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Sample records for african green revolution

  1. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  2. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  3. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  4. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  5. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  6. The effects of the African Green Revolution on nitrogen losses from two contrasting soil types in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, K. L.; Russo, T.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 80% of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face problems of nitrogen (N) scarcity, which together with poverty causes food insecurity and malnutrition. The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa has set a goal of increasing fertilizer use in the region six-fold by 2015. While there is substantial evidence that greater N fertilizer use will improve crop yields, it could lead to increased N leaching and elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in surface water and groundwater reservoirs. However, it is unclear what the magnitude of impacts will be in SSA given historically low nutrient additions (of less than 5 kg N/ha/yr), highly degraded soils (due to years of nutrient and soil organic matter depletion), and a wide range of soil types on which increased fertilizer use is occurring. Current estimates of N dynamics and balances in SSA agriculture now rely on data from other regions with different soil types, soil fertility, and land management practices. To understand the influence of increased fertilizer use on water quality requires data from representative areas in SSA. Experimental maize plots were established in a randomized complete block design in both western Kenya (clayey soil) and mid-western Tanzania (sandy soil). Plots were amended with 0, 50, 75, and 200 kg N/ha/yr as mineral fertilizer. Tension lysimeters were installed at three depths in each treatment, and water was collected throughout the maize growing season. Soil water solutions were analyzed for NO3--N. Flow through the soil column at each soil depth, was modeled using VS2DT, a variably saturated flow and solute transport model, and water flux values were multiplied by measured NO3--N concentrations to estimate seasonal N leaching flux. Soil texture was a major driver of N losses, altering both the pathways and magnitude of losses. Clayey soils in western Kenya show an enormous potential for loss of NO3--N immediately following the onset of rains as they trigger high rates of N

  7. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  8. India and the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Vikram

    1972-01-01

    The introduction of new grain varieties has had profound social effects in addition to increasing food supply. If political power is sensitive to the needs of the underprivileged...advanced technology in agriculture, as in (nuclear) power generation, is indeed going to create a social revolution.'' (Author/AL)

  9. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    PubMed

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals. PMID:22834068

  10. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L

    2012-07-31

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  11. Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Prabhu L.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a “redux” version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  12. Green Revolution (I): A Just Technology, Often Unjust in Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the social and economic impact of the Green Revolution and the resulting problems such as benefiting rich farmers more than poor farmers, displacing labor and increasing rural unemployment. (BR)

  13. How Can Agricultural and Extension Educators Contribute to a Successful New Green Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, many in the world were predicting catastrophic starvation that was halted by the Green Revolution. To address continued population growth and the unsolved problems of the Green Revolution, many hope for a new and different Green Revolution. Supporters of a biotechnology-based revolution claim that it could…

  14. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  15. Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1999-08-01

    In the 1960s there were large-scale concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However, widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by 80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food production over the last 30 years was the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability. The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the 1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and efficient utilization of water and soil resources. PMID:10464789

  16. Trends in crop water productivity: Why the new green revolution must be blue-green

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the latter half of the 20th century, world population more than doubled to 6 billion; staple food prices in constant dollars decreased dramatically; and the nutritional status of the world's population improved. The Green Revolution is cited as accounting for this paradox; but often ignored is th...

  17. Social Justice and South African University Student Enrolment Data by "Race", 1998-2012: From "Skewed Revolution" to "Stalled Revolution"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2015-01-01

    The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…

  18. Need for multidisciplinary research towards a second green revolution.

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Bernd; Porter, John R; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Despite recent achievements in conventional plant breeding and genomics, the rate of increase of crop yields is declining and thus there is a need for a second green revolution. Advances within single disciplines, alone, cannot solve the challenges of increasing yield. As scientific disciplines have become increasingly diversified, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variation modify grain yield and composition is needed, so that specific quantitative and quality targets can be identified. To achieve this aim, the expertise of plant genomics, physiology and agronomy, as well as recently developed plant modelling techniques, must be combined. There has been recent progress in these individual disciplines, but multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented to tackle drought stress and salinity as major constraints to achieving sufficient grain yield in the future. PMID:15860432

  19. Beyond the Green Revolution: singin' the population blues.

    PubMed

    Baron, L

    1992-09-01

    The "green revolution" was desirable because of increased crop yields, but 25 years later after the results of land degradation, groundwater contamination, and environmentally harmful practices were revealed, there is a return to sustainable agriculture. The aim is to minimize agriculture's harmful effects on the environment and to maintain water ad soil resources. Present and future food production depends on suitable land, water, climate, and finances. Unfortunately, the timing is wrong. Population growth is putting pressure on farmers to increase yields. The current conditions are the 11% of the earth's vegetative land surface has diminished productivity due to human activity. There is loss of biodiversity and genetic material. CAttle grazing is inefficient and adds to desertification; animal waste contributes to pollution. Pesticides and fertilizers are the largest US water pollutants. Sustainable agriculture means new tilling methods, reducing pesticide use, and crop rotation. The National Research Council in 1989 reported on alternative agriculture: 1) making the most of natural biological processes; 2) reducing or eliminating pesticides and other chemicals; 3) conserving soil, water, and energy; and 4) matching crops with land to ensure sustainable production levels. Reeducation is needed. Operation SAVE (Sustainable Agriculture that's Voluntary and Economical) produces an annual directory and guide for farmers adopting new methods. Land trusts and conservation easements are being established to preserve farmland. Reclamation of degraded land is being promoted by distribution of tree seedlings to developing countries. Community supported agriculture groups share in the cost of raising crops and receive organic, fresh produce. There are fears about economic feasibility. Conventional farmers argue for pesticide use to increase yields, but a Cornell University study refutes this for organically grown corn. High technology research is not likely to yield a new

  20. Haplotype variation of Green Revolution gene Rht-D1 during wheat domestication and improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chihong; Gao, Lifeng; Sun, Jiaqiang; Jia, Jizeng; Ren, Zhenglong

    2014-08-01

    Green Revolution made a substantial contribution to wheat yields worldwide in the 1960s and 1970s. It is of great importance to analyze the haplotype variation of Rht-D1, the Green Revolution gene, during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) domestication and breeding to understand its evolution and function in wheat breeding history. In this study, the Rht-D1 and its flanking regions were sequenced and single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected based on a panel of 45 accessions of Aegilops tauschii, 51 accessions of landraces and 80 accessions of commercial varieties. Genetic diversity in the wild accessions was much higher than that in the varieties and higher than that reported previously. Seven haplotypes (Hapl I to Hapl VII) of Rht-D1 were identified and their evolutionary relationships were proposed. In addition to the well-known Green Revolution allele Rht-D1b, Hapl VII (an allele Rht-D1k) was identified in early breeding varieties, which reduced plant height by 16%. The results suggested that Rht-D1k had been used in breeding before the Green Revolution and made a great contribution to wheat production worldwide. Based on the breeding history and molecular evidence, we proposed that the wheat Green Revolution in China and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) occurred independently. PMID:24645900

  1. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  2. Beyond the Green Revolution: New Approaches for Third World Agriculture. Worldwatch Paper 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Edward C.

    After 20 years, the "green revolution" is generally referred to as a milestone in the international agricultural movement. The introduction of new varieties of wheat and rice, along with fertilizers, pesticides, and mechanized farm equipment has produced a dramatic increase in world food production. This paper assesses the successes of the green…

  3. Guatemala's green revolution: synthetic fertilizer, public health, and economic autonomy in the Mayan highland.

    PubMed

    Carey, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive literature both supporting and critiquing the Green Revolution, surprisingly little attention has been paid to synthetic fertilizers' health and environmental effects or indigenous farmers' perspectives. The introduction of agrochemicals in the mid-twentieth century was a watershed event for many Mayan farmers in Guatemala. While some Maya hailed synthetic fertilizers' immediate effectiveness as a relief from famines and migrant labor, other lamented the long-term deterioration of their public health, soil quality, and economic autonomy. Since the rising cost of agrochemicals compelled Maya to return to plantation labor in the 1970s, synthetic fertilizers simply shifted, rather than alleviated, Mayan dependency on the cash economy. By highlighting Mayan farmers' historical narratives and delineating the relationship between agricultural science and postwar geopolitics, the constraints on agriculturists' agency become clear. In the end, politics, more than technology or agricultural performance, influenced guatemala's shift toward the Green Revolution. PMID:19824230

  4. An Ethylmethane Sulfonate Mutant Resource in Pre-Green Revolution Hexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Amandeep K; Mohan, Amita; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Maqbool, Rizwana; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2015-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a powerful tool used for studying gene function as well as for crop improvement. It is regaining popularity because of the development of effective and cost efficient methods for high-throughput mutation detection. Selection for semi-dwarf phenotype during green revolution has reduced genetic diversity including that for agronomically desirable traits. Most of the available mutant populations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were developed in post-green revolution cultivars. Besides the identification and isolation of agronomically important alleles in the mutant population of pre-green revolution cultivar, this population can be a vital resource for expanding the genetic diversity for wheat breeding. Here we report an Ethylmethane Sulfonate (EMS) generated mutant population consisting of 4,180 unique mutant plants in a pre-green revolution spring wheat cultivar 'Indian'. Released in early 1900s, 'Indian' is devoid of any known height-reducing mutations. Unique mutations were captured by proceeding with single M2 seed from each of the 4,180 M1 plants. Mutants for various phenotypic traits were identified by detailed phenotyping for altered morphological and agronomic traits on M2 plants in the greenhouse and M3 plants in the field. Of the 86 identified mutants, 75 (87%) were phenotypically stable at the M4 generation. Among the observed phenotypes, variation in plant height was the most frequent followed by the leaf morphology. Several mutant phenotypes including looped peduncle, crooked plant morphology, 'gritty' coleoptiles, looped lower internodes, and burnt leaf tips are not reported in other plant species. Considering the extent and diversity of the observed mutant phenotypes, this population appears to be a useful resource for the forward and reverse genetic studies. This resource is available to the scientific community. PMID:26678261

  5. An Ethylmethane Sulfonate Mutant Resource in Pre-Green Revolution Hexaploid Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Amandeep K.; Mohan, Amita; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Maqbool, Rizwana; Gill, Kulvinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a powerful tool used for studying gene function as well as for crop improvement. It is regaining popularity because of the development of effective and cost efficient methods for high-throughput mutation detection. Selection for semi-dwarf phenotype during green revolution has reduced genetic diversity including that for agronomically desirable traits. Most of the available mutant populations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were developed in post-green revolution cultivars. Besides the identification and isolation of agronomically important alleles in the mutant population of pre-green revolution cultivar, this population can be a vital resource for expanding the genetic diversity for wheat breeding. Here we report an Ethylmethane Sulfonate (EMS) generated mutant population consisting of 4,180 unique mutant plants in a pre-green revolution spring wheat cultivar ‘Indian’. Released in early 1900s, ‘Indian’ is devoid of any known height-reducing mutations. Unique mutations were captured by proceeding with single M2 seed from each of the 4,180 M1 plants. Mutants for various phenotypic traits were identified by detailed phenotyping for altered morphological and agronomic traits on M2 plants in the greenhouse and M3 plants in the field. Of the 86 identified mutants, 75 (87%) were phenotypically stable at the M4 generation. Among the observed phenotypes, variation in plant height was the most frequent followed by the leaf morphology. Several mutant phenotypes including looped peduncle, crooked plant morphology, ‘gritty’ coleoptiles, looped lower internodes, and burnt leaf tips are not reported in other plant species. Considering the extent and diversity of the observed mutant phenotypes, this population appears to be a useful resource for the forward and reverse genetic studies. This resource is available to the scientific community. PMID:26678261

  6. Application of GM crops in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned from Green Revolution.

    PubMed

    Bazuin, Sjoerd; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    While the Green Revolution has been successful in some regions like South and East Asia, it could hardly address any achievement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper tries to draw a picture on lessons learned from the failures of this revolution that should be taken into account before implementing the so-called Gene Revolution in the SSA region. After scrutinizing the failures and the pros and cons of GM crops in the region, the paper introduces some potentials for improving the malnutrition situation in SSA through launching a successful GM technology. However, it remains doubtful whether this technology can improve the situation of small-scale farmers as long as they receive no financial support from their national governments. Therefore, before any intervention, the socio-economic and environmental impacts of GM technology need to be carefully addressed in the framework of a series of risk assessment studies. Besides, some sort of multi-stakeholder dialog (from small-scale farmers to consumers) involving public-private sector and non-governmental organizations should be heated up at both national and regional levels with regard to the myths and truths of this technology. PMID:21813087

  7. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  8. Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?

