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Sample records for african buffalos inferred

  1. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  2. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    PubMed

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  3. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. PMID:25985909

  4. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  5. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae. PMID:23957274

  6. Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-David, S.; Bar-David, I.; Cross, P.C.; Ryan, S.J.; Knechtel, C.U.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus coffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973

  8. A new species of trichostrongyloid in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Artiodactyla: Bovinae) from Uganda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africanastrongylus giganticus n. sp. is described based on large ostertagiine nematodes occurring in the abomasum of African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, from Uganda; this represents the second species recognized in the genus. Specimens of A. giganticus are characterized by large size (15-19 mm in tot...

  9. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H

    2005-06-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever. PMID:16137132

  10. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  11. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  12. Phylogeny of Theileria buffeli genotypes identified in the South African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2014-08-29

    Theileria buffeli/orientalis is a group of benign and mildly pathogenic species of cattle and buffalo in various parts of the world. In a previous study, we identified T. buffeli in blood samples originating from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Park (HIP) and the Addo Elephant Game Park (AEGP) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to characterise the 18S rRNA gene and complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region of T. buffeli samples, and to establish the phylogenetic position of this species based on these loci. The 18S rRNA gene and the complete ITS region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples originating from buffalo in HIP and AEGP. The PCR products were cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. We identified novel T. buffeli-like 18S rRNA and ITS genotypes from buffalo in the AEGP, and novel Theileria sinensis-like 18S rRNA genotypes from buffalo in the HIP. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the T. buffeli-like sequences were similar to T. buffeli sequences from cattle and buffalo in China and India, and the T. sinensis-like sequences were similar to T. sinensis 18S rRNA sequences of cattle and yak in China. There was extensive sequence variation between the novel T. buffeli genotypes of the African buffalo and previously described T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes. The presence of organisms with T. buffeli-like and T. sinensis-like genotypes in the African buffalo could be of significant importance, particularly to the cattle industry in South Africa as these animals might act as sources of infections to naïve cattle. This is the first report on the characterisation of the full-length 18S rRNA gene and ITS region of T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes in South Africa. Our study provides invaluable information towards the classification of this complex group of benign and mildly pathogenic species. PMID:25002308

  13. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373

  14. Seroprevalence of Leptospira hardjo in cattle and African buffalos in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Animal Health Organization in animals or humans in Uganda. However, favorable ecological conditions and suitable animal hosts can be found within the country. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kit was used to screen sera samples from domesticated cattle and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at two locations in southwestern Uganda, collected over a 4-year period. Positive samples were found in both cattle and African buffalo samples, from both locations and across the sampling period. Overall seroprevalence was 42.39% in African buffalo and 29.35% in cattle. PMID:24323512

  15. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  16. Evaluation of hematologic values in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Jolles, A E; Ezenwa, V O

    2009-01-01

    As part of a large-scale disease screening program, blood samples were collected from 534 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa's Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in October 2005 and May 2006 to establish age- and sex-specific reference intervals for erythrogram and leukogram values. Sixty-seven of the animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB), allowing for comparisons between TB-positive and TB-negative groups. Positive animals had basopenia and slight lymphopenia compared to TB-negative animals. Blood values were compared to those reported for captive African buffalo, American bison (Bos bison), and cattle (Bos taurus). The free-ranging buffalo sampled in this study had higher white blood cell counts than captive buffalo, and this difference was driven by lymphocytes. Free-ranging buffalo also had higher red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell counts, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and lower mean corpuscular volume (MCV) than cattle. Demographic and environmental factors strongly affected hematologic values in the study population. Older animals had significantly higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), while younger animals had a higher red blood cell count, red cell distribution width (RDW), and white blood cell count, which was due to lymphocytes and basophils. Females had a higher hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and basophils than males. At the end of the wet season, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, MCHC, RDW, white blood cell count, and neutrophils were all significantly higher, while basophils and MCV were lower, than at the end of the dry season. Our results emphasize the need to use species-specific data when interpreting hematologic values and point to important differences in hematology between captive and free-ranging animals of the same species. Strong variability in hematologic values with animal age and sex, season, and herd

  17. Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Winnie, John A; Cross, Paul; Getz, Wayne

    2008-05-01

    Top-down effects of predators on prey behavior and population dynamics have been extensively studied. However, some populations of very large herbivores appear to be regulated primarily from the bottom up. Given the importance of food resources to these large herbivores, it is reasonable to expect that forage heterogeneity (variation in quality and quantity) affects individual and group behaviors as well as distribution on the landscape. Forage heterogeneity is often strongly driven by underlying soils, so substrate characteristics may indirectly drive herbivore behavior and distribution. Forage heterogeneity may further interact with predation risk to influence prey behavior and distribution. Here we examine differences in spatial distribution, home range size, and grouping behaviors of African buffalo as they relate to geologic substrate (granite and basalt) and variation in food quality and quantity. In this study, we use satellite imagery, forage quantity data, and three years of radio-tracking data to assess how forage quality, quantity, and heterogeneity affect the distribution and individual and herd behavior of African buffalo. We found that buffalo in an overall poorer foraging environment keyed-in on exceptionally high-quality areas, whereas those foraging in a more uniform, higher-quality area used areas of below-average quality. Buffalo foraging in the poorer-quality environment had smaller home range sizes, were in smaller groups, and tended to be farther from water sources than those foraging in the higher-quality environment. These differences may be due to buffalo creating or maintaining nutrient hotspots (small, high-quality foraging areas) in otherwise low-quality foraging areas, and the location of these hotspots may in part be determined by patterns of predation risk. PMID:18543637

  18. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosing brucellosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Gorsich, Erin E; Bengis, Roy G; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease of veterinary and public health importance worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, where the bacterium Brucella abortus has been identified in several free-ranging wildlife species, successful disease control may be dependent on accurate detection in wildlife reservoirs, including African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (IDEXX Brucellosis Serum Ab test, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) for B. abortus based on a data set of 571 serum samples from 258 buffalo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We defined a pseudogold standard test result as those buffalo that were consistently positive or negative on two additional serologic tests, namely, the rose bengal test (RBT) and the complement fixation test (CFT). The ELISA's cutoff value was selected using receiver operating characteristics analysis, the pseudogold standard, and a threshold criterion that maximizes the total sensitivity and specificity. Then, we estimated the sensitivity and specificity of all three tests using Bayesian inference and latent class analysis. The ELISA had an estimated sensitivity of 0.928 (95% Bayesian posterior credibility interval [95% BCI] = 0.869-0.974) and specificity of 0.870 (95% BCI = 0.836-0.900). Compared with the ELISA, the RBT had a higher estimated sensitivity of 0.986 (95% BCI = 0.928-0.999), and both the RBT and CFT had higher specificities, estimated to be 0.992 (95% BCI = 0.971-0.996) and 0.998 (95% BCI = 0.992-0.999), respectively. Therefore, no single serologic test perfectly detected the antibody. However, after adjustment of cutoff values for South African conditions, the IDEXX Brucellosis Serum Ab Test may be a valuable additional screening test for brucellosis in Kruger National Park's African buffalo. PMID:25397998

  19. Effects of chemical immobilization on survival of African buffalo in the Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oosthuizen, W.C.; Cross, P.C.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M.R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.

  20. Sarcocystis cafferi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lane, Emily P; van Wilpe, Erna; Suleman, Essa; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Verma, S K; Rosenthal, B M; Mtshali, Moses S

    2014-12-01

    Sarcocystis infections have been reported from the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ), but the species have not been named. Here we propose a new name Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo. Histological examination of heart (92), skeletal muscle (36), and tongue (2) sections from 94 buffalos from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa, and a review of the literature revealed only 1 species of Sarcocystis in the African buffalo. Macrocysts were up to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide and were located in the neck muscles and overlying connective tissue. They were pale yellow; shaped like a lychee fruit stone or cashew nut; turgid or flaccid and oval to round (not fusiform). By light microscopy (LM) the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped villar protrusions (vp) that were of different sizes and folded over the sarcocyst wall. The entire surfaces of vp were covered with papillomatous structures. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was up to 3.6 μm thick and had highly branched villar protrusions that were up to 3 μm long. The villar projections contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections, but some tubules criss-crossed, especially at the base. Granules were absent from these tubules. Longitudinally cut bradyzoites were 12.1 × 2.7 μm in size, had a long convoluted mitochondrion, and only 2 rhoptries. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences indicated that this Sarcocystis species is very closely related to, but distinct from, Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Thus, morphological findings by LM, SEM, and TEM together with molecular phylogenetic data (from 18S rRNA and cox1) confirm that the Sarcocystis species in the African buffalo is distinct from S. fusiformis and has therefore been named Sarcocystis

  1. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  2. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos

  3. Critical and Demographic Effective Population Size of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aremu, O. T.; Onadeko, S. A.; Ola-Adams, B. A.; Inah, E. I.

    Effective population size of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) was estimated using Franklin and Frankham model. Buffalo relative abundance was calculated using a 4x4 km transect constructed in each of the identified six vegetation communities in the Park, which were traversed once a month for a period of 24 months. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Buffalo in the Park was 0.372±0.03 groups km-2 consisting of 51±5.827 groups representing 242±16.309 individuals which consist of 30 adult males and 70 adult females representing 12.40 and 28.93%, respectively of the total Buffalo population in the Park which was considered to be the effective breeding population size. The composition of the population structure was significantly different (p< 0.05). The effective population size of Buffalo in the Park was estimated to be 581.34±4.91 which was above the recommended value of 100 which shows that the Buffalo population in the Park was not threatened by demographic stochasticity factors but rather by illegal human activities in the Park. Measures to improve conservation and management of the existing Buffalo population in the Park are also discussed.

  4. Antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewals, Benjamin; Gillet, Laurent; Gerdes, Truuske; Taracha, Evans L N; Thiry, Etienne; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2005-10-31

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-BoHV-4 antibodies [Rossiter, P.B., Gumm, I.D., Stagg, D.A., Conrad, P.A., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F.G., White, H., 1989. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337-343]. These authors also proposed that the serological antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) could confer to BoHV-4 infected buffaloes a protective immune response against lethal AlHV-1 infection. In the present study, we addressed two questions related to Rossiter et al. paper. Firstly, to investigate the role of the African buffalo as a natural host species of BoHV-4, the seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies was analysed in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa. A total of 400 sera was analysed using two complementary immunofluorescent assays. These analyses revealed that independently of their geographical origin, wild African buffaloes exhibit a seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies higher than 68%. This result is by far above the seroprevalence generally observed in cattle. Our data are discussed in the light of our recent phylogenetic study demonstrating that the BoHV-4 Bo17 gene has been acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo. Secondly, we investigated the humoral antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and AlHV-1. Our results demonstrate that among the antigens expressed in AlHV-1 infected cells, epitope(s) recognised by anti-BoHV-4 antibodies are exclusively nuclear, suggesting that the putative property of BoHV-4 to confer an immune protection against AlHV-1 relies on a cellular rather than on a humoral immune response. PMID:16153785

  5. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Brian; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Troskie, Milana; Gorsich, Erin; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Beechler, Brianna R; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. This 4-year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR-based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (i) effects of co-infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (ii) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). We found that within guild co-infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across-guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co-infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. PMID:27084785

  6. Disentangling association patterns in fission-fusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Getz, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare the conclusions resulting from traditional methods with those of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach suggested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four different ‘herds’ with adult males only peripherally associated with mixed herds. Our FDI method indicated that association decisions of adult males appeared random, but those of other sex and age categories were nonrandom, particularly when we included the fission events associated with adult males. Furthermore, the amount of time that individuals spent together was only weakly correlated with their propensity to remain together during fission events. We conclude with a discussion of the applicability of the FDI to other studies.

  7. AN EXPLORATION OF DIVERSITY AMONG THE OSTERTAGIINAE: AFRICANASTRONGYLUS BUCEROS GEN. NOV. ET SP. NOV. (NEMATODA: TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA) IN AFRICAN BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abomasal nematodes (Ostertagiine: Trichostrongyloidea) representing a previously unrecognized genus and species are reported in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) from Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. Africanastrongylus buceros gen. nov. et sp. nov. is characterized by a symmetrical tapering ...

  8. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-06-01

    The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species. PMID:22834371

  10. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347

  11. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P < 0·0001), and infection was associated with a 2·0 (95% CI = 1·1-3·7) fold increase in mortality (χ(2)  = 2·039, P = 0·036). Buffalo in low body condition were associated with lower reproductive success (F = 2·683, P = 0·034), but there was no association between brucellosis and pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was λ = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and λ = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25714466

  12. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  13. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  14. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2016-06-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas

  15. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Manore, C A; Reininghaus, B; O'Neal, D; Gorsich, E E; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-04-22

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB- buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  16. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Beechler, B. R.; Manore, C. A.; Reininghaus, B.; O'Neal, D.; Gorsich, E. E.; Ezenwa, V. O.; Jolles, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB− buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  17. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species☆

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  18. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2013-12-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. PMID:24479882

  20. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  1. Infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) by oryx bacillus, a rare member of the antelope clade of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Perrett, Keith D; Michel, Anita L; Keet, Dewald F; Hlokwe, Tiny; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species cause tuberculosis disease in animals and humans. Although they share 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level, several host-adapted ecotypes of the tubercule bacilli have been identified. In the wildlife setting, probably the most well-known member of this complex is Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. The recently described oryx bacillus is an extremely rare slow-growing member of the antelope clade of the M. tuberculosis complex and is closely related to the dassie bacillus, Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium microti. The antelope clade is a group of strains apparently host adapted to antelopes, as most described infections were associated with deer and antelope, most specifically the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). In this study, oryx bacillus was isolated from a free-ranging adult female African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), in good physical condition, which tested strongly positive on three consecutive comparative intradermal tuberculin tests. Upon necropsy, a single pulmonary granuloma and an active retropharyngeal lymph node was found. Comprehensive molecular genetic assays were performed, which confirmed that the causative microorganism was not M. bovis but oryx bacillus. Oryx bacillus has never been reported in Southern Africa and has never been found to infect African buffalo. The identification of this microorganism in buffalo is an important observation in view of the large and ever-increasing epidemic of the closely related M. tuberculosis complex species M. bovis in some African buffalo populations in South Africa. PMID:23060486

  2. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  3. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  4. Field application of immunoassays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, E M D L; Jenkins, A O; Cooper, D V; Rutten, V P M G; Michel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered the most important maintenance host of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife in Southern Africa. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). As an alternative, the BOVIGAM® 1G, an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, is frequently used. The test performance of cell-mediated immunity (CMI-) and humoral immunity (HI-) based assays for the detection of M. bovis infections in buffaloes was compared to identify the test or test combination that provided the highest sensitivity in the study. Buffaloes were sampled during the annual BTB SICTT testing in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi-Park (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) during June 2013. A total of 35 animals were subjected to the SICTT, 13 of these tested positive and one showed an inconclusive reaction. CMI-based assays (BOVIGAM® 1G (B1G) and BOVIGAM® 2G (B2G)) as well as a serological assay (IDEXX TB ELISA) were used to further investigate and compare immune responsiveness. Thirteen SICTT positive buffaloes and one inconclusive reactor were slaughtered and a post-mortem (PM) examination was conducted to confirm BTB. Lesions characteristic of BTB were found in 8/14 animals (57.1%). Test results of individual assays were compared with serial and parallel test interpretation and the sensitivity was calculated as a percentage of test positives out of the number of SICTT positive animals with granulomatous lesions (relative sensitivity). The B1G assay showed the highest individual sensitivity (100%; 8/8) followed by the B2G assay (75%; 6/8) and the IDEXX TB ELISA (37.5%; 3/8). Therefore, using in parallel interpretation, any combination with the B1G showed a sensitivity of 100% (8/8), whereas combinations with the B2G showed a 75% sensitivity (6/8). Out of the 21 SICTT negative animals, 7 animals showed responsiveness in the B2G or IDEXX TB ELISA. In conclusion, this study has shown

  5. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  6. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence < 5%) depends upon the duration that a vaccine grants protection. Vaccination programs are more efficient (i.e. fewer wasted doses) when they focus on younger individuals. However, even with a lifelong vaccine and a closed population, the model suggests that >70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  7. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  8. Continuous Age-Structured Model for Bovine Tuberculosis in African buffalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Kojouharov, H.

    2009-10-01

    The paper deals with a model of the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the buffalo population in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The model uses continuous age structure and it is formulated in terms of partial differential equations using eight epidemiological classes (compartments). More precisely, the age density for each class at time t satisfies a one way wave equation, where the age is the space variable. The continuous age model discussed here is derived from a 2006 age groups model by P. C. Cross and W. M. Getz.

  9. Genetic differentiation of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations in China, Nepal and south-east Asia: inferences on the region of domestication of the swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Vankan, D; Zhang, Y; Barker, J S F

    2011-08-01

    Data from three published studies of genetic variation at 18 microsatellite loci in water buffalo populations in China (18 swamp type, two river type), Nepal (one wild, one domestic river, one hybrid) and south-east Asia (eight swamp, three river) were combined so as to gain a broader understanding of genetic relationships among the populations and their demographic history. Mean numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities were significantly different among populations. Estimates of θ (a measure of population differentiation) were significant among the swamp populations for all loci and among the river populations for most loci. Differentiation among the Chinese swamp populations (which was due primarily to just one population) was much less than among the south-east Asian. The Nepal wild animals, phenotypically swamp type but genetically like river type, are significantly different from all the domestic river populations and presumably represent the ancestral Bubalus arnee (possibly with some river-type introgression). Relationships among the swamp populations (D(A) genetic distances, principal component analysis and structure analyses) show the south-east Asian populations separated into two groups by the Chinese populations. Given these relationships and the patterns of genetic variability, we postulate that the swamp buffalo was domesticated in the region of the far south of China, northern Thailand and Indochina. Following domestication, it spread south through peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, and north through China, and then to Taiwan, the Philippines and Borneo. PMID:21749419

  10. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around

  11. Multiple uplift phases inferred from the Southwest African Atlantic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Dressel, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The South Atlantic basins offshore Namibia and South Africa stored more than 10 km thick sedimentary successions that are separated by major unconformities into several sequences. These sedimentary units rest on a thinned continental crust of a magmatic passive margin. Using a 3D forward modelling approach considering flexural compensation of a rheologically differentiated lithosphere in response to sedimentary loading after stretching on one hand and the thermal feed-back between cooling of the stretched lithosphere and insulating sediments on the other hand we derive quantitative estimates on how vertical movements have influenced the margin after stretching. The approach combines the consideration of observations on sediment configuration as well as on crustal thickness (ß-factor) with the process of lithosphere thinning and subsequent thermal re-equilibration. These estimates are conservative estimates as they are based on the preserved sediments only whereas eroded sediments are not considered. Nevertheless, the approach considers thermo-mechanical coupling in 3D and both initial conditions as well as sedimentary history are constrained by observations. Specific effects include the delayed thermal re-equilibration of the thinned lithosphere due to deposition of insulating sediments and the related thermal feedback on lithosphere rheology and therefore on the flexural response to sediment loading. Our results indicate that in addition to predominantly continuous subsidence also phases of uplift have affected the southwestern African margin during the syn-rift and post-rift evolution. The spatio-temporal variation of vertical movements is controlled by the amount of initial thinning of the lithosphere, the variation of rheological characteristics (lithology and temperature) but also by the distribution of sediment supply (loading and thermal insulation).

  12. Transformation of Theileria parva derived from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) by tick passage in cattle and its use in infection and treatment immunization.

    PubMed

    Maritim, A C; Young, A S; Lesan, A C; Ndungu, S G; Stagg, D A; Ngumi, P N

    1992-06-01

    A sporozoite stabilate (St. 199) of Theileria parva was obtained by feeding nymphal Rhipicephalus appendiculatus on an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and was used to immunize cattle by the infection and treatment method. Nymphal ticks were applied to one of the steers 90 days later and it was shown that the resultant adult tick had become infected. Using tick/cattle passage, two passage lines of T. parva were established. By the fifth tick/cattle passage, the parasite stocks had changed their behaviour to that of T. parva derived from cattle as the parasite produced relatively high schizont parasitosis and piroplasm parasitaemia in cattle, and had become highly infective to ticks. At various passage levels the parasite populations were characterized by behaviour and by monoclonal antibodies against T. parva schizonts using infected cell culture isolates from cattle during acute infections. The monoclonal antibody profile showed little evidence of antigen change of the parasite during passage through cattle, which was confirmed in a two-way cross-immunity experiment using sporozoite stabilate derived from ticks obtained from the buffalo and fourth passage in cattle. The implication of these results, particularly in relationship to immunization of cattle against T. parva derived from buffalo, is discussed. PMID:1496792

  13. IP-10 Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Antigen Recognition in Whole-Blood Stimulation Assays Used for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; Cooper, David; Miller, Michele A; van Helden, Paul D; Parsons, Sven D C

    2015-08-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. They act as reservoirs of this infection for a wide range of wildlife and domestic species, and the detection of infected animals is important to control the geographic spread and transmission of the disease. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) utilizing pathogen-derived peptide antigens are highly specific tests of M. bovis infection; however, the diagnostic sensitivities of these assays are suboptimal. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of measuring antigen-dependent interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) release as an alternative to measuring IFN-γ levels. M. bovis-exposed buffaloes were tested using the Bovigam PC-EC and Bovigam PC-HP assays and a modified QuantiFERON TB-Gold (mQFT) assay. IP-10 was measured in the harvested plasma and was produced in significantly greater abundance in response to M. bovis antigens in Bovigam-positive than in Bovigam-negative animals. For each assay, using the Bovigam results as a reference, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to determine diagnostically relevant cutoff values for IP-10. Thereafter, mQFT test results derived from measurement of IP-10 and IFN-γ were compared and a larger number of Bovigam-positive animals were detected using IP-10 as a diagnostic marker. Moreover, using IP-10, agreement between the mQFT assay and the Bovigam assays was increased, while the excellent agreement between the Bovigam assays was retained. We conclude that IP-10 is a sensitive marker of antigen recognition and that measurement of this cytokine in antigen-stimulated whole blood might increase the sensitivity of conventional IGRAs in African buffaloes. PMID:26108287

  14. IP-10 Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Antigen Recognition in Whole-Blood Stimulation Assays Used for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Goosen, Wynand J.; Cooper, David; Miller, Michele A.; van Helden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. They act as reservoirs of this infection for a wide range of wildlife and domestic species, and the detection of infected animals is important to control the geographic spread and transmission of the disease. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) utilizing pathogen-derived peptide antigens are highly specific tests of M. bovis infection; however, the diagnostic sensitivities of these assays are suboptimal. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of measuring antigen-dependent interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) release as an alternative to measuring IFN-γ levels. M. bovis-exposed buffaloes were tested using the Bovigam PC-EC and Bovigam PC-HP assays and a modified QuantiFERON TB-Gold (mQFT) assay. IP-10 was measured in the harvested plasma and was produced in significantly greater abundance in response to M. bovis antigens in Bovigam-positive than in Bovigam-negative animals. For each assay, using the Bovigam results as a reference, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to determine diagnostically relevant cutoff values for IP-10. Thereafter, mQFT test results derived from measurement of IP-10 and IFN-γ were compared and a larger number of Bovigam-positive animals were detected using IP-10 as a diagnostic marker. Moreover, using IP-10, agreement between the mQFT assay and the Bovigam assays was increased, while the excellent agreement between the Bovigam assays was retained. We conclude that IP-10 is a sensitive marker of antigen recognition and that measurement of this cytokine in antigen-stimulated whole blood might increase the sensitivity of conventional IGRAs in African buffaloes. PMID:26108287

  15. African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) use inference by exclusion to find hidden food

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasch, Sandra; Kotrschal, Kurt; Schloegl, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Exclusion allows the detection of hidden food when confronted with the choice between an empty and a potentially baited food location. However, exclusion may be based on avoidance of the empty location without drawing inferences about the presence of the food in the baited location. So far, such inferences have been demonstrated in the great apes only: after seeing an experimenter eating one of two food types, which both had been hidden previously in two boxes, the apes were able to choose the box that still contained the other food type. African grey parrots are capable of exclusion, and we here assessed if they are capable of inference by exclusion. In our task, two different but equally preferred food items were hidden in full view of the birds under two opaque cups. Then, an experimenter secretly removed one food type and showed it to the bird. Similarly to the apes, one out of seven parrots significantly preferred the baited cup; control conditions rule out that its choice was based on associative learning or the use of olfactory cues. Thus, we conclude that—like the apes—some grey parrots are able to infer the location of a hidden food reward. PMID:21697165

  16. The stability of plasma IP-10 enhances its utility for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M; Miller, Michele A; Parsons, Sven D C

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) in antigen-stimulated whole blood is a sensitive biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). However, this species often occurs in remote locations and diagnostic samples must be transported to centralised laboratories for processing. In humans, plasma IP-10 is highly stable and this feature contributes to its diagnostic utility; for this reason we aimed to characterize the stability of this molecule in buffaloes. Blood from M. bovis-infected and -uninfected animals was incubated with pathogen-specific peptides, saline and phytohaemagglutinin, respectively. Plasma fractions were harvested and aliquots of selected samples were: (i) stored at different temperatures for various times; (ii) heat treated before storage at RT, and (iii) stored on Protein Saver Cards (PSCs) at RT for either 2 or 8 weeks before measurement of IP-10. Incubation of plasma at 65°C for 20min caused no loss of IP-10 and this protein could be quantified in plasma stored on PSCs for 2 and 8 weeks. Moreover, for all storage conditions, IP-10 retained its excellent diagnostic characteristics. These features of IP-10 might allow for the heat inactivation of potentially infectious plasma which would facilitate the safe and simple transport of samples. PMID:27090621

  17. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86). Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p < 0.000, n = 86) at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77). It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation. PMID:20515454

  18. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3-7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8-19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  19. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3–7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8–19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife–livestock–human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  20. Inference and forecast of the current west african ebola outbreak in Guinea, sierra leone and liberia.

    PubMed

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Yang, Wan; Kandula, Sasikiran

    2014-01-01

    The current West African Ebola outbreak poses an unprecedented public health challenge for the world at large. The response of the global community to the epidemic, including deployment of nurses, doctors, epidemiologists, beds, supplies and security, is shaped by our understanding of the spatial-temporal extent and progression of the disease. Ongoing evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics and future course of the Ebola outbreak is needed to stay abreast of any changes to its transmission dynamics, as well as the success or failure of intervention efforts. Here we use observations, dynamic modeling and Bayesian inference to generate simulations and weekly forecasts of the outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Estimates of key epidemiological characteristics over time indicate continued epidemic growth in West Africa, though there is some evidence of slowing growth in Liberia. 6-week forecasts over successive weeks corroborate these findings; forecasts projecting no future change in intervention efficacy have been more accurate for Guinea and Sierra Leone, but have overestimated incidence and mortality for Liberia. PMID:25642378

  1. Working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history

    PubMed Central

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Soi, Sameer; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Africa is the origin of modern humans, the pattern and distribution of genetic variation and correlations with cultural and linguistic diversity in Africa have been understudied. Recent advances in genomic technology, however, have led to genomewide studies of African samples. In this article, we discuss genetic variation in African populations contextualized with what is known about archaeological and linguistic variation. What emerges from this review is the importance of using independent lines of evidence in the interpretation of genetic and genomic data in the reconstruction of past population histories. PMID:20445100

  2. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Simon J.; Bristow, Charlie S.; Drake, Nick A.

