges in diagnosis, characterization of natural history, and treatment. For the purposes of this review, the terms African American and black will be used interchangeably throughout the text. PMID:23811241

Forde, Kimberly A; Tanapanpanit, Orapin; Reddy, K Rajender

2014-05-01

266

24-h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Healthy Young Adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic

H. Peter Chase; Satish K. Garg; Gloria Icaza; Jon A. Carmain; Christine F. Walravens; Guillermo Marshall

1997-01-01

267

Experiences Regarding Coming Out to Parents Among African American, Hispanic, and White Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study, based on data collected from focus groups of ethnically and racially diverse gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescents (53% Hispanic\\/Latino\\/Latina, 35% Black\\/African American, 11% Caucasian\\/White, and 1% South Asian-Indian), serves to expand knowledge about experiences of diverse adolescents when coming out to their parents. Varying aspects of such reactions, particularly among Hispanic\\/Latino\\/Latina and African American participants,

Daniel Potoczniak; Margaret Crosbie-Burnett; Nikki Saltzburg

2009-01-01

268

Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Adiposity, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Obese African-American and Latino Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic differences in the metabolic responses to a 16-week intervention designed to improve insulin sensitivity (SI), adiposity, and inflammation in obese African-American and Latino adolescents. A total of 100 participants (African Americans: n = 48, Latino: n = 52; age: 15.4 ± 1.1 years, BMI percentile: 97.3 ± 3.3) were randomly assigned

Rebecca E. Hasson; Tanja C. Adam; Jaimie N. Davis; Louise A. Kelly; Emily E. Ventura; Courtney E. Byrd-Williams; Claudia M. Toledo-Corral; Christian K. Roberts; Chih-Ping Chou; Donna Spruijt-Metz; Mark J. Weigensberg; Kiros Berhane; Michael I. Goran

2012-01-01

269

A Dynamic-Ecological Model of Identity Formation and Conflict among Bisexually-Behaving African-American Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how ethnic, sexual, and masculine (ESM) identities form and possibly conflict among African-American men may\\u000a be important to consider in explaining bisexual behavior in this population. It is proposed that the bisexual behavior among\\u000a African-American who are primarily sexually attracted to other men may be a function of conflicting ESM identities. Comprehensively\\u000a understanding the formation and conflict of ESM

Patrick A. Wilson

2008-01-01

270

Prenatal Care and Medical Risk in Low-Income, Primiparous, Mexican-Origin and African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study are to assess selected prenatal factors that are associated with initiation of prenatal care for Mexican-origin and African American women, and to explore ethnic-specific differences in content of prenatal care at first visit, relationship with medical risk, and perceived medical risk. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,544 lowincome African American and Mexicanorigin women in 22

Ruth E. Zambrana; Susan C. M. Scrimshaw; Christine Dunkel-Schetter

1996-01-01

271

Exercise economy in African American and European American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased\\u000a stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared\\u000a to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine\\u000a whether economy

Gary R. HunterJohn; John P. McCarthy; Marcas M. Bamman; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Gordon Fisher; Bradley R. Newcomer

272

Replication of neuroblastoma SNP association at the BARD1 locus in African-Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an often-fatal pediatric cancer more frequent in European-American than African-American children. African-American children, however, are at higher risk for the more severe form of NBL, and have worse overall survival than European-American children. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several SNPs associated to NBL in children of European descent. Knowledge of their association to NBL in African-American children is still lacking. Methods We genotyped and imputed SNPs located in three gene regions reported to be associated to NBL in children of European descent, and tested them for association in 390 African-American NBL patients compared to 2500 healthy, ethnically matched controls. Results SNPs in the BARD1 gene region show a similar pattern of association to NBL in African-American and European-American children. The more restricted extent of linkage disequilibrium in the African-American population suggests a smaller candidate region for the putative causal variants than previously reported. Limited association was observed at the other two gene regions tested, including LMO1 in 11p15 and FLJ22536 in 6p22. Conclusions Common BARD1 SNPs affect risk of NBL in African-Americans. The role of other SNPs associated to NBL in children of European descent could not be confirmed, possibly due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium or limited statistical power to detect association to variants with small effect on disease risk. Extension of GWAS to populations of African descent is important to confirm their results and validity beyond the European populations, and can help to refine the location of the putative causal variants.

Latorre, Valeria; Diskin, Sharon J.; Diamond, Maura A.; Zhang, Haitao; Hakonarson, Hakon; Maris, John M.; Devoto, Marcella

2012-01-01

273

Cytomegalovirus Infections among African-Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p < 0.0001). At one year of age the CMV seropositivity rate was 11% (95%CI = 4% – 24%) and increased 1.8% each year until age 13 years. Between ages 13 and 20 years the CMV seropositivity rate remained between 22% and 33%. For adults, the CMV seropositivity rate was 84% in 21 year olds (95%CI = 69%–.92%). There was no association between CMV infections of the children and their mothers but CMV infections among siblings were associated. Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.

Wilms, Isca R; Best, Al M; Adler, Stuart P

2008-01-01

274

AFRICAN AMERICANS HAVE A GREATER SENSITIVITY TO ALPHA1-ADRENOCEPTOR-MEDIATED VENOCONSTRICTION COMPARED TO CAUCASIANS  

PubMed Central

African Americans have increased hemodynamic responses to both physiologic and pharmacologic adrenergic stimulation compared to Caucasians, and this may contribute to the greater prevalence of hypertension in this ethnic group. A small study suggested enhanced ?1-adrenoreceptor-mediated arterial vasoconstriction in the forearm vasculature of African Americans compared to Caucasians, but it is unknown whether this reflects a generalized vascular phenomenon. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in venous ?1-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Using a linear variable differential transformer, we measured local dorsal hand vein responses to increasing doses of the selective ?1-adrenoreceptor agonist, phenylephrine, in 106 subjects (64 Caucasians and 42 African Americans). There was wide interindividual variability in responses to phenylephrine. The dose that produced 50% of maximal constriction (ED50) ranged from 11 to 5442 ng/min, and maximal venoconstriction (Emax) ranged from 13.5% to 100%. African Americans (geometric mean ED50=172 ng/min; 95% CI, 115 to 256 ng/min) were more sensitive to phenylephrine than Caucasians (310 ng/min; 95% CI, 222 to 434 ng/min; unadjusted P=0.026; adjusted P=0.003). Median Emax was slightly higher in African Americans (89%; IQR, 82% to 98%) compared to Caucasians (85%; IQR, 75% to 95%; P=0.07). Taken together with previous findings in arterial vessels, our results suggest a generalized increased sensitivity to ?1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in African Americans. Increased vascular ?-adrenoreceptor sensitivity could predispose to hypertension, and future studies addressing this mechanism’s contribution to ethnic differences in the prevalence of hypertension will be of interest.

Adefurin, Abiodun; Ghimire, Laxmi V.; Kohli, Utkarsh; Muszkat, Mordechai; Sofowora, Gbenga G.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Stein, C. Michael; Kurnik, Daniel

2013-01-01

275

Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

Wertsman, Vladimir F.

1999-01-01

276

Karla Holloway to Lead African and African-American Studies at Duke University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The appointment of Karla F. C. Holloway, an African American woman, as director of the Duke University (North Carolina) African American Studies program is representative of an institutional effort to stabilize the program and to recruit African American scholars to the institution, across disciplines. During Holloway's interim directorship,…

Hawkins, B. Denise

1996-01-01

277

Transferability and Fine Mapping of genome-wide associated loci for lipids in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B). Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.

2012-01-01

278

Physical activity attitudes, preferences, and practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian girls.  

PubMed

Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, running or jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls' physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group. PMID:16397158

Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G

2006-02-01

279

Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

280

H-Afro-Am: African-American Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H-Afro-Am is a new H-Net sponsored, moderated discussion list for professionals, faculty, and advanced students in African American Studies. The discussion list will focus on the African Diaspora, mainly on the US experience. H-Afro-Am is also the official voice of the Collegium for African American Research in Europe (CAAR), established in 1992 to promote African American scholarship from an international perspective.

1995-01-01

281

Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

2013-01-01

282

Ethnic Heritage Studies: The American Woman. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing information and activities designed to dispel sex role socialization, myths, and stereotypes as bases for prejudiced views, this teaching guide focuses on the American woman's image and diverse roles in our society. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are…

Keepers, Beverly

283

Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence.

Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

2004-01-01

284

75 FR 6081 - National African American History Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shores, they have known the bitterness of slavery and oppression, the hope of progress, and the triumph of the American Dream. African American history is an essential thread of the American narrative that traces our Nation's enduring...

2010-02-05

285

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Characteristics Among African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites: Characterization of a Large North American Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising primarily of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent in racial and ethnic minorities. This study was undertaken to characterize racial differences in disease phenotype in a predominantly adult population.METHODS:Phenotype data on 830 non-Hispanic white, 127 non-Hispanic African American, and 169 Hispanic IBD patients, recruited from six academic centers, were abstracted from

Geoffrey C. Nguyen; Esther A. Torres; Miguel Regueiro; Gillian Bromfield; Alain Bitton; Joanne Stempak; Themistocles Dassopoulos; Philip Schumm; Federico J. Gregory; Anne M. Griffiths; Stephen B. Hanauer; Jennifer Hanson; Mary L. Harris; Sunanda V. Kane; Heather Kiraly Orkwis; Raymond Lahaie; Maria Oliva-Hemker; Pierre Pare; Gary E. Wild; John D. Rioux; Huiying Yang; Richard H. Duerr; Judy H. Cho; A. Hillary Steinhart; Steven R. Brant; Mark S. Silverberg

2006-01-01

286

Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African

Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

2010-01-01

287

African-American Band Music and Recordings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, a number of African American musicians and bandleaders had garnered the attention of the music-going public, and names such as Eubie Blake and Scott Joplin remain familiar to this very day. This rather fine online collection offered by the Library of Congress's Performing Arts division brings together a number of so-called "stock" arrangements for bands or small orchestras written by African Americans during that period. Visitors to the site should start by reading one of the four informative essays offered here, and then search through the actual music. There are over 206 pieces of music here, including "After the Cake Walk" from 1901 and the 1905 number, "Banana Man". Additionally, visitors can read any number of composer and bandleader biographies.

288

Postpartum depression among African-American women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

Amankwaa, Linda Clark

2003-01-01

289

African-American Poetry, 1760-1900  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing software developed at the University of Chicago, this online database of African-American poetry is a fine resource for people looking for a compendium of poems by numerous notable 18th and 19th century African-American poets. First-time users will want to read the users manual, which explains the software used to design the database, and how to best utilize the available search engine, which allows for a number of detailed searching methods. The database itself contains 12 million words from a total of 86 works. Visitors looking to browse the online works should consult the bibliography section, as it contains a detailed description of the authors and works covered within the database. Visitors familiar with this genre will note the inclusion of many notable poets, including Paul Dunbar, James Corrothers, and Albery Allson Whitman.

290

Adiponectin and Leptin in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:African Americans (AAs) have less visceral and more subcutaneous fat than whites, thus the relationship of adiponectin and leptin to body fat and insulin sensitivity in AA may be different from that in whites.Methods and Procedures:Sixty-nine non-diabetic AA (37 men and 32 women), aged 33 ± 1 year participated. The percent fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal visceral

Robert V. Considine; Ahalya Premkumar; James C. Reynolds; Nancy G. Sebring; Madia Ricks; Anne E. Sumner

2008-01-01

291

Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomonas vaginalis may be emerging as one of the most important cofac- tors in amplifying HIV transmission, particularly in African-American communi- ties of the United States. In a person co-infected with HIV, the pathology induced by T. vaginalis infection can increase HIV shedding. Trichomonas infection may also act to expand the portal of entry for HIV in an HIV-negative person.