    PubMed

    Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades. PMID:21865874

  9. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Matthew T.; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J.; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis. PMID:27524992

  10. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    PubMed

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis. PMID:27524992

  11. Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George J; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J; West, Tristram O; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 25° N and 60° N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50° N and 70° N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 per cent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001-2010 than in

  12. Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George J.; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 25° N and 60° N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50° N and 70° N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 +/- 0.027 per cent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001-2010 than in 1961

  13. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  14. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Dynamics in African Green Monkeys▿

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Gautam, Rajeev; Gaufin, Thaidra; Pattison, Melissa; Barnes, Mary; Monjure, Christopher; Stoulig, Crystal; Dufour, Jason; Cyprian, Wayne; Silvestri, Guido; Miller, Michael D.; Perelson, Alan S.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts are still poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that SIV-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) avoid AIDS due to virus replication occurring in long-lived infected cells, we infected six animals with SIVagm and treated them with potent antiretroviral therapy [ART; 9-R-(2-phosphonomethoxypropyl) adenine (tenofovir) and beta-2,3-dideoxy-3-thia-5-fluorocytidine (emtricitabine)]. All AGMs showed a rapid decay of plasma viremia that became undetectable 36 h after ART initiation. A significant decrease of viral load was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestine. Mathematical modeling of viremia decay post-ART indicates a half-life of productively infected cells ranging from 4 to 9.5 h, i.e., faster than previously reported for human immunodeficiency virus and SIV. ART induced a slight but significant increase in peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts but no significant changes in CD4+ T-cell levels in lymph nodes and intestine. Similarly, ART did not significantly change the levels of cell proliferation, activation, and apoptosis, already low in AGMs chronically infected with SIVagm. Collectively, these results indicate that, in SIVagm-infected AGMs, the bulk of virus replication is sustained by short-lived cells; therefore, differences in disease outcome between SIVmac infection of macaques and SIVagm infection of AGMs are unlikely due to intrinsic differences in the in vivo cytopathicities between the two viruses. PMID:18216122

  15. Nature's green revolution: the remarkable evolutionary rise of C4 plants

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Colin P; Beerling, David J

    2005-01-01

    Plants with the C4 photosynthetic pathway dominate today's tropical savannahs and grasslands, and account for some 30% of global terrestrial carbon fixation. Their success stems from a physiological CO2-concentrating pump, which leads to high photosynthetic efficiency in warm climates and low atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Remarkably, their dominance of tropical environments was achieved in only the past 10 million years (Myr), less than 3% of the time that terrestrial plants have existed on Earth. We critically review the proposal that declining atmospheric CO2 triggered this tropical revolution via its effects on the photosynthetic efficiency of leaves. Our synthesis of the latest geological evidence from South Asia and North America suggests that this emphasis is misplaced. Instead, we find important roles for regional climate change and fire in South Asia, but no obvious environmental trigger for C4 success in North America. CO2-starvation is implicated in the origins of C4 plants 25–32 Myr ago, raising the possibility that the pathway evolved under more extreme atmospheric conditions experienced 10 times earlier. However, our geochemical analyses provide no evidence of the C4 mechanism at this time, although possible ancestral components of the C4 pathway are identified in ancient plant lineages. We suggest that future research must redress the substantial imbalance between experimental investigations and analyses of the geological record. PMID:16553316

  16. Chronic renal failure in Sri Lanka caused by elevated dietary cadmium: Trojan horse of the green revolution.

    PubMed

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Liyanege, J; Upul, M A; Bandara, J M U A

    2010-09-15

    The endemic of chronic renal failure (CRF) emerged in 2002 in the farming provinces of Sri Lanka. An estimate of dietary cadmium intake was between 15 and 28 microg/kg body weight per week. The mean urinary cadmium in patients diagnosed with stage 5 kidney failure was 7.6 microg/g creatinine and 11.6 microg/g for asymptomatic persons. The agrochemical triple superphosphate (TSP) fertilizer containing 23.5-71.7 mg Cd/kg was the source of cadmium added to soils. Mean Cd content in cultivated vs. uncultivated soils in Anuradhapura district was 0.02 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.11 +/- 0.19 mg/kg while in Polonnaruwa district, it was 0.005 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.016 +/- 0.005 mg/kg. Prior to the Green Revolution, the amount of fertilizer used in rice cultivation in 1970 was 32,000 metric tons (Mts) rising to 74,000 Mts in 1975. Up to 68.9 Mts of Cd could have entered into the rice-cascade reservoir environment from TSP use since 1973. Diversion of the Mahaweli River in 1970-1980 further increased cadmium input. Cadmium transfer from Upper Mahaweli water to Polgolla was 72.13 kg/day. Cadmium content of the sediments from reservoirs collecting cadmium from irrigated TSP fertilized crop fields (rice and vegetables) was 1.8-2.4 mg/kg. PMID:20430069

  17. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Goron, Travis L.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed “orphan cereals.” Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. PMID:25852710

  18. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. PMID:25852710

  19. Wide adaptation of Green Revolution wheat: international roots and the Indian context of a new plant breeding ideal, 1960-1970.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Marci R

    2015-04-01

    Indian wheat cultivation changed radically in the 1960s due to new technologies and policy reforms introduced during the Green Revolution, and farmers' adoption of 'packages' of modern seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation. Just prior to the Green Revolution, Indian scientists adopted a new plant breeding philosophy--that varieties should have as wide an adaptation as possible, meaning high and stable yields across different environments. But scientists also argued that wide adaptation could be achieved by selecting only plants that did well in high fertility and irrigated environments. Scientists claimed that widely adapted varieties still produce high yields in marginal areas. Many people have criticized the Green Revolution for its unequal spread of benefits, but none of these critiques address wide adaptation-the core tenant held by Indian agricultural scientists to justify their focus on highly productive land while ignoring marginal or rainfed agriculture. This paper also describes Norman Borlaug's and the Rockefeller Foundation's research program in wide adaptation, Borlaug's involvement in the Indian wheat program, and internal debates about wide adaptation and selection under ideal conditions among Indian scientists. It argues that scientists leveraged the concept of wide adaptation to justify a particular regime of research focused on high production agriculture. PMID:25655670

  20. African-American Soul Force: Dance, Music and Vera Mae Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, A. Lynn

    1986-01-01

    The Black anthropologist, Vera Mae Green, is featured in this analysis of the concept of soul as applied to African-Americans. Music and dance are used to express soul in cultural context. But soul is also a force, an energy which encompasses the Black experience and makes Black culture persevere. (VM)

  1. Serological survey for two simian retroviruses in macaques and African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Krugner-Higby, L; Kucera, L; Lerche, N; Sever, J; Fucillo, W; Allan, J; Benveniste, R

    1990-01-01

    Colonies of nonhuman primates at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine (BGSM) were tested for antibodies to two retroviruses associated with immunodeficiency by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and western blot. A total of 471 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 144 rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) and 67 stumptail monkey M. arctoides) were tested for SRV-1, and 152 African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were tested for SIV. Of the macaques tested, 170 (36%) cynomolgus, 5 (3%) rhesus and 8 (12%) stumptails were positive for SRV-1 antibodies by IFA. Of the African green monkeys, 54 (36%) were IFA positive for SIV antibodies. A total of 143 African green monkeys tested by IFA also were tested by western blot. In the African green monkeys, the IFA had a positive predictive value of 98% and a negative predictive value of 96%. Of 176 IFA positive macaque sera tested by western blot, 49 (28%) were positive, 55 (31%) were considered equivocal (only one band, usually to p27 core protein), and 72 (41%) were negative. PMID:2153854

  2. Imazil residue loading and green mould control in south african citrus pack-houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazalil (IMZ) is commonly applied in South African citrus pack-houses for the control of green mould, caused by Penicillium digitatum, yet the disease still causes significant postharvest losses. Maximum residue limit (MRL) for IMZ on citrus fruit is 5 µg.g-1, whereas 2-3 µg.g-1 is regarded as a b...

  3. Mitochondrial Diversity and Distribution of African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus Gray, 1870)

    PubMed Central

    Haus, Tanja; Akom, Emmanuel; Agwanda, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian; Zinner, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    African green monkeys (Chlorocebus) represent a widely distributed and morphologically diverse primate genus in sub-Saharan Africa. Little attention has been paid to their genetic diversity and phylogeny. Based on morphological data, six species are currently recognized, but their taxonomy remains disputed. Here, we aim to characterize the mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity, biogeography and phylogeny of African green monkeys. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 126 samples using feces from wild individuals and material from zoo and museum specimens with clear geographical provenance, including several type specimens. We found evidence for nine major mtDNA clades that reflect geographic distributions rather than taxa, implying that the mtDNA diversity of African green monkeys does not conform to existing taxonomic classifications. Phylogenetic relationships among clades could not be resolved suggesting a rapid early divergence of lineages. Several discordances between mtDNA and phenotype indicate that hybridization may have occurred in contact zones among species, including the threatened Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis). Our results provide both valuable data on African green monkeys’ genetic diversity and evolution and a basis for further molecular studies on this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 75:350-360, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23307319

  4. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  5. Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Rockström, Johan; Lannerstad, Mats; Falkenmark, Malin

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the water implications in 92 developing countries of first attaining the 2015 hunger target of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and then feeding a growing population on an acceptable standard diet. The water requirements in terms of vapor flows are quantified, potential water sources are identified, and impacts on agricultural land expansion and water tradeoffs with ecosystems are analyzed. This article quantifies the relative contribution from infiltrated rainwater/green water in rain-fed agriculture, and liquid water/blue water from irrigation, and how far water productivity (WP) gains can go in reducing the pressure on freshwater resources. Under current WP levels, another 2,200 km3·yr−1 of vapor flow is deemed necessary to halve hunger by 2015 and 5,200 km3·yr−1 in 2050 to alleviate hunger. A nonlinear relationship between vapor flow and yield growth, particularly in low-yielding savanna agro-ecosystems, indicates a high potential for WP increase. Such WP gains may reduce additional water needs in agriculture, with 16% in 2015 and 45% by 2050. Despite an optimistic outlook on irrigation development, most of the additional water will originate from rain-fed production. Yield growth, increasing consumptive use on existing rain-fed cropland, and fodder from grazing lands may reduce the additional rain-fed water use further by 43–47% until 2030. To meet remaining water needs, a cropland expansion of ≈0.8% yr−1, i.e., a similar rate as over the past 50 years (≈0.65% yr−1), seems unavoidable if food production is to occur in proximity to local markets. PMID:17404216

  6. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, James R.; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-01-01

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects—higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects—have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0–17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion. PMID:23671086

  7. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, James R; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-05-21

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects--higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects--have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0-17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion. PMID:23671086

  8. Characterization of angiotensin II binding sites in African Green monkey uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, E.P.; Wright, J.W.; Harding, J.W.

    1985-01-14

    The observation that there are significant differences in the concentration, affinity, and specificity of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral angiotensin receptors among several different mammalian species, including the African Green monkey, led to the detailed analysis of /sup 125/I-angiotensin II binding in the uterus of the African Green monkey. The B/sub max/ for angiotensin receptors in uterine tissue from this species is 56.6 +/- 8.7 fmole per mg protein. The K/sub d/ for angiotensin II is .601 +/- .108 mM. The specificity of the receptor is similar to that reported for the uterus of the rat and dog. These results indicate that the angiotensin II receptors, although nearly absent from the CNS of the African Green monkey, are found in the uterus and are very similar to uterine receptors previously characterized in the rat and dog and support the use of these species as appropriate models for studying the biochemistry of angiotensin binding in the uterus. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  9. Detailed Analysis of the African Green Monkey Model of Nipah Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Sara C.; Briese, Thomas; Bell, Todd M.; Pratt, William D.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Esham, Heather L.; Donnelly, Ginger C.; Johnson, Joshua C.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Honko, Anna N.

    2015-01-01

    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5×104 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans. PMID:25706617

  10. The Green Schools Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why the construction movement towards energy efficient and ecologically friendly educational facilities in higher education is stalling and how education can turn things around. Evergreen State College's (Washington) commitment to environmental advocacy through the design of its Seminar II building is highlighted. (GR)

  11. An evergreen revolution.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2000-04-01

    The term 'Green Revolution' was coined in 1968 to indicate revolutionary improvements in crop yield in several Asian countries. Many of these improvements came at the cost of adverse environmental effects in areas subjected to intensive farming. However, where population pressure is high, there is no option except to produce more food. Productivity must increase, but in ways which are environmentally safe, economically viable and socially sustainable. This has been christened an 'Evergreen Revolution'. PMID:11190235

  12. The ever-increasing CO2 seasonal cycle amplitude: contributions from high latitude warming, CO2 fertilization, and the agricultural Green Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.; Martin, C.; Zhao, F.; Collatz, G. J.; Kalnay, E.; Salawitch, R. J.; West, T. O.; Guanter, L.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities has tranformed the Earth's surface in complex ways. Here we show that not only land cover change, but also the management intensity, namely the intensification of agriculture through the Green Revolution has had a profound impact on the carbon cycle. A long-standing puzzle in the global carbon cycle is the increase in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2. This increase likely reflects enhanced biological activity in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). It has been hypothesized that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as warming in recent decades, but the role of such specific mechanisms has not been quantified and they have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of observations. Here we suggest another potential driver of the increased seasonal amplitude: the intensification of agriculture from the Green Revolution to feed a rising population, that led to a 3-fold increase in world crop production over the last 5 decades. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15% long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010 that is punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. The three pillars of the Green Revolution, consisting of high yield cultivars, fertilizer use, and irrigation, are represented in a terrestrial carbon cycle model. The results reveal that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions in the NH: the mid-latitude cropland between 25N-60N that encompasses the world's major agriculture zones in Asia, Europe and North America, and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50N-70N that includes much of the Northern boreal forests, tundra and some deciduous forests. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude is 0.3% per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 43% to land use change, 31% to climate variability and change, and 26% to CO2 fertilization. Our results suggest that human

