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1

The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery. PMID:21682097

Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

2011-01-01

2

Background Leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by Leishmania parasites. Growing of drug unresponsiveness in leishmaniasis patients necessitates the development of new drugs and accordingly a suitable assay is needed for evaluation of any modalities. The aim of this study was to compare four drug assays methods, agar dilution, broth dilution, cylinder plate and disk diffusion, for evaluation of anti-leishmanial drugs on Leishmania promastigotes, using glucantime as a currently available drug for treatment of leishmaniasis. Methods For broth dilution method, different concentration of glucantime was added to the parasite culture (promastigotes of Leishmania), while in cylinder plate method wells were punched in agar gel and filled with different concentration of drug and zone of inhibition was measured in each well. In disk diffusion method, the parasites were cultivated on the surface of agar; filter paper disks were enriched with various concentration of glucantime and were placed on the surface of agar. In agar dilution method, various concentrations of drug were incorporated onto blood agar and the parasites were cultivated on the surface of the agar. Results A direct correlation was found between the drug concentration and size of inhibitory zones in cylinder plate and disk diffusion methods. These two drug assays methods provided much better performance in comparison with broth and agar dilution methods. Conclusion Cylinder plate and disk diffusion methods seem to be acceptable methods for susceptibility testing of anti-leishmanial compounds on Leishmania promastigotes. PMID:23109961

Mohammadzadeh, T; Sadjjadi, SM; Habibi, P; Sarkari, B

2012-01-01

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By the combined use of agar diffusion, agar vapor and agar vapor-inhibitory assays, contribution of the vapor activity of essential oils was quantitatively estimated. The test organisms were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. Agar vapor assay was used to confirm the vapor activity of the oils. The parameter delta defined as a contribution index of the vapor activity was calculated by (1 - b-c/a-c) x 100, where a is inhibitory diameter in the diffusion assay, b is inhibitory diameter in the vapor-inhibitory assay and c is diameter of the sealed ring in the vapor-inhibitory assay (21 mm). Many of the essential oils examined showed a delta value near 100, thus providing the major contribution of the vapor activity to the inhibitory diameter. Essential oils containing aldehyde as major constituent showed low delta value, indicating the major inhibition was due to agar diffusion. Major essential oil components behaved similarly; the delta value was increased in the following order: aldehyde < phenol < alcohol < ester, oxide, hydrocarbon, indicating the enhanced contribution of the vapor activity in that order. PMID:16699489

Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Maruyama, Naho; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2006-01-01

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Diffusion of sucrose and dextran through agar gel membranes.

Mass transfer limitations severely impede the performance of bioreactions involving large molecules by gel-entrapped microorganisms. This paper describes a quantitative investigation of such diffusional limitations in agar gel membranes. Sucrose and commercial dextran fractions with (weight-average) molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 2,000,000 Da were used as standard diffusants. For all tested solutes but sucrose, the values of the agar/water partition coefficients highlighted steric hindrance at the entrance of the membrane pores. The effective diffusivity of sucrose in agar was similar to that in water. All dextran fractions, however, displayed restricted diffusion in the agar membranes. Their effective diffusivities were a decreasing function of the agar content of the gel membrane (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% w/v). The effective diffusivity in a given membrane decreased as the molecular weight of the diffusing molecule increased. T500 (Mw = 470,000 Da) and T2000 (Mw = 1,950,000 Da) fractions were unable to diffuse through 1.0 or 1.5% agar membranes. The diffusion data did not agree with the classical (Renkin) model for a hard sphere diffusing through a cylindrical pore. These results are discussed in terms of gel and diffusant characteristics. PMID:7505595