    2015-01-01

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world’s greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  3. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Simon J; Bristow, Charlie S; Drake, Nick A

    2015-07-14

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼ 15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼ 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world's greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  4. Domestication history and geographical adaptation inferred from a SNP map of African rice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rachel S; Choi, Jae Young; Sanches, Michelle; Plessis, Anne; Flowers, Jonathan M; Amas, Junrey; Dorph, Katherine; Barretto, Annie; Gross, Briana; Fuller, Dorian Q; Bimpong, Isaac Kofi; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Gregorio, Glenn B; Purugganan, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) is a cereal crop species closely related to Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but was independently domesticated in West Africa ∼3,000 years ago. African rice is rarely grown outside sub-Saharan Africa but is of global interest because of its tolerance to abiotic stresses. Here we describe a map of 2.32 million SNPs of African rice from whole-genome resequencing of 93 landraces. Population genomic analysis shows a population bottleneck in this species that began ∼13,000-15,000 years ago with effective population size reaching its minimum value ∼3,500 years ago, suggesting a protracted period of population size reduction likely commencing with predomestication management and/or cultivation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for six salt tolerance traits identify 11 significant loci, 4 of which are within ∼300 kb of genomic regions that possess signatures of positive selection, suggesting adaptive geographical divergence for salt tolerance in this species. PMID:27500524

  5. Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner; Courtenay, Simon C

    2013-03-01

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies. PMID:22752811

  6. Dietary adaptations of South African australopiths: inference from enamel prism attitude.

    PubMed

    Macho, Gabriele A; Shimizu, Daisuke

    2009-09-01

    The angle at which enamel prisms approach the wear surface holds information with regard to the stiffness of the tissue, as well as its wear resistance. Hence, analyses of prism orientation may shed light on questions of whether the thick enamel in hominins has evolved to confer stiffness or wear resistance to the teeth and may thus inform about the diet and behavioural ecology of these species. This was explored for Paranthropus robustus and Australopithecus africanus, whereby a distinction was made between prisms at the Phase I and Phase II facets. The results were compared with those obtained for Theropithecus, Macaca, and Potamochoerus for whom behavioural and/or experimental data are available, and were interpreted against simple mechanical principles. The South African hominins differ significantly in their relationships between wear facets and prism angulations. Teeth of P. robustus are better adapted to more vertical loads during mastication (Phase I), whereas those of A. africanus are better adapted to cope with more laterally-directed loads (Phase II) commonly associated with roll-crush and mastication. Overall, teeth of P. robustus appear stiffer, while those of A. africanus seem more wear resistant. PMID:19660781

  7. Inferring Plio-Pleistocene southern African biochronology from facial affinities in Parapapio and other fossil papionins.

    PubMed

    Williams, F L; Ackermann, R R; Leigh, S R

    2007-02-01

    Buried in the same South African cave deposits as Australopithecus, fossil papionins have been referred to Parapapio (Pp. whitei, Pp. broomi, Pp. jonesi, Pp. antiquus), Papio (P. izodi, P. angusticeps, P. h. robinsoni), Theropithecus (e.g., T. darti), Gorgopithecus, or Dinopithecus on the basis of postcanine tooth size and descriptive morphology of the muzzle. The morphological patterns of variation that these papionins demonstrate can help to place the Australopithecus fossils into a biochronological context and provide valuable information for reconstructing regional Plio-Pleistocene turnover. To document these patterns of variation across fossil-bearing sites, we explore morphometric affinities within Parapapio, and between Parapapio and other Plio-Pleistocene taxa (Dinopithecus ingens, Papio angusticeps, Papio izodi, and Theropithecus darti) by analyzing a sample of interlandmark distances derived from 3-D coordinate data of the most complete fossil papionin specimens available. Bivariate and multivariate analyses show that Pp. whitei exhibits as much variation between sites and between individuals as Pp. broomi and Pp. whitei combined. Diversity in Parapapio at Makapansgat and Sterkfontein may suggest substantial time depth to the caves. Theropithecus darti, Dinopithecus ingens, Papio angusticeps, Pp. whitei from Bolt's Farm (BF 43), and Pp. jonesi from Sterkfontein (STS 565) differ considerably from one another. Other Parapapio specimens across sites form a separate cluster with P. izodi from Taung, suggesting a Pliocene age for this site. PMID:17078038

  8. Evolutionary systematics in African gerbilline rodents of the genus Gerbilliscus: inference from mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Paolo; Granjon, Laurent; Taylor, Peter J; Corti, Marco

    2007-03-01

    Gerbilliscus has recently been proposed as an endemic African rodent genus distinct from the Asian Tatera. A molecular phylogeny of the genus, including nine species from southern, western and eastern Africa, is presented here based on the analysis of the cytochrome b and 16S mitochondrial genes. With an adequate taxonomic sampling over a wide geographic range, we here provide a clear picture of the phylogenetic relationships between species and species groups in this genus. Three distinct clades were resolved, corresponding to major geographical subdivisions: an eastern clade that possibly diverged first, then a southern and a western clades which appeared later. We suggest two possible hypotheses concerning the dispersal of the genus across Africa, considering also the patterns of karyotypic variation. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic status of G. gambianus and the relationships between Gerbillurus and Gerbilliscus, as previous studies have suggested that the former should be included in the latter. Our data seem to support the synonymy of the two taxa and suggest that Gerbillurus and Gerbilliscus lineages diverged from a common ancestor appeared in eastern Africa. PMID:17113792

  9. Radiation of southern African daisies: biogeographic inferences for subtribe Arctotidinae (Asteraceae, Arctotideae).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Robert J; Barker, Nigel P

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the approximately 80-90 species in subtribe Arctotidinae occur in southern Africa with the centre of diversity in the winter-rainfall region. Three species are restricted to afromontane eastern Africa and three species are endemic to Australia. To investigate biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships within Arctotidinae, sequence data from four cpDNA regions (psbA-trnH, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF spacers and trnL intron) and the ITS nrDNA region for 59 Arctotidinae species were analyzed with parsimony and Bayesian-inference approaches. Eight well-supported major lineages were resolved. The earliest-diverging extant lineages are afromontane or inhabit mesic habitats, whereas almost all sampled taxa from the winter-rainfall and semi-arid areas have diverged more recently. Molecular dating estimated that the major clades diverged during the Miocene and Pliocene, which is coincident with the trend of increasing rainfall seasonality, aridification and vegetation changes in southwestern Africa. Trans-oceanic dispersal to Australia was estimated to have occurred during the Pliocene. PMID:18675920

  10. Analysis of trend changes in Northern African palaeo-climate by using Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, Nadine; Trauth, Martin H.; Holschneider, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability of Northern Africa is of high interest due to climate-evolutionary linkages under study. The reconstruction of the palaeo-climate over long time scales, including the expected linkages (> 3 Ma), is mainly accessible by proxy data from deep sea drilling cores. By concentrating on published data sets, we try to decipher rhythms and trends to detect correlations between different proxy time series by advanced mathematical methods. Our preliminary data is dust concentration, as an indicator for climatic changes such as humidity, from the ODP sites 659, 721 and 967 situated around Northern Africa. Our interest is in challenging the available time series with advanced statistical methods to detect significant trend changes and to compare different model assumptions. For that purpose, we want to avoid the rescaling of the time axis to obtain equidistant time steps for filtering methods. Additionally we demand an plausible description of the errors for the estimated parameters, in terms of confidence intervals. Finally, depending on what model we restrict on, we also want an insight in the parameter structure of the assumed models. To gain this information, we focus on Bayesian inference by formulating the problem as a linear mixed model, so that the expectation and deviation are of linear structure. By using the Bayesian method we can formulate the posteriori density as a function of the model parameters and calculate this probability density in the parameter space. Depending which parameters are of interest, we analytically and numerically marginalize the posteriori with respect to the remaining parameters of less interest. We apply a simple linear mixed model to calculate the posteriori densities of the ODP sites 659 and 721 concerning the last 5 Ma at maximum. From preliminary calculations on these data sets, we can confirm results gained by the method of breakfit regression combined with block bootstrapping ([1]). We obtain a significant change

  11. A Buffalo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reville, Eugene T.

    The Buffalo Public Schools have developed magnet schools to aid desegregation plans and to provide for different student needs and learning styles. The Academic Challenge Center is designed to meet concerns about declining reading and math scores. The Buffalo Traditional School emphasizes traditional learning styles and puts a high priority on…

  12. Sensitivity of the African and Asian Monsoons to Mid-Holocene Insolation and Data-Inferred Surface Changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier, Delphine; de Noblet, Nathalie; Braconnot, Pascale

    2000-01-01

    Orbital forcing alone is not sufficient to explain the massive northward penetration of monsoon rains in Africa shown by data during the mid-Holocene (6000 yr ago). Feedbacks associated with changes in SSTs and land surface cover may be necessary to produce a sufficient increase in the monsoon. A step toward a better understanding of the respective role of oceans and land surfaces is to design sensitivity studies with prescribed forcings, inferred from observations. In the first study, SSTs are lowered in the upwelling regions offshore of West Africa and Somalia, and increased in the Bay of Bengal and South China Sea. In the second simulation, the modern Sahara desert is replaced by a combination of xerophytic woods/scrub and grassland.In both cases the amount of water vapor advected from oceanic sources is increased north of 10°N in Africa in response to the increased land-sea temperature contrast, thereby enhancing rainfall. But the magnitude of the simulated changes is much larger when land surface is modified. The lower albedo (compared to desert) increases the amount of radiation absorbed by the surface in northern Africa and warms it up, and the larger roughness length increases both the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Moreover, vegetation is more efficient in recycling water than a bare soil, and the release of latent heat in the atmosphere increases convection, which in turn helps maintain the onshore oceanic advection. The monsoon season is then lengthened by 1-2 months compared to all other simulations reported in the paper.The intensity of monsoon rains is also modified in Asia in both sensitivity experiments. Warmer SSTs in the Bay of Bengal and South China Sea reduce the land-sea contrast and therefore the inland penetration of monsoon rains. Changes in the position of the main large-scale convergence area in the case of a green Sahara enhances the precipitation in India.Changes are also discussed in terms of atmospheric circulation. For example, the

  13. Systematics and phylogeny of West African gerbils of the genus Gerbilliscus (Muridae: Gerbillinae) inferred from comparative G- and C-banding chromosomal analyses.

    PubMed

    Volobouev, V; Aniskin, V M; Sicard, B; Dobigny, G; Granjon, L

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the G- and C-banding patterns in six morphologically similar species of the genus Gerbilliscus(G. gambianus, G. guineae, G. kempi, Gerbilliscus sp., G. robustus and G. leucogaster) and one belonging to the genus Gerbillurus (G. tytonis) from 27 West, East and South African localities was carried out. Our study revealed that 17 rearrangements comprising seven fissions, five translocations and five inversions occurred in the evolution of this group, with 1-13 rearrangements differentiating the various species. In addition the unusually large sex chromosomes appear to be species-specific as judged by size and morphology reflecting structural rearrangements as well as the variable presence of a large amount of C-heterochromatin found in each species at a particular chromosomal location. These karyotypic features allow us to recognize five distinct species in West Africa (compared to the two recognized in recent taxonomic lists) and to roughly delimit their geographical distributions. The pattern of phylogenetic relationships inferred from a cladistic analysis of the chromosomal data is in good agreement with recent molecular phylogenetic studies that recognize a West African species group within the genus Gerbilliscus, and the monophyly of both Gerbilliscus and Gerbillurus. PMID:17431325

  14. Population history and gene dispersal inferred from spatial genetic structure of a Central African timber tree, Distemonanthus benthamianus (Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Debout, G D G; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2011-01-01

    African rainforests have undergone major distribution range shifts during the Quaternary, but few studies have investigated their impact on the genetic diversity of plant species and we lack knowledge on the extent of gene flow to predict how plant species can cope with such environmental changes. Analysis of the spatial genetic structure (SGS) of a species is an effective method to determine major directions of the demographic history of its populations and to estimate the extent of gene dispersal. This study characterises the SGS of an African tropical timber tree species, Distemonanthus benthamianus, at various spatial scales in Cameroon and Gabon. Displaying a large continuous distribution in the Lower Guinea domain, this is a model species to detect signs of past population fragmentation and recolonization, and to estimate the extent of gene dispersal. Ten microsatellite loci were used to genotype 295 adult trees sampled from eight populations. Three clearly differentiated gene pools were resolved at this regional scale and could be linked to the biogeographical history of the region, rather than to physical barriers to gene flow. A comparison with the distribution of gene pools observed for two other tree species living in the same region invalidates the basic assumption that all species share the same Quaternary refuges and recolonization pathways. In four populations, significant and similar patterns of SGS were detected. Indirect estimates of gene dispersal distances (sigma) obtained for three populations ranged from 400 to 1200 m, whereas neighbourhood size estimates ranged from 50 to 110. PMID:20389306

  15. Dynamics of Mycobacterium and bovine tuberculosis in a Human-Buffalo Population

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. S.; Garba, S. M.; Gumel, A. B.; Lubuma, J. M.-S.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. This model has a unique endemic equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable for a special case, when the reproduction number exceeds unity. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, using data relevant to the dynamics of the two diseases in the Kruger National Park, show that the distribution of the associated reproduction number is less than unity (hence, the diseases would not persist in the community). Crucial parameters that influence the dynamics of the two diseases are also identified. Both the buffalo-only and the buffalo-human model exhibit the same qualitative dynamics with respect to the local and global asymptotic stability of their respective disease-free equilibrium, as well as with respect to the backward bifurcation phenomenon. Numerical simulations of the buffalo-human model show that the cumulative number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in humans (buffalos) decreases with increasing number of bovine tuberculosis infections in humans (buffalo). PMID:25254065

  16. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  17. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: an application to West African rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D. L., II; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; Bello, G. A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Pendse, S. V.; Srinivas, S.; Yu, J.; Semazzi, F.; Kumar, V.; Samatova, N. F.

    2014-04-01

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression, and Dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall, including well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, as well as promising discoveries that invite further research by the climate science community.

  18. On the data-driven inference of modulatory networks in climate science: an application to West African rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D. L., II; Angus, M. P.; Tetteh, I. K.; Bello, G. A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Pendse, S. V.; Srinivas, S.; Yu, J.; Semazzi, F.; Kumar, V.; Samatova, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of hypothesis-driven and/or first-principles research have been applied towards the discovery and explanation of the mechanisms that drive climate phenomena, such as western African Sahel summer rainfall~variability. Although connections between various climate factors have been theorized, not all of the key relationships are fully understood. We propose a data-driven approach to identify candidate players in this climate system, which can help explain underlying mechanisms and/or even suggest new relationships, to facilitate building a more comprehensive and predictive model of the modulatory relationships influencing a climate phenomenon of interest. We applied coupled heterogeneous association rule mining (CHARM), Lasso multivariate regression, and dynamic Bayesian networks to find relationships within a complex system, and explored means with which to obtain a consensus result from the application of such varied methodologies. Using this fusion of approaches, we identified relationships among climate factors that modulate Sahel rainfall. These relationships fall into two categories: well-known associations from prior climate knowledge, such as the relationship with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and putative links, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, that invite further research.

  19. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  20. Quasi-static slip patch growth to 20 m on a geological fault inferred from acoustic emissions in a South African gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Kgarume, Thabang; Khambule, Sifiso; Masakale, Thabang; Ribeiro, Luiz; Philipp, Joachim; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Miyakawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsushi; Moriya, Hirokazu; Murakami, Osamu; Yabe, Yasuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Yoshimitsu, Nana; Ward, Anthony; Durrheim, Raymond; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Three months of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring in a South African gold mine down to Mw -5 revealed a newly emergent planar cluster of 7557 events -3.9 ≤ Mw ≤ -1.8 (typical rupture radius of 6-70 cm) that expanded with time to reach a size of 20 m on a preexisting geological fault near an active mining front 1 km beneath the ground. It had a sharply defined, planar configuration, with hypocenters aggregated within a thickness of only several decimeters. We infer that the zone defines an aseismic slip patch on the fault, wherein the individual AEs represent failures of very small asperities being loaded by the aseismic slip. Additional support for the interpretation was obtained by analyzing composite focal mechanisms and repeating events. The patch expansion over 2 months was likely quasistatic because all individual AEs ruptured much smaller areas than the cluster size at the corresponding time. The b values dropped gradually from 2.6 to 1.4, consistent with a significant increase in shear stress expected of the mining style. Another cluster with similar characteristics emerged later on a neighboring part of the same fault and grew to a 10 m extent in the last weeks of the study period. The quasi-static expansion of inferred localized slow-slip patches to sizes of 10-20 m suggests that the critical crack length on natural faults can be at least as large, much exceeding the decimeter range derived from laboratory stick-slip experiments on saw-cut rocks.

  1. Influences of the Agulhas Current on South African terrestrial climate as inferred from speleothem stable isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, K.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Ayalon, A.; Marean, C.; Herries, A. I. R.; Zahn, R.; Matthews, A.

    2012-04-01

    South African (SA) climate is strongly influenced by the circulation systems surrounding the subcontinent. The warm tropical Agulhas Current provides large amounts of moisture, transported onshore by south-easterly trade winds during summer. As the trade wind shifts north during winter, the south-western tip of SA is especially affected by temperate westerlies. High amounts of rainfall from the Benguela region off the west coast then only affect the very south-west of the country. This seasonal pattern creates a highly variable terrestrial climate, characterized by strong E-W gradients in the seasonal distribution and amount of rainfall. As summer and winter rain is derived from sources with different properties (density, salinity, temperature), the rainfall also displays seasonal isotopic compositional variations, as for example the present mean δ18O of rainfall in Mossel Bay located in the transition region varies from ~0.13‰ in January to -6.05‰ in July. Vegetation type (C3 vs C4) also follows the rainfall regime with C4 vegetation dominating in the summer rainfall region. As part of the GATEWAYS project, speleothems are used as an excellent, high resolution, precisely dated archive of terrestrial paleoenvironmental conditions[1]. This study focuses on a speleothem record from Crevice Cave on the South African south coast (near Mossel Bay), covering the interval between ~111 and ~53 ka[1,2]. At present, the area is influenced by both summer and winter rainfall, and has mostly C3 type vegetation. Variations in the past show more positive δ18O and δ13C values in the interval corresponding to the glacial MIS 4 and indicate increased summer rainfall and C4 vegetation. This contradicts the common assumption that MIS 4 was characterized by a northward shift of the climatic belts over SA and an increase of winter rainfall and C3 vegetation in the cave area[3]. Comparison of the record to marine sediment cores from the Agulhas Retroflection area[4] and the Cape

  2. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  4. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  5. Vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Parnpai, Rangsun; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Somfai, Tamas; Nagai, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    During the past decade, vitrification has been acknowledged as an efficient alternative to traditional slow-rate freezing in both human and animal embryology. The buffalo is the major milk and meat producing farm animal in many developing countries. Cryopreservation of buffalo oocytes and embryos is very important in preserving this species for future use. This review discusses the recent buffalo oocytes and embryos vitrification procedures, different types of cryoinjuries, and other factors affecting the vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos. PMID:27160442

  6. Polymorphism and haplotype structure in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) coding sequence.

    PubMed

    Jones, B C; Womack, J E

    2012-04-01

    Most of the 160 million river buffalo in the world are in Asia where they are used extensively, both as a food source and for draught power. Only recently have investigations begun exploring the buffalo genome for variation that might influence health and productivity of these economically important animals. This paper describes the sequence variability of the toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene, which recognizes bacterial flagellin and is a key player in the immune system. TLR5 is comprised of a single exon that is 2577 bp and codes 858 amino acids. We examined single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the coding region. Overall, 17 SNPs were discovered, seven of which are non-synonymous. Our study population yielded four different haplotypes. We examined predicted protein domain structure and found that river buffalo, swamp buffalo, and African Forest buffalo shared the same protein domain structure and are more similar to each other than they are to cattle and American bison, which are similar to each other. PolyPhen 2 analysis revealed one amino acid substitution in the river buffalo population with potential functional significance. PMID:22537062

  7. Ecological Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  8. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  9. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

  10. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  15. In Buffalo, Opening Doors for the Overlooked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Buffalo Prep program. Housed at University of Buffalo, the program identifies disadvantaged but talented minority children, places them in academic-enrichment classes, and then finds them spots at private schools and a more selective public high school in the area to complete their precollegiate careers. In addition to…

  16. Non-equilibrium estimates of gene flow inferred from nuclear genealogies suggest that Iberian and North African wall lizards (Podarcis spp.) are an assemblage of incipient species

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The study of recently-diverged species offers significant challenges both in the definition of evolutionary entities and in the estimation of gene flow among them. Iberian and North African wall lizards (Podarcis) constitute a cryptic species complex for which previous assessments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and allozyme variation are concordant in describing the existence of several highly differentiated evolutionary units. However, these studies report important differences suggesting the occurrence of gene flow among forms. Here we study sequence variation in two nuclear introns, β-fibint7 and 6-Pgdint7, to further investigate overall evolutionary dynamics and test hypotheses related to species delimitation within this complex. Results Both nuclear gene genealogies fail to define species as monophyletic. To discriminate between the effects of incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow in setting this pattern, we estimated migration rates among species using both FST-based estimators of gene flow, which assume migration-drift equilibrium, and a coalescent approach based on a model of divergence with gene flow. Equilibrium estimates of gene flow suggest widespread introgression between species, but coalescent estimates describe virtually zero admixture between most (but not all) species pairs. This suggests that although gene flow among forms may have occurred the main cause for species polyphyly is incomplete lineage sorting, implying that most forms have been isolated since their divergence. This observation is therefore in accordance with previous reports of strong differentiation based on mtDNA and allozyme data. Conclusion These results corroborate most forms of Iberian and North African Podarcis as differentiated, although incipient, species, supporting a gradual view of speciation, according to which species may persist as distinct despite some permeability to genetic exchange and without having clearly definable genetic boundaries. Additionally

  17. Rift valley Fever in Kruger national park: do buffalo play a role in the inter-epidemic circulation of virus?

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Bengis, R; Swanepoel, R; Paweska, J T; Kemp, A; van Vuren, P Jansen; Joubert, J; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus disease of livestock and wild ruminants that has been identified as a risk for international spread. Typically, the disease occurs in geographically limited outbreaks associated with high rainfall events and can cause massive losses of livestock. It is unclear how RVF virus persists during inter-epidemic periods but cryptic cycling of the virus in wildlife populations may play a role. We investigated the role that free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) might play in inter-epidemic circulation of the virus and looked for geographic, age and sex patterns of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection in African buffalo. Buffalo serum samples were collected (n = 1615) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, during a period of 1996-2007 and tested for antibodies to RVF. We found that older animals were more likely to be seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody than younger animals, but sex was not correlated with the likelihood of being anti-RVFV antibody positive. We also found geographic variation within KNP; herds in the south were more likely to have acquired anti-RVFV antibody than herds farther north - which could be driven by host or vector ecology. In all years of the study between 1996 and 2007, we found young buffalo (under 2 years of age) that were seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody, with prevalence ranging between 0 and 27% each year, indicating probable circulation. In addition, we also conducted a 4-year longitudinal study on 227 initially RVFV seronegative buffalo to look for evidence of seroconversion outside known RVF outbreaks within our study period (2008-2012). In the longitudinal study, we found five individuals that seroconverted from anti-RVFV antibody negative to anti-RVFV antibody positive, outside of any detected outbreak. Overall, our results provide evidence of long-term undetected circulation of RVFV in the buffalo population. PMID:24330522

  18. The clay feet of the malaria giant and its African roots: hypotheses and inferences about origin, spread and control of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, M

    1999-09-01

    Grassi's allegory of the fragile feet of clay of the malaria giant applies particularly to Plasmodium falciparum marginal populations in temperate climates such as those that spread within the last three thousand years in the Mediterranean area through their close association with non diapausing vectors of the Anopheles maculipennis complex. The winter survival of the vector and the successful completion of the sporogonic cycle depended on the availability of the house environment to the mosquito. The fragility of the parasite's cycle became especially evident with the crucial impact of indoor-sprayed residual insecticides resulting in very rapid malaria eradication. The malaria giant showed to possess much more solid feet in the Tropics where P. falciparum eventually reached an exceptionally stable endemicity in sub-Saharan Africa due to a vectorial system which produces inoculation rates far higher than the minimum necessary to saturate human populations. This very high transmissibility resulting from recent human-dependent speciation processes in Afrotropical Anopheles mosquitoes (namely the emergence in the Neolithic period of specifically anthropophilic taxa in the An. funestus and An. gambiae complexes) had probably a key influence on the origin of the modern P. falciparum from an ancestral, less pathogenic, taxon. It is hypothesised that under the prevalence of multiple inoculation during epidemic flashes, a fast growing, aggressive strain responsible for acute, short-lived infections was selected. This quickly replaced the ancestral taxon and spread all over the world taking advantage of previous Anopheles radiation and of the demographic expansion following the agricultural revolution. Dealing with the African 'roots' of the malaria giant means to face both the exceptional stability of the parasite cycle and the risk of disrupting the human natural response with unsustainable interventions. Most efforts should be concentrated in the support and improvement

  19. Entropic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2011-03-01

    In this tutorial we review the essential arguments behing entropic inference. We focus on the epistemological notion of information and its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of rational agents. The problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), includes as special cases both MaxEnt and Bayes' rule, and therefore unifies the two themes of these workshops—the Maximum Entropy and the Bayesian methods—into a single general inference scheme.