  13. A "Quality Revolution" Constrained? A Critical Reflection on Quality Assurance Methodology from the South African Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts a brief meta-reflection on quality assurance policy and practice in South African higher education, with a focus on methodology. More specifically it seeks to answer the question "What are the effects of the Higher Education Quality Committee's (HEQC) quality assurance technologies on institutional practice and how could they…

  14. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  15. Infection dynamics of sylvatic dengue virus in a natural primate host, the African Green Monkey.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kathryn A; Guerbois, Mathilde; Kautz, Tiffany F; Brown, Meredith; Whitehead, Stephen S; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos; Marx, Preston A

    2014-10-01

    The four serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) that circulate in humans each emerged from an enzootic, sylvatic cycle in non-human primates. Herein, we present the first study of sylvatic DENV infection dynamics in a primate. Three African green monkeys were inoculated with 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) DENV-2 strain PM33974 from the sylvatic cycle, and one African green monkey was inoculated with 10(5) pfu DENV-2 strain New Guinea C from the human cycle. All four monkeys seroconverted (more than fourfold rise in 80% plaque reduction neutralization titer [PRNT80]) against the strain of DENV with which they were inoculated; only one (33%) of three monkeys infected with sylvatic DENV showed a neutralizing antibody response against human-endemic DENV. Virus was detected in two of three monkeys inoculated with sylvatic DENV at low titer (≤ 1.3 log10pfu/mL) and brief duration (≤ 2 days). Clinical signs included rash and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. PMID:25092823

  16. Investigations on the transport and metabolism of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in African green monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Sorci-Thomas, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolic fate of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters was studied in African green monkeys to determine the significance of the lipid transfer reaction on the catabolism of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters. A method of doubly labeling both moieties of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters with (/sup 3/He)cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate was developed for the purpose of studying plasma cholesteryl ester metabolism in vivo. In these studies the total plasma (/sup 3/He)cholesterol turnover resulted in production rates, which ranged from 10-17 mg/kg day, similar to previously reported values in African green monkeys and in normal lipoproteinemic humans. In contrast to the production rates calculated from the decay of plasma /sup 3/He-radioactivity, the production rates calculated from lipoproteins labeled with cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate were approximately 2-3 times greater. In addition to these studies, a plasma cholesteryl ester transacylation activity was demonstrated in vitro when HDL containing doubly labeled cholesteryl esters were incubated with fresh plasma. These results demonstrated that high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters undergo transacylation in vitro, resulting in release and reesterification of free (/sup 3/H)cholesterol.

  17. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  18. EFFECTS OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE ON THYROID FUNCTION IN THE AFRICAN GREEN MONKEY AND THE RAT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a previous study from the laboratory, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treated drinking water depressed thyroxine (T4) levels in the African Green monkey. The present study again demonstrated a decrease in T4 levels in the same species after 4 weeks of oral exposure. However, after 8 w...

  19. Primary pneumonic plague in the African Green monkey as a model for treatment efficacy evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Layton, R. Colby; Brasel, Trevor; Gigliotti, Andrew; Barr, Edward; Storch, Steven; Myers, Leslie; Hobbs, Charles; Koster, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary pneumonic plague is rare among humans but treatment efficacy may be tested in appropriate animal models under the FDA ‘Animal Rule’. Methods Ten African Green monkeys (AGM) inhaled 44 to 255 LD50 doses of aerosolized Y. pestis strain CO92. Continuous telemetry, arterial blood gases, chest radiography, blood culture, and clinical pathology monitored disease progression. Results Onset of fever, >39°C detected by continuous telemetry, 52 to 80 h post-exposure Was the first sign of systemic disease and provides a distinct signal for treatment initiation. Secondary endpoints of disease severity include tachypnea, measured by telemetry, bacteremia, extent of pneumonia imaged by chest x-ray, and serum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Conclusions Inhaled Y. pestis in the AGM results in a rapidly progressive and uniformly fatal disease with fever and multifocal pneumonia, serving as a rigorous test model for antibiotic efficacy studies. PMID:20722770

  20. A tandem segmental duplication (TSD) in the green revolution gene Rht-D1b region underlies plant height variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b (Rht1) and Rht-D1b (Rht2), known as the “Green revolution” genes, have made a significant contribution to wheat production worldwide. Rht-D1c (Rht10) carried by Chinese wheat line Aibian 1 is an allele at the Rht-D1 locus. It has the strongest effect among all dwarfing...

  1. Arabidopsis semidwarfs evolved from independent mutations in GA20ox1, ortholog to green revolution dwarf alleles in rice and barley.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Luis; Effgen, Sigi; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Kooke, Rik; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Koornneef, Maarten; Alcázar, Rubén

    2013-09-24

    Understanding the genetic bases of natural variation for developmental and stress-related traits is a major goal of current plant biology. Variation in plant hormone levels and signaling might underlie such phenotypic variation occurring even within the same species. Here we report the genetic and molecular basis of semidwarf individuals found in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations. Allelism tests demonstrate that independent loss-of-function mutations at GA locus 5 (GA5), which encodes gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 (GA20ox1) involved in the last steps of gibberellin biosynthesis, are found in different populations from southern, western, and northern Europe; central Asia; and Japan. Sequencing of GA5 identified 21 different loss-of-function alleles causing semidwarfness without any obvious general tradeoff affecting plant performance traits. GA5 shows signatures of purifying selection, whereas GA5 loss-of-function alleles can also exhibit patterns of positive selection in specific populations as shown by Fay and Wu's H statistics. These results suggest that antagonistic pleiotropy might underlie the occurrence of GA5 loss-of-function mutations in nature. Furthermore, because GA5 is the ortholog of rice SD1 and barley Sdw1/Denso green revolution genes, this study illustrates the occurrence of conserved adaptive evolution between wild A.thaliana and domesticated plants. PMID:24023067

  2. Induced Variations in Brassinosteroid Genes Define Barley Height and Sturdiness, and Expand the Green Revolution Genetic Toolkit1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dockter, Christoph; Gruszka, Damian; Braumann, Ilka; Druka, Arnis; Druka, Ilze; Franckowiak, Jerome; Gough, Simon P.; Janeczko, Anna; Kurowska, Marzena; Lundqvist, Joakim; Lundqvist, Udda; Marzec, Marek; Matyszczak, Izabela; Müller, André H.; Oklestkova, Jana; Schulz, Burkhard; Zakhrabekova, Shakhira; Hansson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plant height and culm robustness are quantitative characteristics important for assuring cereal crop yield and quality under adverse weather conditions. A very limited number of short-culm mutant alleles were introduced into commercial crop cultivars during the Green Revolution. We identified phenotypic traits, including sturdy culm, specific for deficiencies in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling in semidwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare). This set of characteristic traits was explored to perform a phenotypic screen of near-isogenic short-culm mutant lines from the brachytic, breviaristatum, dense spike, erectoides, semibrachytic, semidwarf, and slender dwarf mutant groups. In silico mapping of brassinosteroid-related genes in the barley genome in combination with sequencing of barley mutant lines assigned more than 20 historic mutants to three brassinosteroid-biosynthesis genes (BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC DWARF, and DIMINUTO) and one brassinosteroid-signaling gene (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 [HvBRI1]). Analyses of F2 and M2 populations, allelic crosses, and modeling of nonsynonymous amino acid exchanges in protein crystal structures gave a further understanding of the control of barley plant architecture and sturdiness by brassinosteroid-related genes. Alternatives to the widely used but highly temperature-sensitive uzu1.a allele of HvBRI1 represent potential genetic building blocks for breeding strategies with sturdy and climate-tolerant barley cultivars. PMID:25332507

  3. Surgical revolutions.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    Many surgical revolutions distinguish the history and evolution of surgery. They come in different sizes and exert a variable effect on the development and practice of the discipline. As science and technology rapidly evolve, so too does the creation of new paradigms, ideas and innovations or discoveries for the improvement of the surgical sciences. Surgical revolutions are not new, and have existed for centuries even though they have been more frequently recognized since the middle of the 19th century, 20th century and down to the present. Surgical revolutionaries are indispensable in the conception and completion of any surgical revolution. However, scientific and technological advances have supported the culmination of each revolution. PMID:18615311

  4. Using microbial community interactions within plant microbiomes to advance an evergreen agricultural revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative plant breeding and technology transfer fostered the Green Revolution, which transformed agriculture worldwide by increasing grain yields in developing countries. The Green Revolution temporarily alleviated world hunger, but also reduced biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestr...

  5. A Hendra virus G glycoprotein subunit vaccine protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Katharine N; Rockx, Barry; Feldmann, Friederike; Brining, Doug; Scott, Dana; LaCasse, Rachel; Geisbert, Joan B; Feng, Yan-Ru; Chan, Yee-Peng; Hickey, Andrew C; Broder, Christopher C; Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-08-01

    In the 1990s, Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV), two closely related and previously unrecognized paramyxoviruses that cause severe disease and death in humans and a variety of animals, were discovered in Australia and Malaysia, respectively. Outbreaks of disease have occurred nearly every year since NiV was first discovered, with case fatality ranging from 10 to 100%. In the African green monkey (AGM), NiV causes a severe lethal respiratory and/or neurological disease that essentially mirrors fatal human disease. Thus, the AGM represents a reliable disease model for vaccine and therapeutic efficacy testing. We show that vaccination of AGMs with a recombinant subunit vaccine based on the henipavirus attachment G glycoprotein affords complete protection against subsequent NiV infection with no evidence of clinical disease, virus replication, or pathology observed in any challenged subjects. Success of the recombinant subunit vaccine in nonhuman primates provides crucial data in supporting its further preclinical development for potential human use. PMID:22875827

  6. Natural History of Inhalation Melioidosis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Facemire, Paul; Dabisch, Paul A.; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Nyakiti, David; Beck, Katie; Baker, Reese; Pitt, M. Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is recognized as a serious health threat due to its involvement in septic and pulmonary infections in areas of endemicity and is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a category B biothreat agent. An animal model is desirable to evaluate the pathogenesis of melioidosis and medical countermeasures. A model system that represents human melioidosis infections is essential in this process. A group of 10 rhesus macaques (RMs) and 10 African green monkeys (AGMs) was exposed to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b. The first clinical signs were fever developing 24 to 40 h postexposure followed by leukocytosis resulting from a high percentage of neutrophils. Dyspnea manifested 2 to 4 days postexposure. In the AGMs, an increase in interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was observed. In the RMs, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased. All the RMs and AGMs had various degrees of bronchopneumonia, with inflammation consisting of numerous neutrophils and a moderate number of macrophages. Both the RMs and the AGMs appear to develop a melioidosis infection that closely resembles that seen in acute human melioidosis. However, for an evaluation of medical countermeasures, AGMs appear to be a more appropriate model. PMID:22778104

  7. Intestinal structural changes in African green monkeys after long term psyllium or cellulose feeding.

    PubMed

    Paulini, I; Mehta, T; Hargis, A

    1987-02-01

    Intestinal structure of male adult African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops ssp vervets) was studied after 3 1/2 yr of consuming diets containing 10% psyllium husk or cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified mild damage (cellular swelling and disarray, and microvillar denudation and disarray) at villous tips throughout the small intestine in the psyllium-fed monkeys. The cellulose group had similar duodenal damage. Differences were not found in colons by SEM. By light microscopy, jejunum had shorter villi with psyllium feeding, based upon villous height (P less than 0.05), and length around a sectioned villus (P less than 0.1), but not based upon the number of enterocytes per villus. Jejunal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in psyllium-fed monkeys. Colonic mucosal height was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced and muscle layer thickness was mildly reduced in the psyllium-fed monkeys. Group differences were not found in intestinal weight or length or in the weight of small intestinal mucosal scrapings. Psyllium husk may cause epithelial cell loss and muscle layer hypertrophy in the jejunum and ileum and thinning of the colonic wall after prolonged feeding. PMID:3031252

  8. Psyllium husk. II: Effect on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M

    1992-08-01

    Dietary psyllium's ability to reduce low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is presumably mediated by increased LDL catabolism and/or reduced LDL synthesis. To distinguish between these possibilities, apolipoprotein B (apo B) metabolism was studied in adult male African green monkeys consuming one of three semipurified diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). 131I-labeled LDL and 125I-labeled VLDL were injected simultaneously into animals; blood samples were drawn at selected times and apo B specific activity determined in VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Based on a multicompartmental model, LDL apo B pool size and de novo apo B transport were elevated significantly in HCC animals compared with HCP and LCC animals. Differences in LDL transport, although not significant, paralleled differences observed in LDL apo B pool size. Fractional catabolic rates were similar among groups (HCC 0.040 +/- 0.010; HCP 0.042 +/- 0.009, and LCC 0.043 +/- 0.004 pools/h). These data suggest that dietary psyllium reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations by decreasing LDL synthesis. PMID:1322033

  9. Psyllium husk. I: Effect on plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol metabolism, and atherosclerosis in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M