Frank Sorvillo; Lisa Smith; Peter Kerndt; H Lawrence Ash

2001-01-01

292

African American Women in Iowa Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fruitful collaboration between the Iowa Women's Archive and the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa has produced this enlightening website containing over 200 items including links to "scrapbooks," "photographs," "pamphlets" "oral histories" and "newsletters." The "Recent Additions" area allows visitors to click on any of the thumbnails in the line up of items shown, to see the image enlarged. By simply double clicking on the thumbnail, users can also access bibliographic data about the item.

293

Higher postprandial serum ghrelin among African American females before puberty  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent reports suggest that ghrelin regulation may differ by ethnicity and age. This study was designed to examine circulating ghrelin among overweight African American females across different age groups. Methods Eleven overweight peri-pubertal girls, 17 overweight pubertal girls, and a control group of 18 overweight AA premenopausal women ingested a standard liquid meal following an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and for 4 hours post-challenge. Participants rated appetite by a visual analog scale. Results Peri-pubertal girls demonstrated higher postprandial ghrelin and lesser ghrelin suppression compared to adults (p<0.05), corresponding with greater desire to eat across the test period (p=0.017). Fasting ghrelin tended to be inversely related to fasting estradiol (r=?0.264, p=0.076). Conclusion Compared to overweight African American women, peri-pubertal girls had higher ghrelin as well as greater appetite after a standard meal. These results may suggest a dysregulation in ghrelin reflective of demands of growth.

Ellis, Amy C.; Casazza, Krista; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Gower, Barbara A.

2013-01-01

294

Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African

Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

2013-01-01

295

Germline mutations in PALB2 in African-American breast cancer cases.  

PubMed

Breast cancer incidence is lower in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. However, African-American women have higher breast cancer mortality rates and tend to be diagnosed with earlier-onset disease. Identifying factors correlated to the racial/ethnic variation in the epidemiology of breast cancer may provide better understanding of the more aggressive disease at diagnosis. Truncating germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of early-onset and/or familial breast cancer cases. To date, PALB2 mutation testing has not been performed in African-American breast cancer cases. We screened for germline mutations in PALB2 in 139 African-American breast cases by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Twelve variants were identified in these cases and none caused truncation of the protein. Three missense variants, including two rare variants (P8L and T300I) and one common variant (P210L), were predicted to be pathogenic, and were located in a coiled-coil domain of PALB2 required for RAD51- and BRCA1-binding. We investigated and found no significant association between the P210L variant and breast cancer risk in a small case-control study of African-American women. This study adds to the literature that PALB2 mutations, although rare, appear to play a role in breast cancer in all populations investigated to date. PMID:21113654

Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Chu, Li-Hao; Kelley, Karen; Davis, Helen; John, Esther M; Tomlinson, Gail E; Neuhausen, Susan L

2011-02-01

296

77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 By the President...long-cherished piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story...tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special...

2012-06-07

297

Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model  

Microsoft Academic Search

iven the historical and contemporary existence of racism in American society, one might suspect there would be an equally substantial literature examining the effects of racism on African Americans. Yet, research exploring the biological, psychological, and social effects of racism among African Americans is virtually nonexistent. The purpose of this article was threefold: (a) to provide a brief overview of

Rodney Clark; Norman B. Anderson; Vernessa R. Clark; David R. Williams

1999-01-01

298

The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considers the present condition of African-Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The…

Congressional Task Force on the Future of African-Americans, Washington, DC.

299

Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

2011-01-01

300

Normative changes in ethnic and American identities and links with adjustment among Asian American adolescents.  

PubMed

Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescent adjustment are discussed. PMID:23231687

Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C

2013-09-01

301

Blurring Racial and Ethnic Boundaries in Asian American Families: Asian American Family Patterns, 1980-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, the authors use statistics from the U.S. Census to examine trends in intermarriage, racial and ethnic combinations, and categorizations among Asian Americans. Specifically, the authors want to consider the extent to which family patterns may contribute to Asian Americans and their descendants' continuing as distinct, becoming members…

Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette; Bankston, Carl L.

2010-01-01

302

African-Centered Education: An Approach to Schooling for Social Justice for African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that offering African American students an African-centered education is one way to promote social justice in public education. We begin with a summary of the inadequate educations offered to many African American students, and then use philosophical interpretations of equal educational opportunity to delineate the requirements…

Marks, Jay B.; Tonso, Karen L.

2006-01-01

303

A Grounded Theory of the Course-Choosing Experiences of African American High School Students and Their Families Related to Advanced-Level Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings indicate that students' course selections impact the racial and ethnic achievement gap. Exposure to advanced-level courses has been found to lessen this gap and enhances success after high school. Despite this, African American students tend to evidence lower participation in these courses than do other racial and ethnic student…

Jones, Brenda Laverne

2009-01-01

304

The Evaluation of Setting and a Culturally Specific HIV/AIDS Curriculum: HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Behavioral Intent of African American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates a culturally specific curriculum addressing African Americans for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education delivered to 339 youths in high school and junior high school in Los Angeles (California). Students in ethnically homogenous classrooms increased knowledge and behavioral intent more than did those in ethnically

Damond, Marietta E.; And Others

1993-01-01

305

The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans  

PubMed Central

Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.

Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

2008-01-01

306

Epidemiology, Determinants, and Consequences of Cigarette Smoking in African American Women: An Integrative Review  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW.

Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.

2010-01-01

307

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder in African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation\\u000a surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There\\u000a is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies\\u000a some of the misconceptions and offers some

Rahn K. Bailey; Shahid Ali; Shagufta Jabeen; Hilary Akpudo; Jaymie U. Avenido; Theresa Bailey; Jessica Lyons; Amelia A. Whitehead

2010-01-01

308

A genome scan for diabetic nephropathy in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome scan for diabetic nephropathy in African Americans.BackgroundThere is substantial evidence for a genetic contribution to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in the African American population, but little is known about location or identity of susceptibility genes.MethodsDNA samples were collected from 206 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)\\/nephropathy-affected sib pairs from 166 African American families (355 affected individuals).

DONALD W BOWDEN; CARLA J COLICIGNO; CARL D LANGEFELD; MICHÈLE M SALE; ADRIENNE WILLIAMS; PAMELA J ANDERSON; STEPHEN S RICH; BARRY I FREEDMAN

2004-01-01

309

Perspectives from the historic African American medical institutions.  

PubMed

The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States this trend already has been observed in admission data and graduation data for 1996 and 1997. PMID:10335286

Epps, C H

1999-05-01

310

Comprehensive evaluation of imputation performance in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Imputation of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to a larger known reference panel of SNPs has become a standard and an essential part of genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about the behavior of imputation in African Americans with respect to the different imputation algorithms, the reference population(s) and the reference SNP panels used. Genome-wide SNP data (Affymetrix 6.0) from 3207 African American samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was used to systematically evaluate imputation quality and yield. Imputation was performed with the imputation algorithms MACH, IMPUTE and BEAGLE using several combinations of three reference panels of HapMap III (ASW, YRI and CEU) and 1000 Genomes Project (pilot 1 YRI June 2010 release, EUR and AFR August 2010 and June 2011 releases) panels with SNP data on chromosomes 18, 20 and 22. About 10% of the directly genotyped SNPs from each chromosome were masked, and SNPs common between the reference panels were used for evaluating the imputation quality using two statistical metrics—concordance accuracy and Cohen’s kappa (?) coefficient. The dependencies of these metrics on the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and specific genotype categories (minor allele homozygotes, heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes) were thoroughly investigated to determine the best panel and method for imputation in African Americans. In addition, the power to detect imputed SNPs associated with simulated phenotypes was studied using the mean genotype of each masked SNP in the imputed data. Our results indicate that the genotype concordances after stratification into each genotype category and Cohen’s ? coefficient are considerably better equipped to differentiate imputation performance compared with the traditionally used total concordance statistic, and both statistics improved with increasing MAF irrespective of the imputation method. We also find that both MACH and IMPUTE performed equally well and consistently better than BEAGLE irrespective of the reference panel used. Of the various combinations of reference panels, for both HapMap III and 1000 Genomes Project reference panels, the multi-ethnic panels had better imputation accuracy than those containing only single ethnic samples. The most recent 1000 Genomes Project release June 2011 had substantially higher number of imputed SNPs than HapMap III and performed as well or better than the best combined HapMap III reference panels and previous releases of the 1000 Genomes Project.

Chanda, Pritam; Yuhki, Naoya; Li, Man; Bader, Joel S; Hartz, Alex; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kao, WH Linda; Arking, Dan E

2012-01-01

311

Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem: An Exploratory Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes with age in ethnic identity and self-esteem. Assessed 18 adolescents from 3 ethnic groups (Asian American, African American, Hispanic) at ages 16 and 19. Found significant change to higher stages of ethnic identity over three-year period. Self-esteem and ethnic identity were significantly related to each other at each time period…

Phinney, Jean S.; Chavira, Victor

1992-01-01

312

Distribution of composite CYP1A1 genotypes in Africans, African-Americans and Caucasians.  

PubMed

We present the genotype distribution of the CYP1A1 gene in a sample of over 300 subjects of various ethnic origins. Genotypes are presented as composites of eight possible alleles, taking into account the three major polymorphisms, including a recently described African-American-specific MspI RFLP. A new nomenclature system is presented for clarifying the various haplotypes. Interesting interracial differences in allelic frequencies and admixture rates were observed for the three polymorphisms. Because of the importance of the CYP1A1 gene (which encodes the aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase) as a biomarker of genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, these data may provide a useful reference for future studies of relationships between CYP1A1 genotype and disease susceptibility. PMID:8860004

Garte, S J; Trachman, J; Crofts, F; Toniolo, P; Buxbaum, J; Bayo, S; Taioli, E

1996-01-01

313

Health and mental health policies' role in better understanding and closing African American-White American disparities in treatment access and quality of care.  

PubMed

Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health treatment access and quality and open the way to unprecedented disparity reduction. These initiatives include institutional commitments to (a) research by the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities; (b) disparities monitoring by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; (c) new epidemiologic and service delivery information on African American populations from the National Survey of American Life sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health; as well as (d) opportunities inherent in the World Health Organization's interest in disease burden for making it possible to view African Americans' likely greater disease burden from mental illness as a legitimate source of concern. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act affords unprecedented opportunities for increasing African Americans' treatment access and quality of care nationwide. By familiarizing themselves with these initiatives, and taking advantage of possibilities they offer, those committed to reducing African American-White American disparities in mental illness, and treatment access and quality, can make inroads toward improving African Americans' mental health and facilitating their successful functioning in all spheres of community living. PMID:23046303

Snowden, Lonnie R

2012-10-01

314

Attributional and Emotional Determinants of Aggression Among African-American and Latino Young Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribution theorists propose that negative actions of others perceived as intended elicit anger, and anger then functions as a motivator of hostile behavior. We examined the understanding of these attribution-affect-action linkages among young ethnic minority adolescents. Forty-four Latino and African-American middle-school children labeled as aggressive and a matched group of nonaggressives read causally ambiguous scenarios describing negative outcomes initiated by

Sandra Graham; Cynthia Hudley; Estella Williams

1992-01-01

315

The landscape of recombination in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10?245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9.

Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

2011-01-01

316

Cultural Variation in the Social Organization of Problem Solving Among African American and European American Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely

Daniel Budak; Pablo Chavajay

2012-01-01

317

Weight Loss Maintenance in African American Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Literature  

PubMed Central

We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela

2013-01-01

318

A New Audience Segmentation Tool for African Americans: The Black Identity Classification Scale  

PubMed Central

Many health communications target African Americans in an attempt to remediate race-based health disparities. Such materials often assume that African Americans are culturally homogeneous; however, research indicates that African Americans are heterogeneous in their attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. The Black Identity Classification Scale (BICS) was designed as a telephone-administered tool to segment African American audiences into 16 ethnic identity types. The BICS was pretested using focus groups, telephone pretests, and a pilot study (n=306). The final scale was then administered to 625 Black adults participating in a dietary intervention study, where it generally demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. The construct validity of the BICS was also explored by comparing participants’ responses to culturally associated survey items. The distribution of the 16 BICS identity types in the intervention study is presented, as well as select characteristics for participants with core identity components. Although additional research is warranted, these findings suggest that the BICS has good psychometric properties and may be an effective tool for identifying African American audience segments.

DAVIS, RACHEL E.; ALEXANDER, GWEN; CALVI, JOSEPHINE; WIESE, CHERYL; GREENE, SARAH; NOWAK, MIKE; CROSS, WILLIAM E.; RESNICOW, KEN

2011-01-01

319

Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study  

PubMed Central

Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase) required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate). Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.

2010-01-01

320

Depression, stress, and blood pressure in urban African-American women.  

PubMed

African-American women have disturbingly high rates of hypertension, exceeding those of African-American men and other ethnic groups. Reasons for these disparities are not understood. Depression, more common in women than men, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, metabolic and hematologic abnormalities, and increased sympathetic nervous system activity--all factors associated with cardiovascular disease. A descriptive correlational design was used to test the following hypotheses: 1) African-American women with higher levels of depression will have higher blood pressure (BP) levels, more cardiovascular risk factors, greater stress, and lower social support; and 2) depression will mediate the relationship between stress and BP. A convenience sample of 245 hypertensive African-American women (mean age, 61+/-12.7 years) was recruited through free BP screenings offered in the community. All data were collected during a structured interview and brief physical examination. Pearson r correlation coefficients, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the hypotheses. Women with higher levels of depression had higher diastolic BP and were more likely to smoke, eat fewer fruits and vegetables, and have more stress and less social support. Depression mediated the relationship between stress and diastolic BP. The findings emphasize the importance of assessing both behavioral and psychosocial factors in urban African-American women with hypertension. PMID:16760688

Artinian, Nancy T; Washington, Olivia G M; Flack, John M; Hockman, Elaine M; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine

2006-01-01

321

Formative evaluation of the prostate cancer screening practices of African-American physicians.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test as a population-based tool vary. This study qualitatively explores the prostate cancer screening practices of African-American primary care physicians. METHODS: Eight telephone focus groups were conducted with 41 African-American primary care physicians from 22 states. Data were coded on five major topic areas relative to provider screening practices: use of serum PSA and digital rectal examination (DRE), counseling routine, factors influencing screening practices, familiarity with clinical guidelines, and use of educational materials RESULTS: Almost all (95%) of the physicians routinely recommended and offered prostate cancer screening to their patients, which was universally defined as consisting of both a PSA test and DRE. Most physicians reported offering the PSA test to asymptomatic, non-African-American men beginning around age 50, but African-American men or men with a family history of prostate cancer were offered the PSA test 5-10 years earlier. CONCLUSIONS: The observed practice patterns for prostate cancer screening among African-American primary care physicians do not evenly reflect both sides of the PSA screening controversy. For most physicians, concerns about prostate cancer in their patients outweighed concerns about the potential limitations of screening and the untoward side effects of treatment. These physicians adopted a more proactive approach toward use of the PSA test in asymptomatic men irrespective of their race or ethnicity.

Stroud, Leonardo; Ross, Louie E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

2006-01-01

322

Exploring Decision-Making of HIV-Infected Hispanics and African Americans Participating in Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Underrepresentation of HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials seriously limits our understanding of the benefits and risks of treatment in these populations. This qualitative study examined factors that racial/ethnic minority patients consider when making decisions regarding research participation. Thirty-five HIV-infected Hispanic and African American patients enrolled in clinical research protocols at the National Institutes of Health were recruited to participate in focus groups and in-depth interviews. The sample of mostly men (n = 22), had a mean age of 45, nearly equal representation of race/ethnicity, and diagnosed 2 to 22 years ago. Baseline questionnaires included demographics and measures of social support and acculturation. Interviewers had similar racial/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds as the participants. Four major themes around participants’ decisions to enroll in clinical trials emerged: Enhancers, Barriers, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Context. Results may help researchers develop strategies to facilitate inclusion of HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials.

Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Stoll, Pamela; Grady, Christine; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.

2011-01-01

323

White problem gamblers discount delayed rewards less steeply than their African American and Hispanic counterparts.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a core process underlying addictive behaviors, including nonpharmacological addictive behaviors such as problem gambling. Although considerable attention has been given to the investigation of delay discounting within the context of addiction-related behaviors, relatively little research has examined the relationship between discounting and individual variables, such as race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to compare discounting rates in the three most prevalent racial/ethnic groups in the United States: Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. The study was conducted with 315 problem gamblers. Participants completed a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money delivered immediately and a larger amount delivered later. A hyperbolic discounting function estimated delay-discounting rates based on participants' indifference points obtained via the questionnaires. Results showed significant effects of race/ethnicity on delay discounting. White gamblers discounted delayed money at lower rates than African Americans and Hispanics, even after controlling for confounding variables. These data suggest that among individuals who develop problem gambling, Whites are less impulsive than African Americans and Hispanics, at least in terms of choosing between delayed and immediate reinforcers. These results have implications for evaluating the onset and treatment of addictive disorders from a health-disparities perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955678

Andrade, Leonardo F; Petry, Nancy M

2014-06-01

324

A Phenomenological Investigation on the Role of Mentoring in the Academic Development of African American Male Secondary Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how the construct of mentoring by African American males can support the academic development of African American male students. Since African American male students perform significantly lower in academic subjects than their counterparts of other ethnicities, there is an exigent need for change in this area. Built upon the conceptual framework of communal interactions and identity, the inquiry questioned the experiences of mentors for African American male secondary students, and their perceptions of the influence of a mentoring relationship when the mentor and mentee are of similar backgrounds. Participants in this study were 7 African American males who had mentored or were currently mentoring African American male students. Data, obtained through semi structured interviews and focus group interviews, were coded for themes that reflected the experiences of mentors in mentoring African American males. Mentors in this study reported that students with whom they share similar backgrounds and experiences were better able to relate to them than those who had dissimilar backgrounds and experiences. In addition, mentors reported their mentees were more likely to envision themselves in professional areas beyond their perceived cultural norm when they routinely interact with successful African American males from various fields; thus, it was important for mentors to provide opportunities for students to interact with professionals. Contributions to social change will emerge as African American male mentors understand and employ their roles as a fundamental component in the academic development of African American male secondary students and thus empower this population of students to achieve academic success and to serve in a capacity that nurtures their immediate surroundings.

Inge, Jillian

325

Characterization of the African-American Male in Literature by African-American Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

African-American women' s literature has earned considerable recognition since the 1970's, due in large part to the critical acclaim and popular success of authors such as Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, and Terry McMillan. With that attention has come a wav...

C. E. Magee

1995-01-01

326

The Impact of Self-Components on Attitudes toward Sex among African American Preadolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Menarche.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified factors that helped prevent attitudes tolerant of risky sexual behavior among inner-city, African American, preadolescent girls age 10-13 years. Survey data indicated that feminine gender role orientation, self-concept, and ethnic identity related to attitudes less tolerant of risky sexual behaviors. Masculine gender role orientation…

Townsend, Tiffany G.

2002-01-01

327

Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

2011-01-01

328

The Effectiveness of a Culture- and Gender-Specific Intervention for Increasing Resiliency among African American Preadolescent Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the impact of a culture- and gender-specific intervention on strengthening resiliency among poor African American preadolescent girls. The intervention used a relational Afrocentric focus and activities to increase self-worth and ethnic and gender identity. Intervention girls scored significantly higher on measures of Afrocentric values,…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Chase-Vaughn, Gretchen; Gray, Famebridge; Addison, Jerveada Dixon; Cherry, Valerie R.

2000-01-01

329

The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic

Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

2009-01-01

330

Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

2009-01-01

331

Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

2008-01-01

332

The Individual and Shared Meaning Students Make of Their Diverse Interactions with African American Faculty: A Phenomenological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics contend college graduates are not prepared to work in a global society. In response, higher education leaders identify the need to transform curriculum and teaching techniques (Bikson & Law, 1994). African American faculty are more likely than their White colleagues to employ teaching strategies that introduce students to diversity coursework and expose them to knowledge about race and ethnicity

Kathleen Marie Neville

2011-01-01

333

YOUR Blessed Health: A Faith-Based CBPR Approach to Addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite substantial federal, state, and local efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS, African Americans experience higher rates of infection than any other ethnic or racial group in the United States. It is imperative to develop culturally and ecologically sensitive interventions to meet the sexual health needs of this population.…

Griffith, Derek M.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober

2010-01-01

334

Effects of Multimedia-Based Instructional Technology on African American Ninth Grade Students' Mastery of Algebra Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban African American students lack an abstract understanding of algebra and are below their academic level in comparison to other ethnic groups, and this is a pervasive problem (McKinney, Chappell, Berry, & Hickman, 2009). The purpose of this quantitative study using a quasi-experimental design was to determine whether the use of…

Malik, Ishan Z.

2011-01-01

335

Varied Voices: Representations of African-American Language in Children's Picture Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the various representations of African American language found in contemporary children's picture books. Focuses on dialect, how varied African American language is, and how closely African American language is tied to the psychology of oppression. (TB)

Nikola-Lisa, W.

1995-01-01

336

Violence Prevention Among African American Adolescent Males  

PubMed Central

Objective To test psychosocial mediators of the effects of an intervention in reducing the rate of growth of violence among adolescents. Method Five hundred and seventy-one African American adolescent males participated in this randomized trial. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to ascertain both intervention and mediated effects. Results Intervention significantly reduced rate of growth of violence and 5 social and psychological factors in the treatment group relative to the control group. Four of these social and psychological factors were found to be complete mediators between the intervention and its preventive effects. Conclusion Changing psychological mediating variables is central to reducing youth violence.

Ngwe, Job E.; Liu, Li C.; Flay, Brian R.; Segawa, Eisuke

2009-01-01

337

HIV Treatment in African Americans: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the current standard of care for HIV infection as well as how health disparities in the HIV care of African Americans present challenges for both providers and patients. The potential side effects in these antiretroviral treatment regimens that may be a source of additional challenges in treating African Americans are highlighted. A brief review of these issues

Victoria A. Cargill; Valerie E. Stone; M. Renee Robinson

2004-01-01

338

African American Street Gangs: A Quest for Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the phenomenon of African American street gangs. It examines the scope of the gang problem, gives a historical review of gangs in America, and examines gang activity and membership for African American youth. Some of the causes for gang formation are delineated, and comprehensive programs for addressing the gang problem are proposed.

Jerome L. Blakemore; Glenda M. Blakemore

1998-01-01

339

Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

Millward, Jessica

2009-01-01

340

A Snapshot of African Americans in Higher Education. Mini Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recognition of national African-American History Month, the Institute for Higher Education Policy wishes to highlight the trends and present-day experiences of African-American college students. Recognizing that the society benefits tremendously from an educated citizenry, there must be a renewed commitment to ensuring educational opportunity,…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

341

General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

342

African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

2005-01-01

343

Multiculturalism, Diversity, and African American College Students: Receptive, Yet Skeptical?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans. Students…

Ervin, Kelly S.