Lebrun, L; Junter, G A

1993-12-01

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Aeromonas species are environmental organisms that are responsible for numerous infections in humans and animals. Their antimicrobial susceptibility is usually evaluated using Enterobacteriaceae breakpoints. Although disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-based methods are important for infectious disease management and epidemiological surveys of resistance, comparisons between these two methods have not been extensively studied for Aeromonas isolates. We propose the first extensive comparison of agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods, performed for 20 antimicrobial agents, including unevaluated or incompletely evaluated antibiotics (ticarcillin with or without clavulanic acid, ertapenem, tigecycline), on 146 Aeromonas isolates affiliated with six Aeromonas species via molecular means. We evaluated the level of agreement between Enterobacteriaceae breakpoints-based methods. Reliable agreement (>95%) was observed for piperacillin, cefotaxime, cefepime, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole, whereas marked inconsistencies between the methods were noted for carbapenems, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, tobramycin and tigecycline. The results indicate that beta-lactam and aminoglycoside susceptibility testing should be limited to piperacillin, cephems, gentamicin and amikacin. Co-amoxiclav should be avoided given the lack of agreement between the two methods. Adjusting the zone diameter breakpoints for tigecycline and cefoxitin could also improve the agreement to >95% and reduce the error rates to acceptable levels. PMID:22367351

Lamy, B; Laurent, F; Kodjo, A; Roger, F; Jumas-Bilak, E; Marchandin, H

2012-09-01

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A comparative study of the antimicrobial action of seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, Diaket-A, AH26 with silver, Tubli Seal, and Sealapex was done with 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Two antimicrobial susceptibility tests were used: the agar dilution test and the agar diffusion test. The Diaket-A and Traitement Spad sealer cements showed the highest efficiency in the dilution test, whereas Diaket-A was in fourth place in the diffusion test, only better than the antimicrobial activity of the Tubli Seal and Sealapex sealers. PMID:1508532

Pumarola, J; Berastegui, E; Brau, E; Canalda, C; Jiménez de Anta, M T

1992-08-01

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We determined the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of 65 isolates of Bacillus anthracis (50 historical and 15 recent U.S. clinical isolates) to nine antimicrobial agents using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth microdilution reference method. The results for the 50 historical B. anthracis isolates obtained by the broth microdilution method were compared to those generated by the Etest agar gradient diffusion method. One isolate of B. anthracis was beta-lactamase positive and resistant to penicillin (MIC, 128 microg/ml); a second isolate, which was beta-lactamase negative, was borderline penicillin resistant, with the penicillin MICs for the isolate varying from 0.12 to 0.25 microg/ml; and the remainder of the isolates were beta-lactamase negative and penicillin susceptible (MICs,

Mohammed, M Jasmine; Marston, Chung K; Popovic, Tanja; Weyant, Robbin S; Tenover, Fred C

2002-06-01

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A 25-mg fluconazole disk diffusion test using a Mueller-Hinton agar plate containing 2% glucose and 5 mg of methylene blue\\/ml (GM-MH) was compared to the macrodilution reference method for 210 Candida species. The GM-MH agar plate was read at 24 h. The predictive values of disks with susceptible, intermediate, and resistant results on the GM-MH agar plate at 24 h

SAI-CHEONG LEE; NING LEE; LAI-CHU SEE; JEN-SENG HUANG; CHI-JEN TSAI; KUO-SU CHEN; WEN-BEN SHIEH

2001-01-01

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The diffusitivity of potassium chloride in composite agar slab\\/microporous membrane structures loaded with various amounts of Escherichia coli whole cells was determined using both time-lag and steady-state methods. The diffusion coefficient of KCl decreased linearly with the logarithm of the immobilized-cells content. The effect exerted by bacterial growth inside the immobilization matrices on KCl diffusivity was then investigated. The diffusion

Laurent Mignot; Guy-Alain Junter

1990-01-01

10

Different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect low-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci were evaluated in a Scandinavian multicenter study (n=28). A phenotypically and genotypically well-characterized diverse collection of Enterococcus faecalis (n=12) and Enterococcus faecium (n=18) strains with and without nonsusceptibility to vancomycin was examined blindly in Danish (n=5), Norwegian (n=13), and Swedish (n=10) laboratories using the EUCAST disk diffusion method (n=28) and the CLSI agar screen (n=18) or the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux) (n=5). The EUCAST disk diffusion method (very major error [VME] rate, 7.0%; sensitivity, 0.93; major error [ME] rate, 2.4%; specificity, 0.98) and CLSI agar screen (VME rate, 6.6%; sensitivity, 0.93; ME rate, 5.6%; specificity, 0.94) performed significantly better (P=0.02) than the Vitek 2 system (VME rate, 13%; sensitivity, 0.87; ME rate, 0%; specificity, 1). The performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method was challenged by differences in vancomycin inhibition zone sizes as well as the experience of the personnel in interpreting fuzzy zone edges as an indication of vancomycin resistance. Laboratories using Oxoid agar (P<0.0001) or Merck Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar (P=0.027) for the disk diffusion assay performed significantly better than did laboratories using BBL MH II medium. Laboratories using Difco brain heart infusion (BHI) agar for the CLSI agar screen performed significantly better (P=0.017) than did those using Oxoid BHI agar. In conclusion, both the EUCAST disk diffusion and CLSI agar screening methods performed acceptably (sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.94 to 0.98) in the detection of VanB-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci with low-level resistance. Importantly, use of the CLSI agar screen requires careful monitoring of the vancomycin concentration in the plates. Moreover, disk diffusion methodology requires that personnel be trained in interpreting zone edges. PMID:24599985