    1992-08-01

    Psyllium's effects on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol metabolism, and diet-induced atherosclerosis were studied in adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Animals were fed for 3.5 y one of three experimental diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). The LCC and HCP groups had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower plasma cholesterol concentrations (39% lower) at 1 mo than did the HCC group. These responses persisted throughout the study. Plasma cholesterol changes were due to a reduction in intermediate-density and low-density lipoproteins; very-low and high-density-lipoprotein concentrations were similar among groups. Aortic atherosclerosis, evaluated as percent sudanophilia at 3.5 y, was lowest in the LCC group, intermediate in the HCP group, and highest in the HCC group. Cholesterol absorption, neutral steroid and fat excretion, HMGCoA reductase activity (in intestine and liver), and body weight were unrelated to psyllium's hypocholesterolemic effects. PMID:1322032

  10. Translation of adenovirus 2 late mRNAs microinjected into cultured African green monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.D.; Anderson, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    Adenovirus 2-infected monkey cells fail to synthesize fiber, a 62,000 M/sub r/ virion polypeptide expressed at late times in productively infected cells. Yet these cells contain fiber mRNA that, after isolation, can be translated in vitro. The reason for the failure of monkey cells to translate fiber mRNA has been approached by microinjecting adenovirus mRNA into the cytoplasm of cultured monkey cells. Late adenovirus 2 mRNA, isolated from infected HeLa cells, was efficiently expressed when microinjected into the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-C. Expressed viral proteins identified by immunoprecipitation included the adenovirus fiber polypeptide. This result demonstrates that the monkey cell translational apparatus is capable of recognizing and expressing functional adenovirus mRNA. Microinjection of late virus mRNA into cells previously infected with wild-type adenovirus 2 failed to increase significantly the yield of infectious virus. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  12. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  13. Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to the innate immune system of African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cox, Brandi L; Schiffer, Holly; Dagget, Gregory; Beierschmitt, Amy; Sithole, Fortune; Lee, Elise; Revan, Floyd; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Palmour, Roberta; Soto, Esteban

    2015-03-23

    In recent years, an emergent Klebsiella pneumoniae hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype has been associated with increased invasiveness and pathogenicity in primates. In this project, bacteria recovered from infected African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) were screened for HMV phenotype, and were compared to non-HMV isolates in in vitro, serum, and oxidative-mediated killing assays. Complement-mediated killing was assessed utilizing freshly collected serum from healthy AGM. Oxidative-mediated killing was investigated utilizing sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. Compared to non-HMV isolates, HMV isolates were more resistant to serum-mediated and oxidative killing (p<0.05). Phagocytosis resistance was evaluated using AGM peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC), and results indicated that non-HMV isolates associated with the AGM PBMC to a greater extent than HMV isolates (p<0.001). Measurement of lactate dehydrogenase release showed that HMV isolates were more cytotoxic to AGM PBMC than non-HMV isolates (p<0.001). Thus, the hypermucoid phenotype appears to be an important virulence factor that promotes evasion of innate immune defenses. PMID:25614101

  14. Determination of threshold adverse effect doses of percutaneous VX exposure in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Raymond F; Benton, Bernard J; Oubre, John L; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, E Michael; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Settle, Timothy J; Steinbach, Thomas J

    2011-01-11

    Percutaneous exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent VX was evaluated in African green monkeys (n=9). Doses of VX (7.5-100 μg/kg) were applied to the skin for 60 min and residual agent was quantified (before decontamination) to estimate the absorbed dose. Monkeys were evaluated for the presence or absence of clinical signs of toxicity and blood was sampled periodically (30 min--12 weeks) following exposure to measure the degree of circulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Monkeys were also evaluated for behavioral changes from VX exposure using a serial probe recognition (SPR) task. The lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the production of major clinical signs was determined to be 42.22 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=17.36 μg/kg) and the LOAEL for AChE inhibition was 13.33 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=6.53 μg/kg). Behavioral performance was unaffected at doses that, while producing substantial AChE inhibition, did not produce clinical signs. VX represents a substantial threat as a contact hazard and these results complement previous studies using the percutaneous route of exposure with VX and extend the findings to a non-human primate species. PMID:20887765

  15. Chemical induction of endogenous retrovirus particles from the vero cell line of African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailun; Ma, Yunkun; Ma, Wenbin; Williams, Dhanya K; Galvin, Teresa A; Khan, Arifa S

    2011-07-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences are present in high copy numbers in the genomes of all species and may be expressed as RNAs; however, the majority are defective for virus production. Although virus has been isolated from various Old World monkey and New World monkey species, there has been no report of endogenous retroviruses produced from African green monkey (AGM) tissues or cell lines. We have recently developed a stepwise approach for evaluating the presence of latent viruses by chemical induction (Khan et al., Biologicals 37:196-201, 2009). Based upon this strategy, optimum conditions were determined for investigating the presence of inducible, endogenous retroviruses in the AGM-derived Vero cell line. Low-level reverse transcriptase activity was produced with 5-azacytidine (AzaC) and with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR); none was detected with sodium butyrate. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-amplified fragments from the gag, pol, and env regions of RNAs, prepared from ultracentrifuged pellets of filtered supernatants, indicated that endogenous retrovirus particles related to simian endogenous type D betaretrovirus (SERV) sequences and baboon endogenous virus type C gammaretrovirus (BaEV) sequences were induced by AzaC, whereas SERV sequences were also induced by IUdR. Additionally, sequence heterogeneity was seen in the RNAs of SERV- and BaEV-related particles. Infectivity analysis of drug-treated AGM Vero cells showed no virus replication in cell lines known to be susceptible to type D simian retroviruses (SRVs) and to BaEV. The results indicated that multiple, inducible endogenous retrovirus loci are present in the AGM genome that can encode noninfectious, viruslike particles. PMID:21543506

  16. Chemical Induction of Endogenous Retrovirus Particles from the Vero Cell Line of African Green Monkeys▿

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hailun; Ma, Yunkun; Ma, Wenbin; Williams, Dhanya K.; Galvin, Teresa A.; Khan, Arifa S.

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences are present in high copy numbers in the genomes of all species and may be expressed as RNAs; however, the majority are defective for virus production. Although virus has been isolated from various Old World monkey and New World monkey species, there has been no report of endogenous retroviruses produced from African green monkey (AGM) tissues or cell lines. We have recently developed a stepwise approach for evaluating the presence of latent viruses by chemical induction (Khan et al., Biologicals 37:196–201, 2009). Based upon this strategy, optimum conditions were determined for investigating the presence of inducible, endogenous retroviruses in the AGM-derived Vero cell line. Low-level reverse transcriptase activity was produced with 5-azacytidine (AzaC) and with 5′-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IUdR); none was detected with sodium butyrate. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-amplified fragments from the gag, pol, and env regions of RNAs, prepared from ultracentrifuged pellets of filtered supernatants, indicated that endogenous retrovirus particles related to simian endogenous type D betaretrovirus (SERV) sequences and baboon endogenous virus type C gammaretrovirus (BaEV) sequences were induced by AzaC, whereas SERV sequences were also induced by IUdR. Additionally, sequence heterogeneity was seen in the RNAs of SERV- and BaEV-related particles. Infectivity analysis of drug-treated AGM Vero cells showed no virus replication in cell lines known to be susceptible to type D simian retroviruses (SRVs) and to BaEV. The results indicated that multiple, inducible endogenous retrovirus loci are present in the AGM genome that can encode noninfectious, viruslike particles. PMID:21543506

  17. Centromere protein B of African green monkey cells: gene structure, cellular expression, and centromeric localization.

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, K; Nakamura, T; Masumoto, H; Suzuki, N; Kitagawa, K; Nakano, M; Shinjo, A; Okazaki, T

    1996-01-01

    Centromere protein B (CENP-B) is a centromeric DNA-binding protein which recognizes a 17-bp sequence (CENP-B box) in human and mouse centromeric satellite DNA. The African green monkey (AGM) is phylogenetically closer to humans than mice and is known to contain large amounts of alpha-satellite DNA, but there has been no report of CENP-B boxes or CENP-B in the centromere domains of its chromosomes. To elucidate the AGM CENP-B-CENP-B box interaction, we have analyzed the gene structure, expression, biochemical properties, and centromeric localization of its CENP-B. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned AGM CENP-B gene was established to be highly homologous to that of human and mouse CENP-B. In particular, the DNA binding and homodimer formation domains demonstrated 100% identity to their human and mouse counterparts. Immunoblotting and DNA mobility shift analyses revealed CENP-B to be expressed in AGM cell lines. As predicted from the gene structure, the AGM CENP-B in the cell extracts exhibited the same DNA binding specificity and homodimer forming activity as human CENP-B. By indirect immunofluorescent staining of AGM mitotic cells with anti-CENP-B antibodies, a centromere-specific localization of AGM CENP-B could be demonstrated. We also isolated AGM alpha-satellite DNA with a CENP-B box-like sequence with CENP-B affinity. These results not only prove that CENP-B functionally persists in AGM cells but also suggest that the AGM genome contains the recognition sequences for CENP-B (CENP-B boxes with the core recognition sequence or CENP-B box variants) in centromeric satellite DNA. PMID:8756674

  18. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudgett, John Stuart

    1987-09-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  19. Remedial Measures for Counterbalancing the After Effects of Green Revolution on the Georesources of Groundwater, Land and Soil in Haryana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S. K.

    2008-05-01

    In Haryana, one of the wheat granaries of India where water resources have depleted to a critical level (1050 m3 /year/person), groundwater alone has 53% share in the irrigation, the remaining 47% comes from canal system of glacier-fed rivers, viz., Yamuna and Satluj originating from Himalayas. The Green Revolution (1971-1990, intensive phase) enabled this small state to become an agro-economic state in northern alluvial plains of India. Though occupying 1.3 % geographical area and containing 2% of the population of India, it produces country's 13% wheat and about 3% quality rice besides other cereals, oil seeds, sugarcane and cotton. However, Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development- one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m in twelve of its nineteen districts and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana is mostly saline (TDS > 4000 mg/l) and irrational canal irrigation has paradoxically raised the water-table by 3-9m in seven districts causing waterlogging over 2346 km2 land of which 251 km2 is fully waterlogged. In the land use pattern 131,000 ha prime cultivable land (about 3% of the total) has been lost to urbanization jeopardizing the FOOD SECURITY. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like groundnut, sunflower, mustard, etc. and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro-climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations also hold good to the adjoining eastern Rajasthan.

  20. Green Revolution in the Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Curtis

    1995-01-01

    This article contrasts innovations in environmental technology in Germany with a lack of invention in the United States. Policies that lead to development of markets for environmental technologies in Germany are compared to U.S. economic and environmental policies. (LZ)

  1. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  2. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  3. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replicates to High Levels in Naturally Infected African Green Monkeys without Inducing Immunologic or Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Suzanne R.; Staprans, Silvija I.; White, Robert; Whitehead, Evelyn M.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Allan, Jonathan S.

    2001-01-01

    African green monkeys can maintain long-term persistent infection with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVagm) without developing AIDS and thus provide an important model for understanding mechanisms of natural host resistance to disease. This study assessed the levels and anatomic distribution of SIVagm in healthy, naturally infected monkeys. Quantitative competitive reverse transcriptase PCR assays developed to measure SIVagm from two African green monkey subspecies demonstrated high levels of SIV RNA in plasma (>6 × 106 RNA copies/ml) in sabaeus and vervet monkeys. Infectious virus was readily recovered from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and shown to be highly cytopathic in human cell lines and macrophages. SIVagm DNA levels were highest in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the gut is a major site for SIVagm replication in vivo. Appreciable levels of virus were also found within the brain parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with lower levels detected in peripheral blood cells and lymph nodes. Virus isolates from the CSF and brain parenchyma readily infected macrophages in culture, whereas lymph node isolates were more restricted to growth in human T-cell lines. Comparison of env V2-C4 sequences showed extensive amino acid diversity between SIVagm recovered from the central nervous system and that recovered from lymphoid tissues. Homology between brain and CSF viruses, macrophage tropism, and active replication suggest compartmentalization in the central nervous system without associated neuropathology in naturally infected monkeys. These studies provide evidence that the nonpathogenic nature of SIVagm in the natural host can be attributed neither to more effective host control over viral replication nor to differences in the tissue and cell tropism from those for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans or SIV-infected macaques. PMID:11160730

  4. Impacts of dust reduction on the northward expansion of the African monsoon during the Green Sahara period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Messori, Gabriele; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is crucial for the socio-economic stability of millions of people living in the Sahel. Severe droughts have ravaged the region in the last three decades of the 20th century, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the WAM dynamics. One of the most dramatic changes in the West African Monsoon (WAM) occurred between 15000-5000 yr BP, when increased summer rainfall led to the so-called "Green Sahara" and to a reduction in dust emissions from the region. However, model experiments are unable to fully reproduce the intensification and geographical expansion of the WAM during this period, even when vegetation over the Sahara is considered. Here, we use a fully coupled simulation for 6000 yr BP (Mid-Holocene) in which prescribed Saharan vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. A closer agreement with proxy records is obtained only when both the Saharan vegetation changes and dust decrease are taken into account. The dust reduction strengthens the vegetation-albedo feedback, extending the monsoon's northern limit approximately 500 km further than the vegetation-change case only. We therefore conclude that accounting for changes in Saharan dust loadings is essential for improving model simulations of the WAM during the Mid-Holocene.