2001-01-01

344

AFRICAN AMERICAN THEATERS IN GEORGIA: PRESERVING AN ENTERTAINMENT LEGACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many African American theaters built in the early twentieth century have been destroyed. This thesis looks at four African American theaters in Georgia that have been preserved or are in the process of being preserved. It looks at the history of the theaters and at how preservationists took, or are taking, the initiative to restore these entertainment palaces. The restoration

JASON L. ELLERBEE

345

Boys into Men: Raising Our African American Teenage Sons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to rearing African American boys offers simple and effective strategies for problem-solving, improving communication, and instilling a positive racial identity. The book draws on strong African American family values and cultural and spiritual strengths. The chapters are: (1) "You Must Act As If It Is Impossible To Fail: Challenges in…

Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Franklin, A. J.

346

Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

2006-01-01

347

Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia Among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial to measure paranoia on a continuum, but few

Dennis R. Combs; David L. Penn; Jeffrey Cassisi; Chris Michael; Terry Wood; Jill Wanner; Scott Adams

2006-01-01

348

Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

2012-01-01

349

Family Influences on Racial Identity among African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of parental efficacy, family coping, and adaptive family functioning on the development of racial identity among African American youth. Fifty-two African American parent-child dyads were participants. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed family adaptability and family cognitive…

Townsend, Tiffany; Lanphier, Erin

2007-01-01

350

African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie

2002-01-01

351

Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

2013-01-01

352

75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 By the President...United States of America A Proclamation Music can tell a story, assuage our sorrows...including the African- American community, music unites individuals through a shared...

2010-06-07

353

76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President...United States of America A Proclamation The music of our Nation has always spoken to the...shared values. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the...

2011-06-07

354

Plenary-AA : Cancer and the African American Experience  

Cancer.gov

The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

355

Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

Tidwell, Billy J.

356

African Americans' Reactions to Diversity Programs: Does Procedural Justice Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used an organizational justice approach to examine workforce diversity programs and their potential effects on attitudes of African American beneficiaries through data from 66 African American undergraduates. Beneficiaries were more concerned about adequate procedural justification for the decision to hire them under a diversity program than the…

Richard, Orlando C.; Kirby, Susan L.

1997-01-01

357

Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

2013-01-01

358

Correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors between African American siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study examines intrasibling correlations at 2 points during childhood for African American siblings with the same father, different fathers, a father present in the home, and no father present in the home.Study design: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were assessed in 267 pairs of African American siblings (visit 1) and in 79 of these siblings approximately 28 months

Ronald J Iannotti; Alan E Zuckerman; Nader Rifai

2000-01-01

359

Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

2012-01-01

360

Community violence and sociomoral development: an African American cultural perspective.  

PubMed

This review considers the impact of exposure to community violence on sociomoral development within the African American community. Common sequelae of covictimization, as well as cultural experiences of the African American community, frame a discussion of the implications of covictimization for the development of moral reasoning. Recommendations for future research and intervention are provided. PMID:12769239

Kuther, Tara L; Wallace, Scyatta A

2003-04-01

361

School Programs for African-American Male Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently developed school programs for African-American male students give strong gender and cultural identity; strengthen social skills, discipline, and self-esteem; and redefine the "manly" African American. Some programs have faced legal and political obstacles. Early evidence of modest success is clear, but the long-term efficacy is unclear.…

Ascher, Carol

1991-01-01

362

African-American Grandmothers as Health Educators in the Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 18,000 adolescents die each year in the United States from bicycle, motorcycle, car, and truck accidents. This study sought to understand the role of African-American grandmothers as prevention-oriented health educators in the family. Full Model Fitted Regression Analyses were conducted on a sample of African-American grandmothers (N =…

Watson, Jeffrey A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Lyons, James L.

2005-01-01

363

Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

Kusimo, Patricia S.

364

Perceived Peer Norms and Sexual Intentions Among African American Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research was to examine whether perceived peer dating and sexual experience norms are related to attitudes toward dating and sexual behavior and to precoital and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. Participants included 1,046 African American youth aged 9-12 years (M = 10.57 years). Youth completed a…

Wallace, Scyatta A.; Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex

2008-01-01

365

Board Books Featuring African Americans: Vanishing but Not Entirely Gone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of infant and toddler board books (books printed on heavy cardboard and laminated for durability) featuring African Americans and published from 1990 to 2002. Provides a brief overview of the development of board books in general, and suggests criteria for evaluating board books that feature African Americans in…

Mongo, Jonella A.

2002-01-01

366

Retaining African-American Students through the Freshman Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the success of the Freshman Seminar Program at the University of South Carolina, designed to retain African-American students. Discusses the personal and social development needs of African-American students and how the Freshman Seminar contributes to their development. Presents data showing retention results. (MAB)

Fidler, Paul P.; Godwin, Margi A.

1994-01-01

367

Communicative Functions of African American Head Start Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are more often over- and underreferred for special education services than children from the mainstream culture. In fact, African American children, particularly boys, are more likely to be expelled from preschool programs. Differences in African American communication styles may be…

Hwa-Froelich, Deborah; Kasambira, Danai C.; Moleski, Amy Marie

2007-01-01

368

Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2005-01-01

369

African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

2004-01-01

370

Building on Strengths: Intergenerational Practice with African American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intergenerational kinship and multigenerational families (three or more generations) have been a source of strength for African Americans. This article presents a culturally responsive intergenerational practice model for working with African American families that draws on this legacy. The model looks at intergenerational kinship and…

Waites, Cheryl

2009-01-01

371

Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

1999-01-01

372

Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

2009-01-01

373

These Hallowed Halls: African American Women College and University Presidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early laws prohibited African Americans from learning to read and write in the United States. The right to an education has produced a significant number of African American women acquiring higher education. Racial and gender diversity at the presidential level in higher education 4-year institutions appears to be changing rapidly. The data…

Bates, Gerri

2007-01-01

374

The College Life Experiences of African American Women Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes,

Robert M. Sellers; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Alphonse Damas

1997-01-01

375

Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

2012-01-01

376

Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

2011-01-01

377

Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate gene- tic health information in a culturally sensi- tive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying

Bonnie Jeanne Baty; Anita Yeomans Kinney; Sara Marie Ellis

2003-01-01

378

African-American Attitudes towards United States Immigration Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores attitudes of African Americans about U.S. immigration policy, from slavery to the present. Fourteen contemporary polls reveal a long-standing preference among blacks in the United States for restricting immigration rather than maintaining or increasing it, in spite of beliefs that make it difficult for African Americans to see the…

Diamond, Jeff

1998-01-01

379

The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

2007-01-01

380

Beta Blocker Therapy in African American Patients with Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a number of clinical trials of beta blocker therapy in heart failure, although limited in the size of African American patients included, suggest that they achieve a similar benefit as Caucasians. African Americans were usually at higher risk when enrolled in all of these studies with a higher incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The only exception is

Sidney Goldstein

2004-01-01

381

Educating African American Males: Examining Teacher Perceptions and Cultural Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many decades, society has struggled with academic underachievement, particularly among African American males. Although a myriad of studies have identified significant causal factors of African American academic underachievement from the perspectives and circumstances of the student, limited studies focus on this problem from the perspective…

Rivers, Celeste A.

2010-01-01

382

Lessons Learned: Research within an Urban, African American District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For an African American female researcher whose race, class, and gender work as oppressive intersecting units shaping my contextualized experiences, meaning-making, and self-definition, the implications of my work with African American communities are complicated. In this article, I draw on culturally sensitive research practices, critical race…

Scott, Kimberly Ann

2012-01-01

383

Prospective Teachers Experiences Teaching Mathematics to African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an effort to provide prospective teachers opportunities to better understand African American male students and better focus on how they learn mathematics. Prospective teachers spent 15 hours over an eight week span mentoring and tutoring African American males without the guise of practicing teachers. Qualitative data drawn…

Sheppard, Peter

2009-01-01

384

Mesh diagram cephalometric norms for Americans of African descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish cephalometric norms for African-American males and females, to compare these measurements with the findings of Alexander's ?Alabama analysis,” and to construct mesh templates for various age groups. The sample we evaluated included 71 African-Americans, divided into four groups: girls (8 to 12 years), boys (8 to 12 years), adolescent females (13 to

Kathy L Bailey; Reginald W Taylor

1998-01-01

385

Effective Education of African American Exceptional Learners: New Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 11 author-contributed papers covering the theory and practice of effective assessment and instruction of African American students with exceptionalities, including both disabilities and giftedness. Emphasis is on effective delivery of empowering services to African American youth and their families. The first seven papers have…

Ford, Bridgie Alexis, Ed.; And Others

386

African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

Fikes, Robert Jr.

2001-01-01

387

Training African-American residents in the 20th century.  

PubMed

Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are needed not only to serve minority populations but also to serve as mentors and role models for prospective and current students. The first African-American resident to graduate from the Bellevue Residency Program did indeed treat the underserved, as Dr. Vincent founded the Vincent Sanatorium, dedicated to treating African-American patients, and training African-American nurses and doctors. Over the course of the 20th century, Bellevue Hospital has trained increasing numbers of African-American physicians. It is hoped that, like their predecessor, Dr. Vincent, they will provide care to underserved communities and to the community as a whole, as well as serve as role models for generations to come. PMID:15040520

Green-McKenzie, Judith

2004-03-01

388

Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas  

PubMed Central

Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed.

Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

2013-01-01

389

Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all three ages. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated that spanking (but not verbal punishment) at age 1 predicted child aggressive behavior problems at age 2 and lower Bayley mental development scores at age 3. Neither child aggressive behavior problems nor Bayley scores predicted later spanking or verbal punishment. In some instances, maternal race/ethnicity and/or emotional responsiveness moderated the effects of spanking and verbal punishment on child outcomes.

Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

2010-01-01

390

Neighbourhood ethnic composition and diet among Mexican-Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives We explore the association between a neighbourhood's ethnic composition and the foods and nutrients consumed by Mexican-Americans. Design Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample. from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94), was linked to the 1990 Census. The outcomes were food frequencies and serum levels of micronutrients. The variable of interest was percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level. Setting United States. Subjects A total of 5306 Mexican-American men and women aged 17-90 years. Results Increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with less consumption of fruits, carrots, spinach/greens and broccoli and with lower serum levels of Se, Iycopene, ?-carotene, vitamin C and folate. By conrrast, increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with more consumption of corn, tomatoes, hot red chilli peppers and legumes such as beans, lentils or chickpeas. Conclusions An increased percentage of Mexican-Americans at the census tract level was associated with less consumption of selective foods (e.g. some fruits, broccoli) and low levels of serum Se or vitamin C, but it was associated with more consumption of other foods (e.g. legumes, tomatoes, corn products) that may have positive effects on health in this population.

Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ju, Hyunsu; Eschbach, Karl; Kuo, Yang-Fang; Gaadwin, James S

2011-01-01

391

The VERB campaign's strategy for reaching African-American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian children and parents.  

PubMed

The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described. PMID:18471600

Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie

2008-06-01

392

Say Adios to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification

Thierry Devos; Kelly Gavin; Francisco J. Quintana

2010-01-01

393

Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women  

PubMed Central

This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.

Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

2013-01-01

394

Racial identity and perception of American ideals among African American and African students in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined contextual factors in racial identity, by comparing 113 Black American college students and 93 Black African college students residing in the United States. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing racial identity, applicability of American ideals, and self-esteem. Racial identity scores did not differ between the two groups, but for the African students racial identity showed a significant increase

Jean S. Phinney; Mukosolu Onwughalu

1996-01-01

395

African American Parental Involvement in a Post-"Brown" Era: Facilitating the Academic Achievement of African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Brown v. Board of Education" decision defined public education for African Americans in the United States. In this article I discuss the tradition of African American parental involvement in the pre-"Brown" era, challenges to parental involvement in a post-"Brown" era, and a parental involvement initiative in an urban elementary school. I…

Tillman, Linda C.