  20. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick

    2015-01-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  1. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick; Caron, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  2. Methanogen diversity in the rumen of Indian Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), assessed by 16S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Parnerkar, S; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2012-06-01

    The methanogenic communities in buffalo rumen were characterized using a culture-independent approach of a pooled sample of rumen fluid from three adult Surti buffaloes. Buffalo rumen is likely to include species of various methanogens, so 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and cloned from the sample. A total of 171 clones were sequenced to examine 16S rDNA sequence similarity. About 52.63% sequences (90 clones) had ≥ 90% similarity, whereas, 46.78% of the sequences (81 clones) were 75-89% similar to 16S rDNA database sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of methanogenic communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. As a result, we distinguished 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on unique 16S rDNA sequences: 12 OTUs (52.17%) affiliated to Methanomicrobiales order, 10 OTUs (43.47%) of the order Methanobacteriales and one OTU (4.34%) of Methanosarcina barkeri like clone, respectively. In addition, the population of Methanomicrobiales and Methabacteriales orders were also observed, accounting 4% and 2.17% of total archea. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens phylotypes ever identified from rumen of Surti buffaloes. PMID:21507441

  3. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  4. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  5. Perceptual inference.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C

    2015-08-01

    Perceptual inference refers to the ability to infer sensory stimuli from predictions that result from internal neural representations built through prior experience. Methods of Bayesian statistical inference and decision theory model cognition adequately by using error sensing either in guiding action or in "generative" models that predict the sensory information. In this framework, perception can be seen as a process qualitatively distinct from sensation, a process of information evaluation using previously acquired and stored representations (memories) that is guided by sensory feedback. The stored representations can be utilised as internal models of sensory stimuli enabling long term associations, for example in operant conditioning. Evidence for perceptual inference is contributed by such phenomena as the cortical co-localisation of object perception with object memory, the response invariance in the responses of some neurons to variations in the stimulus, as well as from situations in which perception can be dissociated from sensation. In the context of perceptual inference, sensory areas of the cerebral cortex that have been facilitated by a priming signal may be regarded as comparators in a closed feedback loop, similar to the better known motor reflexes in the sensorimotor system. The adult cerebral cortex can be regarded as similar to a servomechanism, in using sensory feedback to correct internal models, producing predictions of the outside world on the basis of past experience. PMID:25976632

  6. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  7. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat...

  8. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  9. Cultural Self Meets Cultural Other in the African American Experience: Teachers' Responses to a Curriculum Content Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shujaa, Mwalimu J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses certain complexities of personal transformation among people implementing African and African American curriculum content reform in the Buffalo (New York) public schools, highlighting individual teachers' understanding of and responses to the reform and noting that attitudes about their own and other people's ethnicity proved important…

  10. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  11. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  12. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species. PMID:20582226

  14. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  15. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents. PMID:21086160

  16. Bryant and Stratton Business Institute, Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attmore, Robert H.

    In June 1992, the New York State Office of the Comptroller performed an audit of Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP) awards at Bryant and Stratton Business Institute's Buffalo Campus (BC). TAP, the largest student grant and scholarship program administered by the Higher Education Services Corporation…

  17. Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoer, Wanda

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

  18. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Indian Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), assessed by 16S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandya, P R; Singh, K M; Parnerkar, S; Tripathi, A K; Mehta, H H; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities in buffalo rumen were characterized using a culture-independent approach for a pooled sample of rumen fluid from 3 adult Surti buffaloes. Buffalo rumen is likely to include species of various bacterial phyla, so 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and cloned from the sample. A total of 191 clones were sequenced and similarities to known 16S rDNA sequences were examined. About 62.82% sequences (120 clones) had >90% similarity to the 16S rDNA database sequences. Furthermore, about 34.03% of the sequences (65 clones) were 85-89% similar to 16S rDNA database sequences. For the remaining 3.14%; the similarity was lower than 85% Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of bacterial communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. As a result, we distinguished 42 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on unique 16S r DNA sequences: 19 OTUs affiliated to an unidentified group (45.23% of total OTUs), 11 OTUs of the phylum Firmicutes, also known as the low G+C group (26.19%), 7 OTUs of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides phylum (16.66%), 4 OTUs of Spirochaetes (9.52%), and 1 OTU of Actinobacteria (2.38%). These include 10 single-clone OTUs, so Good's coverage (94.76%) of 16S rRNA libraries indicated that sequences identified in the libraries represent the majority of bacterial diversity present in rumen. PMID:20720314

  1. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. PMID:23886616

  2. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sikombe, T. K. W.; Mweene, A. S.; Muma, John; Kasanga, C.; Sinkala, Y.; Banda, F.; Mulumba, M.; Fana, E. M.; Mundia, C.; Simuunza, M.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 (n = 1) and SAT2 (n = 2). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes. PMID:26347208

  3. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  4. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetal fibroblasts with buffalo defined factors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanfei; Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Chan; Chen, Shibei; Li, Xiangping; Wang, Caizhu; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lei, Xiaocan; Zhang, Huina; Sun, Hongliang; Lu, Fenghua; Jiang, Jianrong; Shi, Deshun

    2012-09-01

    Ectopically, expression of defined factors could reprogram mammalian somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which initiates a new strategy to obtain pluripotent stem cell lines. Attempts have been made to generate buffalo pluripotent stem cells by culturing primary germ cells or inner cell mass, but the efficiency is extremely low. Here, we report a successful method to reprogram buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) into pluripotent stem cells [buffalo induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSCs)] by transduction of buffalo defined factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) using retroviral vectors. The established biPSCs displayed typical morphological characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, normal karyotype, positive staining of alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, E-Cadherin, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81, STAT3, and FOXD3. They could form embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro and teratomas after injecting into the nude BALB/C mice, and 3 germ layers were identified in the EBs and teratomas. Methylation assay revealed that the promoters of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated in biPSCs compared with BFFs and pre-biPSCs, while the promoters of Sox2 and E-Cadherin were hypomethylated in both BFFs and biPSCs. Further, inhibiting p53 expression by coexpression of SV40 large T antigen and buffalo defined factors in BFFs or treating BFFs with p53 inhibitor pifithrin-a (PFT) could increase the efficiency of biPSCs generation up to 3-fold, and nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with biPSCs could develop to blastocysts. These results indicate that BFFs can be reprogrammed into biPSCs by buffalo defined factors, and the generation efficiency of biPSCs can be increased by inhibition of p53 expression. These efforts will provide a feasible approach for investigating buffalo stem cell signal pathways, establishing buffalo stem cell lines, and producing genetic modification buffaloes in the future. PMID:22420535

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-05-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  7. The Buffalo Medical Journal: 1845-1919.

    PubMed Central

    Sentz, L

    1985-01-01

    Fielding H. Garrison's paper "The medical periodical and the scientific society" cited the Buffalo Medical Journal in the company of eminent periodicals published in Berlin, Boston, and Edinburgh. This article provides an overview of the Journal and places it in context of 19th-century medical journalism. The Journal is assessed in terms of original scientific contributions and as a source of social and local history. Images PMID:3896357

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  9. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26. PMID:27274850

  10. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  11. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  12. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives Anchorage A. Inside the south...

  13. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  14. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  15. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  16. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  17. 77 FR 41914 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... email Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY...

  18. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY 14203; Coast Guard telephone 716-843-9343, email...

  19. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis. PMID:12760663

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Deep Learning for Population Genetic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Sara; Song, Yun S.

    2016-01-01

    Given genomic variation data from multiple individuals, computing the likelihood of complex population genetic models is often infeasible. To circumvent this problem, we introduce a novel likelihood-free inference framework by applying deep learning, a powerful modern technique in machine learning. Deep learning makes use of multilayer neural networks to learn a feature-based function from the input (e.g., hundreds of correlated summary statistics of data) to the output (e.g., population genetic parameters of interest). We demonstrate that deep learning can be effectively employed for population genetic inference and learning informative features of data. As a concrete application, we focus on the challenging problem of jointly inferring natural selection and demography (in the form of a population size change history). Our method is able to separate the global nature of demography from the local nature of selection, without sequential steps for these two factors. Studying demography and selection jointly is motivated by Drosophila, where pervasive selection confounds demographic analysis. We apply our method to 197 African Drosophila melanogaster genomes from Zambia to infer both their overall demography, and regions of their genome under selection. We find many regions of the genome that have experienced hard sweeps, and fewer under selection on standing variation (soft sweep) or balancing selection. Interestingly, we find that soft sweeps and balancing selection occur more frequently closer to the centromere of each chromosome. In addition, our demographic inference suggests that previously estimated bottlenecks for African Drosophila melanogaster are too extreme. PMID:27018908

  2. Deep Learning for Population Genetic Inference.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Sara; Song, Yun S

    2016-03-01

    Given genomic variation data from multiple individuals, computing the likelihood of complex population genetic models is often infeasible. To circumvent this problem, we introduce a novel likelihood-free inference framework by applying deep learning, a powerful modern technique in machine learning. Deep learning makes use of multilayer neural networks to learn a feature-based function from the input (e.g., hundreds of correlated summary statistics of data) to the output (e.g., population genetic parameters of interest). We demonstrate that deep learning can be effectively employed for population genetic inference and learning informative features of data. As a concrete application, we focus on the challenging problem of jointly inferring natural selection and demography (in the form of a population size change history). Our method is able to separate the global nature of demography from the local nature of selection, without sequential steps for these two factors. Studying demography and selection jointly is motivated by Drosophila, where pervasive selection confounds demographic analysis. We apply our method to 197 African Drosophila melanogaster genomes from Zambia to infer both their overall demography, and regions of their genome under selection. We find many regions of the genome that have experienced hard sweeps, and fewer under selection on standing variation (soft sweep) or balancing selection. Interestingly, we find that soft sweeps and balancing selection occur more frequently closer to the centromere of each chromosome. In addition, our demographic inference suggests that previously estimated bottlenecks for African Drosophila melanogaster are too extreme. PMID:27018908

  3. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area

  5. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  6. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel multifunctional recombinant family 26 glycoside hydrolase from Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Avani B; Patel, Amrutlal K; Shah, Mihir P; Parikh, Ishan K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-01-01

    Rumen microbiota harbor a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), which play a crucial role in the degradation of a complex plant polysaccharide thereby providing metabolic energy to the host animals. Earlier, we reported CAZYme analysis from the buffalo rumen metagenome by high throughput shotgun sequencing. Among the various CAZymes, glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) enzymes have a number of industrial applications including in paper, oil, biofuel, food, feed, pharmaceutical, coffee, and detergent industries. Here, we report isolation and characterization of GH26 enzyme from the buffalo rumen metagenome. A novel GH26 gene composed of 1,119 base pairs was successfully amplified using the gene-specific primers inferred based on the contig generated from metagenome sequence assembly and cloned in a pET32a (+) expression vector as an N-terminal histidine tag fusion protein. A novel GH26 protein from an unknown rumen microorganism shared a maximum of 68% identity with the Prevotella ruminicola 23 encoded carbohydrate esterase family 7 and 46% with Bacteroides sp. 2_1_33B encoded mannan endo-1, 4-β-mannosidase. The recombinant GH26-histidine tag fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme displayed multifunctional activities against various carbohydrate substrates including locust bean gum, beechwood xylan, pectin, and carboxymethyl cellulose suggesting mannanase, xylanase, pectin esterase, and endoglucanase activities, respectively. PMID:25644118

  8. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  9. A framework radiation hybrid map of buffalo chromosome 1 ordering scaffolds from buffalo genome sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Yang, E; Cai, J J; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo chromosome 1 (BBU1) is a sub-metacentric chromosome homologous to bovine chromosomes 1 and 27. In this study, we constructed a new framework radiation hybrid (RH) map from BBU1 using BBURH5000 panel adding nine new genes (ADRB3, ATP2C1, COPB2, CRYGS, P2RY1, SLC5A3, SLC20A2, SST, and ZDHHC2) and one microsatellite (CSSM043) to the set of markers previously mapped on BBU1. The new framework RH map of BBU1 contained 141 markers (55 genes, 2 ESTs, 10 microsatellites, and 74 SNPs) distributed within one linkage group spanning 2832.62 centirays. Comparison of the RH map to sequences from bovine chromosomes 1 and 27 revealed an inversion close to the telomeric region. In addition, we ordered a set of 34 scaffolds from the buffalo genome assembly UMD_CASPUR_WB_2.0. The RH map could provide a valuable tool to order scaffolds from the buffalo genome sequence, contributing to its annotation. PMID:26535622

  10. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality. PMID:27157389

  11. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  13. 16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING SOUTH - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  14. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  15. Species identification of cattle and buffalo fat through PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, V V

    2016-04-01

    A method was standardized to isolate quality DNA from cattle and buffalo fat for species identification using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit. The quality of the DNA was sufficient enough to amplify universal primers viz., mt 12S rRNA and mt 16S rRNA, and species specific D loop primers for cattle and buffalo. The sensitivity of the PCR assay in the species specific D loop primer amplification was with a detection level of 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.23 ng buffalo DNA in simplex and, 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.12 ng buffalo DNA in duplex PCR. It is a potentially reliable method for DNA detection to authenticate animal fat. PMID:27413237

  16. TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

  17. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade. PMID:20080753

  18. Separation and quantification of milk casein from different buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Daxi

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the milk protein expression profile in different buffalo breeds plays an important role in improving hybrid selection and determining the effects on milk protein synthesis. The aim of this research is to compare the differences in milk protein content, composition and distribution between River buffalo and their crossbreeds for hybrid screening. Four groups of milk samples that included Nili-Ravi (N), Murrah (M), a Nili-Ravi-Murrah crossbreed (M-N), and a crossbreed of river buffalo with local swamp buffalo (C) were collected. The protein composition of the buffalo milk was determined by RP-HPLC. A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was utilised for the detailed protein characterisation of milk from different breeds. The results of this analysis showed that the river/swamp buffalo crossbreed (C) displayed the highest content of total protein (4·46%) and κ-casein (11·14%) but the lowest content of α-lactalbumin (6·79%). By selecting 23 different protein spots among the four types of milk that contained the most spots corresponding to κ-casein, β-casein and αs1-casein, correlations between the crossbreeds, protein polymorphism and phosphorylation could be made. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding a swamp buffalo with a river buffalo has a notable effect on the protein content and composition that may be exploited for producing high-quality raw milk in food technology applications and dairy food production. PMID:27600966

  19. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. Treatment of dairy buffaloes naturally infected with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syed Asad Irshad; Maqbool, Azhar; Tonio, Muhammad Tariq; Naureen, Abeera; Ajmal, Adeela; Anwar, Muhammad Tanveer

    2009-12-01

    Therapeutic trials of sarcoptic mange in buffaloes were studied at local Livestock farms, Lahore (Pakistan). A total of 600 buffaloes were examined over 1 year period (August 2006 to July 2007) for prevalence study, while 60 buffaloes were selected for therapeutic trial. Sarcoptic mange was recorded in 66 (11%) animals. The highest monthly prevalence was reported during the months of January and February (18%) followed by December and March (16%) whereas lowest during the month of July (2%). Over all highest seasonally prevalence was recorded during winter (16.5%) and lowest during summer (5%). Moreover, highest infestation rate was recorded among young (<3 months) buffaloes than with age >3 months. Sex-wise prevalence indicated more prevalence in buffalo bulls (13.15%) than female buffaloes (9.28%). Therapeutic trials were carried out by using ivermectin, doramectin and trichlorphon as per manufacturer's recommendations for a period of 10 days, while one group was kept as untreated control. Negative skin scraping, disappearance of gross lesions, stoppage of itching and regrowth of normal hair were taken as the criterion to assess the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:23129889

  1. Embryonic and fetal mortality in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    River buffalo are able to adapt to diverse climatic zones and are widespread globally. The resource use efficiency of buffalo is highly relevant in a resource-constrained world and the increasing requirement to produce more food. Buffalo clearly have an important role in meeting the growing demand for animal protein. In the Mediterranean and higher latitudes, buffalo show annual cycles of ovarian activity, embryonic development, and pregnancy rate. In buffalo, the CL starts to develop early in the cycle, and there is also an early increase in concentrations of progesterone (P4) in circulation. This appears to be necessary for optimal embryonic development. The failure to establish a pregnancy in buffalo can occur before Day 21 (early embryonic mortality), from Day 21 to 45 (late embryonic mortality), and from Day 46 to 90 (fetal mortality) after mating. Treatment with P4, hCG, and GnRH on Day 5 after mating increases P4 in circulation and reduces early embryonic mortality in circumstances where concentrations of P4 are relatively low. The same treatments applied on Day 20 to 25 after mating can lower the occurrence of late embryonic mortality and fetal mortality. PMID:27142486

  2. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  3. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  4. Inference or Observation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Learning about what inferences are, and what a good inference is, will help students become more scientifically literate and better understand the nature of science in inquiry. Students in K-4 should be able to give explanations about what they investigate (NSTA 1997) and that includes doing so through inferring. This article provides some tips…

  5. Clinical Pharmacokinetic Service and Research--Present Status and Future Goals at SUNY-Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koup, Jeffrey R.

    1976-01-01

    Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)

  6. Five Year Financial and Management Assessment of the Buffalo Public Schools. Addendum: Detailed Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Financial Plan Commission, NY.

    In February 1993 the Buffalo Financial Plan Commission was asked to conduct a financial and management assessment of the Buffalo (New York) public schools. The effort involved the work of 115 volunteers from 75 businesses and community organizations in the Buffalo area. Thirty-four recommendations were produced, which were expected to yield annual…

  7. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration, 540 Niagara Center, 130 S. Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo..., Buffalo District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration, 540 Niagara Center, 130 S. Elmwood...

  8. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  9. 78 FR 41846 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary and intended for the... Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.939 will be enforced on the dates and times listed in...

  10. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  11. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  12. Characteristics and Behavior of a Two-Hour Oscillation in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the

  13. Investigating the diversity of the 18S SSU rRNA hyper-variable region of Theileria in cattle and Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) from southern Africa using a next generation sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; Pienaar, Ronel; Ratabane, John; Pule, Boitumelo; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-07-01

    Molecular classification and systematics of the Theileria is based on the analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Reverse line blot or conventional sequencing approaches have disadvantages in the study of 18S rRNA diversity and a next-generation 454 sequencing approach was investigated. The 18S rRNA gene was amplified using RLB primers coupled to 96 unique sequence identifiers (MIDs). Theileria positive samples from African buffalo (672) and cattle (480) from southern Africa were combined in batches of 96 and sequenced using the GS Junior 454 sequencer to produce 825711 informative sequences. Sequences were extracted based on MIDs and analysed to identify Theileria genotypes. Genotypes observed in buffalo and cattle were confirmed in the current study, while no new genotypes were discovered. Genotypes showed specific geographic distributions, most probably linked with vector distributions. Host specificity of buffalo and cattle specific genotypes were confirmed and prevalence data as well as relative parasitemia trends indicate preference for different hosts. Mixed infections are common with African buffalo carrying more genotypes compared to cattle. Associative or exclusion co-infection profiles were observed between genotypes that may have implications for speciation and systematics: specifically that more Theileria species may exist in cattle and buffalo than currently recognized. Analysis of primers used for Theileria parva diagnostics indicate that no new genotypes will be amplified by the current primer sets confirming their specificity. T. parva SNP variants that occur in the 18S rRNA hypervariable region were confirmed. A next generation sequencing approach is useful in obtaining comprehensive knowledge regarding 18S rRNA diversity and prevalence for the Theileria, allowing for the assessment of systematics and diagnostic assays based on the 18S gene. PMID:27084674

  14. Physical limits of inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2008-07-01

    We show that physical devices that perform observation, prediction, or recollection share an underlying mathematical structure. We call devices with that structure “inference devices”. We present a set of existence and impossibility results concerning inference devices. These results hold independent of the precise physical laws governing our universe. In a limited sense, the impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, these impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum-mechanical “uncertainty principle”. The mathematics of inference devices has close connections to the mathematics of Turing Machines (TMs). In particular, the impossibility results for inference devices are similar to the Halting theorem for TMs. Furthermore, one can define an analog of Universal TMs (UTMs) for inference devices. We call those analogs “strong inference devices”. We use strong inference devices to define the “inference complexity” of an inference task, which is the analog of the Kolmogorov complexity of computing a string. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the inference complexity of an inference task can differ for two different inference devices. This is analogous to the “encoding” bound governing how much the Kolmogorov complexity of a string can differ between two UTMs used to compute that string. However no universe can contain more than one strong inference device. So whereas the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is arbitrary up to specification of the UTM, there is no such arbitrariness in the inference complexity of an inference task. We informally discuss the philosophical implications of these results, e.g., for whether the universe “is” a computer. We also derive some graph-theoretic properties governing any set of multiple inference devices. We also present an

  15. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  16. Study on hematological alterations induced by amphistomosis in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vandip. D.; Patel, P. V.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Pandey, Sunanda; Pansuriya, Dhaval V.; Choudhary, Vijayata

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to compare the alterations in the hematological parameters in buffaloes suffering from Amphistomosis with normal buffaloes and to correlate it with the subclinical infection that is hard to diagnose. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 50 amphistomes infected as well as 50 non-infected buffaloes from slaughter houses were taken into vacutainer tubes containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid for estimation of various hematological parameters by Automatic Analyzer Hema-2062 manufactured by Analytical Technologies Ltd. Result: There was a significant reduction in the mean hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume and significant increase in the neutrophils count and eosinophil count of infected buffaloes as compared to the non-infected buffaloes respectively. Conclusion: Amphistomosis is characterized by severe neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and anemia. Anemia of high intensity along with hepatic damage can lead to the death of the animal in severe cases. Alterations in the Hematological parameters can be used as an indicator to diagnose and check the severity of amphistomosis especially in young ones and in subclinical infection. PMID:27047107

  17. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the Buffalo Cave fossil site, Makapansgat, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herries, Andy I. R.; Reed, Kaye E.; Kuykendall, Kevin L.; Latham, Alf G.

    2006-09-01

    Speleological, stratigraphic, paleomagnetic and faunal data is presented for the Buffalo Cave fossil site in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Speleothems and clastic deposits were sampled for paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic analysis from the northern part of the site, where stratigraphic relationships could be more easily defined and a magnetostratigraphy could therefore be developed for the site. This is also where excavations recovered the fossil material described. A comparison of the east and South African first and last appearance data with the Buffalo Cave fauna was then used to constrain the magnetostratigraphy to produce a more secure age for the site. The magnetostratigraphy showed a change from normal to reversed polarity in the basal speleothems followed by a short normal polarity period in the base of the clastic deposits and a slow change to reversed directions for the remainder of the sequence. The biochronology suggested an optimal age range of between 1.0 Ma and 600,000 yr based on faunal correlation with eastern and southern Africa. A comparison of the magnetobiostratigraphy with the GPTS suggests that the sequence covers the time period from the Olduvai event between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, through the Jaramillo event at 1.07 Ma to 990,000 yr, until the Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary at 780,000 yr. The faunal-bearing clastic deposits are thus dated between 1.07 Ma and 780,000 yr with the main faunal remains occurring in sediments dated to just after the end of the Jaramillo Event at 990,000 yr.

  18. Hepatogenous photosensitization associated with liver copper accumulation in buffalos.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio H H; Júnior, Raimundo A Barrêto; Rodrigues, Frederico A M L; Ferreira, Rodrigo N F; Reis, Leonardo F; Headley, Selwyn A; Ortolani, Enrico L

    2010-06-01

    Four 1.5-year-old, male, Murrah buffalos were maintained during eight months without direct solar exposure during a study of copper toxicosis. Four days after solar exposure, all buffalos presented clinical manifestations consistent with acute photosensitization, including anorexia, apathy, loss of body weight, and generalized cutaneous lesions. Gross lesions were characterized by severe erythema, localized edema, fissures, tissue necrosis, gangrene and crust formation with serous exudation. Liver copper concentration was evaluated, and cutaneous biopsies were taken when clinical signs were evident. The liver copper concentration before solar exposure was increased in all animals. Histopathologic examination of the skin revealed hepatogenous photosensitization characterized by parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, acantholysis, degeneration of squamous epithelial cells, epidermal necrosis with atrophy of sweat glands, and multifocal superficial and deep dermal edema. These findings suggest that asymptomatic accumulation of copper within the liver might have induced hepatic insufficiency thereby resulting in secondary photosensitization when these buffalos were exposed to sunlight. PMID:20064649

  19. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  20. Potential association of reduced cholinesterase activity with Trypanosoma evansi pathogenesis in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Singh, Vivek K; Yadav, Brajesh K; Nakade, Udayraj P; Kumari, Priyambada; Srivastava, Mukesh K; Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhary, Soumen; Swain, Dilip; Garg, Satish K

    2016-07-30

    The present study aimed to investigate the association of cholinesterase activity with trypanosomosis in buffaloes. Thirty-three clinical cases of trypanosomosis in water buffaloes, found positive for trypomastigotes of T. evansi on blood smear examination, were divided into two groups based on clinical manifestations. Twenty diseased buffaloes revealing only common clinical signs were allocated to Group I, while the remaining 13 buffaloes showing common clinical manifestations along with neurological disturbances were allocated to Group II. Twelve clinically healthy buffaloes, free from any haemoprotozoa infection, were kept as healthy control (Group III). Blood samples were collected from buffaloes of all three groups to determine serum cholinesterase activity. Compared to buffaloes of healthy control group, cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes of Group I and II was significantly (P<0.001) lower. However, no significant difference was observed in cholinesterase activity between the T. evansi-infected buffaloes exhibiting neurological disorders and no neurological disorders. Summing up, reduced cholinesterase activity seems to be associated with the pathogenesis of natural T. evansi infection and its clinical manifestations in buffaloes possibly by evading immune response. Further studies are warranted on association of cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes with neurological disorders. PMID:27369572

  1. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  2. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  3. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  4. AROMATIC AMINES IN AND NEAR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...