  5. Simulating Quaternary African Environments and the Green Sahara through dynamic coupling of Land Surface and Atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Aidan; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Paleoclimate records from Late Quaternary Africa imply rapid and spatially complex shifts between wet and dry conditions. There is abundant evidence that during numerous incursions in the past the extent of deserts, lakes and rivers is not static. In this work we use an asynchronously coupled atmosphere and vegetation model to investigate our current ability to model Quaternary Africa. We iterate the vegetation scheme BIOME with the Hadley Centre model and explore the changing relationship between African vegetation and climate over the last deglaciation. During the last deglaciation large amplitude perturbations of the African climate occurred, linked to orbitally forced changes in monsoon strength. Beginning and ending abruptly 7000 and 4000 years BP, a widespread greening of the Sahara is recorded in numerous paleoclimate archives. This greening represents the largest anomaly in the atmosphere-biosphere system in the last 12,000 years. Atmospheric models alone have failed to reproduce the extent of humidity change. Work by Claussen (1994) and Claussen and Gayler (1997) made large leaps forward by incorporating a dynamic vegetation model into simulations of the African Quaternary. Their work suggests that under some conditions multiple equilibria may exist in the atmosphere-biosphere system, providing a mechanism for rapid change. In this work we apply a similar method to an extensive suite of time slices from the last glacial maximum to the present. We investigate how the role of surface feedbacks in the climate system change through time by employing the Hadley Centre's atmosphere-only model HadAM3 with the BIOME model of Prentice et al (1992) and consider surface hydrology feedbacks using the surface water scheme HYDRA (Coe 1998). Equilibrium time slices across the deglacation are run for pre-industrial, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 kyr B.P. climates. Simulations are started with standard vegetation distributions and repeated with rainforest and desert

  6. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a) African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a) visual pigment protein (opsin) in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Results Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω) following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Conclusions Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African cichlid RH2a opsins. At

  7. The Computer Revolution and Adult Education. Growth Prospects in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire

    Most African countries are presently overburdened by their debts, declining economies, and quality of living as well as abiding struggles for the restoration of democracy. However, they have noted the global revolution in the development and application of computers. Most Africans believe that computers and intensive and relevant education for all…

  8. African Green Monkeys Recapitulate the Clinical Experience with Replication of Live Attenuated Pandemic Influenza Virus Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Suguitan, Amorsolo; Orandle, Marlene; Paskel, Myeisha; Boonnak, Kobporn; Gardner, Donald J.; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Marino, Michael; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Live attenuated cold-adapted (ca) H5N1, H7N3, H6N1, and H9N2 influenza vaccine viruses replicated in the respiratory tract of mice and ferrets, and 2 doses of vaccines were immunogenic and protected these animals from challenge infection with homologous and heterologous wild-type (wt) viruses of the corresponding subtypes. However, when these vaccine candidates were evaluated in phase I clinical trials, there were inconsistencies between the observations in animal models and in humans. The vaccine viruses did not replicate well and immune responses were variable in humans, even though the study subjects were seronegative with respect to the vaccine viruses before vaccination. Therefore, we sought a model that would better reflect the findings in humans and evaluated African green monkeys (AGMs) as a nonhuman primate model. The distribution of sialic acid (SA) receptors in the respiratory tract of AGMs was similar to that in humans. We evaluated the replication of wt and ca viruses of avian influenza (AI) virus subtypes H5N1, H6N1, H7N3, and H9N2 in the respiratory tract of AGMs. All of the wt viruses replicated efficiently, while replication of the ca vaccine viruses was restricted to the upper respiratory tract. Interestingly, the patterns and sites of virus replication differed among the different subtypes. We also evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of H5N1, H6N1, H7N3, and H9N2 ca vaccines. Protection from wt virus challenge correlated well with the level of serum neutralizing antibodies. Immune responses were slightly better when vaccine was delivered by both intranasal and intratracheal delivery than when it was delivered intranasally by sprayer. We conclude that live attenuated pandemic influenza virus vaccines replicate similarly in AGMs and human subjects and that AGMs may be a useful model to evaluate the replication of ca vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Ferrets and mice are commonly used for preclinical evaluation of influenza

  9. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  10. Effects of temperature, density and food quality on larval growth and metamorphosis in the north African green frog Pelophylax saharicus.

    PubMed

    Bellakhal, Meher; Neveu, André; Fartouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Missaoui, Hechmi; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-10-01

    The ectodermic status of Amphibians explains their heavy dependence at ambient temperatures and thus their sensitivity to global warming. Temperature is likely the main factor regulating their physiology by acting on the endocrine system, with consequences on development, growth and size at metamorphosis. All these parameters control survival in the wild and performances in raniculture. This study is, to our knowledge, the first report on the effects of temperature, density and protein level in food on the rearing of the North African green Frog Pelophylax saharicus. Results show that a temperature of 26 °C is optimal for maximum weight gain. The maximum metamorphosis rate is obtained between 24 and 26 °C. The highest yields occur at low densities from 1 to 10 tadpolesl(-1). The best survival rate and accelerated metamorphosis are obtained at a level of 35% protein in food whose impact on food intake and weight gain is low. The maximum weight attained by tadpoles at metamorphosis, however, is obtained with a level of 40% protein. These results justify examination of this species in the light of climate change and suggest new techniques for aquaculture. PMID:25436955

  11. The Neutralizing Capacity of Antibodies Elicited by Parainfluenza Virus Infection of African Green Monkeys is Dependent on Complement

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Anne E.; Johnson, John B.; Parks, Griffith D.

    2014-01-01

    The African Green Monkey (AGM) model was used to analyze the role of complement in neutralization of parainfluenza virus. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and human parainfluenza virus type 2 were effectively neutralized in vitro by naïve AGM sera, but neutralizing capacity was lost by heat-inactivation. The mechanism of neutralization involved formation of massive aggregates, with no evidence of virion lysis. Following inoculation of the respiratory tract with a PIV5 vector expressing HIV gp160, AGM produced high levels of serum and tracheal antibodies against gp120 and the viral F and HN proteins. However, in the absence of complement these anti-PIV5 antibodies had very poor neutralizing capacity. Virions showed extensive deposition of IgG and C1q with post- but not pre-immune sera. These results highlight the importance of complement in the initial antibody response to parainfluenza viruses, with implications for understanding infant immune responses and design of vaccine strategies for these pediatric pathogens. PMID:25010267

  12. Single-dose Live-attenuated Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-based Vaccine Protects African Green Monkeys from Nipah Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; DeBuysscher, Blair L.; Feldmann, Friederike; Gardner, Donald J.; Haddock, Elaine; Martellaro, Cynthia; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe respiratory and/or encephalitic disease in humans, often resulting in death. It is transmitted from pteropus fruit bats, which serve as the natural reservoir of the virus, and outbreaks occur on an almost annual basis in Bangladesh or India. Outbreaks are small and sporadic, and several cases of human-to-human transmission have been documented as an important feature of the epidemiology of Nipah virus disease. There are no approved countermeasures to combat infection and medical intervention is supportive. We recently generated a recombinant replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine that encodes a Nipah virus glycoprotein as an antigen and is highly efficacious in the hamster model of Nipah virus disease. Herein, we show that this vaccine protects African green monkeys, a well-characterized model of Nipah virus disease, from disease one month after a single intramuscular administration of the vaccine. Vaccination resulted in a rapid and strong virus-specific immune response which inhibited virus shedding and replication. This vaccine platform provides a rapid means to afford protection from Nipah virus in an outbreak situation. PMID:25865472

  13. Single-dose live-attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus disease.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; DeBuysscher, Blair L; Feldmann, Friederike; Gardner, Donald J; Haddock, Elaine; Martellaro, Cynthia; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe respiratory and/or encephalitic disease in humans, often resulting in death. It is transmitted from pteropus fruit bats, which serve as the natural reservoir of the virus, and outbreaks occur on an almost annual basis in Bangladesh or India. Outbreaks are small and sporadic, and several cases of human-to-human transmission have been documented as an important feature of the epidemiology of Nipah virus disease. There are no approved countermeasures to combat infection and medical intervention is supportive. We recently generated a recombinant replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine that encodes a Nipah virus glycoprotein as an antigen and is highly efficacious in the hamster model of Nipah virus disease. Herein, we show that this vaccine protects African green monkeys, a well-characterized model of Nipah virus disease, from disease one month after a single intramuscular administration of the vaccine. Vaccination resulted in a rapid and strong virus-specific immune response which inhibited virus shedding and replication. This vaccine platform provides a rapid means to afford protection from Nipah virus in an outbreak situation. PMID:25865472

  14. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R.; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D.; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E.; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W.; Trama, Ashley M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  15. Physiologic manifestations of stress from capture and restraint of free-ranging male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Suleman, Mbaruk A; Wango, Emmanuel; Sapolsky, Robert M; Odongo, Hesbon; Hau, Jann

    2004-03-01

    Adrenal gland weights, stomach mucosal lesions, and morning serum cortisol and prolactin levels were measured in 15 juvenile and adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) that were shot by a hunter, euthanized after 24 hr of captivity, or euthanized after 45 days of captivity and intermittent blood sampling. Hormone levels were measured in seven additional males that had been in captivity for 7 mo. Mean serum cortisol concentrations were significantly lower in free-ranging wild monkeys at the time they were shot than in the monkeys after 1 day in captivity. Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in wild-caught monkeys on the day after capture than they were in the same animals after 18 and 26 days of captivity. Cortisol concentrations were also significantly higher in the wild-caught monkeys 18 days after capture than in the laboratory-habituated monkeys in captivity for 7 mo. Mean prolactin concentration was significantly lower in the wild-caught monkeys on day 2 after capture, and the levels increased gradually to 45 days in captivity and was highest in monkeys that had been captive for 7 mo. PMID:15193069

  16. Organisation of nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with repetitive African green monkey α-satellite DNA as analysed by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bussiek, Malte; Müller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar; Diekmann, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is part of centromeric DNA and could be relevant for centromeric chromatin structure: its repetitive character may generate a specifically ordered nucleosomal arrangement and thereby facilitate kinetochore protein binding and chromatin condensation. Although nucleosomal positioning on some satellite sequences had been shown, including AS from African green monkey (AGM), the sequence-dependent nucleosomal organisation of repetitive AS of this species has so far not been analysed. We therefore studied the positioning of reconstituted nucleosomes on AGM AS tandemly repeated DNA. Enzymatic analysis of nucleosome arrays formed on an AS heptamer as well as the localisation of mononucleosomes on an AS dimer by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed one major positioning frame, in agreement with earlier results. The occupancy of this site was in the range of 45–50%, in quite good agreement with published in vivo observations. AFM measurements of internucleosomal distances formed on the heptamer indicated that the nucleosomal arrangement is governed by sequence-specific DNA-histone interactions yielding defined internucleosomal distances, which, nevertheless, are not compatible with a uniform phasing of the nucleosomes with the AGM AS repeats. PMID:17503032

  17. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R; Nguyen, Quang N; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W; Trama, Ashley M; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  18. Identification of a surface glycoprotein on African green monkey kidney cells as a receptor for hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, G; Totsuka, A; Thompson, P; Akatsuka, T; Moritsugu, Y; Feinstone, S M

    1996-01-01

    Very little is known about the mechanism of cell entry of hepatitis A virus (HAV), and the identification of cellular receptors for this picornavirus has been elusive. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a cellular receptor for HAV using protective monoclonal antibodies raised against susceptible African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells as probes. Monoclonal antibodies 190/4, 235/4 and 263/6, which reacted against similar epitopes, specifically protected AGMK cells against HAV infection by blocking the binding of HAV. Expression cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA coding for epitope 190/4 revealed a novel mucin-like class I integral membrane glycoprotein of 451 amino acids, the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1). Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that mouse Ltk- cells transfected with HAVcr-1 cDNA gained limited susceptibility to HAV infection, which was blocked by treatment with monoclonal antibody 190/4. Our results demonstrate that the HAVcr-1 polypeptide is an attachment receptor for HAV and strongly suggest that it is also a functional receptor which mediates HAV infection. This report constitutes the first identification of a cellular receptor for HAV. Images PMID:8861957

  19. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  20. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  1. Modulation of Type I Interferon-Associated Viral Sensing during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Kunkel, Désirée; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Jacquelin, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), such as African green monkeys (AGMs), do not progress to AIDS when infected with SIV. This is associated with an absence of a chronic type I interferon (IFN-I) signature. It is unclear how the IFN-I response is downmodulated in AGMs. We longitudinally assessed the capacity of AGM blood cells to produce IFN-I in response to SIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Phenotypes and functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and other mononuclear blood cells were assessed by flow cytometry, and expression of viral sensors was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. pDCs displayed low BDCA-2, CD40, and HLA-DR expression levels during AGM acute SIV (SIVagm) infection. BDCA-2 was required for sensing of SIV, but not of HSV, by pDCs. In acute infection, AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced less IFN-I upon SIV stimulation. In the chronic phase, the production was normal, confirming that the lack of chronic inflammation is not due to a sensing defect of pDCs. In contrast to stimulation by SIV, more IFN-I was produced upon HSV stimulation of PBMCs isolated during acute infection, while the frequency of AGM pDCs producing IFN-I upon in vitro stimulation with HSV was diminished. Indeed, other cells started producing IFN-I. This increased viral sensing by non-pDCs was associated with an upregulation of Toll-like receptor 3 and IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 caused by IFN-I in acute SIVagm infection. Our results suggest that, as in pathogenic SIVmac infection, SIVagm infection mobilizes bone marrow precursor pDCs. Moreover, we show that SIV infection modifies the capacity of viral sensing in cells other than pDCs, which could drive IFN-I production in specific settings. IMPORTANCE The effects of HIV/SIV infections on the capacity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to produce IFN-I in vivo are still incompletely defined. As IFN-I can restrict viral replication, contribute to inflammation

  2. Four Traditions: Women of New York During the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Linda Grant

    The role of New York women in the American Revolution is discussed in a survey of four cultural traditions in 17th and 18th century New York--Iroquois, African, Dutch, and English. The purpose is to provide a historical record on the subject of women's history. Women from the four cultural traditions were bound by different conventions which…

  3. The Green Revolution: Some New Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadwiger, Don F.

    1975-01-01

    Concerned with maximizing productivity, the land-grant agricultural colleges have largely ignored the small farmers they were meant to serve, leading to consequences felt not only in rural America but also in much of the underdeveloped world. (KE)

  4. Adult Education, Cooperatives and Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, K. C.

    1970-01-01

    The basic approach of the Fourth Five Year Plan in India is the creation of conditions necessary for a 5 percent growth in agriculture. The Cooperatives have made a real contribution in the improvement of agriculture and have now launched a member education program. (EB)

  5. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. PMID:26109414

  6. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  7. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green monkeys: evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same geographical locale.