2004-01-01

396

Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Ethnicities within Black populations have not been distinguished in most nutrition studies. We sought to examine dietary differences between African Americans (AA) and Haitian Americans (HA) with and without type 2 diabetes using the Healthy Eating Index, 2005 (HEI-05), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The design was cross-sectional N = 471 (225 AA, 246 HA) and recruitment was by community outreach. The eating indices were calculated from data collected with the Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. African Americans had lower HEI-05 scores ? = ?10.9 (?8.67, 13.1); SE = 1.12, P < .001 than HA. Haitian American females and AA males had higher AHEI than AA females and HA males, respectively, (P = .006) adjusting for age and education. Participants with diabetes had higher adherence to the HEI-05 ? = 3.90 (1.78, 6.01), SE = 1.08, P < .001 and lower adherence to the AHEI ? = ?9.73 (16.3, ?3.19), SE = 3.33, P = .004, than participants without diabetes. The findings underscore the importance of disaggregating ethnicities and disease state when assessing diet.

Huffman, Fatma G.; De La Cera, Maurcio; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Exebio, Joel; Gundupalli, Deva; Shaban, Lamya

2011-01-01

397

Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes.  

PubMed

Ethnicities within Black populations have not been distinguished in most nutrition studies. We sought to examine dietary differences between African Americans (AA) and Haitian Americans (HA) with and without type 2 diabetes using the Healthy Eating Index, 2005 (HEI-05), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The design was cross-sectional N = 471 (225 AA, 246 HA) and recruitment was by community outreach. The eating indices were calculated from data collected with the Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. African Americans had lower HEI-05 scores ? = -10.9 (-8.67, 13.1); SE = 1.12, P < .001 than HA. Haitian American females and AA males had higher AHEI than AA females and HA males, respectively, (P = .006) adjusting for age and education. Participants with diabetes had higher adherence to the HEI-05 ? = 3.90 (1.78, 6.01), SE = 1.08, P < .001 and lower adherence to the AHEI ? = -9.73 (16.3, -3.19), SE = 3.33, P = .004, than participants without diabetes. The findings underscore the importance of disaggregating ethnicities and disease state when assessing diet. PMID:22187639

Huffman, Fatma G; De La Cera, Maurcio; Vaccaro, Joan A; Zarini, Gustavo G; Exebio, Joel; Gundupalli, Deva; Shaban, Lamya

2011-01-01

398

Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

2001-01-01

399

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

2005-01-01

400

Why do some South African ethnic groups have very high HIV rates and others not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences in HIV prevalence between South Africa's racial\\/ethnic groups (19.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% among 15–49-year-old blacks, coloureds and whites, respectively) are as big as those between the countries with the highest and lowest levels of HIV prevalence worldwide. These large racial\\/ethnic differences are largely determined by different sexual network structures. In networks among black South Africans, sexual partnerships are

Chris Kenyon; Sizwe Zondo

2011-01-01

401

Dancing in the Margins: Experiences of African American Ballerinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Where are all the Black Swans?” Gia Koulas asked in 2007. The question begs to be answered, yet in my search for “black swans,”\\u000a I found few leading light-skinned swans and even fewer leading dark-skinned ones. Color casting has riddled the African-American\\u000a community throughout the American history. The divisions within the African-American community have been an unpleasant cornerstone\\u000a of the

Nyama McCarthy-Brown

402

Does Marijuana Use Serve as a Gateway to Cigarette Use for High-Risk African-American Youth?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the gateway hypothesis of drug initiation sequencing applies equally well to high-risk African-American and Caucasian youth. Methods The study sample (N = 618, mean age =15.5, SD =1.2) represented the population of residents in the Missouri Division of Youth Services (DYS) who had initiated marijuana and nicotine use. Results As hypothesized, African-American youth were significantly more likely to initiate marijuana use before cigarette use. Over one-third of African Americans reported initiating marijuana before cigarettes (37.9%), compared to less than one-quarter of youth in the other ethnic groups (Caucasian = 17.3%, Latino/Latina = 21.7%, Biracial/Other = 20.8%). Further, multinomial simulation and logistic regression models revealed that African-American youth were significantly more likely than other ethnic groups to initiate marijuana before cigarettes (Adjusted OR = 3.53, CI = 1.92–6.46). Conclusions/Scientific Significance Findings suggest that the hypothesized gateway sequence may not apply equally well to African-Americans, and that prevention efforts based on this theory may need to be amended for these youth.

Vaughn, Michael; Wallace, John; Perron, Brian; Copeland, Valire; Howard, Matthew

2014-01-01

403

Differences in Acute Response to Alcohol between African Americans and European Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Response to alcohol is a widely studied risk factor and potential endophenotype for alcohol use disorders. Research on African American response to alcohol has been limited despite large differences in alcohol use between African Americans and European Americans. Extending our previous work on the African American portion of this sample, the current study examined differences in acute subjective response to alcohol between African Americans and European Americans. Additionally, we tested if the association between response to alcohol and past month drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems differed across race. Methods One hundred and seventy eight participants (mean age = 21.87, SD = 1.23; 57% African American) who were moderate to heavy social drinkers completed an alcohol administration study in a laboratory setting, receiving a moderate dose of alcohol (0.72g/kg alcohol for males, 0.65g/kg for females). Acute alcohol response was measured at 8 time points (i.e., baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes). Results Latent growth curve models showed that African Americans experienced sharper increases in stimulation on the ascending limb compared to European Americans. African American women experienced sharper increases in sedation on the ascending limb compared to European American women. Change in sedation on the ascending limb was associated with past month drinking behavior. Stimulation on the ascending limb was related to alcohol-problems for African Americans but not European Americans. Conclusions We found differences in response to alcohol across racial groups: African Americans showed a stronger response to alcohol. Future studies are needed to incorporate response to alcohol into a larger model of African American alcohol use.

Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.

2013-01-01

404

When We Talk About American Ethnic Groups, What Do We Mean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

American ethnic groups are often thought of as discrete categories to which people belong and that explain some aspects of psychological functioning. However, ethnicity is a complex multidimensional construct that, by itself, explains little. To understand its psychological implications, it is necessary to identify and assess those aspects of ethnicity that may have an impact on outcomes of interest. In

Jean S. Phinney

1996-01-01

405

Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

2011-01-01

406

Mexican American Children's Ethnic Pride and Internalized Racism. JSRI Occasional Paper No. 41. Latino Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 100 Mexican American children and adolescents in grades 2-12 were interviewed in central Texas to determine their understanding of ethnicity and their attitudes toward their own ethnicity. Their responses were interpreted in relation to a developmental model with five stages or "perspectives" in reasoning about ethnicity. The first level,…

Quintana, Stephen

407

Contribution of Common PCSK1 Genetic Variants to Obesity in 8,359 Subjects from Multi-Ethnic American Population  

PubMed Central

Common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) have been shown to be associated with obesity in European, Asian and Mexican populations. To determine whether common PCSK1 variants contribute to obesity in American population, we conducted association analyses in 8,359 subjects using two multi-ethnic American studies: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). By evaluating the contribution of rs6232 and rs6235 in each ethnic group, we found that in European-American subjects from CARDIA, only rs6232 was associated with BMI (P?=?0.006) and obesity (P?=?0.018) but also increased the obesity incidence during the 20 years of follow-up (HR?=?1.53 [1.07–2.19], P?=?0.019). Alternatively, in African-American subjects from CARDIA, rs6235 was associated with BMI (P?=?0.028) and obesity (P?=?0.018). Further, by combining the two case-control ethnic groups from the CARDIA study in a meta-analysis, association between rs6235 and obesity risk remained significant (OR?=?1.23 [1.05–1.45], P?=?9.5×10?3). However, neither rs6232 nor rs6235 was associated with BMI or obesity in the MESA study. Interestingly, rs6232 was associated with BMI (P?=?4.2×10?3) and obesity (P?=?3.4×10?3) in the younger European-American group combining samples from the both studies [less than median age (53 years)], but not among the older age group (P?=?0.756 and P?=?0.935 for BMI and obesity, respectively). By combining all the case-control ethnic groups from CARDIA and MESA in a meta-analysis, we found no significant association for the both variants and obesity risk. Finally, by exploring the full PCSK1 locus, we observed that no variant remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These results indicate that common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) contribute modestly to obesity in multi-ethnic American population. Further, these results suggest that the association of rs6232 with obesity may be age-dependent in European-Americans. However, multiple replication studies in multi-ethnic American population are needed to confirm our findings.

Choquet, Helene; Kasberger, Jay; Hamidovic, Ajna; Jorgenson, Eric

2013-01-01

408

Contribution of common PCSK1 genetic variants to obesity in 8,359 subjects from multi-ethnic American population.  

PubMed

Common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) have been shown to be associated with obesity in European, Asian and Mexican populations. To determine whether common PCSK1 variants contribute to obesity in American population, we conducted association analyses in 8,359 subjects using two multi-ethnic American studies: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). By evaluating the contribution of rs6232 and rs6235 in each ethnic group, we found that in European-American subjects from CARDIA, only rs6232 was associated with BMI (P?=?0.006) and obesity (P?=?0.018) but also increased the obesity incidence during the 20 years of follow-up (HR?=?1.53 [1.07-2.19], P?=?0.019). Alternatively, in African-American subjects from CARDIA, rs6235 was associated with BMI (P?=?0.028) and obesity (P?=?0.018). Further, by combining the two case-control ethnic groups from the CARDIA study in a meta-analysis, association between rs6235 and obesity risk remained significant (OR?=?1.23 [1.05-1.45], P?=?9.5×10(-3)). However, neither rs6232 nor rs6235 was associated with BMI or obesity in the MESA study. Interestingly, rs6232 was associated with BMI (P?=?4.2×10(-3)) and obesity (P?=?3.4×10(-3)) in the younger European-American group combining samples from the both studies [less than median age (53 years)], but not among the older age group (P?=?0.756 and P?=?0.935 for BMI and obesity, respectively). By combining all the case-control ethnic groups from CARDIA and MESA in a meta-analysis, we found no significant association for the both variants and obesity risk. Finally, by exploring the full PCSK1 locus, we observed that no variant remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These results indicate that common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) contribute modestly to obesity in multi-ethnic American population. Further, these results suggest that the association of rs6232 with obesity may be age-dependent in European-Americans. However, multiple replication studies in multi-ethnic American population are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:23451278

Choquet, Hélène; Kasberger, Jay; Hamidovic, Ajna; Jorgenson, Eric

2013-01-01

409

African-American Women: Online Archival Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University has a wealth of digitized materials related to African American women. This particular collection brings together three noteworthy collections: Elizabeth Johnson Harris: Life Story; Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson: Slave Letters; and Vilet Lester Letter. This last item is particularly noteworthy as it is a very rare item indeed: a letter written by a female slave. The Elizabeth Johnson Harris: A Life Story area brings together the full text of her memories, along with several poems and vignettes published in various newspapers in her lifetime. She was born in 1867 to parents who had been slaves, and the memoir includes information about her own childhood and the importance of religion and education in her life. Finally, the last section brings together letters written by Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson to their mistresses and other slave family members in Abingdon, Virginia.