  5. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation. PMID:26298507

  6. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  7. Comparative analysis of the river buffalo somatostatin gene.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Borges, M M; Amaral, M E J

    2014-01-01

    The somatostatin protein plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple biological functions, such as growth, fat deposition, and nutrient absorption in vertebrates. Polymorphisms in the somatostatin gene have been associated with growth traits in livestock species, including cattle and goat. In this study, we conducted complete molecular characterization of the somatostatin gene in Bubalus bubalis (Murrah breed) by sequencing a Murrah BAC clone spanning 72,489 base pairs (bp) in length. The buffalo somatostatin gene contains 1481 bp organized into a 5'-untranslated region (135 bp), exon 1 (139 bp), intron 1 (839 bp), exon 2 (212 bp), and 3'UTR (156 bp). Comparative analysis between the buffalo somatostatin DNA coding sequence and the amino acid sequence with other bovids (cattle, goat, and sheep), horse, pig, human, rodents (mouse and rat), and chicken. Identity varied from 83-99% on the DNA sequence level and 88-100% on the protein level. In addition, a comparison of gene sequences between Murrah and Mediterranean breeds revealed 6 potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1 in exon 1 and 5 in intron 1), which were validated in different buffalo populations. This comparative analysis provides basic information for future studies of different buffalo herds using the position candidate gene approach, quantitative trait loci analysis, and polymorphisms associated with growth traits. PMID:25501213

  8. No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…

  9. Sarcocystis levinei infection in Philippine water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Claveria, F G; Cruz, M J

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts obtained from Philippine water buffaloes revealed the presence of the commonly reported macroscopic species, Sarcocystis fusiformis, and the microscopic species Sarcocystis levinei (Dissanaike A, Kan S. Studies on Sarcocystis in Malaysia. I: Sarcocystis levinei n.sp. from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Z Parasitenkd 1978;55:127-38), (Huong L, Dubey J, Uggla A. Redescription of Sarcocystis levinei Dissanaike and Kan, 1978 (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Parasitol 1997;83:1148-52). The globular to oval microscopic cysts commonly observed in the muscles of the diaphragm and neck exhibit compartmentalized arrangement of zoites with septal partitions and measure 13-48 microns in diameter. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of sarcocyst bears minute and hair-like villar protrusions measuring 2.3-2.75 microns long emanating at certain distances from the primary cyst wall and lack microfilaments. Villar protrusions have expanded to dome-shaped base measuring 0.33-1.6 microns long by 0.22-1.0 micron wide, and intermediate and tapering distal segments bent approximately 90 degrees and run parallel to the cyst surface. The distal segments at some areas join to form conical tufts. The primary cyst wall bears numerous prominent undulations that are arranged in small clusters. The ground substance is 0.42-0.57 micron thick. This paper documents the first report of S. levinei in Philippine water buffaloes possessing the type 7 cyst wall. PMID:11227764

  10. Normal somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, I P

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk. PMID:16626405

  11. Development and quality evaluation of cooked buffalo tripe rolls.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V; Mendiratta, S K

    2008-12-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls (BTRs) were prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe (75%) and buffalo meat (25%) by using mincing (M-BTR) and blade tenderization (BT-BTR). They were stored at 4±1°C and studied for various physico-chemical, sensory and microbial qualities. Significantly (P<0.01) higher pH, shear force value, diameter shrinkage and fat percentage were observed in M-BTR and BT-BTR than control product (100% minced buffalo meat). The product yield and drip loss percentage were significantly (P<0.01) lower in BT-BTR, whereas drip loss percentage was significantly higher in M-BTR compared to controls and BT-BTR. No significant change was noticed in protein and moisture content between the different products. All physico-chemical parameters and sensory evaluation scores of M-BTR were comparable with control. Significant (P<0.01) increases were noticed in pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid and tyrosine values with increasing storage period, whereas the extract release volume decreased significantly. All microbial counts and sensory evaluation scores were within the acceptable limits until 15 days of storage at 4±1°C in low-density polyethylene pouches stored aerobically. PMID:22063856

  12. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  13. Comparison of CNVs in Buffalo with other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a read-depth (RD) and a hybrid read-pair, split-read (RAPTR-SV) CNV detection method, we identified over 1425 unique CNVs in 14 Water Buffalo individual compared to the cattle genome sequence. Total variable sequence of the CNV regions (CNVR) from the RD method approached 59 megabases (~ 2% of...

  14. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality. PMID:27076348

  15. Teat anatomy affects requirements for udder preparation in Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ambord, Sarah; Stoffel, Michael H; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2010-11-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the interrelation between teat anatomy and machine milking in dairy buffaloes raised in Switzerland. A 3-min pre-stimulation induced milk ejection before cluster attachment in most cases and caused an optimal milk removal during machine milking. In an additional experiment, longitudinal cross-section ultrasound was obtained before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation. Teat wall thickness, teat diameter, cisternal diameter and teat canal length were evaluated. It was observed that 3-min pre-stimulation dramatically reduced teat canal length whereas all the other anatomical parameters remained unchanged. The vacuum needed to open the teat canal was also measured before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation by using a special teat cup with only the mouthpiece of the liner remaining on the top of the teat cup (no liner, no pulsation). Without pre-stimulation but after wetting the teat canal by stripping one squirt of milk out of the teat, no milk could be withdrawn with a vacuum up to 39 kPa. However, after pre-stimulation, milk flow occurred in all buffaloes at a vacuum between 16 and 38 kPa. In the last experiment, the teat tissue was examined in slaughtered buffaloes and compared with teat tissue of cows. No difference was noted in histological sections and teat canal length was similar in cows and buffaloes. Proximal to the teat canal, the teat did not pass into an open cistern but the lumen was collapsed. In conclusion, buffaloes need to be well pre-stimulated because the tissue above the teat canal provides additional teat closure before milk ejection. Therefore, milk can only be obtained after pre-stimulation. PMID:20822559

  16. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  17. Normal haematological and biochemical values for the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Best, F G; Fairburn, A J; Purdie, J; Gilham, M

    1984-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 24 immature male, 55 immature female and 99 mature female water buffalo kept at an experimental farm in the Northern Territory. Haematological analysis was performed on blood collected in dipotassium--ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid while biochemical analysis was performed on serum and plasma (for glucose) samples. Haematological values of mature buffalo were similar to those recorded for swamp buffalo in Malaysia. Blood cell appearances were similar to those reported for adult Indian river buffalo though values recorded for red cell components were higher. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between immature male and female buffalo. Red cell components, eosinophils, total plasma and serum proteins, albumin, gamma globulins, inorganic phosphate and the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase were significantly higher for mature female buffalo when compared to immature females. Reasons for the differences were not fully determined but the effect of age and nutritional status in combination with a variable period of domestication were considered. PMID:6743148

  18. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. The complete coding region sequence of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Parma, Pietro; Feligini, Maria; Greppi, Gianfranco; Enne, Giuseppe

    2004-02-01

    The Y-linked SRY gene is responsible for testis determination in mammals. Mutations in this gene can lead to XY Gonadal Dysgenesis, an abnormal sexual phenotype described in humans, cattle, horses and river buffalo. We report here the complete river buffalo SRY sequence in order to enable the genetic diagnosis of this disease. The SRY sequence was also used to confirm the evolutionary divergence time between cattle and river buffalo 10 million years ago. PMID:15354359

  20. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. PMID:27155729

  1. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27357943

  2. Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell extender.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be

  3. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449

  4. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; McGill, D. M.; Bush, R. D.; Wynn, P. C.; Chohan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  5. Isolation and Identification of Prepubertal Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatogonial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wanyou; Chen, Shibei; Do, Dagiang; Liu, Qinyou; Deng, Yanfei; Lei, Xiaocan; Luo, Chan; Huang, Ben; Shi, Deshun

    2016-10-01

    Isolation and culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are attractive for production of genetic modified offspring. In the present study, buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells were isolated, cultured and expression pattern of different germ cell marker genes were determined. To recover spermatogonia, testes from age 3 to 7 months of buffalo were decapsulated, and seminiferous tubules were enzymatically dissociated. Two types of cells, immature sertoli cell and type A spermatogonia were observed in buffalo testes in this stage. Germ cell marker genes, OCT3/4 (Pou5f1), THY-1, c-kit, PGP9.5 (UCHL-1) and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, were determined to be expressed both in mRNA and protein level by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining in buffalo testes and buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells, respectively. In the following, when the isolated buffalo buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells were cultured in the medium supplemented 2.5% fetal bovine serum and 40 ng/mL glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor medium, SSCs proliferation efficiency and colony number were significantly improved than those of other groups (p<0.05). These findings may help in isolation and establishing long term in vitro culture system for buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells, and accelerating the generation of genetic modified buffaloes. PMID:26954139

  6. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  7. Evaluation of leptin receptor expression on buffalo leukocytes.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Grandoni, Francesco; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catizone, Angela; Reale, Anna; Crisà, Alessandra; Moioli, Bianca

    2016-09-01

    Experimental evidences support a direct role for leptin in immunity. Besides controlling food intake and energy expenditure, leptin was reported to be involved in the regulation of the immune system in ruminants. The aim of this work was to highlight the expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) on Bubalus bubalis immune cells using a multi-approach assessment: flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis. Flow cytometric analysis of LEPR expression showed that peripheral blood monocytes were the predominant cells expressing LEPR. This result was corroborated by confocal microscopy and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, among lymphocytes, LEPR was mainly expressed by B lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Evidence of LEPR expression on buffalo blood leukocytes showed to be a good indicator of the responsivity of these cells to leptin, so confirming the involvement of leptin in buffalo immune response. PMID:27436440

  8. The Buffalo/Spey jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittley, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The program to design and build a Buffalo/Spey Augmentor-Wing research aircraft is presented. The development of an internally blown flap system for the generation of powered lift is discussed. Modification, development, and testing of the Rolls-Royce Spey engine are reported. The ground tests and first flights of the aircraft are described and the application of the internally blown flap concept for short takeoff military transport aircraft is proposed.

  9. Estimates of genetic parameters for fat yield in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Vohra, Vikas; Ratwan, Poonam; Valsalan, Jamuna; Patil, C. S.; Chakravarty, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting milk fat yield and to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test day fat yields (MTDFY) and lactation 305-day fat yield (L305FY) in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The data on total of 10381 MTDFY records comprising the first four lactations of 470 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1993 to 2014 were assessed. These buffaloes were sired by 75 bulls maintained in an organized farm at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. Heritability estimates were obtained using paternal half-sib correlation method. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among MTDFY, and 305-day fat yield were calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance matrix among sire groups. Results: The overall least squares mean of L305FY was found to be 175.74±4.12 kg. The least squares mean of overall MTDFY ranged from 3.33±0.14 kg (TD-11) to 7.06±0.17 kg (TD-3). The h2 estimate of L305FY was found to be 0.33±0.16 in this study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day fat yield and different MTDFY ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and 0.51 to 0.99, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, all the genetic and non-genetic factors except age at the first calving group, significantly affected the traits under study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations of MTDFY with 305-day fat yield was generally higher in the MTDFY-5 of lactation suggesting that this TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057114

  10. Comparison of Copy Number of HSF Genes in Two Buffalo Genomes.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shardul Vikram; Mukherjee, Ayan; Brahma, Biswajit; Gohain, Moloya; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Saini, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Purushottam; Ahlawat, Sonika; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C; Datta, Tirtha K; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    The copy number variation (CNV) is the number of copies of a particular gene in the genotype of an individual. Recent evidences show that the CNVs can vary in frequency and occurrence between breeds. These variations reportedly allowed different breeds to adapt to different environments. As copy number variations follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance, identification and distribution of these variants between populations can be used to infer the evolutionary history of the species. In this study, we have examined the absolute copy number of four Heat shock factor genes viz. HSF-1, 2, 4, and 5 in two different breeds of buffalo species using real-time PCR. Here, we report that the absolute copy number of HSF2 varies between the two breeds. In contrast no significant difference was observed in the copy number for HSF-1, 4, and 5 between the two breeds. Our results provide evidence for the presence of breed specific differences in HSF2 genomic copy number. This seems to be the first step in delineating the genetic factors underlying environmental adaptation between the two breeds. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is needed to characterize the functional consequence of this variation. PMID:26953680

  11. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  12. African Outreach Workshop 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Nancy J.

    This report discusses the 1974 African Outreach Workshop planned and coordinated by the African Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its major aim was to assist teachers in developing curriculum units on African using materials available in their local community. A second aim was for the African Studies Program to…

  13. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  14. The reproductive pattern and efficiency of female buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Nanda, A S; Adams, G P

    2000-07-01

    Buffaloes play a prominent role in rural livestock production, particularly in Asia. Reproductive efficiency is the primary factor affecting productivity and is hampered in female buffalo by (i) inherent late maturity, (ii) poor estrus expression in summer, (iii) distinct seasonal reproductive patterns, and (iv) prolonged intercalving intervals. Ovarian function is central to these issues; hence, the focal point of this review is ovarian function in Bubalus bubalis, particularly, in relation to seasonal changes. Ovarian anatomy, follicular and luteal development development, and hormonal profiles during the estrous cycle are discussed. Review of the literature revealed a paucity of critically derived information on follicular and ovulatory patterns in buffalo, particularly, in relation to seasonal estrus/birthing. Efforts may be directed at understanding the process (recruitment, development, atresia) and temporal pattern (follicle selection, dominance, subordinate follicle suppression, follicle numbers, and, preovulatory changes) of follicular dynamics using techniques which permit serial assessment of changes occurring over time. Emphasis may be directed towards investigating follicular "waves" as a functional unit, rather than the estrous cycle, in the context of whole animal endocrinology. The data obtained from such basic studies may then be used to develop and test models for enhancing reproductive efficiency. PMID:10844227

  15. Cloning and expression of buffalo active chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Juan Andres; Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomas G

    2008-11-26

    To date, only recombinant chymosin has been obtained in its active form from supernatants of filamentous fungi, which are not as good candidates as yeasts for large-scale fermentations. Since Bos taurus chymosin was cloned and expressed, the world demand for this protease has increased to such an extent that the cheesemaking industry has been looking for novel sources of chymosin. In this sense because buffalo chymosin has properties that are more stable than those of B. taurus chymosin, it may occupy a space of its own in the chymosin market. The main objective of the present work was the production of active recombinant buffalo chymosin in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris . This yeast has demonstrated its usefulness as an excellent large-scale fermentation tool for the secretion of recombinant foreign proteins. RNA was extracted from the abomasum of a suckling calf water buffalo ( Bubalus arnee bubalis ). Preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin DNA sequences were isolated and expressed into P. pastoris. Only the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the prochymosin sequence gene were able to secrete the active form of the chymosin to the culture supernatant. This paper describes for the first time the production of active recombinant chymosin in P. pastoris without the need of a previous in vitro activation. The new recombinant yeast strain could represent a novel and excellent source of rennet for the cheesemaking industry. PMID:18975968

  16. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from buffalo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Pranjali; Mahapatra, P S; Kumar, Ajay; Malakar, Dhruba; Bag, Sadhan

    2014-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are primordial, uncommitted cells postulated to give rise to the array of more specialized cells of the central nervous system (CNS). NSCs can self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs are found in the CNS of mammalian organisms, and represent a promising resource for both fundamental research and CNS repair. Animal models of CNS damage have highlighted the potential benefit of NSC-based approaches. Present study described that buffalo neural stem cells (Bu-NSCs) were isolated and expanded rapidly from buffalo fetal brain in adherent culture. They were capable of multidifferentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Bu-NSCs were morphologically homogeneous and possessed high proliferation ability. The population doubled every 128.16 h. Normal buffalo karyotype was unchanged throughout the in vitro culture period. Together, we have isolated and cultured Bu-NSC from fetal brain that showed self-renewal, rapid proliferation and ability to differentiate into cells of nervous system. The availability of such cells may hold great interest for basic and applied neuroscience. PMID:24094244

  17. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described

  18. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  19. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  20. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  1. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and... recreational facilities constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project... recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project area: Sixth Principal Meridian...

  2. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... soil (growth media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine... Buffalo Valley Mine Project, Lander and Humboldt Counties, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze and disclose impacts associated with the Buffalo Valley Mine Project,...

  3. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  4. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  5. Racism, Capitalism, and the Schools: Understanding Demographic Data and Educational Change in Buffalo, New York (1930-1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Describes, in terms of concepts such as racism and capitalism, the bank policies, real estate strategies, and decisions of the city of Buffalo and the Buffalo School Board. Argues that such policies have affected the quality of education and neighborhood change in Buffalo, especially from 1930 to 1977. (CMG)

  6. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY... Buffalo Zone from July 2, 2010 through July 31, 2010. This action is necessary to protect the safety of... vessel may enter the safety zones without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES:...

  7. Return of the Buffalo: The Efforts to Restore Bison to Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (ITBC), a nonprofit group founded to help tribes return buffalo to Indian reservations. Describes the cultural and economic motives behind the movement. Indicates that the ITBC has grown to 40 member tribes and utilizes a consensus-building approach to rebuilding buffalo herds. (MAB)

  8. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704). Specifically, twenty-six permanent safety zones... the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone in the Federal Register (78 FR 11798). We received 0 comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  9. 75 FR 61099 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone... Buffalo has previously established a security zone in the vicinity of Moses-Saunders Power Dam and the... the Supervisor, Marine Safety Detachment Massena. Discussion of Rule The Captain of the Port...

  10. 77 FR 65011 - Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (63 FR 33693; June 19, 1998). The Buffalo Lake... FR 33693). Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) was formally invited to participate in the... Fish and Wildlife Service Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX;...

  11. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  12. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  13. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  14. Structural Modeling and Analysis of Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein-1 of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Andonissamy, Jerome; Singh, S. K.; Agarwal, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to design and analyze the structural model of buffalo pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (PAG-1) using bioinformatics. Structural modeling of the deduced buffalo PAG-1 protein was done using PHYRE, CONSURF servers and its structure was subsequently constructed using MODELLER 9.9 and PyMOL softwares Buffalo PAG-1 structural conformity was analyzed using PROSA, WHATIF, and 3D-PSSM servers. Designed buffalo PAG-1 protein structure on BLAST analysis retrieved protein structures belonging to aspartic proteinase family. Moreover in silico analysis revealed buffalo PAG-1 protein retained bilobed structure with pepstatin-binding clefts near the active sites by docking studies with pepstatin A using PatchDock server. Structural studies revealed that the amino and carboxy terminal containing aspartic residues are highly conserved and buried within the protein structure. Structural conformity studies showed that more than 90% of the residues lie inside favored and allowed regions. It was also deduced that buffalo PAG-1 possesses low and high energy zones with a very low threshold for proteolysis ascertaining the stableness of the buffalo PAG-1 protein structure. This study depicts the structural conformity and stability of buffalo PAG-1 protein.

  15. 76 FR 16294 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3, Houston, Harris County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3... removing the existing drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridge across Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3... provide the 30 day notice period before its effective date. This rule removes the draw...

  16. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  17. INFERENCES FROM ROSSI TRACES

    SciTech Connect

    KENNETH M. HANSON; JANE M. BOOKER

    2000-09-08

    The authors an uncertainty analysis of data taken using the Rossi technique, in which the horizontal oscilloscope sweep is driven sinusoidally in time ,while the vertical axis follows the signal amplitude. The analysis is done within a Bayesian framework. Complete inferences are obtained by tilting the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, which produces random samples from the posterior probability distribution expressed in terms of the parameters.

  18. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. PMID:26850845

  19. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  20. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. PMID:27375276

  1. Bayesian inference in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Toussaint, Udo

    2011-07-01

    Bayesian inference provides a consistent method for the extraction of information from physics experiments even in ill-conditioned circumstances. The approach provides a unified rationale for data analysis, which both justifies many of the commonly used analysis procedures and reveals some of the implicit underlying assumptions. This review summarizes the general ideas of the Bayesian probability theory with emphasis on the application to the evaluation of experimental data. As case studies for Bayesian parameter estimation techniques examples ranging from extra-solar planet detection to the deconvolution of the apparatus functions for improving the energy resolution and change point estimation in time series are discussed. Special attention is paid to the numerical techniques suited for Bayesian analysis, with a focus on recent developments of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for high-dimensional integration problems. Bayesian model comparison, the quantitative ranking of models for the explanation of a given data set, is illustrated with examples collected from cosmology, mass spectroscopy, and surface physics, covering problems such as background subtraction and automated outlier detection. Additionally the Bayesian inference techniques for the design and optimization of future experiments are introduced. Experiments, instead of being merely passive recording devices, can now be designed to adapt to measured data and to change the measurement strategy on the fly to maximize the information of an experiment. The applied key concepts and necessary numerical tools which provide the means of designing such inference chains and the crucial aspects of data fusion are summarized and some of the expected implications are highlighted.

  2. Inferring parental genomic ancestries using pooled semi-Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, James Y.; Halperin, Eran; Burchard, Esteban; Sankararaman, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: A basic problem of broad public and scientific interest is to use the DNA of an individual to infer the genomic ancestries of the parents. In particular, we are often interested in the fraction of each parent’s genome that comes from specific ancestries (e.g. European, African, Native American, etc). This has many applications ranging from understanding the inheritance of ancestry-related risks and traits to quantifying human assortative mating patterns. Results: We model the problem of parental genomic ancestry inference as a pooled semi-Markov process. We develop a general mathematical framework for pooled semi-Markov processes and construct efficient inference algorithms for these models. Applying our inference algorithm to genotype data from 231 Mexican trios and 258 Puerto Rican trios where we have the true genomic ancestry of each parent, we demonstrate that our method accurately infers parameters of the semi-Markov processes and parents’ genomic ancestries. We additionally validated the method on simulations. Our model of pooled semi-Markov process and inference algorithms may be of independent interest in other settings in genomics and machine learning. Contact: jazo@microsoft.com PMID:26072482

  3. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Bengis, Roy G.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring.

  4. Population Parameters and Biomass of African Buffalo(Syncerus caffer) in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aremu, O. T.; Onadeko, S. A.; Ola-Adams, B. A.; Inah, E. I.

    The study examined some population parameters such as relative abundance, distribution, population composition and biomass of Syncerus caffer in Kainji Lake National Park. Six, 4x4 km transects were constructed in the Park with an effective study area of 96 km2. Transects were traversed twice a month for 12 months. Estimates were based on direct censusing techniques only. The results revealed that riparian forest and woodland habitat harboured the highest population of Syncerus caffer in both dry and wet seasons 9 and 5 groups, respectively with a total of 149±8.17 individuals, while Diospyros mespliformis dry forest haboured the least of 20±2.84 individuals. Population compositions of Syncerus caffer were significantly difference (p< 0.05) in both dry and wet seasons. A total Syncerus caffer biomass of 54.57±10.9 kg km-2 was recorded in the Park. Measures for adequate conservation of existing Syncerus caffer population in the Park are discussed.

  5. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  6. Towards Context Sensitive Information Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, D.; Bruza, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information inference from a psychologistic stance and proposes an information inference mechanism that makes inferences via computations of information flow through an approximation of a conceptual space. Highlights include cognitive economics of information processing; context sensitivity; and query models for information retrieval.…

  7. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of αS1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when β-CN content increased. Milk with low κ-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of κ-CN. Increased content of glycosylated κ-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing. PMID:23684020

  9. Enriching membrane cholesterol improves stability and cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rajoriya, J S; Prasad, J K; Ramteke, S S; Perumal, P; Ghosh, S K; Singh, M; Pande, Megha; Srivastava, N

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/120×10(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187). PMID:26619942

  10. Dasytricha dominance in Surti buffalo rumen revealed by 18S rRNA sequences and real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2011-09-01

    The genetic diversity of protozoa in Surti buffalo rumen was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic and Real-time PCR analysis methods. Three animals were fed diet comprised green fodder Napier bajra 21 (Pennisetum purpureum), mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and concentrate mixture (20% crude protein, 65% total digestible nutrients). A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f) and a eukarya-specific primer (Medlin B) were used to amplify a 1,360 bp fragment of DNA encoding protozoal small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA from rumen fluid. A total of 91 clones were examined and identified 14 different 18S RNA sequences based on PCR-RFLP pattern. These 14 phylotypes were distributed into four genera-based 18S rDNA database sequences and identified as Dasytricha (57 clones), Isotricha (14 clones), Ostracodinium (11 clones) and Polyplastron (9 clones). Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of protozoa communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. Out of 14 sequences, 8 sequences (69 clones) clustered with the Dasytricha ruminantium-like clone and 4 sequences (13 clones) were also phylogenetically placed with the Isotricha prostoma-like clone. Moreover, 2 phylotypes (9 clones) were related to Polyplastron multivesiculatum-like clone. In addition, the number of 18S rDNA gene copies of Dasytricha ruminantium (0.05% to ciliate protozoa) was higher than Entodinium sp. (2.0 × 10(5) vs. 1.3 × 10(4)) in per ml ruminal fluid. PMID:21744288

  11. Multiple-trait random regression models for the estimation of genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yield in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Borquis, Rusbel Raul Aspilcueta; Neto, Francisco Ribeiro de Araujo; Baldi, Fernando; Hurtado-Lugo, Naudin; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Muñoz-Berrocal, Milthon; Tonhati, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    In this study, genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat, and protein yield were estimated for the first lactation. The data analyzed consisted of 1,433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, daughters of 113 sires from 12 herds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with calvings from 1985 to 2007. Ten-month classes of lactation days were considered for the test-day yields. The (co)variance components for the 3 traits were estimated using the regression analyses by Bayesian inference applying an animal model by Gibbs sampling. The contemporary groups were defined as herd-year-month of the test day. In the model, the random effects were additive genetic, permanent environment, and residual. The fixed effects were contemporary group and number of milkings (1 or 2), the linear and quadratic effects of the covariable age of the buffalo at calving, as well as the mean lactation curve of the population, which was modeled by orthogonal Legendre polynomials of fourth order. The random effects for the traits studied were modeled by Legendre polynomials of third and fourth order for additive genetic and permanent environment, respectively, the residual variances were modeled considering 4 residual classes. The heritability estimates for the traits were moderate (from 0.21-0.38), with higher estimates in the intermediate lactation phase. The genetic correlation estimates within and among the traits varied from 0.05 to 0.99. The results indicate that the selection for any trait test day will result in an indirect genetic gain for milk, fat, and protein yield in all periods of the lactation curve. The accuracy associated with estimated breeding values obtained using multi-trait random regression was slightly higher (around 8%) compared with single-trait random regression. This difference may be because to the greater amount of information available per animal. PMID:23831097

  12. Visual Inference Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Timucin, Dogan; Rabbette, Maura; Curry, Charles; Allan, Mark; Lvov, Nikolay; Clanton, Sam; Pilewskie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The goal of visual inference programming is to develop a software framework data analysis and to provide machine learning algorithms for inter-active data exploration and visualization. The topics include: 1) Intelligent Data Understanding (IDU) framework; 2) Challenge problems; 3) What's new here; 4) Framework features; 5) Wiring diagram; 6) Generated script; 7) Results of script; 8) Initial algorithms; 9) Independent Component Analysis for instrument diagnosis; 10) Output sensory mapping virtual joystick; 11) Output sensory mapping typing; 12) Closed-loop feedback mu-rhythm control; 13) Closed-loop training; 14) Data sources; and 15) Algorithms. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  13. Test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, K. K.; Brahmkshtri, B. P.; Ramani, U. V.; Kharadi, V. B.; Pandaya, G. M.; Janmeda, M.; Ankuya, K. J.; Patel, M. D.; Sorathiya, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp). Materials and Methods: A total of 13 normally calved Surti and Mehsani buffaloes each maintained at Livestock Research Stations of Navsari and Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural Universities, respectively, were selected for the study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp to study milk yield and composition variability between these two breeds. Buffaloes were categorized for the ease of data analysis and comparisons into four groups, viz., S15 (Surti buffaloes 15th day pp), S60 (Surti buffaloes 60th day pp), M15 (Mehsani buffaloes 15th day pp), and M60 (Mehsani buffaloes 60th day pp). Results: There were 37.20% and 25.03% significant (p≤0.05) increase in mean test day milk yield (TDMY) of S60 and M60 as compared to S15 and M15 groups, respectively. The mean TDMY of Mehsani buffalo was 99.19% and 81.53% significantly (p≤0.05) higher than Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. The mean fat and protein corrected test day milk yield (FPCTDMY) of all the groups was found to be significantly different (p≤0.05) from each other. There was significant (p≤0.05) increase of 1.94 and 3.45 kg in mean FPCTDMY with the progression of lactation between day 15 and 60 pp in Surti and Mehsani buffaloes, respectively. Similarly, the mean FPCTDMY of Mehsani buffaloes were approximately double with 103.27% and 96.36% higher yield as compared to Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. Among milk composition, significant differences were observed for solid not fat (SNF) and protein%, whereas fat and lactose% were steady among four groups. The only significant (p≤0.05) difference was observed for SNF in M60 group, which was 8.29%, 6.85%, and 10.70% higher as compared to S15, S60, and M15 groups, respectively. The mean protein% in milk of Mehsani buffaloes was 21.01% and 33