    PubMed Central

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Pourrut, X; Vidal, N; Veas, F; Durand, J P; Cuny, G

    1997-01-01

    High simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) seroprevalence rates have been reported in the different African green monkey (AGM) subspecies. Genetic diversity of these viruses far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. We investigate here genetic diversity of SIVagm in wild-living AGM populations from the same geographical locale (i.e., sympatric population) in Senegal. For 11 new strains, we PCR amplified and sequenced two regions of the genome spanning the first tat exon and part of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows that viruses found in sympatric populations cluster into distinct lineages, with at least two distinct genotypes in each troop. These data strongly suggest an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population. PMID:8985351

  8. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  9. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Hernaez, Bruno . E-mail: hernaez@inia.es; Escribano, Jose M. . E-mail: escriban@inia.es; Alonso, Covadonga . E-mail: calonso@inia.es

    2006-06-20

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations.

  10. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.I.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  11. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  12. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  13. Negritude et Revolution (Negritude and Revolution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterling, Ilda-Marie

    In 1933 in Paris, a new literary movement was born: negritude, a black French-language movement. Its principal figures were Leopold Sedar Senghor, Aime Cesaire, and Leon Damas. The chief features of the movement included: (1) awareness of African cultural history; (2) acceptance of and pride in the black racial identity; (3) a style which combined…

  14. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  15. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  16. Nicaragua: Literacy and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1982-01-01

    A national adult literacy program was established in Nicaragua in 1979, after the Sandanista revolution, as part of a plan for socio-economic development. Program development, implementation and evaluation methods, curriculum content, educational methodology, and teacher training methods are described. (AM)

  17. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  18. The Unfinished Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgmore, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The 157 Group recently published "Adult further education--the unfinished revolution," a policy paper setting out proposals for a truly market-driven further education sector in which the choices of individuals and individual employers are central in determining the programmes that are offered. Their overall aim is to allow institutions to respond…

  19. The High Tech Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, Robert Arnold

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the effects of Information Revolution on special libraries highlights changes in clients that consume services and approve budgets (institutions, corporations, government departments); interrelated triggers to informationization (network organization, information technology, human capital); and three types of information for…

  20. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  1. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  2. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms, revolutions…

  3. Habitual diets rich in dark-green vegetables are associated with an increased response to ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in Americans of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aifric; Armstrong, Patrice; Schuster, Gertrud U; Pedersen, Theresa L; Allayee, Hooman; Stephensen, Charles B; Newman, John W

    2014-02-01

    Although substantial variation exists in individual responses to omega-3 (ω-3) (n-3) fatty acid supplementation, the causes for differences in response are largely unknown. Here we investigated the associations between the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and a broad range of nutritional and clinical factors collected during a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in participants of African ancestry, randomly assigned to receive either 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 1 g docosahexaenoic acid (n = 41) or corn/soybean oil placebo (n = 42) supplements for 6 wk. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered, and changes in erythrocyte lipids, lipoproteins, and monocyte 5-lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism were measured before and after supplementation. Mixed-mode linear regression modeling identified high (n = 28) and low (n = 13) ω-3 fatty acid response groups on the basis of changes in erythrocyte EPA abundance (P < 0.001). Compliance was equivalent (∼88%), whereas decreases in plasma triglycerides and VLDL particle sizes and reductions in stimulated monocyte leukotriene B4 production were larger in the high-response group. Although total diet quality scores were similar, the low-response group showed lower estimated 2005 Healthy Eating Index subscores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes (P = 0.01) and a lower intake of vegetables (P = 0.02), particularly dark-green vegetables (P = 0.002). Because the findings reported here are associative in nature, prospective studies are needed to determine if dietary dark-green vegetables or nutrients contained in these foods can enhance the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00536185. PMID:24259553

  4. Effects of a Western-Type Diet on Plasma Lipids and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Matthew J; Aycock, S Tyler; Clarkson, Thomas B; Kaplan, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to assess a nonhuman primate diet that mimicked the Western-type diet of humans with regard to palatability and the diet's effects on plasma lipid concentrations and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We evaluated male (n = 8) and female (n = 11) African green monkeys (vervets; Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) that initially were fed a standard diet. Each cohort then was divided into 2 groups, which received either standard chow or the Western diet. Food consumption and fecal quality were measured weekly. Body weight, waist circumference, and body–mass index were measured every 2 wk. CBC and clinical chemistry analyses were performed at baseline and 4 wk after the diet change. Plasma lipid concentrations, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and fructosamine were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 wk after the diet change. Isoflavones were measured in the male monkeys at 6 wk after diet change, and lipid particle size was measured in the female monkeys at the 12-wk point. Green monkeys readily ate the Western diet and maintained baseline body weight and morphometric measures, with no adverse effects on fecal quality or clinical measures. Total plasma cholesterol was higher in monkeys fed the Western diet compared with standard chow. Isoflavones were higher in male monkeys fed standard chow compared with the Western diet, but lipid particle size did not differ by diet in female monkeys. Our data indicate that the Western diet led to changes in various biomedical risk factors of green monkeys to become similar to those of humans in the United States. PMID:23849442

  5. Evaluation of minerals, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of Mexican, Central American, and African green leafy vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditi...

  6. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented. PMID:26490448

  7. African N Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  8. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  9. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  10. Understanding African American Women’s Decisions to Buy and Eat Dark Green Leafy Vegetables: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Ona, Fernando F.; Juarez, Paul D.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Design Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Setting Marion County, Indiana. Participants African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Main Outcome Measure(s) Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Analysis Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Results Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P < .001) and eat (r = 0.23, P < .001) DGLV were positively associated with consumption. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Conclusions and Implications Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. PMID:24021457

  11. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  12. Resistance of African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Lines to Actinomycin D: Drug Uptake in 37 RC Cells After Persistent Inhibition of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Arrigo; Cassone, Antonio; Delfini, Carlo

    1979-01-01

    37 RC cells, a cultured line derived from African green monkey kidneys, survived long treatments with actinomycin D (AMD; 0.1 to 0.5 μg/ml) under strong inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis and blocking of cell division. One aspect of the complex cellular response to this treatment was a progressive lowering of the influx rate of AMD and, consequently, of its endocellular concentration, leading to a late resurgence of transcription. Overall protein synthesis decreased in AMD-treated cells, but more of the residual protein was exported to the cell surface, a fact associated with the development of numerous strands of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies in the cytoplasm. The lowering of AMD influx during the treatment was not simply due to the decay of protein synthesis, and there was no evidence for a carrier-mediated transport of the drug. It was paralleled by, but seemingly not related to, modifications in cellular microtubules and microfilaments. The rate of AMD influx was restored to levels comparable to those of untreated cells by short exposure to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trypsin. It is concluded that the changes in plasma membrane of 37 RC cells, creating an obstacle to the influx of AMD after long treatment with this drug, probably consist of an accumulation and/or a different distribution of glycoproteins or other surface components on the cell surface. Images PMID:106777

  13. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts—Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081

  14. Strategy as revolution.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1996-01-01

    How often does the strategic-planning process start with senior executives asking what the rest of the organization can teach them about the future? Not often enough, argues Gary Hamel. In many companies, strategy making is an elitist procedure and ¿strategy¿ consists of nothing more than following the industry's rules. But more and more companies, intent on overturning the industrial order, are rewriting those rules. What can industry incumbents do? Either surrender the future to revolutionary challengers or revolutionize the way their companies create strategy. What is needed is not a tweak to the traditional strategic-planning process, Hamel says, but a new philosophical foundation: strategy is revolution. Hamel offers ten principles to help a company think about the challenge of creating truly revolutionary strategies. Perhaps the most fundamental principle is that so-called strategic planning doesn't produce true strategic innovation. The traditional planning process is little more than a rote procedure in which deeply held assumptions and industry conventions are reinforced rather than challenged. Such a process harnesses only a tiny proportion of an organization's creative potential. If there is to be any hope of industry revolution, senior managers must give up their monopoly on the creation of strategy. They must embrace a truly democratic process that can give voice to the revolutionaries that exist in every company. If senior managers are unwilling to do this, employees must become strategy activists. The opportunities for industry revolution are mostly unexplored. One thing is certain: if you don't let the revolutionaries challenge you from within, they will eventually challenge you from without--in the marketplace. PMID:10158475

  15. "Revolution in Understanding"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Edward Ayers, a recognized expert on Southern history and president of the University of Richmond. According to Dr. Ayers, 2011 marks the start of the sesquicentennial of the Civil War and the emancipation of African-Americans. It is an important distinction based on the evolution of Civil War…

  16. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities within…

  17. The Scientific Revolution: Paradigm Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the historiography of the scientific revolution through a bibliographic essay. Examines trends in recent scholarly publications in an effort to identify new areas of research. Maintains that the study of the scientific revolution is problematic and cannot be reduced to simple analysis. (RW)

  18. Three Steps to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the uses of television in education and considers the future in relationship to the microelectronics revolution. New microelectronic technology, cheap information storage, and cheap transmission of information are discussed as major components of a revolution in educational television use. (Author/BK)

  19. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  20. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  1. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  2. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  3. Revolutions in the earth sciences

    PubMed Central

    Allègre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.

  4. Contraception: a social revolution.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2007-03-01

    Modern contraceptive technology is more than a technical advance: it has brought about a true social revolution, the 'first reproductive revolution' in the history of mankind. This latter was followed in rapid succession by other major changes in human reproductive strategies. In the human species, sexual activity began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning at an early stage of its evolution. Human beings must have practiced non-conceptive sex from the outset and therefore must have had a need to avoid, rather than to seek conception during intercourse from time immemorial. The search for methods to control fertility went on for millennia, but a valid solution was only found during the twentieth century, when the population explosion had forever changed the shape of humanity: in only one century the total population of the planet had grown from some 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion. That increase will remain unique in the history of Homo sapiens. At the global level, contraception provided a tool to deal with overpopulation and, in only 50 years, went a long way towards its resolution. However, to solve the problem, national and international family planning initiatives were required. For individuals, contraception also meant a revolution. It allowed sexual intercourse without reproduction. Only 25 years later, in vitro fertilisation permitted childbearing without sexual intercourse. Other advances followed and now cloning, that is, reproduction without the two gametes, looms on the horizon. Such a series of rapid, major changes in human reproductive strategies has confused many. For this reason, a constructive dialogue between sociology and biology is mandatory. Contraception is a powerful tool to promote equity between sexes; it improves women's status in the family and in the community. Avoiding pregnancy during the teens increases opportunities for a young woman's education, training and employment. By controlling their fertility, women get a chance to

  5. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  6. Parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing the native or soluble fusion (F) Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) confers protection from RSV infection in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tang, Roderick S; MacPhail, Mia; Schickli, Jeanne H; Kaur, Jasmine; Robinson, Christopher L; Lawlor, Heather A; Guzzetta, Jeanne M; Spaete, Richard R; Haller, Aurelia A

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals, often resulting in hospitalization and/or death. After more than 40 years of research, a Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine for RSV is still not available. In this study, a chimeric bovine/human (b/h) parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the human PIV3 (hPIV3) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins from an otherwise bovine PIV3 (bPIV3) genome was employed as a vector for RSV antigen expression with the aim of generating novel RSV vaccines. b/h PIV3 vaccine candidates expressing native or soluble RSV F proteins were evaluated for efficacy and immunogenicity in a nonhuman primate model. b/h PIV3 is suited for development of pediatric vaccines since bPIV3 had already been evaluated in clinical studies in 1- and 2-month-old infants and was found to be safe, immunogenic, and nontransmissible in a day care setting (Karron et al., Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:650-654, 1996; Lee et al., J. Infect. Dis. 184:909-913, 2001). African green monkeys immunized with b/h PIV3 expressing either the native or soluble RSV F protein were protected from challenge with wild-type RSV and produced RSV neutralizing and RSV F-protein specific immunoglobulin G serum antibodies. The PIV3-vectored RSV vaccines evaluated here further underscore the utility of this vector system for developing safe and immunogenic pediatric respiratory virus vaccines. PMID:15452239