2011-11-11

410

Antihypertensive and Metabolic Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Diuretic Combination Therapy in Obese, Hypertensive African American and Caucasian Patients  

PubMed Central

A clinical trial showed comparable blood pressure (BP) lowering by valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in obese hypertensives. Relative to amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide reduced the hyperglycemic response to glucose challenge. An objective of this post-hoc analysis was to determine whether this benefit extended to African Americans and Caucasians. Treatments (valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 160/12.5 mg force-titrated to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide 320/25 mg at Week 4 or hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg force-titrated to hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg at Week 4 with amlodipine 5 mg and 10 mg added at Weeks 8 and 12, respectively) were administered once daily. Both treatments reduced clinic BP from baseline to all visits (p<0.0001), regardless of race/ethnicity (126 African Americans, 212 Caucasians). In African Americans, there were no significant between-treatment differences in clinic or ambulatory BP lowering at Weeks 8 or 16. Caucasians responded better to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide. In both racial/ethnic subgroups, the addition of valsartan but not amlodipine mitigated the hyperglycemic response to hydrochlorothiazide through enhanced insulin secretion. Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide was as effective as amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in reducing BP in obese, hypertensive African Americans, and better than amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in Caucasians. In both racial/ethnic subgroups, addition of valsartan to hydrochlorothiazide reduced the negative metabolic effects associated with thiazide therapy.

Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Zappe, Dion H.; Purkayastha, Das; Samuel, Rita; Sowers, James R.

2013-01-01

411

"HOW ASIAN AM I?" ASIAN AMERICAN YOUTH CULTURES, DRUG USE, AND ETHNIC IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American ethnicity and drug use, seeing their own consumption as exceptional. The second argues their drug consumption is a natural outgrowth of their Asian American identity, allowing them to navigate the liminal space they occupy in American society. The final group presents Asian American drug use as normalized and constructs identity through taste and lifestyle boundary markers within social contexts of the dance scenes. These three narratives share a sense of ethnicity as dynamic, provisional, and constructed, allowing us to go beyond the static, essentialist models of ethnic identity that underlie much previous research on ethnicity, immigration, and substance use. PMID:21822339

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

2011-03-01

412

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth.  

PubMed

This article examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies some of the misconceptions and offers some comprehensibility to the issue of ADHD in African American youth. The incidence of ADHD is probably similar in African Americans and Caucasians. However, fewer African Americans are diagnosed with and treated for ADHD. That reality flies in the face of some perceptions in many African American communities. Reasons for this disparity have not been fully clarified and are most likely complex and numerous. Some barriers to treatment are driven by the beliefs of patients and their families, while others are the result of limitations in the health care system. Patient-driven obstacles to care include inadequate knowledge of symptoms, treatment, and consequences of untreated ADHD and fear of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. System-driven limitations include a lack of culturally competent health care providers, stereotyping or biases, and failure of clinicians to evaluate the child in multiple settings before diagnosis. PMID:20697849

Bailey, Rahn K; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Akpudo, Hilary; Avenido, Jaymie U; Bailey, Theresa; Lyons, Jessica; Whitehead, Amelia A

2010-10-01

413

Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women. Methods Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors. Findings Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment. Implications The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.

Fongwa, Marie N; Evangelista, Lorraines S; Hays, Ron D; Martins, David S; Elashoff, David; Cowan, Marie J; Morisky, Donald E

2008-01-01

414

Sub-Ethnic Differences in the Menopausal Symptom Experience: Asian American Midlife Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the menopausal symptom experiences of sub-ethnic groups of Asian American midlife women. Design A cross-sectional study among 91 Asian American women online. Questions about background characteristics, ethnic identity, and health and menopausal status, and the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index were used. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings The most frequently reported and the most severe symptoms differed by sub-ethnicity. The total number of symptoms differed by sub-ethnicity, as did total severity scores for the symptoms. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Practice Researchers and clinicians should be aware of sub-ethnic differences.

Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seung Hee; Chee, Wonshik

2009-01-01

415

Clinical aspects of dementia in African-American, Hispanic, and white patients.  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between ethnicity, cognitive deficits, functional impairment, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia. The data are from a cross-sectional study of patients evaluated at the Northern California Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADC). Using the ADC database of patient information, the authors compared sociodemographic and clinical variables in 187 African-American patients, 69 Hispanic patients, and 1317 white patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), ischemic vascular dementia (IVD), and mixed dementia (AD/IVD). Multivariate analysis indicated the following results: 1. African-American patients and Hispanic AD patients had lower risk of depressed mood compared to white patients; 2. African-American patients had lower risk for anxiety than whites; 3. Hispanic patients with mixed dementia had lower rates of apathy compared to whites. Future studies are needed to examine how ethnic group differences in dementia are based on the interaction of cultural differences; effects of age, education, and psychosocial variables; and biological differences in the course of dementia.

Hargrave, R.; Stoeklin, M.; Haan, M.; Reed, B.

2000-01-01

416

The Anacostia Museum & Center for African American History and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in a historically African-American community in the southeast quadrant of Washington, D.C., the Anacostia Museum & Center for African American History and Culture's primary goal is to "explore American history, society, and creative expression from an African American perspective.". Visitors may want to begin by looking through the general information section, especially if they are planning a visit in the near future. There is also a special section dedicated to providing information on current and upcoming exhibits, along with several online exhibits, including one on the contemporary spiritual traditions within the African-American community. Perhaps one of the more interesting parts of the site is the area dedicated to providing history about the actual community of Anacostia where the museum is physically located. In this section, visitors can learn about the various transformations that have affected the community over its long history, and even view educational exercises for use at home or in the classroom.

417

Oxford African American Studies Center: Focus on Women and Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oxford African American Studies Center has created this website to house its comprehensive collection of scholarship documenting the many and varied experiences that make up African and African American history and culture. Along with over 10,000 articles, 2,500 images, and 200 maps, the site features an excellent "Focus On" series each month, in which the editors compile various short articles, picture essays, and links on a designated topic. The Focus on Women and Literature is particularly noteworthy. Here, visitors can explore the life and works of influential women in American literature, from Phillis Wheatley to Toni Morrison. The site can be easily navigated by subject or by specific biography, with suggestions for related sources and content provided in each section. Additionally, curious visitors will find links to all of the previously featured subjects within the series, ranging from African Americans in Science and Technology to Black Homesteading in the American Western Frontier.

418

How African American Men decide Whether or Not to Get Prostate Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the U.S. and affects African Americans disproportionately when compared to other ethnic groups. There are unclear reasons for this disparity, but several factors may include race, nutrition, family history of cancer, and screening. With early detection of prostate cancer, survival is much better; thus screening may be helpful, especially for high-risk individuals. Prostate cancer screening continues to be controversial. A paucity of data exist on what prostate cancer screening means to African Americans, particularly in rural areas, and how they make the decision to undergo prostate cancer screening or not. This study interviewed 17 African American men to explore how and when they decided about prostate cancer screening. The majority of the men (n = 9) said that they had prostate cancer screening. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) these men had information on prostate cancer; 2) family and friends played an important role in the men’s decision-making process; and 3) for screening, it was necessary for the men to have a trusting relationship with their healthcare provider. These findings confirm that the decision-making process is not a simple process. The study’s results can help healthcare providers understand some of the important decision-making factors in prostate cancer screening for African American men.

Jones, Randy A.; Steeves, Richard; Williams, Ishan

2009-01-01

419

Family-focused physical activity, diet, and obesity interventions in African American girls: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African American girls aged 5–18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format, and behavior change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviors were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data do not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step.

Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Adams-Wynn, Alexis W.; DiSantis, Katherine I.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

2012-01-01

420

Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Young African American Women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of selected factors to the consistent use of condoms among high-risk young African American women. A clinic-based, prospective, study of 242 young, African-American women (ages 15–21) was conducted. In multivariate analysis, consistent condom use was predicted by having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, lower fear of negotiating condom use, and having communicated with sex partners (during the recall period) about condom use. Relational variables were predictive of consistent condom use among young African American women. STD/HIV preventive interventions should target these factors, perhaps in dyad-level interventions.

DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Wingood, Gina M.; McDermott-Sales, Jessica; Young, April M.; Rose, Eve

2012-01-01

421

Differing Reports of Asthma Symptoms in African Americans and Caucasians  

PubMed Central

Objective This pilot study explores the reported symptoms in African Americans and Caucasians with asthma. Methods Asthma patients in an inner-city pulmonary clinic were given a brief questionnaire of asthma symptoms and the BORG scale, followed by spirometry. Results African Americans were less likely to report nocturnal awakenings (67% vs. 100%; p = 0.037), complain of dyspnea (33% vs. 75%; p = 0.038), or experience chest pain (13% vs. 75%; p=0.002) than Caucasians. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that there are clinically significant differences in the reporting of asthma symptoms between African Americans and Caucasians.

Trochtenberg, D. Scott; Belue, Rhonda; Piphus, Sharon; Washington, Niketa

2010-01-01

422

Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Profiled here are African American men and women who have contributed to the advancement of science and engineering. The accomplishments of the past and present can serve as pathfinders to present and future engineers and scientists. African American chemists, biologists, inventors, engineers, and mathematicians have contributed in both large and small ways that can be overlooked when chronicling the history of science. By describing the scientific history of selected African American men and women we can see how the efforts of individuals have advanced human understanding in the world around us.

Mitchell C Brown (University of California- Irvine)

1995-01-01

423

Understanding African Americans’ views of the trustworthiness of physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many scholars have written about the historical underpinnings and likely consequences of African Americans distrust in health\\u000a care, yet little research has been done to understand if and how this distrust affects African Americans’ current views of\\u000a the trustworthiness of physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To better understand what trust and distrust in physicians means to African Americans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Focus-group study, using

Elizabeth A. Jacobs; Italia Rolle; Carol Estwing Ferrans; Eric E. Whitaker; Richard B. Warnecke

2006-01-01

424

Beta blocker therapy in African American patients with heart failure.  

PubMed

Data from a number of clinical trials of beta blocker therapy in heart failure, although limited in the size of African American patients included, suggest that they achieve a similar benefit as Caucasians. African Americans were usually at higher risk when enrolled in all of these studies with a higher incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The only exception is the Beta Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) that studied the efficacy of Bucindolol in heart failure. In that study there appeared to be a unique differential effect in African Americans compared to Caucasians which may have been in part related to the severity of the disease. PMID:15516864

Goldstein, Sidney

2004-04-01

425

Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions Regarding Discrimination  

PubMed Central

The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethnicity (43%), followed by age (17%), physical appearance (16.5%) and gender (7.5%) and there were no ethnic, gender or age differences regarding discrimination attributions. Key findings suggest that the association between perceived discrimination and psychological did not vary according to discrimination attribution, which implies that discrimination is harmful for Black youth regardless of the attribution.

Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

2013-01-01

426

Promoting Healthy Behavior from the Pulpit: Clergy Share Their Perspectives on Effective Health Communication in the African American Church  

PubMed Central

African Americans continue to suffer disproportionately from health disparities when compared to other ethnicities (ACS 2010; CDC 2007). Research indicates that the church and the pastor in the African American community could be enlisted to increase effectiveness of health programs (Campbell et al. in Health Edu Behav 34(6):864–880, 2007; DeHaven et al. in Am J Public Health 94(6):1030–1036, 2004). The objective of this study was to investigate African American pastors’ perceptions about health promotion in the church and how these perceptions could serve as a guide for improving health communication targeting African Americans. Semi-structured interviews with African American clergy revealed that pastors feel strongly about the intersection of health, religion and spirituality; they also believe that discussing health screening and other health issues more frequently from the pulpit and their own personal experiences will ultimately impact health behavior among congregants. This study suggests that African American clergy see themselves as health promoters in the church and believe this communication (i.e., pastor-endorsed health information materials) will impact health behavior among underserved and minority populations.

Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine; Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Neuhaus, Kris

2012-01-01

427

Class Acts: Indian American High School Students Negotiate Professional and Ethnic Identities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how race, class, ethnicity, and identity interacted at the macro and micro levels to reify the model minority stereotype of Asian American students. Interviews with Indian American high school students revealed how messages from school and home shaped professional and ethnic identities, pushing students toward careers promising financial…

Asher, Nina

2002-01-01

428

Measuring Ethnic Identity among American Indian Adolescents: A Factor Analytic Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of a measure of ethnic identity among American Indian adolescents. Data were collected in nine high schools in four American Indian communities (N=1,592). The self-report survey included eight ethnic identity questions, seven items about social competencies, eight items on personal mastery and locus of control,…

Moran, James R.

429

Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

2006-01-01

430

African American renal transplant recipients benefit from early corticosteroid withdrawal under modern immunosuppression.  

PubMed

African Americans have historically been considered high-risk renal transplant recipients due to increased rejection rates and reduced long-term graft survival. Modern immunosuppression has reduced rejections and improved graft survival in African Americans and may allow successful corticosteroid withdrawal. Outcomes in 56 African Americans were compared to 56 non-African Americans enrolled in early withdrawal protocols. Results are reported as African American versus non-African American. Acute rejection at 1 year was 23% and 18% (P = NS), while patient and graft survival was 96% versus 98% and 91% versus 91% (P = NS), respectively. In conclusion, early withdrawal in African Americans is associated with acceptable rejection rates and excellent patient and graft survival, indicating that the risks and benefits of early withdrawal are similar between African Americans and non-African Americans. Additional followup is needed to determine long-term renal function, graft survival, and cardiovascular risk in African Americans with early steroid withdrawal. PMID:15848541

Boardman, R E; Alloway, R R; Alexander, J W; Buell, J F; Cardi, M; First, M R; Hanaway, M T; Munda, R; Rogers, C C; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Susskind, B; Trofe, J; Woodle, E S

2005-03-01

431

Relationship between waking-sleep blood pressure and catecholamine changes in African-American and European-American women  

PubMed Central

Background A blunted decline in waking to sleep blood pressure (BP) is more common in African–American (AA) than European–American (EA) women. The causes of reduced BP ‘dipping’ in AA women are not known, although several factors including ethnic differences in catecholamine sensitivity have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible contribution of catecholamine influences on BP to ethnic differences in BP dipping in a sample of working women. Participants and methods Healthy female participants wore ambulatory BP monitors over the course of 1 work day and night. Urine samples for assay of epinephrine and norepinephrine were collected at work (approximately 11.00–15.00 h), home (approximately 06.00–22.00 h) and during sleep (approximately 22.00–06.00 h). Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationships between changes in BP and the catecholamines by ethnicity. Results AA women (n= 51; age = 38.9 ± 8.5 years) had smaller proportional BP changes from work to sleep and home to sleep than EA women (n =110; age = 37.1 ±9.2 years). Overall, the work to sleep change in epinephrine excretion was positively associated with changes in both SBP (P <0.003) and DBP (P < 0.001); however, there was an ethnic difference in the epinephrine–BP relationship. For AA women, these associations were highly positive and significant, but for EA women, there was little correlation. Nonetheless, the analysis also revealed that overall, the work to sleep BP changes were not directly related to ethnic differences in catecholamine variation. Conclusion The AA–EA difference in waking–sleep BP changes (dipping) is not directly related to ethnic differences in catecholamine variation; however, AA seem to have a greater BP sensitivity to epinephrine.

van Berge-Landry, Helene M.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; James, Gary D.

2009-01-01

432

Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.  

PubMed

This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans. PMID:23197118

Jarvis, G Eric

2012-12-01

433

The construction of identity through race and ethnicity : coloured South African women in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of ethnic and racial identity is important psychologically. Mainstream psychological theory and research on identity has been criticised for its failure to adequately address the lived experiences of historically marginalised groups in society. The purpose of my research was to centre the experience of one such group, through an exploration of how coloured South African women living in

Raylene C. Lewis

2007-01-01

434

Can we study ethnicity? A critique of fields of study in South African anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the assumptions that have been made by South African anthropologists about the nature of ethnicity and its significance for demarcating the boundaries of groups they have chosen to study. It is argued that the assumptions made in this connection, within functionalist social anthropology and, particularly, within primordialist volkekunde, are illegitimate and, moreover, inimical to the future of

John Sharp

1980-01-01

435

Different Response to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in West African Sympatric Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of malaria indicators among populations that have different genetic backgrounds and are uniformly exposed to the same parasite strains is one approach to the study of human heterogeneities in the response to the infection. We report the results of comparative surveys on three sympatric West African ethnic groups, Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibe, living in the same conditions of

D. Modiano; V. Petrarca; B. S. Sirima; I. Nebie; D. Diallo; F. Esposito; M. Coluzzi

1996-01-01

436

African Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite remarkable improvements in the overall health of the nation during the past two decades, compelling evidence suggests that the nation's racial and ethnic minority Americans suffer increasing disparities in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and adverse health outcomes compared with white Americans. The 1998…

Copeland, Valire Carr

2005-01-01

437

A brotherhood perspective: how African American male relationships may improve trust and utilization of health care.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to explore interview data to understand and characterize the nature of brotherhood in a sample of African American men at two historically Black colleges and universities. The authors used thematic analysis on semistructured interview data, collected by an ethnically diverse research team. Recruitment and interviews were conducted at two historically Black colleges and universities in Texas. Twenty African American men, 18 to 35 years old, were randomly selected from 62 recruited participants. Five categories framed brotherhood and health care utilization: (a) trust lessens individual barriers to action, (b) identity unites men through a process of authentication, (c) generations lead by example, (d) approaching life as a shared learning experience, and (e) social pressure and ridicule uphold collective action. Findings suggest that participants trust a group view, identify with the collective, and respond to social pressure to conform; therefore, brotherhood acts as a support mechanism, and its validation influences individual-level engagement and nonengagement. PMID:23620540

Grande, Stuart W; Sherman, Ledric; Shaw-Ridley, Mary

2013-11-01

438

Hostility is associated with Visceral, but not Subcutaneous, Fat in Middle-Aged African-American and White women  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study was designed to examine the cross-sectional association between hostility and measures of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in middle-aged African-American and white women. Because fat-patterning characteristics are known to differ by race,we were particularly interested in examining whether these associations were similar for women of both racial/ethnic groups. Methods Participants were 418 (45% African-American, 55% white) middle-aged women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Visceral and Subcutaneous fat were measured by Computed Tomographic Scans and hostility was assessed via questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to test associations among race/ethnicity, hostility and measures of abdominal fat. Results In models adjusted for race/ethnicity and total percent fat, higher levels of hostility were associated with a greater amount of visceral fat (B=1.8, s.e.=.69, p=.01). This association remained significant after further adjustments for age, education, and multiple coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Hostility was not associated with subcutaneous fat (p=.8). Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in hostility (p<.001) and the amount of total body (p<.001), subcutaneous (p<.001) and visceral fat (p<.001), the associations between hostility and measures of abdominal fat did not differ for African-American compared to white women (race/ethnicity*hostility interaction p=.67 for visceral, p=.85 for subcutaneous). Conclusions Hostility may affect CHD risk in women via the accumulation of visceral fat. Despite significant black-white differences in fat patterning and overall CHD risk, the association between hostilty and visceral fat appears to be similar for both African-American and white women.

Lewis, Tene T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Janssen, Imke; Wesley, Deidre; Powell, Lynda H.

2010-01-01

439

Insider and Outsider Status: An African American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter addresses the dual status of African American faculty in adult education as both a marginalized group and as a group central to the collective identity of adult education in the United States.

Smith, Sherwood

2004-01-01

440

African Americans and Pancreatic Cancer: Things to Know  

MedlinePLUS

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND PANCREATIC CANCER: THINGS TO KNOW By the National Cancer Institute BETHESDA, MD ? When NFL Hall of Famer Gene Upshaw died of pancreatic cancer in 2008, it was the first time that ...

441

Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health  

PubMed Central

Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring.

Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

2014-01-01

442

Biomarkers in the Detection of Prostate Cancer in African Americans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus of this proposal is to identify molecular markers in high grade prostate cancer (PCa) based on biopsies, especially from African Americans (AAs) who usually select radiation rather than radical prostatectomies. How these differ molecularly from ...

S. M. Gaston W. E. Grizzle

2013-01-01

443

Structural and Social Contexts of HIV Risk Among African Americans  

PubMed Central

HIV continues to be transmitted at unacceptably high rates among African Americans, and most HIV-prevention interventions have focused on behavioral change. To theorize additional approaches to HIV prevention among African Americans, we discuss how sexual networks and drug-injection networks are as important as behavior for HIV transmission. We also describe how higher-order social structures and processes, such as residential racial segregation and racialized policing, may help shape risk networks and behaviors. We then discuss 3 themes in African American culture—survival, propriety, and struggle—that also help shape networks and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how these perspectives might help reduce HIV transmission among African Americans.

Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Osborne, Andrew H.

2009-01-01

444

Urban Latino African American Cancer (ULAAC) Disparities Project  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Disparities Research Partnership Programs (CDRP) January 18, 2008 Urban Latino African American Cancer (ULAAC) Disparities Project Michael L. Steinberg, MD, FACR, FASTRO Principal Investigator David C. Khan, MD Co-Principal Investigator Nicole C.

445

African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS is growing at a disproportional rate among African American adolescents. This trend has occurred despite the fact that 89% of schools have educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Barriers to effective HIV prevention may be related to a failure to develop educational programs based on the cultural competencies of vulnerable populations such as adolescents who are at risk for HIV. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV/AIDS within a cultural competency paradigm. A group of 8 adolescents at an African American church participated in a focus group to discuss vulnerability and resilience to HIV. To facilitate discussion, the adolescents developed collages from pictures in African American magazines. Content analysis was used to identify themes. The themes revealed were confidence, safe social activities, innocence, image, music/drug culture, and peer pressure. PMID:18445759

Glenn, Betty L; Wilson, Kathleen P

2008-07-01

446

KSC kicks off African-American History Month  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

2000-01-01

447

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for African Americans. This article addresses myths about skin cancer and discusses how everyone can protect their skin. It also introduces an NCI publication for minorities: Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer.

448

Do you see what I see?: An exploration of inter-ethnic ideal body size comparisons among college women.  

PubMed

The present study explored African American (n=16) and European American (n=19) college women's ideal body size perceptions for their own and the other ethnic group along with reasons behind their selections. Respondents completed an ethnically-neutral figure rating scale and then participated in ethnically-homogenous focus groups. European Americans mostly preferred a curvy-thin or athletic ideal body while most African American students resisted notions of a singular ideal body. European Americans suggested that African Americans' larger ideal body sizes were based on greater body acceptance and the preferences of African American men. African Americans used extreme terms when discussing their perceptions of European Americans' thin idealization, celebrity role models, and weight management behaviors. African Americans' perceptions of European Americans' body dissatisfaction were also attributed to the frequent fat talk they engaged in. Implications for promoting the psychosocial well-being of ethnically-diverse emerging adult females attending college are discussed. PMID:23608124

Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Chou, Ying-Yi; Adams, Lauren

2013-06-01

449

Stability and Change in Ethnic Labeling among Adolescents from Asian and Latin American Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant…

Fuligni, Andrew J.; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar

2008-01-01

450

Toward a Trustworthy Voice: Increasing the Effectiveness of Automated Outreach Calls to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colorectal cancer screening rates are lower among African-American members of Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) than among members of other races and ethnicities. This study evaluated use of a linguistically congruent voice in interactive voice response outreach calls about colorectal cancer screening as a strategy to increase call completion and response. Methods: After an initial discussion group to assess cultural acceptability of the project, 6 focus groups were conducted with 33 KPCO African-American members. Participants heard and discussed recordings of 5 female voices reading the same segment of the standard-practice colorectal cancer message using interactive voice response. The linguistic palette included the voices of a white woman, a lightly accented Latina, and 3 African-American women. Results: Participants strongly preferred the African-American voices, particularly two voices. Participants considered these voices the most trustworthy and reported that they would be the most effective at increasing motivation to complete an automated call. Participants supported the use of African-American voices when designing outgoing automated calls for African Americans because the sense of familiarity engendered trust among listeners. Participants also indicated that effective automated messages should provide immediate clarity of purpose; explain why the issue is relevant to African Americans; avoid sounding scripted; emphasize that the call is for the listener’s benefit only; sound personable, warm, and positive; and not create fear among listeners. Discussion: Establishing linguistic congruence between African Americans and the voices used in automated calls designed to reach them may increase the effectiveness of outreach efforts.