Hegstad, Kristin; Giske, Christian G; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Matuschek, Erika; Schønning, Kristian; Leegaard, Truls M; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn

2014-05-01

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Different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect low-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci were evaluated in a Scandinavian multicenter study (n = 28). A phenotypically and genotypically well-characterized diverse collection of Enterococcus faecalis (n = 12) and Enterococcus faecium (n = 18) strains with and without nonsusceptibility to vancomycin was examined blindly in Danish (n = 5), Norwegian (n = 13), and Swedish (n = 10) laboratories using the EUCAST disk diffusion method (n = 28) and the CLSI agar screen (n = 18) or the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux) (n = 5). The EUCAST disk diffusion method (very major error [VME] rate, 7.0%; sensitivity, 0.93; major error [ME] rate, 2.4%; specificity, 0.98) and CLSI agar screen (VME rate, 6.6%; sensitivity, 0.93; ME rate, 5.6%; specificity, 0.94) performed significantly better (P = 0.02) than the Vitek 2 system (VME rate, 13%; sensitivity, 0.87; ME rate, 0%; specificity, 1). The performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method was challenged by differences in vancomycin inhibition zone sizes as well as the experience of the personnel in interpreting fuzzy zone edges as an indication of vancomycin resistance. Laboratories using Oxoid agar (P < 0.0001) or Merck Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar (P = 0.027) for the disk diffusion assay performed significantly better than did laboratories using BBL MH II medium. Laboratories using Difco brain heart infusion (BHI) agar for the CLSI agar screen performed significantly better (P = 0.017) than did those using Oxoid BHI agar. In conclusion, both the EUCAST disk diffusion and CLSI agar screening methods performed acceptably (sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.94 to 0.98) in the detection of VanB-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci with low-level resistance. Importantly, use of the CLSI agar screen requires careful monitoring of the vancomycin concentration in the plates. Moreover, disk diffusion methodology requires that personnel be trained in interpreting zone edges. PMID:24599985

Giske, Christian G.; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Matuschek, Erika; Schønning, Kristian; Leegaard, Truls M.; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

2014-01-01

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The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

Bailey, Tom A.

1983-01-01

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We determined the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of 65 isolates of Bacillus anthracis (50 historical and 15 recent U.S. clinical isolates) to nine antimicrobial agents using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth microdilution reference method. The results for the 50 historical B. anthracis isolates obtained by the broth microdilution method were compared to those generated by the

M. Jasmine Mohammed; Chung K. Marston; Tanja Popovic; Robbin S. Weyant; Fred C. Tenover

14

Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

2013-01-01

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Amylolytic and tryptic inhibitors of faba bean extracts were determined by an agar diffusion test. The amylolytic inhibitor had protein characters. Furthermore, water-soluble trypsin inhibitors ofCicer arietinum, Lens esculenta, Lupinus termis, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Trigonella foenum-graecum andVicia faba which were separated by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAGIF) in thin-layers, showed species specific patterns. Negative staining showed 10 bands for

Mahmoud A. Hamza; Ahmed M. El-Tabey Shehata; Hermann Stegemann

1986-01-01

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The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution

Irith Wiegand; Kai Hilpert; Robert E W Hancock

2008-01-01

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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by a laser ablation method and composite films with the AgNPs and agar were prepared by solvent casting method. UV-vis absorbance test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis results revealed that non-agglomerated spherical AgNPs were formed by the laser ablation method. The surface color of the resulting agar/AgNPs films exhibited the characteristic plasmonic effect of the AgNPs with the maximum absorption peaks of 400-407 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results also exhibited characteristic AgNPs crystals with diffraction peaks observed at 2? values of 38.39°, 44.49°, and 64.45°, which were corresponding to (111), (200), and (220) crystallographic planes of face-centered cubic (fcc) silver crystals, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that thermal stability of the agar/AgNPs composite films was increased by the inclusion of metallic silver. Water vapor barrier properties and surface hydrophobicity of the agar/AgNPs films increased slightly with the increase in AgNPs content but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05), while mechanical strength and stiffness of the composite films decreased slightly (p<0.05). The agar/AgNPs films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli O157:H7) bacterial pathogens. PMID:24528754

Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng; Lee, Yonghoon; Hong, Seok-In

2014-03-15

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A new method of Candida subspecies discrimination on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar is reported. Five hundred sixty-two strains of Candida and Torulopsis glabrata, previously identified by conventional mycological methods, were studied. Each strain received a three-letter code and a number based on its colonial morphology. Sixteen morphotypes were found for Candida albicans, 6 were found for Candida parapsilosis, 4 were found for both Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei, and 12 were found for Candida tropicalis. None of the 56 T. glabrata strains studied grew on this agar. A reproducibility of 95% was found for C. albicans. The simplicity and low cost could make this method useful for typing Candida spp. Images PMID:1400981

Quindós, G; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Burgos, A; Tellaetxe, M; Cisterna, R; Pontón, J

1992-01-01

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The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for estimation of bacterial growth interference between various bacteria using a Bioscreen robot analyzer, allowing kinetic documentation, and a cocultivation test on blood agar plates. Six laboratory strains with different virulence and growth requirements were used: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The interference activity was correlated with a reference system of Streptococcus sanguis (strain alpha 89) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS serotypes T 9 and T 22). The methods used and results obtained were as follows: 1. Estimation of synergistic and antagonistic bacterial interferences using a Bioscreen robot analyzer. Suspensions of viable bacteria were added to microtiter plates with different concentrations of UV light-killed bacteria in liquid media. The Bioscreen analyzer monitored bacterial growth every 10 min for 24 h giving kinetic data during the growth period. Synergisms as well as antagonisms were demonstrated between the tested bacterial strains which have not earlier been reported in the literature. However, the antagonistic effect observed between the six strains was less than that induced by the S. sanguis strain on the two strains of S. pyogenes. 2. Cocultivation of bacterial strains on blood agar surface with precultivated or simultaneously stamped interfering bacteria indicated no detectable interference between the six tested bacterial strains, while the S. sanguis strain inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes strains as well as the hemolysis around the colonies. The Bioscreen method was found more sensitive for testing bacterial interference compared to the commonly used blood agar test. PMID:7833000

Johansson, A; Bergenholtz, A; Holm, S E

1994-11-01

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For activation of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) there is an optimal level of rat liver S9 fraction which is considerably lower in the fluctuation test than in the Ames test. The optimal level of S9 is not markedly affected by the dose of AAF used, nor by the ratio of S9 to bacteria, nor by the presence of soft agar. The difference between Ames and fluctuation tests appears to be due to diffusion of some substance or substances from the top agar layer in the Ames test. Diffusion of the co-factors NADP and glucose-6-phosphate is not responsible for the difference in S9 optima, nor is diffusion of soluble S9 constituents although this may considerably affect the performance of the S9 mix. We present evidence that diffusion of non-mutagenic metabolites of AAF from the Ames test top agar may be responsible for the difference in S9 optima. Our results are consistent with a model whereby lipophilic non-mutagenic metabolites accumulate in the microsomes and inhibit further activation. When the metabolites are able to diffuse away, a higher level of S9 will be optimal. The model is consistent with some other phenomena of S9 activation. PMID:7023716