  14. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  15. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  16. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively. PMID:26688653

  17. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia. PMID:24065721

  18. Moment inference from tomograms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.

    2007-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The African Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    From student and faculty exchanges to joint research projects, U.S. universities maintain a broad spectrum of collaborative relationships with African universities. It's unclear how many U.S. colleges and universities have partnerships with African universities. The African Studies Association, an organization of scholars, doesn't keep that kind…

  20. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  1. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  2. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. PMID:27317318

  3. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, R. D.; Shukla, S. N.; Shrivastava, O. P.; Kumar, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25). In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 µg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28%) was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66%) was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69) and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days) alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days) groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions. PMID:27065651

  4. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098

  5. Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with

  6. First Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Infecting Buffalo Calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Monally C C; Widmer, Giovanni; Zucatto, Anaiza S; Viol, Milena A; Inácio, Sandra V; Nakamura, Alex A; Coelho, Willian M D; Perri, Silvia H V; Meireles, Marcelo V; Bresciani, Katia D S

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of determining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., 222 fecal samples were collected from Murrah buffalo calves aged up to 6 mo. Fecal DNA was genotyped with a nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing of the amplified fragment. Nested 18S PCR was positive for 48.2% of the samples. Sequence analysis showed that the most frequent species in these animals was Cryptosporidium ryanae, which was present in buffalo calves as young as 5 d. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in one animal. An uncommon Cryptosporidium 18S genotype was found in buffaloes. PMID:25941018

  7. Analysis of chromatin integrity and DNA damage of buffalo spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, K. Gh. M.; El-Sokary, A. A. E.; Abdel-Ghaffar, A. E.; Abou El-Roos, M. E. A.; Ahmed, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine chromatin integrity and DNA damage by DNA electrophoresis and comet assays of buffalo fresh and frozen semen. Semen samples were collected from four buffalo bulls and evaluated after freezing for semen motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, chromatin integrity and DNA damage. A significant variation was found in semen parameters after thawing. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) in chromatin integrity were observed between fresh and frozen semen. For the fresh semen, there was no significant difference between the bulls for chromatin integrity; however, a significant variation (P<0.05) was detected in their frozen semen. No DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The percentage of sperm with damaged DNA detected by comet assay differed significantly between fresh and frozen semen. A significant negative correlation was recorded between motility and DNA damage (r=-0.68, P<0.05). Sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation were significantly positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.05). In conclusion, DNA damage evaluation can provide reassurance about genomic normalcy and guide the development of improved methods of selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA to be used in artificial insemination. PMID:27175169

  8. Malignant schwannoma in an American buffalo (Bison bison bison).

    PubMed

    Cho, H S; Kim, Y S; Choi, C; Lee, J H; Masangkay, J S; Park, N Y

    2006-10-01

    A case of a malignant schwannoma in a 20-year-old male American buffalo (Bison bison bison) from the Grand Park Zoo, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea is reported. The animal showed no apparent clinical signs before death except for wound on the neck. Grossly, neoplastic nodules of various sizes were observed on the skin, lung, heart, liver, stomach, mesentery and kidney. Histologically, the neoplastic nodules were composed of fusiform cells that formed multidirectional bundles. The tumour cells were arranged in interlacing bands and bundles. The nuclei were atypical, hyperchromatic, with blunt or round ends. In addition, few mitotic figures were observed in the skin, lung, heart, liver, stomach, intestine and kidney. Several immunohistochemical stains, e.g. vimentin, cytokeratin (CK), smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and HMB45, were used in an attempt to differentially diagnose the tumour. The neoplastic cells tested positive to S-100, but negative to vimentin, CK, SMA and HMB45. Based on the above findings, this case was diagnosed as a malignant schwannoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a schwannoma in an American buffalo (B. b. bison). PMID:16970634

  9. Sediment chemistries and chironomid deformities in the Buffalo River (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Diggins, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examined the surficial sediment chemistry (heavy metals) and the frequency of chironomid (Diptera) larvae mouthpart deformities from multiple PONAR grabs samples at each of 20 sites along the Buffalo River (NY) area of concern (AOC). Because of the potential for patchy invertebrate distribution and high variance in sediment chemistry, repeated spatial and temporal sampling is important to obtain a better integrated picture of contamination in rivers. The findings suggest that the Buffalo River has one of the highest percentages of deformed chironomids in AOC`s of the Great Lakes basin. One river site that was traditionally thought to be a chemical hot spot was less contaminated than another downstream section. At another site, sediment concentrations for V., Mn and AS appeared to be strongly associated with the proximity of combined sewer overflows from a region which is primarily residential. Interestingly, a demonstration project of the US Army Corps of Engineers, during which three types of dredges were used to carefully remove upper sediments from two different short reaches along the river, seemed to have no significant impact on proximate sediment chemistries or biota.

  10. Analysis of chromatin integrity and DNA damage of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Gh M; El-Sokary, A A E; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Abou El-Roos, M E A; Ahmed, Y F

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine chromatin integrity and DNA damage by DNA electrophoresis and comet assays of buffalo fresh and frozen semen. Semen samples were collected from four buffalo bulls and evaluated after freezing for semen motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, chromatin integrity and DNA damage. A significant variation was found in semen parameters after thawing. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) in chromatin integrity were observed between fresh and frozen semen. For the fresh semen, there was no significant difference between the bulls for chromatin integrity; however, a significant variation (P<0.05) was detected in their frozen semen. No DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The percentage of sperm with damaged DNA detected by comet assay differed significantly between fresh and frozen semen. A significant negative correlation was recorded between motility and DNA damage (r=-0.68, P<0.05). Sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation were significantly positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.05). In conclusion, DNA damage evaluation can provide reassurance about genomic normalcy and guide the development of improved methods of selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA to be used in artificial insemination. PMID:27175169

  11. Molecular dynamics studies on the buffalo prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from free-ranging wildlife in South African game reserves.

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Coetzee, M L; Keet, D F; Maré, L; Warren, R; Cooper, D; Bengis, R G; Kremer, K; van Helden, P

    2009-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in African buffalo and a number of other wildlife species in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in South Africa. It was thought that the infection had been introduced into the KNP ecosystem through direct contact between cattle and buffalo, a hypothesis which was confirmed in this study by IS6110 and PGRS restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. The molecular characterisation of 189 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from nine wildlife species in the HiP, including three smaller associated parks, and the Kruger National Park with adjacent areas showed that the respective epidemics were each caused by an infiltration of a single M. bovis genotype. The two M. bovis strains had different genetic profiles, as demonstrated by hybridisation with the IS6110 and PGRS RFLP probes, as well as with regard to evidence of evolutionary changes to the IS profile. While the M. bovis type in HiP was transmitted between buffaloes and to at least baboon, bushpig and lion without obvious genetic changes in the RFLP patterns, in the KNP a dominant strain was represented in 73% of the M. bovis isolates, whilst the remaining 27% were variants of this strain. No species-specific variants were observed, except for one IS6110 type which was found only in a group of five epidemiologically related greater kudu. This finding was attributed to species-specific behaviour patterns rather than an advanced host-pathogen interaction. PMID:18786785

  13. BIE: Bayesian Inference Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bayesian Inference Engine (BIE) is an object-oriented library of tools written in C++ designed explicitly to enable Bayesian update and model comparison for astronomical problems. To facilitate "what if" exploration, BIE provides a command line interface (written with Bison and Flex) to run input scripts. The output of the code is a simulation of the Bayesian posterior distribution from which summary statistics e.g. by taking moments, or determine confidence intervals and so forth, can be determined. All of these quantities are fundamentally integrals and the Markov Chain approach produces variates heta distributed according to P( heta|D) so moments are trivially obtained by summing of the ensemble of variates.

  14. Bayesian inference in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.

  15. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  16. Buffalo (Bubalus bubali) Late Embryo and Foetus Development: A Morphological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morini, A C; Pieri, Ncg; Roballo, Kcs; Martins, D S; Ambrósio, C E; Morini Junior, J C; Favaron, P O; Minervino, Ahh; Pereira, Fvt; Miglino, M A

    2016-08-01

    Many researches describe the embryonic developmental features in domestic animals; however, in farm animals, they are scarce. Most farm animal studies are related to assisted reproduction and embryos transfer techniques. But, morphological features and size measure to estimate the age gestation are rarely reported in literature. Thus, in this study, we described the developmental changes in the bubaline (Bubalus bubali) concepts from 21 to 60 days of gestation. Our results revealed that buffalo embryos similar morphological characteristics similar to other mammalian species. Also, similarities between bovine and bubaline persist; except on foetal stages when buffalos have a faster development than bovine. Therefore, buffalo's gestation period exhibits some varieties and accurate embryo age is more difficult. Yet, when we use a combination of the crown-rump, macroscopic analysis and alizarin red, it is possible to describe better the whole embryogenesis stages of the buffalo and which can contribute for future reproduction researches and applications in veterinary practice. PMID:27272250

  17. Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

    1972-01-01

    The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

  18. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Seerapu, Sandeep Reddy; Kancharana, Ananda Rao; Chappidi, Venkata Seshaiah; Bandi, Eswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microclimate alteration on temperature-humidity index (THI), milk yield, and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes during summer for a period of 90-day from March to May-2014 at Buffalo Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected having similar body weight, parity, and milk yield. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Three groups of buffaloes were provided with microclimate alteration using supplemental cooling like foggers, fans and foggers plus fans, and the fourth group (control) was without any cooling system. The daily THI was measured using dry and wet bulb thermometer. The physiological responses viz. rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate were measured by a clinical thermometer, measuring the flank movements a minute and observing the pulsation of the middle coccygeal artery at the base of tail with the help of finger. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition viz., fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), total solids (TS), specific gravity. Results: In the present study, significant (p<0.001) decrease in the average THI values were observed in experimental Murrah buffalo houses of GroupII (foggers), GroupIII (fans), and GroupIV (foggers and fans) compared to GroupI (control). Significant (p<0.001) decrease in average rectal temperature (°F), respiration rate (breaths/min) and pulse rate (beats/min) values were recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk yield (kg/day) was recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk fat, SNF, and TS percent were recorded in Murrah buffalo Groups of II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Conclusion: Microclimate alteration by the provision of foggers and air circulators in the buffalo houses

  19. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  20. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  1. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  2. Learning to Observe "and" Infer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Park Rogers, Meredith A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers describe the need for students to have multiple opportunities and social interaction to learn about the differences between observation and inference and their role in developing scientific explanations (Harlen 2001; Simpson 2000). Helping children develop their skills of observation and inference in science while emphasizing the…

  3. INFERRING THE ECCENTRICITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, David W.; Bovy, Jo; Myers, Adam D.

    2010-12-20

    Standard maximum-likelihood estimators for binary-star and exoplanet eccentricities are biased high, in the sense that the estimated eccentricity tends to be larger than the true eccentricity. As with most non-trivial observables, a simple histogram of estimated eccentricities is not a good estimate of the true eccentricity distribution. Here, we develop and test a hierarchical probabilistic method for performing the relevant meta-analysis, that is, inferring the true eccentricity distribution, taking as input the likelihood functions for the individual star eccentricities, or samplings of the posterior probability distributions for the eccentricities (under a given, uninformative prior). The method is a simple implementation of a hierarchical Bayesian model; it can also be seen as a kind of heteroscedastic deconvolution. It can be applied to any quantity measured with finite precision-other orbital parameters, or indeed any astronomical measurements of any kind, including magnitudes, distances, or photometric redshifts-so long as the measurements have been communicated as a likelihood function or a posterior sampling.

  4. Inferring the Eccentricity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.; Myers, Adam D.; Bovy, Jo

    2010-12-01

    Standard maximum-likelihood estimators for binary-star and exoplanet eccentricities are biased high, in the sense that the estimated eccentricity tends to be larger than the true eccentricity. As with most non-trivial observables, a simple histogram of estimated eccentricities is not a good estimate of the true eccentricity distribution. Here, we develop and test a hierarchical probabilistic method for performing the relevant meta-analysis, that is, inferring the true eccentricity distribution, taking as input the likelihood functions for the individual star eccentricities, or samplings of the posterior probability distributions for the eccentricities (under a given, uninformative prior). The method is a simple implementation of a hierarchical Bayesian model; it can also be seen as a kind of heteroscedastic deconvolution. It can be applied to any quantity measured with finite precision—other orbital parameters, or indeed any astronomical measurements of any kind, including magnitudes, distances, or photometric redshifts—so long as the measurements have been communicated as a likelihood function or a posterior sampling.

  5. Social Inference Through Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulasvirta, Antti

    Awareness cues are computer-mediated, real-time indicators of people’s undertakings, whereabouts, and intentions. Already in the mid-1970 s, UNIX users could use commands such as “finger” and “talk” to find out who was online and to chat. The small icons in instant messaging (IM) applications that indicate coconversants’ presence in the discussion space are the successors of “finger” output. Similar indicators can be found in online communities, media-sharing services, Internet relay chat (IRC), and location-based messaging applications. But presence and availability indicators are only the tip of the iceberg. Technological progress has enabled richer, more accurate, and more intimate indicators. For example, there are mobile services that allow friends to query and follow each other’s locations. Remote monitoring systems developed for health care allow relatives and doctors to assess the wellbeing of homebound patients (see, e.g., Tang and Venables 2000). But users also utilize cues that have not been deliberately designed for this purpose. For example, online gamers pay attention to other characters’ behavior to infer what the other players are like “in real life.” There is a common denominator underlying these examples: shared activities rely on the technology’s representation of the remote person. The other human being is not physically present but present only through a narrow technological channel.

  6. Inference from aging information.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Evaldo Araujo; Caticha, Nestor

    2010-06-01

    For many learning tasks the duration of the data collection can be greater than the time scale for changes of the underlying data distribution. The question we ask is how to include the information that data are aging. Ad hoc methods to achieve this include the use of validity windows that prevent the learning machine from making inferences based on old data. This introduces the problem of how to define the size of validity windows. In this brief, a new adaptive Bayesian inspired algorithm is presented for learning drifting concepts. It uses the analogy of validity windows in an adaptive Bayesian way to incorporate changes in the data distribution over time. We apply a theoretical approach based on information geometry to the classification problem and measure its performance in simulations. The uncertainty about the appropriate size of the memory windows is dealt with in a Bayesian manner by integrating over the distribution of the adaptive window size. Thus, the posterior distribution of the weights may develop algebraic tails. The learning algorithm results from tracking the mean and variance of the posterior distribution of the weights. It was found that the algebraic tails of this posterior distribution give the learning algorithm the ability to cope with an evolving environment by permitting the escape from local traps. PMID:20421181

  7. Molecular Characterization of Buffalo Haptoglobin: Sequence Based Structural Comparison Indicates Convergent Evolution Between Ruminants and Human.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Vohra, V; Singh, S; Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) protein has high affinity for hemoglobin (Hb) binding during intravascular hemolysis and scavenges the hemoglobin induced free radicals. Earlier reports indicate about uniqueness of Hp molecule in human and cattle, but in other animals, it is not much studied. In this paper, we characterized buffalo Hp molecule and determined its molecular structure, evolutionary importance, and tissue expression. Comparative analysis and predicted domain structure indicated that the buffalo Hp has an internal duplicated region in α-chain only similar to an alternate Hp2 allele in human. This duplicated part encoded for an extra complement control protein CCP domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that buffalo and other ruminants were found to group together separated from all other non-ruminants, including human. The key amino acid residues involved in Hp and Hb as well as Hp and macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163 interactions in buffalo, depicted a significant variation in comparison to other non-ruminant species. Constitutive expression of Hp was also confirmed across all the vital tissues of buffalo, for the first time. Results revealed that buffalo Hp is both structurally and functionally conserved, having internal duplication in α-chain similar to human Hp2 and other ruminant species, which might have evolved separately as a convergent evolutionary process. Furthermore, the presence of extra Hp CCP domain possibly in all ruminants may have an effect during dimerization of molecule in these species. PMID:26646629

  8. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, José Ribamar Felipe; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coêlho; Vinadé, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the “river buffaloes” with 2n = 50 and the “swamp buffaloes”, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies. PMID:25071402

  9. Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P

    2009-10-01

    The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

  10. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

  11. Comparative analysis of SNP candidates in disparate milk yielding river buffaloes using targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk plays an important role in economy and nutritious diet in several developing countries. However, reliable milk-yield genomic markers and their functional insights remain unexposed. Here, we have used a target capture sequencing approach in three economically important buffalo breeds namely: Banni, Jafrabadi and Mehsani, belonging to either high or low milk-yield group. Blood samples were collected from the milk-yield/breed balanced group of 12 buffaloes, and whole exome sequencing was performed using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Using an innovative approach namely, MultiCom; we have identified high-quality SNPs specific for high and low-milk yield buffaloes. Almost 70% of the reported genes in QTL regions of milk-yield and milk-fat in cattle were present among the buffalo milk-yield gene candidates. Functional analysis highlighted transcriptional regulation category in the low milk-yield group, and several new pathways in the two groups. Further, the discovered SNP candidates may account for more than half of mammary transcriptome changes in high versus low-milk yielding cattle. Thus, starting from the design of a reliable strategy, we identified reliable genomic markers specific for high and low-milk yield buffalo breeds and addressed possible downstream effects. PMID:27441113

  12. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. PMID:27270385

  13. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E

    1982-08-01

    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

  14. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E

    1982-01-01

    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

  15. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes and meat cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Laura M J de F; Damé, Maria Cecília F; Cademartori, Beatris G; da Cunha Filho, Nilton A; Farias, Nara Amélia da R; Ruas, Jerônimo L

    2013-09-01

    Serum samples from 169 water buffaloes and 121 beef cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive results were obtained in 27.2% of water buffaloes and 17.4% of cattle. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the prevalence in cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). The highest titres found in positive animals were 1:256 (buffaloes) and 1:64 (cattle). In both bovine species, toxoplasmosis frequency in young animals (less than 2 years old) was lower compared to older individuals, although the differences seen in cattle were not statistically significant. PMID:23990431

  16. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  17. The African superswell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Robinson, Scott W.

    1994-01-01

    Maps of residual bathymetry in the ocean basins around the African continent reveal a broad bathymetric swell in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean with an amplitude of about 500 m. We propose that this region of anomalously shallow bathymetry, together with the contiguous eastern and southern African plateaus, form a superswell which we refer to as the African superswell. The origin of the African superswell is uncertain. However, rifting and volcanism in eastern Africa, as well as heat flow measurements in southern Africa and the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, suggest that the superswell may be attributed, at least in part, to heating of the lithosphere.

  18. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin) and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  19. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E) were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition. PMID:22390895

  20. Ensemble Inference and Inferability of Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ud-Dean, S. M. Minhaz; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2014-01-01

    The inference of gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data is an unsolved problem of great importance. This inference has been stated, though not proven, to be underdetermined implying that there could be many equivalent (indistinguishable) solutions. Motivated by this fundamental limitation, we have developed new framework and algorithm, called TRaCE, for the ensemble inference of GRNs. The ensemble corresponds to the inherent uncertainty associated with discriminating direct and indirect gene regulations from steady-state data of gene knock-out (KO) experiments. We applied TRaCE to analyze the inferability of random GRNs and the GRNs of E. coli and yeast from single- and double-gene KO experiments. The results showed that, with the exception of networks with very few edges, GRNs are typically not inferable even when the data are ideal (unbiased and noise-free). Finally, we compared the performance of TRaCE with top performing methods of DREAM4 in silico network inference challenge. PMID:25093509

  1. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  2. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology. PMID:26598327

  3. 16 Extraordinary African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  4. African Studies Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    African studies computer resources that are readily available in the United States with linkages to Africa are described, highlighting those most directly corresponding to African content. Africanists can use the following four fundamental computer systems: (1) Internet/Bitnet; (2) Fidonet; (3) Usenet; and (4) dial-up bulletin board services. The…

  5. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  6. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  7. Africans Away from Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred…

  8. Keeping African Masks Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  9. Bayesian Inference: with ecological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William A.; Barker, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference with relevant examples that will be of interest to biologists working in the fields of ecology, wildlife management and environmental studies as well as students in advanced undergraduate statistics.. This text opens the door to Bayesian inference, taking advantage of modern computational efficiencies and easily accessible software to evaluate complex hierarchical models.

  10. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  11. Partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in Indian cows.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Hosamani, M; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes was carried out. PCR and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them as orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates revealed a closer relationship with other OPXVs. Sequencing of the HA gene of these isolates revealed sequence identity of 96.2-99.8 and 94.6-98.7% at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, with VACVs, particularly with VACV-MVA, a vaccine strain. Further, C18L (ankyrin repeat protein)-gene-based BPXV-specific PCR confirmed them as BPXV. It is apparent from this study that pox-like outbreaks in cows and buffaloes in India are caused, in most cases, by BPXV. Considering the zoonotic implications of buffalopox, such outbreaks involving both buffaloes and cows in a mixed flock may pose a significant public health threat. Transmissibility of BPXV between different species including cows, buffaloes and human beings implies the potential reemergence of the virus in the subcontinent, similar to vaccinia-like outbreaks witnessed recently in other countries. PMID:19956986

  12. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Frith, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others--during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions--both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then--in principle--they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa. PMID:25957007

  13. Causal inference and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael

    2010-11-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether the risk factor actually causes outcomes. Random assignment is not possible in many instances, and for that reason, psychologists must rely on observational studies. Such studies identify associations, and causal interpretation of such associations requires additional assumptions. Research in developmental psychology generally has relied on various forms of linear regression, but this methodology has limitations for causal inference. Fortunately, methodological developments in various fields are providing new tools for causal inference-tools that rely on more plausible assumptions. This article describes the limitations of regression for causal inference and describes how new tools might offer better causal inference. This discussion highlights the importance of properly identifying covariates to include (and exclude) from the analysis. This discussion considers the directed acyclic graph for use in accomplishing this task. With the proper covariates having been chosen, many of the available methods rely on the assumption of "ignorability." The article discusses the meaning of ignorability and considers alternatives to this assumption, such as instrumental variables estimation. Finally, the article considers the use of the tools discussed in the context of a specific research question, the effect of family structure on child development. PMID:20677855

  14. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics☆

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others – during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions – both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then – in principle – they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa. PMID:25957007

  15. African bees to control African elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  16. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  17. Optimal inference with suboptimal models: Addiction and active Bayesian inference

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Wurst, Friedrich; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent’s beliefs – based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment – as opposed to the agent’s beliefs about worldly states (or the task). This distinction shifts an understanding of suboptimal or pathological behaviour away from aberrant inference as such, to understanding the prior beliefs of a subject that cause them to behave less ‘optimally’ than our prior beliefs suggest they should behave. Put simply, suboptimal or pathological behaviour does not speak against understanding behaviour in terms of (Bayes optimal) inference, but rather calls for a more refined understanding of the subject’s generative model upon which their (optimal) Bayesian inference is based. Here, we discuss this fundamental distinction and its implications for understanding optimality, bounded rationality and pathological (choice) behaviour. We illustrate our argument using addictive choice behaviour in a recently described ‘limited offer’ task. Our simulations of pathological choices and addictive behaviour also generate some clear hypotheses, which we hope to pursue in ongoing empirical work. PMID:25561321

  18. 3 CFR 8945 - Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument 8945 Proclamation 8945 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013 Proc. 8945 Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National MonumentBy the President...

  19. 78 FR 59923 - Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...

  1. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor....resource@nrc.gov . The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment Request...

  2. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  3. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-01

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

  4. Detection of prion gene promoter and intron1 indel polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oztabak, K; Ozkan, E; Soysal, I; Paya, I; Un, C

    2009-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disease caused by miss folded prion protein. Studies in the cattle, comparing genetic data from BSE diseased and healthy animals have shown that indel polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of PRNP gene were associated with disease susceptibility. Several studies were conducted to find out allele and genotypic frequencies of indel polymorphisms in promoter and intron 1 of the cattle PRNP gene. Unlike domestic cattle and bison, no indel polymorphisms of the PRNP promoter and intron 1 were examined in any population of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Aim of this study was to analyse frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms (23 bp indel in promoter and 12 bp indel in intron 1) in prion protein coding gene (PRNP) of water buffalo. Therefore a PCR based procedure, previously used in cattle to detect indel polymorphisms of PRNP promoter and intron 1 locus, was applied to 106 Anatolian water buffalo DNAs. Our results have revealed high frequency of in variants and in23/in12 haplotype for PRNP promoter and intron 1 indel polymorphisms in water buffalo. The results of the study have demonstrated that frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms in PRNP gene of the Anatolian water buffalo are significantly different those from cattle and bison PRNP indel polymorphisms. PMID:19912420

  5. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries.

  6. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255

  7. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  8. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo Oocytes Matured in vitro Using iTRAQ Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Sheng; Wu, Feilin; Qi, Yingzi; Lu, Fenghua; Xu, Ping; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protein profiling of buffalo oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and metaphase II (MII) stage, an iTRAQ-based strategy was applied. A total of 3,763 proteins were identified, which representing the largest buffalo oocytes proteome dataset to date. Among these proteins identified, 173 proteins were differentially expressed in GV oocytes and competent MII oocytes, and 146 proteins were differentially abundant in competent and incompetent matured oocytes. Functional and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the up-regulated proteins in competent MII oocytes were related to chromosome segregation, microtubule-based process, protein transport, oxidation reduction, ribosome, and oxidative phosphorylation, etc., in comparison with GV and incompetent MII oocytes. This is the first proteomic report on buffalo oocytes from different maturation stages and developmental competent status. These data will provide valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying buffalo oocyte maturation, and these proteins may potentially act as markers to predict developmental competence of buffalo oocyte during in vitro maturation. PMID:27561356

  10. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  11. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  12. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  13. A LC-MS-MS method to detect recombinant bovine somatotropin misuse in buffalos.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Mazzi, Marco; Boselli, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandra; Donzelli, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a peptide hormone used to increase milk yield in cows and buffalos. In Europe, its use has been banned. However, rbST is sometimes illegally included in zootechnical practices for profit purposes, undermining the fair trade and the law prescriptions. For this reason, efficient and reliable analytical techniques are required to contrast rbST misuse. A few LC-MS-MS methods have been developed to detect, in cow serum, methyonil-rbST, one of the two main rbST forms available on the market. The other form, which is widespread, is identical to the most abundant variant of bovine somatotropin (bST) and differs from the buffalo somatotropin for one amino acid in the N-terminus. For this reason, it is technically possible to distinguish both rbST forms in serum of buffalos. In this work, we describe a novel LC-MS-MS-based method, capable to quantify, with a high sensitivity and selectivity, the methyonil-rbST and the other bST-identical recombinant form in buffalo serum, previously purified using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The method was internally validated and used to analyse 152 serum samples, collected from eight buffalos administered with rbST for a period of 3 months, according to conventional protocols. The obtained results confirmed the suitability of the method in the detection of illegal hormonal treatments. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27146507

  14. Analysis of rumen methanogen diversity in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) under three different diets.