  7. Use of OpdA, an Organophosphorus (OP) Hydrolase, Prevents Lethality in an African Green Monkey Model of Acute OP Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin J; Carville, Angela; Ward, Jeanine; Mansfield, Keith; Ollis, David L.; Khurana, Tejvir; Bird, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a diverse class of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, killing approximately 300,000 people annually. Enzymatic hydrolysis of OPs is a potential therapy for acute poisoning. OpdA, an OP hydrolase isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter, has been shown to decrease lethality in rodent models of OP poisoning. This study investigated the effects of OpdA on AChE activity, plasma concentrations of OP, and signs of toxicity after administration of dichlorvos to nonhuman primates. A dose of 75 mg/kg dichlorvos given orally caused apnea within 10 minutes with a progressive decrease in heart rate. Blood AChE activity decreased to zero within ten minutes. Respirations and AChE activity did not recover. The mean dichlorvos concentration rose to a peak of 0.66 μg/ml. Treated monkeys received 1.2 mg/kg OpdA iv immediately after poisoning with dichlorvos. In Opda-treated animals, heart and respiratory rates were unchanged from baseline over a 240-minute observation period. AChE activity slowly declined, but remained above 25% of baseline for the entire duration. Dichlorvos concentrations reached a mean peak of 0.19 μg/ml at 40 minutes after poisoning and decreased to a mean of 0.05 μg/ml at 240 minutes. These results show that OpdA hydrolyzes dichlorvos in an African Green Monkey model of lethal poisoning, delays AChE inhibition, and prevents lethality. PMID:24447378

  8. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  9. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as 'epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  10. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  11. Nanosciences: Evolution or revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    In miniaturized objects fabricated by modern technology the smallest linear size may be of a few nanometers. In the field of microelectronics, the advantages of such a miniaturization are huge (increased complexity and reliability, reduced costs). The technology is now approaching the limits where further size reduction will be impossible, except for very novel techniques such as molecular electronics. Miniaturization research has also led to the discovery of nanometric objects such as carbon nanotubes, which turn out to be particularly appropriate for inventing new materials. Miniaturization techniques have been progressively applied in other fields, with the hope of obtaining improvements similar to those encountered in microelectronics. Examples are biochips, which concentrate on a few cm 2 the recognition of ADN sequences, or 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, each of which constitutes a whole laboratory of chemical analysis, or MEMs (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). New therapies will use miniaturized objects with multiple functions: For instance a nanoparticle can both recognize the target organ thanks to an appropriate protein, and deliver the therapeutic molecule to this target. These results have only been possible through new observation instruments, able to observe and manipulate nano objects. Is the observed evolution really a revolution of science and techniques? This is a point discussed in the conclusion, which also deals with risks associated to nanotechnologies, while the need for a social regulation is stressed.

  12. China's revolution in health.

    PubMed

    Miller, N N; Strickler, J C

    1980-01-01

    Since the revolution and the overthrow of the Gang of Four, China has embarked upon a program of modernization, internationalization, and technological development. The sloganeering campaign for general health as espoused by Chairman Mao is as follows: 1) prevention, including immunizations and early illness detection; 2) serve the workers, peasants, and soldiers; 3) medical work integrated into all other modernization efforts; and 4) combine traditional and Western medicine. The mass campaign aims to involve individuals in improving their health care facilities at the same time they are involved in production of goods and services. Rural workers are mobilized in mass cleanup and prevention campaigns. Of the 8.7 million health workers, nearly 2 million are barefoot doctors, or other types of doctors serving at the lowest rung of paramedical service. Basic services are widely available. Costs are low, access is easy. For about 95% of illnesses the system works very well. Patients with illnesses requiring high technology care, e.g., organ transplant, cannot survive. Chairman Mao codified traditional medicine as a curriculum component for education; it is based on ancient West-Central Chinese practices, mostly from the Han people. The 4 main components are theory, diagnosis and prescription, herbal medicine, and accupuncture. PMID:12336183

  13. The Copernican Revolution Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1999-12-01

    The rapid pace of modern astronomy seems driven by technological advances: larger telescopes, new detectors, a wider spectral range, more powerful computers. In contrast, the revolution in astronomy initiated by Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus seems slow and unrelated to any new observations; it was an idea ``pleasing to the mind." On aesthetic grounds but without empirical proof Copernicus argued for 1) the perfection of the circle, and 2) the elegance of the heliocentric plan. This prize lecture will argue that in fact the slow acceptance of Copernicus' radical heliocentric cosmology resulted primarily because Copernicus was far in advance of the technological developments needed to test his hypotheses. Tycho Brahe's precision instruments (and his failed campaign to find the parallax of Mars) produced the observational base for Kepler's physical astronomy, while in Galileo's hands the telescope provided evidence from the phases of Venus that disproved the Ptolemaic arrangement. Once the new instrumentation opened the way for observational tests, Copernicus' insistence on the uniform, circular motion fell by the wayside, but his other grand aesthetic vision, the heliocentric cosmology, found relatively rapid adoption. The lecture will include vignettes from our three-decades-long search for annotated copies of Copernicus' book, leading to the census of 270 copies of the first edition (Nuremberg, 1543) and nearly 320 copies of the second edition (Basel, 1566).

  14. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  15. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development.

    PubMed

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn's account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of "higher" cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool's motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn's famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  16. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  17. Cuba. A healthy revolution?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Haendel, M

    1991-01-01

    Discussing Cuba's remarkable accomplishments in health care, this article considers the cost of maintaining such a system at a time of economic hardship. Following the revolution of 1959, Cuba has achieved immense advances in health care. Today, its infant mortality rate if the lowest in Latin America and at par with industrialized countries. Its life expectancy is actually higher than that of the US. At 1 doctor for every 297 inhabitants, Cuba has one of the highest ratios in the world. Furthermore, the island nation has created a pharmaceutical industry that supplies 80% of the country's needs, and has a developed high-tech medical techniques which rival the best in the world. And beginning in mid-1980s, Cuba began the Family Doctor Program, in which a physician lives and works in the neighborhood and acts as a public health advocate, while remaining part of the larger health care system. The program has been very popular with the population, and evidence suggests that the program has been highly successful in reducing infant mortality, the number of emergency room visits, and the average hospital stay. Despite its remarkable success, Cuba's health care system does attract criticism. Some charge that Cubans are "over-medicated," and that Cubans no longer take responsibility for their health. Also, some charge that the country has too many doctors and not enough assistants, nurses, and midwives. These criticisms have become even more pointed, as the country's economic crisis deepens. People complain about the scarcity of food. And due to drastic cuts in Soviet aid and the US blockade, Cuba has been forced to impose severe austerity measures. While the authors believe it unlikely that Cuba will be able to maintain its health care system, they say that ending it will be tragic. PMID:12159276

  18. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service. PMID:25338434

  19. Oral Tradition and African History: An Example from Southeastern Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekechi, Felix K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the revolution in African historical study that took place in the 1950s and 1960s. Points out that oral traditions have become a vital part of the new African historiography. Gives an example of utilizing the oral tradition by looking at the history of Nigeria. Identifies some problems in using this method. (KO)

  20. A Revolution that never happened.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    If we define scientific revolutions as changes of scientists' ontologies, types of causal explanation, and paradigmatic types of methods and instruments, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry did not amount to a scientific revolution. Contrary to the received view that Lavoisier initiated a "chemical revolution," which is accepted by Chang and Kusch, I argue that Lavoisier shared with the phlogistonists their "flat ontology" of chemical substance, established decades before the 1770s, their types of explaining chemical transformation, and their quantitative methods. Based on my historical reconstruction, I criticize Chang's argument that the late eighteenth-century phlogistic systems and Lavoisier's system belonged to two different theoretical traditions. As a consequence, I also question Chang's argument that the acceptance of Lavoisier's system can be explained in terms of dominance of "compositionism" over "principlism." PMID:26109413

  1. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  2. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  3. It Isn't Easy Being Green, or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of an economic recession, double digit unemployment rates, and financial bailouts lies a promise of economic recovery through investments and training for a green economy and green collar occupations. This article discusses the impact of the green revolution on job creation and on career and technical education (CTE). The green…

  4. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  5. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  6. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  7. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  8. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  9. NASA Facts, Orbits and Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is intended for senior high physics students. It contains information on the sidereal and synodic periods of revolution of an orbiting satellite, including their calculation. This pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook.…

  10. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  11. Women and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajcsy, Ruzena; Reynolds, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Provides a social and economic context to the information revolution and women's part in it. Speculates on how current and near-term developments in information technology can benefit women scientists from all disciplines. Discusses some of the efforts of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase the participation of women in computer and…

  12. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  13. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  14. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  15. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  16. The Declaration of Independence: To What Extent Did It Have Meaning for African Americans. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school history lesson based on the National Standards for United States History. Considers the effect of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence on free and enslaved African Americans. (CFR)

  17. Building beyond the Evaluation Of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in African Schools and Communities: The Women Global Green Action Network (WGGAN) Africa Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Community Health Education and School Sanitation (CHESS) Project, an initiative by the Women Global Green Action Network International to support community-based environmental projects in Africa. The CHESS Project uses women, children and youth to develop more sustainable health and sanitation systems in urban and rural…

  18. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  19. The Green Revolution in Transportation. Resource Recovery. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These two learning activities provide context, objectives, list of materials, student activity, and evaluation criteria. The first involves an automotive class in developing a model alternative fueled vehicle, and the second involves the design of a useful recyclable product. (JOW)

  20. Role of Adult Education in the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Rural and agricultural extension, functional literacy education, preparation of agricultural experts, education of urban dwellers concerning agricultural matters, and other forms of adult education can contribute to modernization in India. (LY)

  1. Assessing the impact of the green revolution, 1960 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Evenson, R E; Gollin, D

    2003-05-01

    We summarize the findings of a recently completed study of the productivity impacts of international crop genetic improvement research in developing countries. Over the period 1960 to 2000, international agricultural research centers, in collaboration with national research programs, contributed to the development of "modern varieties" for many crops. These varieties have contributed to large increases in crop production. Productivity gains, however, have been uneven across crops and regions. Consumers generally benefited from declines in food prices. Farmers benefited only where cost reductions exceeded price reductions. PMID:12730592

  2. The Green Revolution: botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement.

    PubMed

    Miller Coyle, H; Ladd, C; Palmbach, T; Lee, H C

    2001-06-01

    Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of published forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases include the analysis of wood evidence in the Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapping, the use of pollen in establishing the location of a sexual assault, and pollen analysis to determine the time of year for burial in a mass grave. Additional cases discuss the use of plant growth rates to determine the time of a body deposit in a field, the use of diatoms to link individuals to a crime scene, and plant DNA typing to match seedpods to a tree under which a body was discovered. New DNA methods in development for plant species identification and individualization for forensic applications are also discussed. These DNA methods may be useful for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns. PMID:11387649

  3. [Cardiac surgery: within the revolution!].

    PubMed

    Raanani, Ehud

    2007-11-01

    Cardiac surgery is undergoing major changes. Until recently, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) constituted the majority of cardiac surgery cases that were performed. The sharp rise in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) mainly due to the development of drug eluting stents resulted in a drop in the worldwide number of CABG cases. The cardiac surgery community reacted by developing several new surgical procedures and techniques to better treat cardiac patients. Some of those procedures are demonstrated in this special issue of the Harefuah journal. Those procedures include better techniques to repair the aortic and mitral valves, minimally invasive techniques including video assisted methodology for valves and CABG surgery, surgery for congestive heart failure including new axial flow assist devices, surgery for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and more. The excellent results in cardiac surgery caused older and sicker patients to be referred to surgery. All these are creating a "revolution" in cardiac surgery. Those new technologies, surgical techniques and high risk patients require special financing. In order to complete the revolution and continue providing advanced "state of the art" cardiac surgery procedures for the patients, there is a need for special long term economic planning by the government and the Ministry of Health. PMID:18087831

  4. Teaching Brinton's Model for Analyzing Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Bob; Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model for studying and identifying revolution condensed from Crane Brinton's "Anatomy of Revolution." Explains how the characteristics of the model can be applied to hypothetical, historical, and contemporary situations. Outlines the teaching sequence, illustrating how students are taught a historical model and how to apply it to…

  5. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  6. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  7. COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOCKING, ELTON

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE AUDIOLINGUAL REVOLUTION IS BEING SUBJECTED TO A COUNTER-REVOLUTION IS APPARENT IN SUCH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AS THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE, WHEN CARROLL, FERGUSON, AND CHOMSKY DENIED THAT PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS PROVIDE DIRECT SUPPORT FOR AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING, THE WRITINGS OF RIVERS, HAYES, BELASCO, AND VALDMAN WHO…

  8. Extending the Computer Revolution into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer revolution is far from over on Earth. It is just beginning in space. We can look forward to an era of enhanced scientific exploration of the solar system and even other start systems. We can look forward to the benefits of this space revolution to commercial uses on and around Earth.