Albright, Karen; Richardson, Terri; Kempe, Karin L; Wallace, Kristin

2014-01-01

451

African Americans’ views on research and the Tuskegee Syphilis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of African Americans in clinical and public health research is essential. However, for a multitude of reasons, participation is low in many research studies. This article reviews the literature that substantiates barriers to participation and the legacy of past abuses of human subjects through research. The article then reports the results of seven focus groups with 60 African

Vicki S. Freimuth; Sandra Crouse Quinn; Stephen B. Thomas; Galen Cole; Eric Zook; Ted Duncan

2001-01-01

452

ASHE: Improvisation & Recycling in African-American Visionary Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exhibition guide provides critical analysis, historical perspective, and brief biographies of 15 self-taught African-American artists whose works were displayed. "Ashe," an African word meaning "the power to make things happen," was used as the theme of the exhibition. The guide verbalizes the exhibit's investigation of the methods of making…

Patterson, Tom

453

Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…

James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

454

Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

Wilson, Linda

455

A Comparison of Depressive Symptoms in African Americans and Caucasian Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined group differences in depressive symptomatology among African Americans and whites seeking psychotherapy. African Americans reported less pessimism, dissatisfaction, self-blame, and suicidal ideation and more sense of punishment and weight change, but for reasons unrelated to depression. Self-dislike was a stronger manifestation of…

Ayalon, Liat; Young, Michael A.

2003-01-01

456

Cultural In-Group Advantage: Emotion Recognition in African American and European American Faces and Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students…

Wickline, Virginia B.; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

2009-01-01

457

Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

James, LaNora Marcell

2011-01-01

458

Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and, in many cases, drugs, condemns African

Porter, Michael

459

Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

2008-01-01

460

Lactose Intolerance in Pregnant African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and

D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler

1997-01-01

461

An Update on Hypertension among African-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its associated complications—including coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease mortality—affect African-Americans (also referred to as US blacks). 2 This excess burden of hypertension among African-Americans has been recognized since early in the 1900s and explains a substantial portion of health disparities in this population.

Keith C Ferdinand; Verna L Welch

2007-01-01

462

Correlates of Casual Sex Among African-American Female Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified correlates of reporting voluntary sex with casual partner (VS-CP) among African American adolescent females. Sexually active African-American female teens (N = 522) were recruited from neighborhoods characterized by high rates of unemployment, substance abuse, violence and STDs. Of the 609 eligible adolescents, 522 (85.7%) agreed to participate in the study. VS-CP was reported by 15.9% of adolescents.

Richard A. Crosby; Ralph J. Diclemente; Gina M. Wingood; Catlainn Sionean; Brenda K. Cobb; Kathy F. Harrington; Susan L. Davies; Edward W. Hook III; M. Kim Oh

2002-01-01

463

African Americans in clinical trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This paper reviews strategies that could help improve African-American recruitment to clinical trials. The author provides recommendations on how to involve sponsors, recruitment teams, clinical research organizations, patient research organizations’ vendors, project managers, and local site investigators in this effort. Lack of interest and trust in research can be addressed through patient and community education. African Americans should be encouraged to opt into a database or referral list for clinical trials.

464

Parental competence among African American adolescent mothers and grandmothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the influence of grandmothers on parental competence among urban African American adolescent mothers, using a model adapted from Belsky's (1984) Determinants of Parenting Process Model. The sample included 53 pairs of urban African American mothers (age 16.4 [plusmn] 1.2 years) and their mothers (age 39.2 [plusmn] 4.3 years). All adolescents were enrolled in school, co-resided with mothers,

Lois S. Sadler; Stephen A. Anderson; Ronald M. Sabatelli

2001-01-01

465

African-American Urban Clergy's Literacy of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine urban African-American clergy's awareness of Alzheimer's disease and willingness to provide support to elders and their family\\/caregivers. Interviews were conducted with nine African-American clergy who presided over churches in central Kentucky. Collectively, all clergy had previous experience providing pastoral care to adults with Alzheimer's disease and were literate regarding its treatment.

Kim L. Stansbury; Debra A. Harley; Travonia Brown-Hughes

2010-01-01

466

Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

Hayes-Hull, Marion

467

3 CFR 8832 - Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8832 of June 1, 2012. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 8832 Proclamation...2012 Proc. 8832 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012By the President...long-cherished piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to...

2013-01-01

468

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

469

Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

1921-01-01

470

Racial and Ethnic Socialization in Later Generations of a Mexican American Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same family, this study describes RES from childhood to young adulthood to understand how RES can be used

Christina Chávez-Reyes

2010-01-01

471

Illness beliefs in african americans with hypertension.  

PubMed

Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs. PMID:23765710

Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

2014-02-01

472

Correlates of self-care in low-income African American and Latino patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Objective: This study aimed to examine diabetes self-care (DSC) patterns in low-income African American and Latino patients with Type 2 diabetes, and identify patient-related, biomedical/disease-related, and psychosocial correlates of DSC. Method: We performed cross-sectional analysis of survey data from African Americans and Latinos aged ?18 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 250) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention at 4 primary care clinics. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities captured the subcomponents of healthy eating, physical activity, blood sugar testing, foot care, and smoking. Correlates included patient-related attributes, biomedical/disease-related factors, and psychosocial constructs, with their multivariable influence assessed with a 3-step model building procedure using regression techniques. Results: Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age of 53 years (SD = 12.4); 69% female; 53% African American; 74% with incomes below $20,000; and 60% with less than a high school education. DSC performance levels were highest for foot care (4.5/7 days) and lowest for physical activity (2.5/7 days). Across racial/ethnic subgroups, diabetes-related distress was the strongest correlate for DSC when measured as a composite score. Psychosocial factors accounted for 14% to 33% of variance in self-care areas for both racial/ethnic groups. Patient characteristics were more salient correlates in Hispanic/Latinos when examining the self-care subscales, particularly those requiring monetary resources. Conclusions: Important information is provided on specific DSC patterns in a sample of ethnic/racial minorities with Type 2 diabetes. Significant correlates found may help with identification and intervention of patients who may benefit from strategies to increase self-care adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364373

Hernandez, Rosalba; Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B; Wang, Yamin; Chavez, Noel; Quinn, Lauretta T; Gerber, Ben S; Choi, Young-Ku

2014-07-01

473

Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization.  

PubMed

Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the maintenance of these positive self-views. In this paper, we evaluate these arguments using data drawn from a panel study of socio-economically diverse African American adolescent girls living in Iowa and Georgia. We analyze the relationship between body size and social self-image over three waves of data, starting when the girls were 10 years of age and concluding when they were approximately 14. We find that heavier respondents hold less positive social self-images but also find that being raised in a family that practices racial socialization moderates this relationship. PMID:20161575

Granberg, Ellen M; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L

2009-12-01

474

RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF AFRICAN AMERICAN AND HISPANIC GIRLS AND WOMEN IN RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

Recruiting women and girls into research studies, especially minority women, continues to be a major challenge that impacts health policy and delivery systems. This paper discusses various strategies to recruit and retain African American and Hispanic girls and women in studies. Strategies for successful recruitment focus on trust, familiarity and visibility, racial and ethnic similarities, environmental context, and convenience. Retention strategies include issues of transportation, language, literacy, cultural appropriateness, safety, flexibility, incentives, communication, and veracity. All strategies assist in meeting the challenge of engaging minority women in research to decrease health disparities.

Wallace, Debra C.; Bartlett, Robin

2014-01-01

475

Recruitment and retention of African American and Hispanic girls and women in research.  

PubMed

Recruiting women and girls into research studies, especially minority women, continues to be a major challenge that impacts health policy and delivery systems. This article discusses various strategies to recruit and retain African American and Hispanic girls and women in studies. Strategies for successful recruitment focus on trust, familiarity and visibility, racial and ethnic similarities, environmental context, and convenience. Retention strategies include issues of transportation, language, literacy, cultural appropriateness, safety, flexibility, incentives, communication, and veracity. All strategies assist in meeting the challenge of engaging minority women in research to decrease health disparities. PMID:23452110

Wallace, Debra C; Bartlett, Robin

2013-03-01

476

Evaluation of genetic susceptibility to childhood allergy and asthma in an African American urban population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Asthma and allergy represent complex phenotypes, which disproportionately burden ethnic minorities in the United States. Strong\\u000a evidence for genomic factors predisposing subjects to asthma\\/allergy is available. However, methods to utilize this information\\u000a to identify high risk groups are variable and replication of genetic associations in African Americans is warranted.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We evaluated 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and a deletion corresponding

Bonnie R Joubert; David M Reif; Stephen W Edwards; Kevin A Leiner; Edward E Hudgens; Peter Egeghy; Jane E Gallagher; Elaine Cohen Hubal

2011-01-01

477

Relationships Between IGF-I and IGFBP-I and Adiposity in Obese African American and Latino Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine interrelationships between IGF-I, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and adiposity in 49 African American and 77 Latino obese adolescents (15.3±0.1 and 15.4±0.2 yr; body mass index: 33.0±0.7 and 35.0±1.0 kg/m2, respectively). Immunoradiometric assays were used to measure IGF-I, IGFBP-I, and IGFBP-3. Total fat and soft lean tissue were measured by DEXA and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) were measured by MRI. IGF-I levels were 23.1% higher and IGFBP-I were 40.4% higher in African Americans compared to Latinos after adjustment for total lean and total fat mass. IGF-I and IGFBP-I were inversely correlated with BMI, total fat mass, VAT, and HFF (r = ?0.20 to ?0.33, p<0.05) while IGFBP-I was inversely correlated with SAAT (r = ?0.22, p<0.05). These relationships did not differ by ethnicity, however, the relationship between IGF-I and SAAT, as well as IGFBP-I and HFF, differed by ethnicity. Predicted mean IGF-I levels were 30.7% higher for African Americans at the 75th compared to 25th percentile of SAAT and only 11.7% higher for Latinos. Predicted mean IGFBP-I levels were 158% higher for African Americans at the 25th compared to the 75th percentile of HFF while IGFBP-I levels were 1.7% higher for Latinos at the 75th compared to the 25th percentile. These results demonstrate that the relationship between IGF-I and SAAT as well as IGFBP-I and HFF are different in African American and Latino adolescents and may contribute to the higher IGF-I levels in African Americans.

Alderete, Tanya L.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Conti, David V.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

2011-01-01

478

Disadvantages in mental health care among African Americans.  

PubMed

African Americans experience mental health disadvantages relative to European Americans with respect to financial barriers, barriers to help seeking, and poorer quality services. This paper provides an overview of these mental health inequalities, and offers recommendations for addressing them. PMID:19711490

Holden, Kisha Braithwaite; Xanthos, Clare

2009-05-01