    PubMed

    Franzolin, Raul; St-Pierre, Benoit; Northwood, Korinne; Wright, André-Denis G

    2012-07-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a prominent livestock species for the production of milk and meat in many countries. We investigated the diversity of rumen methanogens in Mediterranean water buffaloes maintained in Brazil under different diets: corn silage, grazing pasture, or sugar cane. A total of 467 clones were isolated from three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries that each represented a distinct feed type. The 467 clones were assigned to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Four OTUs were represented in all three libraries, eight OTUs were library-specific, six OTUs were found in only the corn silage and pasture grazing libraries, and one OTU was shared only between pasture grazing and sugar cane libraries. We found that Methanobrevibacter-related sequences were the most abundant in the water buffaloes sampled for our analysis, in contrast to previously reported studies showing that Methanomicrobium mobile-like methanogens were the most abundant methanogens in water buffaloes of Murrah and Surti breeds sampled in India. Considering the worldwide distribution of water buffaloes and the likely wide variety of diets provided, our results combined with studies from other groups support that larger scope analyses of microbiomes for this livestock species would provide great insight into the contribution of geographical location, breed, and diet in determining the population structure of rumen microorganisms. PMID:22286379

  15. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  16. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  17. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Results Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Conclusions Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:24721163

  18. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene of buffaloes by PCR-SSCP

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Ashwin A.; Kumar, Anil; Kala, Sheo N.; Chhokar, Vinod; Rana, Neeraj; Beniwal, Vikas; Jaglan, Sundeep; Samuchiwal, Sachin K.; Singh, Jitender K.; Mishra, Anamika

    2012-01-01

    Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo. PMID:23055800

  19. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  20. Robust Demographic Inference from Genomic and SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Excoffier, Laurent; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Sousa, Vitor C.; Foll, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS) computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with , the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky) between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets. PMID:24204310

  1. Statistical inference and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Jonathan J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we expose some surprising connections between string theory and statistical inference. We consider a large collective of agents sweeping out a family of nearby statistical models for an M-dimensional manifold of statistical fitting parameters. When the agents making nearby inferences align along a d-dimensional grid, we find that the pooled probability that the collective reaches a correct inference is the partition function of a nonlinear sigma model in d dimensions. Stability under perturbations to the original inference scheme requires the agents of the collective to distribute along two dimensions. Conformal invariance of the sigma model corresponds to the condition of a stable inference scheme, directly leading to the Einstein field equations for classical gravity. By summing over all possible arrangements of the agents in the collective, we reach a string theory. We also use this perspective to quantify how much an observer can hope to learn about the internal geometry of a superstring compactification. Finally, we present some brief speculative remarks on applications to the AdS/CFT correspondence and Lorentzian signature space-times.

  2. Pathogenic 'Bison-type' Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genotype characterized from riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, D; Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Sevilla, I; Juste, R A; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2008-07-01

    Despite low per-animal productivity of ruminants in developing countries, Johne's disease has not been investigated in buffaloes, which are primarily found in these countries. This is due to lack of expertise, diagnostic kits and priority to production diseases like Johne's disease. Presence of pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated by screening of target tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes and large intestine) by culture and IS 900 PCR, in 50 sacrificed buffaloes. Indigenous ELISA kit originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in buffaloes and used to estimate sero-presence of Map in 167 serum samples representing population of buffaloes in Agra region of North India. In culture, 48.0% buffaloes were positive from 50 tissues each from mesenteric lymph nodes (34.0%) and large intestine (36.0%). IS 900 PCR was standardized using specific primers (150 C and 921) and 229 bp-amplified product was characteristic for Map. Of the 25 mesenteric lymph nodes, 40.0% were positive in IS 900 PCR. Genomic DNA from Map cultures was successfully amplified from all the 24 isolates (100.0%). Map was further genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. Culture of tissues showed high presence of Map in target tissues, despite high culling rate in buffalos in view of high demand of buffalo meat. Specific tissue-PCR provided rapid confirmation of Map infection in sacrificed buffaloes. In tissue-PCR, all the cultures were positive as compared to 40.0% detected directly from tissues. ELISA kit using indigenous protoplasmic antigen was highly sensitive as compared to commercial antigen in detecting Map infection therefore, could be used as 'Herd Screening Test' in buffaloes against Johne's disease. This pilot study first time reports a highly pathogenic 'Bison-type' genotype of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of Agra region in North India. PMID:17804069

  3. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (< 1 year-old) was lower than that of older seropositive ones. Furthermore, sera from younger water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry. PMID:27348885

  4. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi; Ramesha, Kerekoppa P

    2015-01-01

    Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance. PMID:26244580

  5. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  6. Storage stability of smoked buffalo rumen meat product treated with ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-06-01

    Smoked buffalo rumen meat products were prepared from 3 times blade tenderized buffalo tripe with 5.0% ginger extract and were subjected to various physico-chemical parameters, microbial profile and sensory quality at 25 ± 1 °C under aerobic packaging. All physico-chemical parameters, microbial counts and sensory evaluation score of ginger extract treated buffalo rumen meat product were higher compared to control. pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, total plate, yeast and mould and staphylococcal counts were increased and extract release volume were decreased significantly with increasing storage period. Throughout the storage period, all microbial counts and sensory evaluation score were within the acceptable limits up to storage period of 15 days at 25 ± 1 °C in LDPE pouches under aerobic packaging. PMID:24876655

  7. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

  8. Thermodynamics of cellular statistical inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Alex; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj

    2014-03-01

    Successful organisms must be capable of accurately sensing the surrounding environment in order to locate nutrients and evade toxins or predators. However, single cell organisms face a multitude of limitations on their accuracy of sensing. Berg and Purcell first examined the canonical example of statistical limitations to cellular learning of a diffusing chemical and established a fundamental limit to statistical accuracy. Recent work has shown that the Berg and Purcell learning limit can be exceeded using Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Here, we recast the cellular sensing problem as a statistical inference problem and discuss the relationship between the efficiency of an estimator and its thermodynamic properties. We explicitly model a single non-equilibrium receptor and examine the constraints on statistical inference imposed by noisy biochemical networks. Our work shows that cells must balance sample number, specificity, and energy consumption when performing statistical inference. These tradeoffs place significant constraints on the practical implementation of statistical estimators in a cell.

  9. Causal inference from observational data.

    PubMed

    Listl, Stefan; Jürges, Hendrik; Watt, Richard G

    2016-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials have long been considered the 'gold standard' for causal inference in clinical research. In the absence of randomized experiments, identification of reliable intervention points to improve oral health is often perceived as a challenge. But other fields of science, such as social science, have always been challenged by ethical constraints to conducting randomized controlled trials. Methods have been established to make causal inference using observational data, and these methods are becoming increasingly relevant in clinical medicine, health policy and public health research. This study provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods specifically designed for causal inference in observational data, including difference-in-differences (DiD) analyses, instrumental variables (IV), regression discontinuity designs (RDD) and fixed-effects panel data analysis. The described methods may be particularly useful in dental research, not least because of the increasing availability of routinely collected administrative data and electronic health records ('big data'). PMID:27111146

  10. We infer light in space.

    PubMed

    Schirillo, James A

    2013-10-01

    In studies of lightness and color constancy, the terms lightness and brightness refer to the qualia corresponding to perceived surface reflectance and perceived luminance, respectively. However, what has rarely been considered is the fact that the volume of space containing surfaces appears neither empty, void, nor black, but filled with light. Helmholtz (1866/1962) came closest to describing this phenomenon when discussing inferred illumination, but previous theoretical treatments have fallen short by restricting their considerations to the surfaces of objects. The present work is among the first to explore how we infer the light present in empty space. It concludes with several research examples supporting the theory that humans can infer the differential levels and chromaticities of illumination in three-dimensional space. PMID:23435628

  11. Prevalence and first molecular identification of Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Daptardar, Monal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Aulakh, Rabinder Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-09-01

    The importance of Sarcocystis hominis in causing zoonotic infections is well known. Recently, S. hominis like cysts have been reported from water buffalo in China. Previous studies indicate prevalence of Sarcocystis species in bovine populations in India but molecular evidence is required for proper species differentiation. We examined two hundred and ninety six cardiac tissue samples of Indian water buffaloes and cattle from northern and western parts of the country. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis using intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion method and Sarcocystis 18S rRNA PCR. The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Twenty five representative samples were sent for sequencing and 19 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Overall, the Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 44% (95% CI 38-49%), 58% (95% CI 53-64%) and 68% (95% CI 63-73%) from both cattle and buffalo samples using intact cyst isolation, pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR, respectively. The results indicate that pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR are more sensitive than intact cyst isolation for detection of Sarcocystis species in tissue samples. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species was high in buffalo as compared to cattle intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that more than one Sarcocystis species are circulating in cattle and water buffaloes in India. The results further indicate that experimental transmission studies are required to re-confirm the identities and host ranges of the Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India. PMID:27447215

  12. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 μm and wall thickness of 2.47 μm in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 μm cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 μm in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 μm in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 μm in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  13. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  14. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27240674

  15. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  16. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  17. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Simon D.W.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Gog, Julia R.; Viboud, Cecile; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Bedford, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data. PMID:25843391

  18. Inferring biotic interactions from proxies.

    PubMed

    Morales-Castilla, Ignacio; Matias, Miguel G; Gravel, Dominique; Araújo, Miguel B

    2015-06-01

    Inferring biotic interactions from functional, phylogenetic and geographical proxies remains one great challenge in ecology. We propose a conceptual framework to infer the backbone of biotic interaction networks within regional species pools. First, interacting groups are identified to order links and remove forbidden interactions between species. Second, additional links are removed by examination of the geographical context in which species co-occur. Third, hypotheses are proposed to establish interaction probabilities between species. We illustrate the framework using published food-webs in terrestrial and marine systems. We conclude that preliminary descriptions of the web of life can be made by careful integration of data with theory. PMID:25922148

  19. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  20. A study of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling iraqi buffalo cows.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the non-specific aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling Iraqi buffalo cows at Nineveh province, validate diagnostic criteria for endometritis and to evaluate the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics for the treatment of endometritis. Data were collected from 60 buffalo cows with history of repeat breeding in different herds. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measurement. Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline with tylosin in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment. The most pre-disposing factor for uterine infection was retained placenta (13.3%). The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were E. coli (23%), Archanobacterium pyogenes (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10%) were mostly isolated from buffaloes with repeat breeding. Vaginal mucus character score was associated with the bacterial growth density score. The difference in PMN was highly significant (p < 0.01) in animals with repeat breeding than control groups. In addition, PMNs was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated r = 0.894 with the character of vaginal discharge. High level of PMNs observed in buffaloes infected with A. pyogenes. Buffalo cows with endometritis had higher CK (321.47 +/- 39.06 vs 162.01 +/- 16.41 U/l) and AST (133.93 +/- 12.43 vs 97.01 +/- 6.86 U/l) activities (p < 0.05) than control-heifers, but no significant difference was observed between buffalo cows with endometritis in CK (321

  1. Demographic inference under a spatially continuous coalescent model.

    PubMed

    Joseph, T A; Hickerson, M J; Alvarado-Serrano, D F

    2016-08-01

    In contrast with the classical population genetics theory that models population structure as discrete panmictic units connected by migration, many populations exhibit heterogeneous spatial gradients in population connectivity across semi-continuous habitats. The historical dynamics of such spatially structured populations can be captured by a spatially explicit coalescent model recently proposed by Etheridge (2008) and Barton et al. (2010a, 2010b) and whereby allelic lineages are distributed in a two-dimensional spatial continuum and move within this continuum based on extinction and coalescent events. Though theoretically rigorous, this model, which we here refer to as the continuum model, has not yet been implemented for demographic inference. To this end, here we introduce and demonstrate a statistical pipeline that couples the coalescent simulator of Kelleher et al. (2014) that simulates genealogies under the continuum model, with an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework for parameter estimation of neighborhood size (that is, the number of locally breeding individuals) and dispersal ability (that is, the distance an offspring can travel within a generation). Using empirically informed simulations and simulation-based ABC cross-validation, we first show that neighborhood size can be accurately estimated. We then apply our pipeline to the South African endemic shrub species Berkheya cuneata to use the resulting estimates of dispersal ability and neighborhood size to infer the average population density of the species. More generally, we show that spatially explicit coalescent models can be successfully integrated into model-based demographic inference. PMID:27118157

  2. Science Shorts: Observation versus Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leager, Craig R.

    2008-01-01

    When you observe something, how do you know for sure what you are seeing, feeling, smelling, or hearing? Asking students to think critically about their encounters with the natural world will help to strengthen their understanding and application of the science-process skills of observation and inference. In the following lesson, students make…

  3. Sample Size and Correlational Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard B.; Doherty, Michael E.; Friedrich, Jeff C.

    2008-01-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the structure of the informational environment makes small samples more informative than large ones for drawing inferences about population correlations. The specific purpose of the studies was to test predictions arising from the signal detection simulations of R. B. Anderson, M. E. Doherty,…

  4. Word Learning as Bayesian Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…

  5. The mechanisms of temporal inference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, B. R.; Green, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of a temporal language are determined by its constituent elements: the temporal objects which it can represent, the attributes of those objects, the relationships between them, the axioms which define the default relationships, and the rules which define the statements that can be formulated. The methods of inference which can be applied to a temporal language are derived in part from a small number of axioms which define the meaning of equality and order and how those relationships can be propagated. More complex inferences involve detailed analysis of the stated relationships. Perhaps the most challenging area of temporal inference is reasoning over disjunctive temporal constraints. Simple forms of disjunction do not sufficiently increase the expressive power of a language while unrestricted use of disjunction makes the analysis NP-hard. In many cases a set of disjunctive constraints can be converted to disjunctive normal form and familiar methods of inference can be applied to the conjunctive sub-expressions. This process itself is NP-hard but it is made more tractable by careful expansion of a tree-structured search space.

  6. Perceptual Inference and Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Joshua C; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit neural inference, combining sensory evidence with…

  7. Improving Explanatory Inferences from Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakow, Ronli Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation comprises three papers that propose, discuss, and illustrate models to make improved inferences about research questions regarding student achievement in education. Addressing the types of questions common in educational research today requires three different "extensions" to traditional educational assessment: (1)…

  8. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Niagara River Ice Boom on the Air Temperature Regime at Buffalo, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Frank H.; Assel, Raymond A.; Gaskill, Daniel W.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, New York, resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. Statistical analysis of Buffalo air temperatures compared with those for Lockport, NY does not reveal statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport (where the temperature gage is located) from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. Analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has increased winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

  9. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  10. An inter-subspecies cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) obtained by transferring of cryopreserved embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, B Z; Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Qin, G S; Zhang, X F; Pang, C Y; Chen, M T; Huang, F X; Li, Z; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of growing cells, confluent or serum-starved cells. A total of 122 cloned blastocysts derived from cryopreserved fibroblasts were cryopreserved and thawed, 37 were survived, the cryosurvival rate was 30.3%. The survived blastocysts were transferred into 15 recipient buffalos. Five of the recipients established pregnancy, but four of them aborted on day 53, 59, 145 and 179 of gestation respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah × Swamp buffalo (2n = 49) received three embryos delivered a 40.5 kg female calf by natural delivery on day 320 of gestation. Up to now (13-month old), the cloned calf has been growing well with no abnormity observed. These results demonstrated that cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos is feasible to produce buffalo offspring. PMID:19788521

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. PMID:25499824

  12. Sequence characterization of river buffalo Toll-like receptor genes 1-10 reveals distinct relationship with cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Gahlawat, S K; Kataria, R S

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the full-length transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes 1-10 of river buffalo. The conceptualized amino acid identity of bubaline TLRs ranged between 86% to 100% with ruminants, while it ranged between 45% to 91% with other vertebrate species. Simple modular architecture tool (SMART) analysis revealed the presence of TIR domains and varying numbers of leucine-rich repeat motifs in all the buffalo TLRs. With respect to TIR domains, TLRs 1, 2 and 3 of river buffalo were found to have 99.3% identity with cattle and 100% identity of TLRs 4, 6 and 10 with sheep. Phylogenetic analysis of TLRs of buffalo and different vertebrate species revealed the clustering of major TLR gene subfamilies with high bootstrap values. The evolutionary relationship between buffalo and other ruminant species was found to vary among different TLRs. In order to understand the relationship between TLRs of different ruminant species, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of pairwise amino acid differences between different species within each TLR was performed. Buffalo and cattle were found to be closely related only with respect to TLRs 1, 2 and 7, while buffalo and sheep were found to be clustering together with respect to TLRs 3, 6, 8 and 10. The distinct relationship of bubaline TLRs with cattle and sheep revealed the possible differences in the pathogen recognition receptor systems in these animals and consequently the differences in their susceptibility/resistance to various invading organisms. PMID:22694123

  13. Degnala disease in buffaloes and cattle: epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Kalra, D S; Bhatia, K C

    1990-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify the epizootiological features associated with Degnala disease occurring in the rice-growing areas of the Indian subcontinent and believed to be associated with mycotoxins. Epizootiological studies were made on disease outbreaks involving 370 herds from 136 villages of Haryana, India, during the years 1968 to 1978. They revealed that the disease, besides being seasonal and regional in occurrence, has a tendency to confine itself to a particular herd or field. All the disease outbreaks occurred during the winter and were associated with the feeding of rice straw. The incidence of the disease, varied from year to year, assuming serious proportions in certain years. The morbidity and mortality rates were 61.61% and 13.93%, respectively, in buffaloes and 13.49% and 2.41% in cattle, with no sex and age differences. Factors such as housing conditions of animals, shape of rice straw stacks, feeding practices, and use of pesticides and fertilizers had no bearing on the occurrence of the disease. Inadequate postharvest drying of rice plants before stacking and stacking at low-lying places or near water channels were the factors identified with occurrence of the disease. In the case of affected herds, 72.07% of the owners stacked rice straw immediately after harvesting, without allowing the plants to dry adequately, versus 10.60% of the owners of unaffected herds. Similarly, 72.97% of the farmers owning affected herds were found to stack rice straw either in low-lying areas or near canals and other water channels, versus 22.73% of the farmers of control herds. PMID:2254859

  14. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  15. Population genetic inference from personal genome data: impact of ancestry and admixture on human genomic variation.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Jeffrey M; Gravel, Simon; Byrnes, Jake; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Musharoff, Shaila; Bryc, Katarzyna; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Brisbin, Abra; Sheth, Vrunda; Chen, Rong; McLaughlin, Stephen F; Peckham, Heather E; Omberg, Larsson; Bormann Chung, Christina A; Stanley, Sarah; Pearlstein, Kevin; Levandowsky, Elizabeth; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Auton, Adam; Keinan, Alon; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Russell, Archie; Reynolds, Andy; Clark, Andrew G; Reese, Martin G; Lincoln, Stephen E; Butte, Atul J; De La Vega, Francisco M; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2012-10-01

    Full sequencing of individual human genomes has greatly expanded our understanding of human genetic variation and population history. Here, we present a systematic analysis of 50 human genomes from 11 diverse global populations sequenced at high coverage. Our sample includes 12 individuals who have admixed ancestry and who have varying degrees of recent (within the last 500 years) African, Native American, and European ancestry. We found over 21 million single-nucleotide variants that contribute to a 1.75-fold range in nucleotide heterozygosity across diverse human genomes. This heterozygosity ranged from a high of one heterozygous site per kilobase in west African genomes to a low of 0.57 heterozygous sites per kilobase in segments inferred to have diploid Native American ancestry from the genomes of Mexican and Puerto Rican individuals. We show evidence of all three continental ancestries in the genomes of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American populations, and the genome-wide statistics are highly consistent across individuals from a population once ancestry proportions have been accounted for. Using a generalized linear model, we identified subtle variations across populations in the proportion of neutral versus deleterious variation and found that genome-wide statistics vary in admixed populations even once ancestry proportions have been factored in. We further infer that multiple periods of gene flow shaped the diversity of admixed populations in the Americas-70% of the European ancestry in today's African Americans dates back to European gene flow happening only 7-8 generations ago. PMID:23040495

  16. Population Genetic Inference from Personal Genome Data: Impact of Ancestry and Admixture on Human Genomic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Gravel, Simon; Byrnes, Jake; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Musharoff, Shaila; Bryc, Katarzyna; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Brisbin, Abra; Sheth, Vrunda; Chen, Rong; McLaughlin, Stephen F.; Peckham, Heather E.; Omberg, Larsson; Bormann Chung, Christina A.; Stanley, Sarah; Pearlstein, Kevin; Levandowsky, Elizabeth; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Auton, Adam; Keinan, Alon; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G.; Russell, Archie; Reynolds, Andy; Clark, Andrew G.; Reese, Martin G.; Lincoln, Stephen E.; Butte, Atul J.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2012-01-01

    Full sequencing of individual human genomes has greatly expanded our understanding of human genetic variation and population history. Here, we present a systematic analysis of 50 human genomes from 11 diverse global populations sequenced at high coverage. Our sample includes 12 individuals who have admixed ancestry and who have varying degrees of recent (within the last 500 years) African, Native American, and European ancestry. We found over 21 million single-nucleotide variants that contribute to a 1.75-fold range in nucleotide heterozygosity across diverse human genomes. This heterozygosity ranged from a high of one heterozygous site per kilobase in west African genomes to a low of 0.57 heterozygous sites per kilobase in segments inferred to have diploid Native American ancestry from the genomes of Mexican and Puerto Rican individuals. We show evidence of all three continental ancestries in the genomes of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American populations, and the genome-wide statistics are highly consistent across individuals from a population once ancestry proportions have been accounted for. Using a generalized linear model, we identified subtle variations across populations in the proportion of neutral versus deleterious variation and found that genome-wide statistics vary in admixed populations even once ancestry proportions have been factored in. We further infer that multiple periods of gene flow shaped the diversity of admixed populations in the Americas—70% of the European ancestry in today’s African Americans dates back to European gene flow happening only 7–8 generations ago. PMID:23040495

  17. Limited spatial response to direct predation risk by African herbivores following predator reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H; Asner, Gregory P

    2016-08-01

    Predators affect ecosystems not only through direct mortality of prey, but also through risk effects on prey behavior, which can exert strong influences on ecosystem function and prey fitness. However, how functionally different prey species respond to predation risk and how prey strategies vary across ecosystems and in response to predator reintroduction are poorly understood. We investigated the spatial distributions of six African herbivores varying in foraging strategy and body size in response to environmental factors and direct predation risk by recently reintroduced lions in the thicket biome of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, using camera trap surveys, GPS telemetry, kill site locations and Light Detection and Ranging. Spatial distributions of all species, apart from buffalo, were driven primarily by environmental factors, with limited responses to direct predation risk. Responses to predation risk were instead indirect, with species distributions driven by environmental factors, and diel patterns being particularly pronounced. Grazers were more responsive to the measured variables than browsers, with more observations in open areas. Terrain ruggedness was a stronger predictor of browser distributions than was vegetation density. Buffalo was the only species to respond to predator encounter risk, avoiding areas with higher lion utilization. Buffalo therefore behaved in similar ways to when lions were absent from the study area. Our results suggest that direct predation risk effects are relatively weak when predator densities are low and the time since reintroduction is short and emphasize the need for robust, long-term monitoring of predator reintroductions to place such events in the broader context of predation risk effects. PMID:27547350

  18. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E. Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P.; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W. Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  19. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  20. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  1. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  2. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  3. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  4. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  5. Library Skills Workbook. Featuring: BISON--Buffalo Information System ONline. 14th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gex, Jeannie L.

    The workbook is designed to give students the basic information needed to conduct effective library research. It helps familiarize students with the Buffalo Information System ONline (BISON), as well as other sources, in print and online, that can be used to search for information. A worksheet is included for students to mark their answers to the…

  6. LACK OF MYOGLOBIN FUNCTION IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED BUFFALO SCULPIN (ENOPHRYS BISON) HEART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance and O2 consumption was investigated using an isolated perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart preparation. ose-response studies at ambient (150 Torr)(l Torr=l33.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conducted as a means of selecting...