  9. Molecular characterization of a new mosaic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in a naturally infected tantalus monkey (Chlorocebus tantalus) from Cameroon: A challenge to the virus–host co-evolution of SIVagm in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ayouba, Ahidjo; Njouom, Richard; Chia, Julius Ebua; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2015-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) represent the most widely distributed non-human primates species in Africa. SIVagm naturally infects four of the 6 AGMs species at high prevalence in a species-specific manner. To date, only limited information is available on molecular characteristics of SIVagm infecting Chlorocebus tantalus. Here, we characterized the full-length genome of a virus infecting a naturally infected captive C. tantalus from Cameroon by amplifying and sequencing sub-genomic PCR fragments. The isolate (SIVagmTAN-CM545) is 9923 bp long and contained all canonical genes of a functional SIV. SIVagmTAN-CM545 showed a mosaic structure, with gag, pol, nef and accessory genes closely related to SIVagmSAB infecting Chlorocebus sabaeus monkeys from west Africa, and the env gene, closely related to SIVagmTAN infecting tantalus monkeys from Central Africa. Thus SIVagmTAN-CM545 is SIVagmSAB/SIVagmTAN recombinant. These unexpected findings suggest that the evolution of SIVagm is more complex than previously thought and warrant further studies. PMID:25500294

  10. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  11. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  12. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in thinking…

  13. Casimir energy for perturbed surfaces of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Almazan, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the zeta function arising from a small perturbation on a surface of revolution and the effect of this on the functional determinant and on the change of the Casimir energy associated with the surface.

  14. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  15. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  16. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  17. Must We Have a Cultural Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampf, Louis

    1970-01-01

    Argues that a cultural revolution must precede anything approaching substantial, meaningful curriculum change; a speech given at annual meeting of Conference on College Composition and Communication, National Council of Teachers of English (Seattle, Washington, March 19, 1970). (Editor/RD)

  18. Outpatient care: a nationwide revolution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J; Hudson, T; Eubanks, P

    1990-08-01

    Most CEOs expect outpatient utilization to increase, but are executives planning ahead for what some term a virtual "revolution" in health care delivery? This issue's cover story takes a look at some of the key strategies that outpatient executives are implementing in their markets. Examples range from a large university teaching hospital, to a suburban facility, to a 40-bed rural hospital in Minnesota. Business strategy is only part of the outpatient story, however. One of the key questions that health care executives must answer is where the outpatient management talent will come from. Outpatient executives report that many of the same skills are needed in this setting as are necessary in the traditional inpatient side; however, there are major differences in management expertise that could make or break a hospital's outpatient services. Moreover, some experts say that this emerging definition of what it takes to be a successful outpatient services executive may be shaping the mold for all future health care executives, both inpatient and outpatient. PMID:2373495

  19. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  20. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  1. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  2. Revolution and the Re-Birth of Inequality: The Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jonathan; Klein, Herbert S.

    This study of Bolivia's National Revolution of 1952 illustrates the effects of a peasant revolution on inequality and status inheritance. It was hypothesized that when an exploited peasantry revolts and overthrows the traditonal elite, peasants would be better off because inequality and status inheritance would decline as a result of the…

  3. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  4. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  5. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  6. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-02-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature — and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  7. The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior.

    PubMed

    Mcbrearty, S; Brooks, A S

    2000-11-01

    Proponents of the model known as the "human revolution" claim that modern human behaviors arose suddenly, and nearly simultaneously, throughout the Old World ca. 40-50 ka. This fundamental behavioral shift is purported to signal a cognitive advance, a possible reorganization of the brain, and the origin of language. Because the earliest modern human fossils, Homo sapiens sensu stricto, are found in Africa and the adjacent region of the Levant at >100 ka, the "human revolution" model creates a time lag between the appearance of anatomical modernity and perceived behavioral modernity, and creates the impression that the earliest modern Africans were behaviorally primitive. This view of events stems from a profound Eurocentric bias and a failure to appreciate the depth and breadth of the African archaeological record. In fact, many of the components of the "human revolution" claimed to appear at 40-50 ka are found in the African Middle Stone Age tens of thousands of years earlier. These features include blade and microlithic technology, bone tools, increased geographic range, specialized hunting, the use of aquatic resources, long distance trade, systematic processing and use of pigment, and art and decoration. These items do not occur suddenly together as predicted by the "human revolution" model, but at sites that are widely separated in space and time. This suggests a gradual assembling of the package of modern human behaviors in Africa, and its later export to other regions of the Old World. The African Middle and early Late Pleistocene hominid fossil record is fairly continuous and in it can be recognized a number of probably distinct species that provide plausible ancestors for H. sapiens. The appearance of Middle Stone Age technology and the first signs of modern behavior coincide with the appearance of fossils that have been attributed to H. helmei, suggesting the behavior of H. helmei is distinct from that of earlier hominid species and quite similar to that

  8. De Humani Corporis Fabrica surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), by the Belgian anatomy master Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), represents one of the most advanced surgical revolutions in history. The creation of an anatomy book that carefully and systematically introduced the structure of the human body in a way that was truthful to the findings of human dissection had never been accomplished before. No one challenged Galen's teachings as Vesalius did. De Humani Corporis Fabrica offered to the surgeon's world new knowledge and a systematic approach to human anatomy. The novel concepts and perspectives introduced by Vesalius constituted a real surgical revolution worthy of study in the annals of surgery. PMID:19160130

  9. The third therapeutic revolution: behavioral medicine.

    PubMed

    Basmajian, J V

    1999-06-01

    Behavioral medicine--and one of its progenitors, biofeedback--are expanding as the Third Therapeutic Revolution, supplementing surgery and pharmacology in treating human illnesses. Parallel development of nonscience-based therapies is a part of the same revolution. Labeling their positive results as "placebo effects" hides a greater truth: faith and trust play an enormous role in therapy. The successes of both behavioral medicine and unorthodox complementary medicine are the result of the debonafide effect (my Latin for "from good faith"). Readers are urged to adopt this better definition of the "unexplicable" and substantial good results of both the placebos in research and the ministration of unorthodox treatments. PMID:10575538

  10. Manifesto for a new (computational) cognitive revolution.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    The cognitive revolution offered an alternative to merely analyzing human behavior, using the notion of computation to rigorously express hypotheses about the mind. Computation also gives us new tools for testing these hypotheses - large behavioral databases generated by human interactions with computers and with one another. This kind of data is typically analyzed by computer scientists, who focus on predicting people's behavior based on their history. A new cognitive revolution is needed, demonstrating the value of minds as intervening variables in these analyses and using the results to evaluate models of human cognition. PMID:25497482

  11. Finding the Axis of Revolution of an Algebraic Surface of Revolution.

    PubMed

    Alcazar, Juan G; Goldman, Ron

    2016-09-01

    We present an algorithm for extracting the axis of revolution from the implicit equation of an algebraic surface of revolution based on three distinct computational methods: factoring the highest order form into quadrics, contracting the tensor of the highest order form, and using univariate resultants and gcds. We compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each of these three techniques and we derive conditions under which each technique is most appropriate. In addition, we provide several necessary conditions for an implicit algebraic equation to represent a surface of revolution. PMID:26561460

  12. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  13. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  14. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  15. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  16. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  17. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  18. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  19. Key Roles in the Revolution of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle

    At the height of the work revolution and its great social challenges, career development and employment counseling specialists have essential key roles to play in order to support the socioeconomic growth of our community. This book suggests four pro-active key roles for the profession. This recommendation is based on research conducted over the…

  20. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  1. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  2. The Challenge of the Micro Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of choices posed by the current microtechnology revolution notes librarians' reluctance to utilize new technologies, ability of libraries to deal with success and fund new services, strategic decision facing libraries and professionals concerning essential "business" of libraries, new microcomputer portables and more powerful software,…

  3. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  4. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  5. Governing Education: Remaking the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Behind the thin veil of the Conservative regime's rationale of deficit reduction hides the final demolition of public comprehensive education and Raymond Williams's more expansive long revolution unfolding over a century of creating a democratic state that affords opportunity, voice and justice for all. Restoring the politics of a pre-war or…

  6. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  7. Anthropology's disenchantment with the cognitive revolution(1).

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin should be congratulated for their generous attempt at expressive academic therapy for troubled interdisciplinary relationships. In this essay, I suggest that a negative answer to the central question ("Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?") is not necessarily distressing, that in retrospect the breakup seems fairly predictable, and that disenchantment with the cognitive revolution is nothing new. PMID:22685098

  8. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  9. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  10. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  11. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  12. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  13. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    PubMed

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution. PMID:3932229

  14. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  15. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  16. Hypercars: The next industrial revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovins, Amory B.; Barnett, John W.; Lovins, L. Hunter

    1996-01-01

    The auto industry -- one-seventh of the GNP, and the highest expression of the Iron Age -- is about to trigger the biggest transformation in industrial structure since the microchip. Ultralight cars molded from net-shape advanced composites can be several-fold lighter than present steel cars, yet safer, sportier, and more comfortable, durable, and beautiful. Modern hybrid-electric drives boost efficiency approximately 1.3-1.5x in heavy steel cars, but approximately 5-20x in ultralight, very slippery plafforms. Synergistically combined into ultralight-hybrid 'hypercars,' these elements can yield state-of-the-shelf family cars that average 150-300+ mi/gal -- twice that with state-of-the-art technologies -- yet can also be superior in all other respects, probably including cost: carbon-fiber monocoques can actually be cheaper to mass-produce that steel unibodies. Designing cars more like aircraft and less like tanks requires not only an approximately 400-500 kg curb mass and very low air and road drag, but also an aerospace philosophy of engineering integration. Mass, cost, and complexity turn out to compound with heavy hybrids but to decompound with ultralight hybrids, owing partly to radical simplification. Excellent aerodynamics, preferable including advanced techniques for passive boundary-layer control, will be the key to successful design integration. Transforming automaking is a competitive and environmental imperative, could form the nucleus of a green industrial Renaissance, and would enhance national security by, among other things, saving as much oil as OPEC now extracts. However, this transformation faces serious cultural barriers. For example, hypercars will be more like computers with wheels than like cars with chips -- they'll have an order of magnitude more code than today's cars -- but Detroit is not a software culture. Just the transition from stamped and welded steel to integrated and adhesive-joined synthetics is difficult enough. Nonetheless

  17. An African VLBI Network of radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Combrinck, L.; Booth, R. S.; Buchner, S. J.; Fanaroff, B. L.; MacLeod, G. C.; Nicolson, G. D.; Quick, J. F. H.; Stronkhorst, P.; Venkatasubramani, T. L.

    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA South Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries.

  18. African Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun, Rowland

    2001-01-01

    No single traditional discipline can adequately supply answers to the many unresolved questions in African art history. Because of the aesthetic, cultural, historical, and, not infrequently, political biases, already built into the conception and development of Western art history, the discipline of art history as defined and practiced in the West…

  19. Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views. PMID:26109412

  20. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  1. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. PMID:26040216

  2. Toward a new toxicology - evolution or revolution?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    This essay summarises the author's thoughts on the current paradigm change in toxicology. The driving factors and mechanisms of this change, and obstacles to it, are discussed. Current developments are discussed on the basis of some key assumptions in Thomas Kuhn's famous book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The author's personal view is that there is clear evidence that revolutionary changes in regulatory toxicology are emerging. PMID:19154090

  3. The upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper will include discussions on fundamental principles and market forces associated with the upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves. A literature survey is also outlined covering some selected major developments this past decade. A few applications in pipe, rail, bonding and composites, imaging and tomography, ultrasonic vibration, de-icing, structural health monitoring, gas entrapment, and non-linear methods are treated to provide an idea of where we are heading with ultrasonic guided waves.

  4. Data Science: The Revolution in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    I will describe the data science undergraduate and graduate programs at George Mason University, within the context of the ongoing revolution in data-intensive science. Both general and specific recommendations regarding science education will also be presented, extending from graduate training, to undergraduate science majors, and to undergraduate general education students. Examples of professional opportunities for data scientists in the key informatics (data science) research areas will be highlighted.

  5. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  6. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  7. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  8. Biodiversity can support a greener revolution in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Blackie, Malcolm J.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Kanyama-Phiri, George Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Asian green revolution trebled grain yields through agrochemical intensification of monocultures. Associated environmental costs have subsequently emerged. A rapidly changing world necessitates sustainability principles be developed to reinvent these technologies and test them at scale. The need is particularly urgent in Africa, where ecosystems are degrading and crop yields have stagnated. An unprecedented opportunity to reverse this trend is unfolding in Malawi, where a 90% subsidy has ensured access to fertilization and improved maize seed, with substantive gains in productivity for millions of farmers. To test if economic and ecological sustainability could be improved, we preformed manipulative experimentation with crop diversity in a countrywide trial (n = 991) and at adaptive, local scales through a decade of participatory research (n = 146). Spatial and temporal treatments compared monoculture maize with legume-diversified maize that included annual and semiperennial (SP) growth habits in temporal and spatial combinations, including rotation, SP rotation, intercrop, and SP intercrop systems. Modest fertilizer intensification doubled grain yield compared with monoculture maize. Biodiversity improved ecosystem function further: SP rotation systems at half-fertilizer rates produced equivalent quantities of grain, on a more stable basis (yield variability reduced from 22% to 13%) compared with monoculture. Across sites, profitability and farmer preference matched: SP rotations provided twofold superior returns, whereas diversification of maize with annual legumes provided more modest returns. In this study, we provide evidence that in Africa, crop diversification can be effective at a countrywide scale, and that shrubby, grain legumes can enhance environmental and food security. PMID:21098285

  9. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  10. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...