  7. Bilateral Pneumothoraces Following BiV ICD Placement: A Case of Buffalo Chest Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rali, Aniket S.; Manyam, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 73 Final Diagnosis: Buffalo chest syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bi-ventricular ICD Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Contralateral pneumothorax following device implantation on the left side has been reported in a few cases. The majority of contralateral pneumothoraces showed evidence of atrial perforation on computed tomography (CT), echocardiography, or chest x-rays and required lead revision. To the best of our knowledge there is only 1 other reported case of contralateral pneumothorax without evidence of macro-displacement of the atrial lead. In that case the patient experienced a right-sided pneumothorax on day 1 after undergoing repositioning of the atrial lead. Case Report: The current case is unique on several accounts, including timing of the contralateral pneumothorax and no evidence of associated atrial lead perforation on device interrogation or CT imaging. Furthermore, the appearance of contralateral pneumothorax within 8 hours of clamping of the ipsilateral chest tube argues in favor of a pleuro-pleural fistula. Conclusions: The term ‘buffalo chest’ refers to a single pleural space, with no anatomical separation of the 2 hemithoraces, as seen in an American buffalo or bison. We believe this to be a case of buffalo chest syndrome. PMID:26431396

  8. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  10. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  11. Rumen fermentation and degradability in buffalo and cattle using the in vitro gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, S; Moniello, G; Piccolo, V; Bovera, F; Infascelli, F; Tudisco, R; Cutrignelli, M I

    2008-06-01

    An in vitro trial was conducted to investigate the effect of different inoculum sources (buffalo vs. cattle) on rumen fermentation and degradability. Incubations were carried out using rumen fluid obtained from buffalo or cattle fed the same diet [60% grass hay and 40% concentrate; 18 kg dry matter (DM)/day]. The fermentation kinetics of eight feeds commonly used in ruminant nutrition (alfalfa hay, barley meal, beet pulp, corn meal and silage, ryegrass hay and silage and soya bean meal s.e.) were studied with the in vitro gas production technique and rumen fermentation parameters (substrate disappearance, pH and volatile fatty acids production) were determined after 120 h of incubation. The linear relationship indicates that the microbial metabolic pathways of the two inocula for all the substrates were qualitatively similar, albeit often quantitatively different. In this in vitro study, a significant influence of rumen inoculum (buffalo vs. cow) on fermentation and degradability of the examined substrates was found. The differences in buffalo and cattle rumen fermentation can be explained with a different microbial activity of the two ruminant species, because of different amount of microbial population or microbial population constituted by different species of bacteria and protozoa. PMID:18477317

  12. Identification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins by peptide mass fingerprinting in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saxena, Abhishake; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, I; Agarwal, S K

    2014-08-01

    Ruminant placentas synthesize pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) during pregnancy, which serve as biomarkers of pregnancy. The present study was conducted to verify, whether PAGs are expressed in buffalo placenta by using lectin-based affinity chromatography and peptide mass finger printing (PMF). Fetal cotyledonary tissues were collected from gravid uteri procured from slaughtered house. Proteins were extracted and subjected to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin affinity chromatography to isolate the PAGs. The isolated glycoproteins were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. PMF results of the 75 kDa protein revealed presence of two PAGs (PAG-7 and -11). The PAG-7 consisted of about 170 mass signals, of which 16 were assigned to corresponding/translated cDNA sequences of buffalo PAG-7, leading to sequence coverage of 40%. PMF result of PAG-11 showed 170 mass signals, of which 15 were assigned to buffalo PAG-11, leading to sequence coverage of 34%. In conclusion, the glycoprotein isolated from placental extract corresponding to 75 kDa band on SDS PAGE gel was a mixture of PAG-7 and -11, which may help in development of suitable diagnostics for pregnancy in buffalo. PMID:25296505

  13. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes. PMID:26242833

  14. Clinical and ultrasonographic observations of functional and mechanical intestinal obstruction in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Khalphallah, Arafat; Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; Elmeligy, Enas; El-Hawari, Sayed F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed for clinical and laboratory evaluation of intestinal obstruction (IO) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with special emphasis on the diagnostic value of ultrasonographic findings. Materials and Methods: A total number of 30 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into 2 groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased group (n=20). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, abdominal pain, various degrees of abdominal distention, and absence or presence of scanty mucoid faces. These animals were subjected to clinical and ultrasonographic as well as laboratory examinations. Results: Based on ultrasonographic findings, various forms of IO were diagnosed. Functional obstruction, paralytic ileus, was diagnosed in 17 cases (85%) while mechanical IO was diagnosed only in 3 cases (15%). Out of 17 cases of paralytic ileus, both proximal and distal ileuses were successfully imaged in 8 and 9 cases, respectively. Proximal ileus was imaged from the right dorsal flank region as a single dilated loop of diameter >6 cm, while distal ileus was imaged as multiple dilated loops of diameter <6 cm. Mechanical obstruction due to duodenal intussusception was visualized as two concentric rings with outer echogenic wall and hypoechoic lumen. All cases of IO showed leukocytosis, hypoproteinemia, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. Conclusion: Ultrasonography proved to be an essential tool for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various forms of IO in buffaloes. PMID:27284223

  15. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  16. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW.; Washington, DC 20220;...

  17. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  18. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  19. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffaloes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...

  20. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion. PMID:16240388

  1. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  2. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  3. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  4. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York... issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a... of Transportation, will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with...

  5. The Self as Cultural Metaphor in Acosta's Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Genaro M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the personal life of Oscar Zeta Acosta as revealed in his work "The Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo," tracing Acosta's involvement in the Chicano social movement in Los Angeles in the late 1960s and his development of cultural identity and political consciousness. (DMM)

  6. Risk factors associated with Mycobacterium bovis skin positivity in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Irfan; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Ahmad, Mansur Ud Din; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Chaudhry, Mamoona; Sadique, Umer

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and associated risk factors in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan. Cattle and buffalo, randomly selected from all four towns of District Peshawar, were screened for bovine tuberculosis using comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT). For obtaining data on risk factors, sociodemographic condition, animal characteristics, and management, interviewer administered pretested questionnaire to animal owners. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to measure association between risk factors and comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin reactors. A total of 556 cattle and buffalo were screened for bovine tuberculosis. Out of 556 animals screened, 5.75 % (3.9-8.0 %) were found positive. The prevalence was higher in old animals (p = 0.001) as compared to younger animals. Prevalence also varied with source of animal (either raised on farm or purchased), stay of animals at night (indoor or outdoor), and herd size. Farmer's knowledge about transmission of TB from animals to human as well as signs and symptoms of TB was extremely low. Only 3.6 % farmers correctly stated the combination of three major symptoms of TB. Results of the study call for immediate intervention to control bTB in animals as well as its transmission to human population. Furthermore, it is suggested to emphasize on local epidemiology of bTB and husbandry practices of cattle and buffalo during the control program. PMID:26754290

  7. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles...

  8. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  9. State University of New York College at Buffalo: Selected Financial Management Practices. Report 95-S-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An audit of selected financial management procedures at the State University of New York College at Buffalo is reported. The audit addressed two issues: (1) whether the college's academic departments maintain an adequate time and attendance control system for faculty members and (2) whether the college has established an adequate system of…

  10. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to amend and establish regulations requiring safety zones for firework events that take place annually within the Captain of the Port Zone Buffalo. This proposed rule is intended to amend and establish restrictions on vessel access to designated areas on U.S. navigable waterways during certain fireworks displays. The safety zones amended and established by this......

  11. Identity and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in water buffalo calves in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Zidan, Shereif; Feng, Yaoyu; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-01-16

    Little is known about the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in water buffaloes. In this study, we examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. in water buffalo calves in Egypt. Rectal fecal specimens from 179 calves and 359 adults were screened microscopically for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 microscopy-positive specimens from calves were genotyped by DNA sequence analysis of the small-subunit rRNA gene, and Cryptosporidium parvum was subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium ryanae was found in 10 specimens and C. parvum in 7 specimens, with the former belonging to the newly identified C. ryanae buffalo variant and the latter belonging to the subtypes IIdA20G1 (in 5 specimens) and IIaA15G1R1 (in 2 specimens). The prevailing occurrence of C. ryanae and the subtype family IId of C. parvum and the absence of C. bovis and C. andersoni represent some features of Cryptosporidium transmission in water buffaloes in Egypt. PMID:22963712

  12. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  13. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  14. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165...

  15. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  16. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  17. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  18. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  19. Bayesian Inference on Proportional Elections

    PubMed Central

    Brunello, Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software. PMID:25786259

  20. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    PubMed

    Brunello, Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software. PMID:25786259

  1. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  2. Statistical learning and selective inference

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the problem of “selective inference.” This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have “cherry-picked”—searched for the strongest associations—means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis. PMID:26100887

  3. Network Plasticity as Bayesian Inference

    PubMed Central

    Legenstein, Robert; Maass, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    General results from statistical learning theory suggest to understand not only brain computations, but also brain plasticity as probabilistic inference. But a model for that has been missing. We propose that inherently stochastic features of synaptic plasticity and spine motility enable cortical networks of neurons to carry out probabilistic inference by sampling from a posterior distribution of network configurations. This model provides a viable alternative to existing models that propose convergence of parameters to maximum likelihood values. It explains how priors on weight distributions and connection probabilities can be merged optimally with learned experience, how cortical networks can generalize learned information so well to novel experiences, and how they can compensate continuously for unforeseen disturbances of the network. The resulting new theory of network plasticity explains from a functional perspective a number of experimental data on stochastic aspects of synaptic plasticity that previously appeared to be quite puzzling. PMID:26545099

  4. Causal inference based on counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Höfler, M

    2005-01-01

    Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept. PMID:16159397

  5. Multigene phylogenetics reveals temporal diversification of major African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Maryam; Marek, Paul E; Peery, Ashley; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Tu, Zhijian; Simard, Frederic; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    The major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa belong to subgenus Cellia. Yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among African mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. Knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. In this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the African malaria vectors An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. nili, the Asian malaria mosquito An. stephensi, and the outgroup species Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. To infer the phylogeny, we identified orthologous sequences uniformly distributed approximately every 5 Mb in the five chromosomal arms. The sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods. Bayesian molecular dating using a relaxed log normal model was used to infer divergence times. Trees from individual genes agreed with each other, placing An. nili as a basal clade that diversified from the studied malaria mosquito species 47.6 million years ago (mya). Other African malaria vectors originated more recently, and independently acquired traits related to vectorial capacity. The lineage leading to An. gambiae diverged 30.4 mya, while the African vector An. funestus and the Asian vector An. stephensi were the most closely related sister taxa that split 20.8 mya. These results were supported by consistently high bootstrap values in concatenated phylogenetic trees generated individually for each chromosomal arm. Genome-wide multigene phylogenetic analysis is a useful approach for discerning historic relationships among malaria vectors, providing a framework for the correct interpretation of genomic changes across species, and comprehending the evolutionary origins of this ubiquitous and deadly insect-borne disease. PMID:24705448

  6. Evaluation of tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists on buffalo uterus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satish K; Garg, K M; Sabir, M

    2004-09-01

    Present study was conducted on prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), oxytocin, (OT), potassium chloride (KCI) and barium chloride (BaCl2) pre-contracted perimetrial uterine strips of dioestrus and pregnant buffaloes to evaluate the tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-albuterol (salbutamol) and terbutaline. Cumulative concentration-response curves of both the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists were constructed and the mean effective concentration (EC50) values determined and compared statistically. Based on the comparative EC50 values in relaxing the pre-contracted uterine strips with different spasmogens, the rank order potency of albuterol was found to be--PGF2alpha > BaCl2 > OT > KCl on uterine strips from dioestrus animals, while OT> BaCl2> PGF2alpha >KCl on the uterine strips of pregnant buffaloes. The rank order potency of terbutaline on uterine strips from dioestrus stage animals was- BaCl2 > OT > KCl > PGF2alpha, while BaCl2 > PGF2alpha > KCl > OT on uterine tissues of pregnant animals. Thus, irrespective of the state of uterus, whether gravid or non-gravid, KCl-depolarized uterine tissues required comparatively higher concentrations of albuterol or terbutaline to produce tocolytic effect. High concentrations of K+ in biophase may have interfered with the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-induced outward K+ current and hyperpolarization. From the results of present study, it was evident that selective beta2 adrenergic agonists had good tocolytic efficacy on the uterus of buffaloes. Further, indirectly the possibility of existence and activation of K(Ca) channels by selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists in mediating tocolysis of buffalo myometrium can not be ruled out, however, detailed studies using specific K(Ca) channel blockers are required for characterizing the nature of such channels in buffalo uterus. PMID:15462186

  7. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  8. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  9. Time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries, Houston, Texas, August 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.; Schaer, Jasper D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a time-of-travel study in the Buffalo Bayou watershed during low flow in August 1999. The study was done as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program. The EMPACT program was designed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to work with communities to “make timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information available to millions of people in the largest metropolitan areas across the country.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). Buffalo Bayou, located in Houston, Texas, was chosen as a pilot project because it is a frequently used recreational water source, it has many water-treatment facilities located along its stream segments, and it has a history of water-quality problems (Houston-Galveston Area Council, 2000). One component of the pilot project is to develop a water-quality simulation model that can be used to assess the effects of noncompliance events on Buffalo Bayou. Because accurate estimates of time of travel during low flow are required to develop the model, the time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries was determined using dye tracing methods. The study was conducted during low flow in a 38.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou, a 9.6-mile reach of Whiteoak Bayou, a 5.9-mile reach of Mason Creek, and a 6.6-mile reach of Bear Creek. Efforts to determine the time of travel in a 7.5-mile reach of Horsepen Creek were unsuccessful. This report explains the approach used to conduct the study and presents the results of the study

  10. Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Varshney, J P; Naresh, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at 526 million US dollars annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk residues. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a homeopathic complex in the management of clinical udder health problems of riverine buffaloes. Cases of subclinical mastitis were excluded from the study. A total of 102 mastitic quarters (fibrosed--40, nonfibrosed--62) and five cases each of blood in milk and udder oedema in lactating buffaloes were treated with a homeopathic complex consisting of Phytolacca 200c, Calcarea fluorica 200c, Silicea 30c, Belladona 30c, Bryonia 30c, Arnica 30c, Conium 30c and Ipecacuanha 30c. The diagnosis of udder diseases and recovery criterion was based on physical examination of udder and milk and CMT/WST score. Bacteriological analysis and somatic cell count were not performed. Treatment was 80 and 96.72% effective in cases of fibrotic mastitis and nonfibrosed mastitis respectively. Recovery period was 21-42 days (fibrosed) and 4-15 days (nonfibrosed). Udder oedema and blood in milk responded favourably in 2-5 days. Cost of treatment was 0.07 US dollars per day. The homeopathic complex medicine may be effective and economical in the management of udder health problems of buffaloes. Definitive conclusions are premature due to the limited number of observations and lack of control group. PMID:14960098

  11. Fertility response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using modified Ovsynch based timed insemination protocols

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, K. K.; Shukla, S. N.; Inwati, P.; Shrivastava, O. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Suboestrus constitutes the largest factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Therefore, oestrus synchronization (OS) and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) is considered an alternative approach to enhance reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Thus, the present study was carried out to study the efficacy of modified Ovsynch protocol with fixed time insemination in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Total 50 post-partum anoestrus dairy buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into 5 Groups, each comprising ten animals (n=10). Animals of Group I received buserelin acetate 10 μg(GnRH) at day 0 and 9, and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at day 7; in Group II similar to Group I except double dose of Gn RH (20 μg) at day 0; in Group III, similar to Group I plus additional administration of insulin on day 0, 1 and 2; in Group IV, similar to Group II plus additional administration of insulin on day 0,1 and 2; in Group V similar to Group I except replacement of first Gn RH with insulin on day 0,1 and 2. Animal of all groups were inseminated at fixed time using frozen semen at 60 h and 72 h after PGF2α administration and confirmed for pregnancy at day 60 post-insemination. Results: The results revealed satisfactory and comparable synchronization of oestrus (60-80%) and conception rate (20-40%) among the various treatment groups in the present study. The better synchronization was observed in modified protocols. However, non-significantly higher conception rate was recorded in modified Ovsynch protocol (40% each in Group II-V) as compared to 20% in Group-I (p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study comparatively higher OS and conception following insulin modified Ovsynch based timed AI protocols in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes was found satisfactory and comparable. PMID:27047090

  12. Efficacy of ivermectin against mange and gastrointestinal nematodes of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gill, B S; Singh, J; Gill, B S; Singh, A; Khehra, S S; Rai, A; Hussain, O

    1989-05-01

    The incidence of mange in dairy buffalo in India has increased significantly in recent years. The authors record an outbreak of mange affecting a dairy herd stocking about 30,000 buffalo and 1000 cows. The mange mites were either Sarcoptes scabiei or Psoroptes ovis, or a mixed infestation of both. The morbidity rate was 5-30% varying from group to group, with 100% in a severely affected group. Signs noticed were progressive dermatitis, alopecia, keratinization, skin thickened and wrinkled, intense itching and marked loss of condition often ending in death. Great losses of young animals from mange and gastrointestinal nematodes are very common in dairy herds in India. In view of their economic importance, the activity of ivermectin against naturally occurring mange and parasitic infections of adult buffalo and buffalo calves was determined. Ivermectin was administered by subcutaneous injection (IVOMEC 1% w/v - MSD AGVET) at a dose of 200 mcg kg-1 body weight. The efficacy was ascertained from the disappearance of mites from skin scrapings and the reduction in numbers of worm eggs in the faeces. The results of the treatment were dramatic: the mites disappeared within 2 weeks of the drug being administered in the majority of animals, with marked improvement in skin lesions. Four buffalo which had their entire body surface affected with mange needed a second dose on Day 28 for complete recovery. The effect on the nematodes was equally spectacular, with infections of Neoascaris vitulorum, Trichostrongylidae, Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum being eliminated within 1 week of treatment. PMID:2741301

  13. The Struggles over African Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  14. Psychological Misdiagnosis of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garretson, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews historical and current problems with making accurate psychological diagnoses of African Americans. Suggests that misdiagnosis is strongly related to pathologization of African-American culture itself. Explores diagnostic process, stereotypes of African-American psychopathology, cultural differences in values and life stressors, and…

  15. Self-enforcing Private Inference Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanjiang; Li, Yingjiu; Weng, Jian; Zhou, Jianying; Bao, Feng

    Private inference control enables simultaneous enforcement of inference control and protection of users' query privacy. Private inference control is a useful tool for database applications, especially when users are increasingly concerned about individual privacy nowadays. However, protection of query privacy on top of inference control is a double-edged sword: without letting the database server know the content of user queries, users can easily launch DoS attacks. To assuage DoS attacks in private inference control, we propose the concept of self-enforcing private inference control, whose intuition is to force users to only make inference-free queries by enforcing inference control themselves; otherwise, penalty will inflict upon the violating users.

  16. Narcolepsy in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although narcolepsy affects 0.02–0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Design/Setting: Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. Patients: 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Results: Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Conclusions: Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. Citation: Kawai M, O'Hara R, Einen M, Lin L

  17. Reticulo-ruminal motility in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed a low quality roughage diet.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, C S; Kennedy, P M; John, A

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of A and B sequence contractions of the reticulo-rumen on passage rate of digesta was compared in buffaloes and cattle fed low quality rhodes grass. 2. Both species ate the same amount per unit body weight but buffaloes spent 53% more time ruminating than cattle. 3. Buffaloes had fewer A and B sequence contractions each day and the rate of these contractions during eating, ruminating and at rest were slower. 4. A larger pool of fine feed particles in the rumen of buffaloes, generated by extra ruminating activity was associated with the 30% shorter mean residence time of particulate matter in the forestomach compared with cattle. 5. It is concluded that the difference in the number and frequency of contractions between the species was insufficient to affect passage rate of digesta from the stomach. PMID:2575949

  18. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  19. 76 FR 6134 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 4363, Goldome, Buffalo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 4363, Goldome, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice of termination of...

  20. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  1. Structural and Functional Insights into the Catalytic Inactivity of the Major Fraction of Buffalo Milk Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Gadave, Kaustubh S.; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Kaushik, Jai K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Methods and Findings Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 0.11 sec−1 µM−1 of buffalo XO was 8–10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm) of 46,000 M−1 cm−1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. Conclusion A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way. PMID:24498153

  2. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes. PMID:26354679

  3. Seasonal variations in developmental competence and relative abundance of gene transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoon, Ahmed S; Gabler, Christoph; Holder, Christoph; Kandil, Omaima M; Einspanier, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    Hot season is a major constraint to production and reproduction in buffaloes. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of season on ovarian function, developmental competence, and the relative abundance of gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, pairs of buffalo ovaries were collected during cold season (CS, autumn and winter) and hot season (HS, spring and summer), and the number of antral follicles was recorded. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated and evaluated according to their morphology into four Grades. In experiment 2, Grade A and B COCs collected during CS and HS were in vitro matured (IVM) for 24 hours under standard conditions at 38.5 °C in a humidified air of 5% CO2. After IVM, cumulus cells were removed and oocytes were fixed, stained with 1% aceto-orcein, and evaluated for nuclear configuration. In vitro matured buffalo oocytes harvested during CS or HS were in vitro fertilized (IVF) using frozen-thawed buffalo semen and cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage. In experiment 3, buffalo COCs and in vitro matured oocytes were collected during CS and HS, and then snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for gene expression analysis. Total RNA was extracted from COCs and in vitro matured oocytes, and complementary DNA was synthesized; quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for eight candidate genes including GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, GDF9, BMP15, HSP70, and SOD2. The results indicated that HS significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the number of antral follicles and the number of COCs recovered per ovary. The number of Grade A, B, and C COCs was lower (P < 0.05) during HS than CS. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the number of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage and increased the percentage of degenerated oocytes compared with CS. Oocytes collected during HS also showed signs of cytoplasmic degeneration. After IVF

  4. The Other African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matory, J. Lorand

    Black North America is ethnically and culturally diverse. It contains many groups who do not call themselves or have not always called themselves "Negro,""Black,""African-American," and so forth, such as Louisiana Creoles of color and many of the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. There are also numerous North American ethnic groups of African…

  5. African American rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R; Stucker, Fred J

    2014-08-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of African descent requires a patient-specific approach, because the goals and ideal proportions differ from the white nose. This article discusses approaches to surgical correction of common anatomic variations. In addition, common pitfalls are outlined. PMID:25049123

  6. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  7. Trypanosomiasis in Venezuelan water buffaloes: association of packed-cell volumes with seroprevalence and current trypanosome infection.

    PubMed

    García, H; García, M-E; Pérez, G; Bethencourt, A; Zerpa, E; Pérez, H; Mendoza-León, A

    2006-06-01

    The seroprevalence of trypanosomiasis and the prevalence of current trypanosome infection in water buffaloes from the most important livestock areas of Venezuela were evaluated by IFAT and the microhaematocrit centrifugation technique, respectively. The usefulness of a PCR-based assay for identifying the trypanosome species in the buffaloes was also evaluated. Of the 644 animals investigated, 40 (6.2%) were found infected with trypanosomes by blood centrifugation, and 196 (30.4%) were found positive for anti-trypanosome antibodies, by IFAT. The results of the PCR-based assay indicated that 92.5% of the animals with current infections were infected with Trypanosoma vivax and the rest with T. theileri (the first molecular confirmation of T. theileri in Venezuelan water buffaloes). The national programme to treat and prevent trypanosome infections in the buffaloes does not appear to be meeting with great success, even though it is focused on T. vivax. Although the level of parasitaemia was categorized as low for 28 (70%) of the infections detected (and packed-cell volumes appeared to be unassociated with IFAT result, and uncorrelated, in the infected animals, with level of parasitaemia), the 40 infected buffaloes had a significantly lower mean packed-cell volume than the uninfected animals (P<0.05). Farmers should therefore be made aware of the probability of trypanosome-attributable losses in buffalo productivity. PMID:16762110

  8. Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

  9. Cross-cultural management of pest animal damage: a case study of feral buffalo control in Australia's Kakadu National Park.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control. PMID:14986894

  10. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes. PMID:27600968

  11. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of the Chinese Swamp Buffalo by RNA Sequencing and SSR Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xingrong; Zhu, Peng; Duan, Anqin; Tan, Zhengzhun; Huang, Jian; Li, Hui; Chen, Mingtan; Liang, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis) is vital to the lives of small farmers and has tremendous economic importance. However, a lack of genomic information has hampered research on augmenting marker assisted breeding programs in this species. Thus, a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of B. bubalis was conducted to generate transcriptomic sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated a total of 54,109,173 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed, which yielded 86,017 unigenes, with an average length of 972.41 bp, an N50 of 1,505 bp, and an average GC content of 49.92%. A total of 62,337 unigenes were successfully annotated. Among the annotated unigenes, 27,025 (43.35%) and 23,232 (37.27%) unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases (E-value < 1.0E-5), respectively. Of these annotated unigenes, 14,439 and 15,813 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO) categories and EuKaryotic Ortholog Group (KOG) cluster, respectively. In addition, a total of 14,167 unigenes were assigned to 331 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Furthermore, 17,401 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified as potential molecular markers. One hundred and fifteen primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification to detect polymorphisms. The results revealed that 110 primer pairs (95.65%) yielded PCR amplicons and 69 primer pairs (60.00%) presented polymorphisms in 35 individual buffaloes. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the five swamp buffalo populations were clustered together, whereas two river buffalo breeds clustered separately. In the present study, the Illumina RNA-seq technology was utilized to perform transcriptome analysis and SSR marker discovery in the swamp buffalo without using a reference genome. Our findings will enrich the current SSR markers resources and help spearhead molecular

  13. Saliva ferning, an unorthodox estrus detection method in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ravinder, R; Kaipa, Onnureddy; Baddela, Vijay Simha; Singhal Sinha, Eshu; Singh, Prashant; Nayan, Varij; Velagala, Chandra Sekhar Naidu; Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2016-09-15

    Estrus detection is a major problem in buffalo husbandry because of inconsistent expression of estrous signs at different seasons, and a high prevalence of the silent heat and postpartum anestrus in this species. Around 50% of the estrus events in buffaloes are currently undetected in the field conditions, resulting in a huge economic loss. Although the cervicovaginal fluid fern patterns confirm the estrus for a breeding decision, the fluid discharge is absent during the silent-heat condition. Therefore, the present study focused on the crystallization patterns of the saliva as an alternative method for estrus detection in buffaloes. Saliva is a body fluid available regularly, and its ferning ability before ovulation was established in women. In this study, eight female nonpregnant Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were considered during two experimental periods of 3 months each. One period was in summer with five animals, and another period was in rainy season with three animals. Estrus was determined by the estrus symptoms, ovarian ultrasonography, and salivary estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) ratio. A total of 450 saliva samples were collected from these animals on the daily basis. The salivary smear was prepared with 20 μL of the cell-free saliva on a clean glass slide, and its microscopic images were captured at a magnification of × 200. The images were used for fractal analysis as the salivary crystallization or fern patterns follow the fractal geometry. Saliva at estrus showed a typical symmetrical fern-like crystallization patterns with significantly (P < 0.05) lower fractal dimension values. Salivary estradiol levels and E2/P4 ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the estrus stage than those at the diestrus stage. An average period of an estrous cycle was 21.7 ± 2.7 days (n = 18 estrous cycles) in buffaloes on the basis of distinct salivary crystallization patterns. The proportion of estrus detection by the salivary fern patterns

  14. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  15. Effects of eucalyptus crude oils supplementation on rumen fermentation, microorganism and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Kang, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  16. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive

  17. African Ancestry Is Associated with Asthma Risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, María; Wade, Michael S.; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Kittles, Rick A.; Wang, Deli; Papaiahgari, Srinivas; Ford, Jean G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common complex condition with clear racial and ethnic differences in both prevalence and severity. Asthma consultation rates, mortality, and severe symptoms are greatly increased in African descent populations of developed countries. African ancestry has been associated with asthma, total serum IgE and lower pulmonary function in African-admixed populations. To replicate previous findings, here we aimed to examine whether African ancestry was associated with asthma susceptibility in African Americans. In addition, we examined for the first time whether African ancestry was associated with asthma exacerbations. Methodology/Principal Findings After filtering for self-reported ancestry and genotype data quality, samples from 1,117 self-reported African-American individuals from New York and Baltimore (394 cases, 481 controls), and Chicago (321 cases followed for asthma exacerbations) were analyzed. Genetic ancestry was estimated based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs) selected for being highly divergent among European and West African populations (95 AIMs for New York and Baltimore, and 66 independent AIMs for Chicago). Among case-control samples, the mean African ancestry was significantly higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (82.0±14.0% vs. 77.8±18.1%, mean difference 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI):2.0–6.4], p<0.0001). This association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.69–12.29, p = 0.003). African ancestry failed to show an association with asthma exacerbations (p = 0.965) using a model based on longitudinal data of the number of exacerbations followed over 1.5 years. Conclusions/Significance These data replicate previous findings indicating that African ancestry constitutes a risk factor for asthma and suggest that elevated asthma rates in African Americans can be partially attributed to African genetic ancestry. PMID:22235241

  18. The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Fagundes Pereira, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Our results demonstrated a high OPV seropositivity in buffalo herds on Marajó Island and molecular data confirmed the circulation of VACV. The geographical isolation conditionmight be a sine qua non condition to explain our results. PMID:27260805

  19. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  20. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. PMID:26441033

  1. Identification of polymorphism in fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene and its association with milk fat traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Praveen Kumar; Goyal, Shubham; Mishra, Shailendra Kumar; Arora, Reena; Mukesh, Manishi; Niranjan, Saket Kumar; Kathiravan, Periasamy; Kataria, Ranjit Singh

    2016-04-01

    The fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene, known to be associated with fat percentage of milk and meat in bovines, was screened among swamp and riverine buffaloes for polymorphism detection and further association with milk fat contents. An SNP g.307C > T was identified in the intron 2 (+53 exon 2) region of FABP3 gene of Indian buffaloes. The SNP identified was genotyped in 692 animals belonging to 15 riverine, swamp and hybrid (riverine × swamp) buffalo populations of diverse phenotypes and utilities, by PCR-RFLP. A marked contrast was observed between the C and T allele frequencies in three types of buffaloes. The frequency of C allele ranged from 0.67 to 0.96 in pure swamp buffalo populations, with the highest in Mizoram (0.96). Whereas the frequency of T allele was high across all the Indian riverine buffalo breeds, ranging from 0.57 to 0.96. None of the genotypes at FABP3 g.307C > T locus was found to have significant association with milk fat and other production traits in Mehsana dairy buffalo breed. Our study revealed marked differences in the allele frequencies between riverine and swamp buffaloes at FABP3 g.307C > T locus, without any significant association with different milk traits in riverine buffaloes. PMID:26894500

  2. Inferring admixture histories of human populations using linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David; Berger, Bonnie

    2013-04-01

    Long-range migrations and the resulting admixtures between populations have been important forces shaping human genetic diversity. Most existing methods for detecting and reconstructing historical admixture events are based on allele frequency divergences or patterns of ancestry segments in chromosomes of admixed individuals. An emerging new approach harnesses the exponential decay of admixture-induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) as a function of genetic distance. Here, we comprehensively develop LD-based inference into a versatile tool for investigating admixture. We present a new weighted LD statistic that can be used to infer mixture proportions as well as dates with fewer constraints on reference populations than previous methods. We define an LD-based three-population test for admixture and identify scenarios in which it can detect admixture events that previous formal tests cannot. We further show that we can uncover phylogenetic relationships among populations by comparing weighted LD curves obtained using a suite of references. Finally, we describe several improvements to the computation and fitting of weighted LD curves that greatly increase the robustness and speed of the calculations. We implement all of these advances in a software package, ALDER, which we validate in simulations and apply to test for admixture among all populations from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), highlighting insights into the admixture history of Central African Pygmies, Sardinians, and Japanese. PMID:23410830

  3. Quantum Inference on Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Theodore; Low, Guang Hao; Chuang, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    Because quantum physics is naturally probabilistic, it seems reasonable to expect physical systems to describe probabilities and their evolution in a natural fashion. Here, we use quantum computation to speedup sampling from a graphical probability model, the Bayesian network. A specialization of this sampling problem is approximate Bayesian inference, where the distribution on query variables is sampled given the values e of evidence variables. Inference is a key part of modern machine learning and artificial intelligence tasks, but is known to be NP-hard. Classically, a single unbiased sample is obtained from a Bayesian network on n variables with at most m parents per node in time (nmP(e) - 1 / 2) , depending critically on P(e) , the probability the evidence might occur in the first place. However, by implementing a quantum version of rejection sampling, we obtain a square-root speedup, taking (n2m P(e) -1/2) time per sample. The speedup is the result of amplitude amplification, which is proving to be broadly applicable in sampling and machine learning tasks. In particular, we provide an explicit and efficient circuit construction that implements the algorithm without the need for oracle access.

  4. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure. PMID:16922241

  5. Inferring Demographic History from a Spectrum of Shared Haplotype Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the use of genetics to elucidate ancestral history and demography. Whole genome data from humans and other species are revealing complex stories of divergence and admixture that were left undiscovered by previous smaller data sets. A central challenge is to estimate the timing of past admixture and divergence events, for example the time at which Neanderthals exchanged genetic material with humans and the time at which modern humans left Africa. Here, we present a method for using sequence data to jointly estimate the timing and magnitude of past admixture events, along with population divergence times and changes in effective population size. We infer demography from a collection of pairwise sequence alignments by summarizing their length distribution of tracts of identity by state (IBS) and maximizing an analytic composite likelihood derived from a Markovian coalescent approximation. Recent gene flow between populations leaves behind long tracts of identity by descent (IBD), and these tracts give our method power by influencing the distribution of shared IBS tracts. In simulated data, we accurately infer the timing and strength of admixture events, population size changes, and divergence times over a variety of ancient and recent time scales. Using the same technique, we analyze deeply sequenced trio parents from the 1000 Genomes project. The data show evidence of extensive gene flow between Africa and Europe after the time of divergence as well as substructure and gene flow among ancestral hominids. In particular, we infer that recent African-European gene flow and ancient ghost admixture into Europe are both necessary to explain the spectrum of IBS sharing in the trios, rejecting simpler models that contain less population structure. PMID:23754952

  6. Orbital forcing and the spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene: stable isotope evidence from South African speleothems.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Philip J; Marshall, Jim D; Weedon, Graham P; Latham, Alf G; Herries, Andy I R; Kuykendall, Kevin L

    2007-11-01

    Reconstructing Plio-Pleistocene African paleoenvironments is important for models of early hominin evolution, but is often hampered by low-resolution or discontinuous climatic data. Here, we present high-resolution stable oxygen and carbon isotope time series data from two flowstones (secondary cave deposits) from the South African hominin-bearing Makapansgat Valley. The age of the older of the two flowstones (Collapsed Cone) is constrained by magnetostratigraphy to approximately 4-5 Ma; the younger flowstone (Buffalo Cave) grew between 2.0-1.5 Ma, as determined by magnetostratigraphy and orbital tuning of the isotopic data. The carbon isotope data is used as a proxy for the proportion of C(4) grasses in the local environment and the oxygen isotope data reflects monsoon rainfall intensity. The carbon isotope evidence indicates that in the late Miocene/early Pliocene, the local environment was dominated by C(3) vegetation, whereas, in the Plio-Pleistocene, it was composed of a mixture of C(3) and C(4) vegetation. This suggests that C(4) grasses became a significant part of the Makapansgat Valley ecosystem at approximately 4-5 Ma, towards the end of the late Neogene global expansion of C(4) grasses. After this initial expansion, South Africa experienced further fluctuations in the proportion of C(3) and C(4) vegetation during the Plio-Pleistocene, in response to regional and global climatic changes. Most notably, the Buffalo Cave flowstone provides evidence for C(4) grass expansion at ca. 1.7 Ma that we suggest was a response to African aridity caused by the onset of the Walker Circulation in the Pacific Ocean at this time. PMID:17942141

  7. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  8. Case of the month: Buffalo chest: a case of bilateral pneumothoraces due to pleuropleural communication.

    PubMed

    Hartin, D J; Kendall, R; Boyle, A A; Atkinson, P R T

    2006-06-01

    Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral pneumothoraces, the presentation of separate right and left pneumothoraces together, is a rare event. The pleural cavities in humans are separated completely and the only previous reports of pleuropleural communication have been associated with major invasive thoracic procedures, specifically mediastinal surgery. The term "buffalo chest" has been coined for the condition on the basis that the buffalo or bison has a single pleural cavity, one of the few mammals to do so. We present the case of a woman with a past history of a single right sided spontaneous pneumothorax but no major thoracic surgery, who presented to the emergency department with a second spontaneous right pneumothorax that was under tension. After thoracostomy, she was found to have bilateral pneumothoraces which resolved with a unilateral chest drain demonstrating pleuropleural communication. We believe this to be the first reported case of such a presentation in the literature. The case demonstrates an unusual emergency presentation of a rare anatomical anomaly. PMID:16714521

  9. Polymorphism in the melatonin receptor gene in buffalo populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Machado, E B; Souza, B B; Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Gonçalves, E C; Ribeiro, H F L; Rolim Filho, S T; Silva Filho, E

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo farming in Brazil is increasing, as is the challenge of identifying molecular markers that will improve productivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of the receptor gene for the hormone melatonin in buffaloes from northern Brazil by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. The PCR products exhibited a cutting point for HpaI at the 318th position of the gene, indicating a transition substitution (T↔C). This substitution was synonymic, and did not alter the stability of the mRNA structure. Allelic and genotypic frequencies differed between the populations studied, and all of the populations demonstrated endogamy and were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Therefore, the HpaI restriction marker in the melatonin receptor gene cannot be used for genetic improvement, but is an excellent marker for population genetic studies. PMID:27173294

  10. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of Schistosoma japonicum DNA vaccines in sheep and water buffalo in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, F; Zhang, Y; Ye, P; Lin, J; Cai, Y; Shen, W; Bickle, Q D; Taylor, M G

    2001-11-12

    Vaccines are needed to control zoonotic Schistosoma japonicum infection and several vaccine candidates have now been identified. Two of these (Sj28GST and Sj23) have shown particular promise in sheep when injected with Freund's adjuvants. The objective of the present work was to find a vaccine formulation which may have potential for widespread use in the field. DNA vaccine formulations of these antigens were produced and tested first in sheep under laboratory conditions and then in both the laboratory and the field in water buffalo. In both host species partial protection as evidenced by a reduction in parasite counts in vaccinated compared with control animals was induced by both vaccines, and in water buffalo the vaccines were shown to be partially protective in the field as well as in the laboratory. These results suggest that the two DNA vaccines tested here may have potential for large-scale field use. PMID:11672910

  12. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  13. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  14. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us

  15. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R S; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Young, Elizabeth H; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2015-01-15

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa. PMID:25470054

  16. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  17. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  18. Molecular characterization and expression profile of ghrelin gene during different reproductive phases in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, S; Jain, A; Baviskar, P; Kumar, R; Joshi, P; Agarwal, S K; Mitra, A

    2013-08-01

    Ghrelin, a novel motilin-related endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagouge receptor, is implicated in various biological functions, including regulation of female reproduction. But the presence of ghrelin and its role in reproductive functions in buffalo, a species with poor reproductive efficiency, is not known. In the present study full-length ghrelin cDNA was isolated from bubaline abomasum, which encodes the entire prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of ghrelin of buffalo showed >95% and 31% identity with that of ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goat) and humans, respectively. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the coding region of ghrelin indicated that these sequences of different species have been under purifying selection. The 3995-bp amplicon of ghrelin gene consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns was cloned with genomic DNA from buffalo. Further, ghrelin expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in bubaline endometrial tissues at different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Our results indicated the persistent expression of ghrelin mRNA and protein in the endometrium during stage I (day 3-5), stage II (day 6-15), and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle and also during early (~day 30-40) pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated the relatively higher expression of ghrelin in the endometrium during stage II (day 6-15) of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy than during stage I (day 3-5) and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle, but no statistically significant difference in ghrelin expression was observed among stages. To conclude, the results of the present study indicate the persistent expression of ghrelin in the uterine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy which might be helpful in determining its role in buffalo reproduction. PMID

  19. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected. PMID:27044415

  20. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  1. An association analysis between OXT genotype and milk yield and flow in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; Jemma, Lazzaro; Feligini, Maria; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between three SNPs at the oxytocin locus (AM234538: g.28C>T; g.204A>G and g.1627G>T) and two productive traits, milk yield and milkability, in Italian Mediterranean river buffaloes. Effects of parity, calving season and month of production were also evaluated. A total of 41 980 test-day records belonging to 219 lactations of 163 buffalo cows were investigated. The allele call rate was 98·8% and the major allele frequency for all the investigated loci was 0·76. The OXT genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P=0·029). The TT genotype showed an average daily milk yield approximately 1·7 kg higher than GT buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 23% more milk/d. A large dominance effect (-1·17±0·43 kg) was estimated, whereas the contribution of OXT genotype (r(2)(OXT)) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·06. The TT genotype showed higher values also for the milk flow, even though the estimated difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (P=0·07). Such an association, among the first reported for the oxytocin locus in ruminants, should be tested on a population scale and possible effects on milk composition traits should be evaluated in order to supply useful indications for the application of marker-assisted selection programmes in river buffaloes. PMID:22280971

  2. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  3. Rumen metabolism of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw supplemented with cassava hay and urea.

    PubMed

    Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate effects of cassava hay (CH) and urea (U) supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes, 365 ± 15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: T1 = CH 400 g/head/day + U 0 g/head/day, T2 = CH + U 30 g/head/day, T3 = CH + U 60 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + U 90 g/head/day, respectively. Results revealed that feed intake was not affected while nutrient digestibilities were increased (P < 0.05) with increasing U level supplementation especially at 90 g/head/day. Ruminal pH and temperature were not altered by urea supplementation, whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea nitrogen were increased with urea supplement (P < 0.05). In addition, total volatile fatty acid and butyric acid were similar among treatments, while propionic acid (C3) was increased by level of urea supplement (P < 0.05), but acetic acid (C2) and C2/C3 ratio were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). On the other hand, protozoal population and methane production were decreased by CH and urea supplement, while bacterial population particularly those of proteolytic, cellulolytic, and amylolytic bacteria and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were linearly increased (P < 0.05). Based on this experiment, it suggested that supplementation of urea and cassava hay for buffaloes fed rice straw improved rumen ecology and increased fermentation end products and microbial protein synthesis while reducing protozoal populations and methane production. Urea supplements of 60-90 g/head/day when fed with cassava hay are recommended for swamp buffaloes consuming rice straw. PMID:26898691

  4. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A K; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate. PMID:27057105

  5. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A. K.; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate. PMID:27057105

  6. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  7. Infering Networks From Collective Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timme, Marc

    How can we infer direct physical interactions between pairs of units from only knowing the units' time series? Here we present a dynamical systems' view on collective network dynamics, and propose the concept of a dynamics' space to reveal interaction networks from time series. We present two examples: one, where the time series stem from standard ordinary differential equations, and a second, more abstract, where the time series exhibits only partial information about the units' states. We apply the latter to neural circuit dynamics where the observables are spike timing data, i.e. only a discrete, state-dependent outputs of the neurons. These results may help revealing network structure for systems where direct access to dynamics is simpler than to connectivity, cf.. This is work with Jose Casadiego, Srinivas Gorur Shandilya, Mor Nitzan, Hauke Haehne and Dimitra Maoutsa. Supported by Grants of the BMBF (Future Compliant Power Grids - CoNDyNet) and by the Max Planck Society to MT.

  8. Inferred properties of stellar granulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.F.; Toner, C.G.

    1985-06-01

    Apparent characteristics of stellar granulation in F and G main-sequence stars are inferred directly from observed spectral-line asymmetries and from comparisons of numerical simulations with the observations: (1) the apparent granulation velocity increases with effective temperature, (2) the dispersion of granule velocities about their mean velocity of rise increases with the apparent granulation velocity, (3) the mean velocity of rise of granules must be less than the total line broadening, (4) the apparent velocity difference between granules and dark lanes corresponds to the granulation velocity deduced from stellar line bisectors, (5) the dark lanes show velocities of fall approximately twice as large as the granule rise velocities, (6) the light contributed to the stellar flux by the granules is four to ten times more than the light from the dark lanes. Stellar rotation is predicted to produce distortions in the line bisectors which may give information on the absolute velocity displacements of the line bisectors. 37 references.

  9. Structural inference for uncertain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Travis; Ball, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the study of networked systems such as biological, technological, and social networks the available data are often uncertain. Rather than knowing the structure of a network exactly, we know the connections between nodes only with a certain probability. In this paper we develop methods for the analysis of such uncertain data, focusing particularly on the problem of community detection. We give a principled maximum-likelihood method for inferring community structure and demonstrate how the results can be used to make improved estimates of the true structure of the network. Using computer-generated benchmark networks we demonstrate that our methods are able to reconstruct known communities more accurately than previous approaches based on data thresholding. We also give an example application to the detection of communities in a protein-protein interaction network.

  10. Ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches in buffalo calves: Histomorphological comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate the histomorphology of ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches in the small intestine of buffalo calves and their structural comparison. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on neonatal (n=10) and pre-pubertal (n=10) buffalo calves. The age of the postnatal buffalo calves was estimated by their temporary and permanent dentition. Results: The study revealed that several layers of oval to elongate elliptical lymphoid follicles were observed in submucosa on the anti-mesenteric side in the ileum of early neonatal calves. However, the follicles at this age, in jejunum were of all shapes present within one layer. The interfollicular space was occupied by the interfollicular tissue, which was diffuse and wider around jejunal lymphoid follicles as compared to ileal lymphoid follicles. However, toward the pubertal stage, the number of layers of lymphoid follicles was reduced in ileum due to involution while it remained similar in number in jejunum at this stage. Conclusion: The ileal Peyer’s patches were found to have started involution more or less around reaching puberty, whereas the jejunal Peyer’s patches appear to be functional throughout the lifespan of the animal. PMID:27047029

  11. Staphylococci in cattle and buffaloes with mastitis in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ashker, Maged; Gwida, Mayada; Tomaso, Herbert; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; El-Gohary, Fatma; Hotzel, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the first detailed insight into the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in one modern dairy farm (Gamasa) and several household cows and buffaloes in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Eight hundred seventy-two quarter milk samples of 218 dairy cattle and buffaloes with clinical and subclinical mastitis were investigated. Bacteria were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and staphylococci were further characterized by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microarray analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 5.6% of all collected samples, whereas methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 24.5% of all identified S. aureus (12/49). Six clonal complexes (CC) of S. aureus were detected. Staphylococcus aureus CC398 (ST291/813)-MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) was identified frequently in the Gamasa farm in addition to a few CC5-MRSA-V isolates. However, a small number of different isolates of S. aureus were found in household cattle and buffaloes harboring different CC. The presence of these genotypes of S. aureus in milk might indicate a public health hazard, because all of these CC have previously been isolated from human patients. Thus, a recommendation was given to the owner of the dairy farm to review the hygiene regimen on the farm. In perspective, further investigation regarding S. aureus screening of all lactating cows and personnel on the farm is warranted. PMID:26364099

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Caravello, V.

    1998-06-03

    Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.

  13. Assessing impacts to birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota windplant development

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, M.D.; Johnson, G.D.; Erickson, W.P.

    1997-12-31

    Northern States Power (NSP) plans development of a 425 MW windpowered electrical generation facility within the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area (WRA) in southwestern Minnesota. In 1996, Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST, Inc.) was contracted by NSP to develop an avian monitoring protocol for the Buffalo Ridge windplant. This protocol was developed and peer-reviewed by numerous individuals representing the wind energy industry, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and conservation groups prior to finalization. The WRA currently consists of three phases of development. Phase I, constructed by Kenetech in 1994, consists of 73 Model 33 M-VS turbines and related facilities, including distribution lines, meteorological towers, communication systems, transformers, substations, roads, and operations and maintenance facilities in the approximate center of the WRA, and generates 25 MW of electricity. Phase II, consisting of 143 turbines and related facilities sufficient to generate 100 MW of electricity, will be constructed by Zond Systems, Inc. beginning in the spring of 1997. Phase II will be located in the northwestern portion of the WRA. Phase III facilities capable of generating an additional 100 MW are planned for the southeast portion of the WRA. Plans call for the eventual production of 425 MW of electricity within the WRA. Studies were conducted in these three areas and a permanent reference area not scheduled for windpower development located along Buffalo Ridge northwest of the WRA in Brooking County South Dakota.

  14. Physical and nutritional properties of buffalo meat finished on hay or maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana

    2014-04-01

    The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246 ± 9.00 kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368 ± 20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P < 0.05). Overall, the data indicated differences between the fatty acid profiles of meat as a consequence of different feeding systems. The higher fat deposition in the MS group resulted in meat with a less favorable fatty acid profile (i.e. a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and α-linolenic fatty acid content) in relation to human health compared with meat from animals fed the AH diet. PMID:24261881

  15. Influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf life of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Voloski, F L S; Tonello, L; Ramires, T; Reta, G G; Dewes, C; Iglesias, M; Mondadori, R G; Gandra, E A; da Silva, W P; Duval, E H

    2016-06-01

    Considering the specific biochemical composition of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat (high iron content, high biological value proteins and essential fatty acids, low amounts of fat and cholesterol), we evaluated the influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf-life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. On the processing day, samples were collected from carcass, deboning room surfaces and meat cuts. Samples from meat cuts were evaluated weekly for two months. On the processing day, higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. were observed in samples from meat cuts compared with the hindquarters and the processing surfaces. For thermotolerant coliform scores, the averages were -0.5 log MPN·cm(-2), -0.4 log MPN·cm(-2) and 0.9 log MPN·g(-1), respectively. Higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. and LAB in meat cuts were observed on the processing day and after the first week of storage, respectively, remaining constant during shelf life. Listeria grayi was identified in two samples of hindquarters and meat cuts during storage. Listeria innocua was identified in one meat cut. In conclusion, cutting and deboning operations influence the microbiological quality and shelf life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. PMID:26897086

  16. Behaviour-Related Scalar Habitat Use by Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer).

    PubMed

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting data into resting, grazing, walking and relocating behaviours. Distance to water and six vegetation characteristic variables were recorded in sites used for each behaviour, except for relocating, which occurred too infrequently. We used multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regressions to identify variables that characterised seasonally-preferred macrohabitats and microhabitats used for different behaviours. Our results showed that macrohabitat use was linked to behaviour, although this was least apparent during the rainy season, when resources were most abundant. Behaviour-related microhabitat use was less significant, but variation in forage characteristics could predict some behaviour within all macrohabitats. The variables predicting behaviour were not consistent, but resting and grazing sites were more readily identifiable than walking sites. These results highlight the significance of resting, as well as foraging, site availability in buffalo spatial processes. Our results emphasise the importance of considering several behaviours and scales in studies of habitat use to understand the links between environmental resources and animal behavioural and spatial ecology. PMID:26673623

  17. Alterations in hepatic lipid peroxides and antioxidant profile in Indian water buffaloes suffering from sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Swarup, D; Ranjan, R; Kataria, M

    2008-08-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the status of antioxidants in water buffaloes with sarcoptic mange. Sixty-three buffaloes were divided into three groups, healthy control (group I, n=19), subclinical sarcoptic mange (group II, n=22) and clinical sarcoptic mange (group III, n=22). Lipid peroxides (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), zinc and copper in hepatic tissues and serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured. In comparison to group I, LPO was significantly (P<0.05) higher, while SOD and CAT were significantly (P<0.05) lower in group III. LPO and SOD activities were comparable between group I and II, but CAT was significantly (P<0.05) lower in group II. In group III, zinc, copper and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) lower than group I. Decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and trace mineral concentrations suggested that sarcoptic mange in buffaloes is associated with compromise in antioxidant defense and oxidative stress may play important role in pathogenesis. PMID:17884119

  18. Hemato-biochemical and hormonal profiles in post-partum water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Balhara, A. K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Naresh; Buragohain, Lukumoni; Baro, Daoharu; Sharma, R. K.; Phulia, S. K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to compare serum as well as follicular fluid (FF) biochemical and hormonal profiles along with hematological parameters in postpartum estrus, anestrus, and cystic buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Postpartum buffaloes were selected in three different groups (within 40-60 days of parturition at estrus-Group-I, postpartum >90 days at anestrum-Group-II, and postpartum cystic buffaloes in Group III). The animals selected were examined for follicular wave dynamics by routine trans-rectal ultrasonography and FF was collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick up technique. All hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed by automatic analyzers while hormonal profiles analyzed by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: In the present investigation, estrum and anestrum animal differ significantly in hemoglobin levels. Serum estradiol differs significantly in estrus and anestrus while no significant difference in progesterone concentration was noted among all three stages. The results of our study suggest that significant higher increase in total protein (TP), calcium and glucose values in estrum while urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase significantly higher in anestrum animals. Conclusion: The conclusion of the present study is that TP and albumin, calcium, urea, glucose affects oocyte development and quality. PMID:27047125

  19. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves

    PubMed Central

    Potliya, Sandeep; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhbir; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six clinically healthy male buffalo calves, 6-12 months of age, and weighing between 130 and 170 kg. In all the animals; glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg, IM), xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and 1% propofol as single bolus (1.5 mg/kg, intravenous), were administered. The parameters observed included behavioral changes, physiological; hematological and blood biochemical parameters. Results: Muzzle and nostrils became dry in all the animals after glycopyrrolate administration. A decrease in spontaneous activity and mild cutaneous analgesia was noticed after xylazine administration. After administration of propofol, loss of swallowing reflex, palpebral reflex, corneal reflexes, periosteal reflex and complete analgesia was observed. There was no significant change in rectal temperature and heart rate. However, heart rate remained elevated during anesthesia. Respiratory rate decreased significantly after propofol administration. There was a significant increase in plasma glucose after the xylazine and propofol administration which remained elevated till recovery. A significant decrease in chloride level was seen after propofol administration. Conclusions: Glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthetic combination may safely be used for short duration anesthesia in buffalo calves. PMID:27047082

  20. Evaluation of total mixed ration silage with brewers grains for dairy buffalo in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takashi; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of total mixed ration (TMR) silage, which contained brewers grain and rice straw as a substitute for conventional concentrate on feed intake and milk production in middle-to-late lactation buffaloes, four multiparous Murrah buffaloes were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment. The TMR silage, which had higher neutral and acid detergent fiber contents and digestibility than concentrate (P < 0.05) and similar crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) contents with concentrate were used for the lactation experiment. The treatments were control (CTL) fed concentrate at 0.6% of body weight (BW), and T1 and T2 fed the TMR silage at 0.6 and 1.2% of BW on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, with rice straw ad libitum. Daily intakes of DM, CP and TDN, and BW change were higher in T2 than in CTL and T1 (P < 0.05). Although milk composition did not differ among the treatments, milk yield (MY) was higher in T2 (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in MY/DM intake and MY/TDN intake among the treatments. The increase of BW and MY in middle-to-late lactation buffaloes might have been due to high TDN intake from supplementary TMR silage. PMID:25780944