Forster, R; Green, M H; Priestley, A

1980-04-01

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Scaffolds of agar and gelatin were developed using a novel entrapment method where agar and gelatin molecules mutually entrapped one another forming stable cell adhesive matrices. Glutaraldehyde was used as a crosslinking agent for gelatin. Three types of hybrid matrices were prepared using agar and gelatin in different proportions in the weight ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Surface characterization of dry scaffolds was carried out by scanning electron microscope. Swelling studies were carried out in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at physiological pH 7.4. The integral stability of the scaffolds was evaluated by estimating the released disintegrated gelatin from them in PBS at pH 7.4. The attachment kinetics of the cells was evaluated by culturing mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 on films. The cytocompatibility of these matrices was determined by studying growth kinetics of NIH 3T3 cells on them and morphology of cells was observed through optical photographs taken at various days of culture. It was found that the matrices containing agar and gelatin in 2:1 weight ratio exhibited best growth kinetics. The results obtained from these studies have suggested that the above-described method is a cheap and easy way to fabricate agar-gelatin hybrid scaffolds to grow cells which can be used in various in vitro tissue engineering applications like screening of drugs. PMID:16850454

Verma, Vipin; Verma, Poonam; Kar, Santosh; Ray, Pratima; Ray, Alok R

2007-02-01

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A standardized broth microdilution method was compared to the E test and an agar dilution method for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. A group of 47 human clinical isolates, 37 isolates from retail poultry, and 29 isolates from living turkeys (total, 113 isolates) was included in the study. These encompassed 92 C. jejuni and

Petra Luber; Edda Bartelt; Elke Genschow; Jutta Wagner; Helmut Hahn

2003-01-01

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A method modification study was conducted for the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay (AOAC Performance Tested Method 020901) using the EasySLM method to validate a matrix extension for peanut butter. The VIDAS EasySLM method is a simple enrichment procedure compared to traditional Salmonella methods, requiring only pre-enrichment and a single selective enrichment media, Salmonella Xpress 2 (SX2) broth. SX2 replaces the two selective broths in traditional methods and eliminates the M broth transfer, incubation, and subsequent pooling of M broths prior to VIDAS assay. The validation study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. VIDAS SLM was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for detection of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium in peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were prepared, blind-coded, and shipped to the method developers' laboratory by Q Laboratories. In addition, Q Laboratories performed most probable number and reference method analyses on peanut butter samples. The VIDAS EasySLM ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella in roast beef, raw ground pork, turkey, pork sausage, raw chicken breast, dry pet food, whole milk, ice cream, bagged spinach, shrimp (raw, peeled), raw cod, spent irrigation water, pecans, peanut butter, dry pasta, cake mix, ground black pepper, nonfat dry milk, liquid eggs, cantaloupe, and orange juice. In the matrix extension study for peanut butter, the VIDAS EasySLM method was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference culture procedure using both buffered peptone water pre-enrichment and the FDA-BAM lactose pre-enrichment in the two-step enrichment method with SX2 media. The current study extends the validation to include peanut butter. PMID:20166608

Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John; Colón-Reveles, Judith

2009-01-01

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Quantification of gentamicin in Mueller-Hinton agar by high-performance liquid chromatography.

The aim of this study was to optimise a method for gentamicin determination in an agar matrix and to investigate if and how agar composition can affect the gentamicin diffusion kinetics during the agar diffusion tests for antibiotics sensitivity. Gentamicin was separated by RP-HPLC and detected at 365 nm after pre-column derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Recovery (> or = 79%), linearity (r2 > or = 0.997) and sensitivity (1 microg/ml) were assessed using four different agar matrices. The kinetics of gentamicin diffusion tested on BioMerieux and DID manufacturers' products showed in uninoculated agar plates significant differences that were even more pronounced in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolism. PMID:11302440

Arcelloni, C; Comuzzi, B; Vaiani, R; Paroni, R

2001-03-25

25

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Agar for Isolation of Mycobacteria

Background Mycobacterium species are grown using specific media that increase laboratory cost, thus hampering their diffusion in resource-limited countries. Preliminary data suggested that versatile blood agar may be also used for mycobacterial culture. Methodology We examined the growth of 41 different Mycobacterium species on 5% blood agar. Over a 24-month period we analysed isolation of mycobacteria after parallel inoculation of clinical specimens into both a reference automated system (BACTEC 9000 MB broth) and 5% blood agar slant tubes, after NaOH decontamination, and compared the cost of performing 1,000 analyses using these two techniques. Conclusions Mycobacterium reference species cultured on blood agar, with the exception of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Inoculation of 1,634 specimens yielded 95 Mycobacterium isolates. Blood agar performed significantly more efficiently than BACTEC 9000 MB broth (94 vs 88 isolates, P?=?0.03). Decontamination of Candida albicans in 5 specimens by addition of amphotericin B in blood agar yielded one more M. tuberculosis isolate that could not be isolated in BACTEC broth. Uneven distribution of time to culture positivity for M. tuberculosis had a median (range) of 19±5 days using blood agar and 26±6 days using BACTEC 9000 MB broth. Cost for 1,000 analyses in France was estimated to be of 1,913 euros using the blood agar method and 8,990 euros using the BACTEC 9000 MB method. Blood agar should be regarded as a first-line medium for culturing Mycobacterium species. It saves time, is cost-effective, is more sensitive than, and at least as rapid as the automated method. This is of particular importance for resource-limited countries in which the prevalence of tuberculosis is high. PMID:18060087

Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

2007-01-01

26

Pour and spread plates are the conventional methods of choice for the isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic microorganisms in treated water supplies. The tests are performed at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C for 72 h and 48 h respectively. Counts at 22 degrees C are associated with pollution of water systems from external sources, while counts at 37 degrees C are used as an indication of treatment plant performance and the deterioration of the general quality of water. Conventional methods using Yeast Extract Agar for a pour plate and R2A agar for a spread plate were compared with the multidose IDEXX SimPlate method for the isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in water. SimPlate gave a significantly higher count on average than the conventional methods. The R2A method showed the next highest count, being significantly higher than Yeast Extract Agar. In addition, unlike the pour and spread plate methods, SimPlate was easier to use, reduced labour, and the test results were far easier to read. PMID:15318522

Vulindlu, M; Charlett, A; Surman, S; Lee, J V

2004-01-01

27

We validated a novel method for screening Escherichia coli resistance to antibiotics in environmental samples using modified Difco MI agar (Becton Dickinson) impregnated with selected antibiotics (tetracycline, ampi- cillin, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole), termed MI-R. This method combines an existing rapid assessment technique for E. coli enumeration with clinical reference data for breakpoint analysis of antibiotic resistance and was developed to

A. J. Watkinson; G. R. Micalizzi; J. R. Bates; S. D. Costanzo

2007-01-01

28

One hundred and fifty-four yeast strains were isolated from grapes and musts of Uruguayan vineyards and wineries. Only thirty\\u000a strains showed ?-glucosidase activity in Esculin Glycerol Agar (EGA) solid medium. Twenty-one were non-Saccharomyces and nine were Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Esculin Glycerol Agar (EGA) solid medium for screening\\u000a ?-glucosidase activity

Gabriel PerezLaura; Laura Fariña; Marianne Barquet; Eduardo Boido; Carina Gaggero; Eduardo Dellacassa; Francisco Carrau

2011-01-01

29

Generalizing the finite element method: Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements

This paper describes the new “diffuse approximation” method, which may be presented as a generalization of the widely used “finite element approximation” method. It removes some of the limitations of the finite element approximation related to the regularity of approximated functions, and to mesh generation requirements. The diffuse approximation method may be used for generating smooth approximations of functions known

B. Nayroles; G. Touzot; P. Villon

1992-01-01

30

A simple screening method for fluconazole susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans using 2% dextrose Sabouraud dextrose agar (SabDex) with fluconazole was compared to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth macrodilution method. By this method, fluconazole-susceptible C. neoformans isolates are significantly smaller on medium with fluconazole than on fluconazole-free medium. Isolates with decreased susceptibility have normal-size colonies on medium

WILLIAM R. KIRKPATRICK; ROBERT K. MCATEE; SANJAY G. REVANKAR; ANNETTE W. FOTHERGILL; DORA I. MCCARTHY; MICHAEL G. RINALDI; THOMAS F. PATTERSON

1998-01-01

31

Complex Diffusion Based Level Set Method

Complex diffusion has been applied to image denoising and enhancement. However, whether it is suitable for image segmentation or not is needed to further study. In this paper complex diffusion is combined with level set method without re-initiation and then complex diffusion based level set method is proposed. And the new algorithm is applied to insect image segmentation. Experimental results

Huang Shiguo; Li Xiaolin; Geng Guohua; Zhou Mingquan

2010-01-01

32

A Method for Calibrating Diffusion Gradients in Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Objective To calibrate and correct the gradient errors including gradient amplitude scaling errors, background/imaging gradients, and residual gradients in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods A calibration protocol using an isotropic phantom was proposed. Gradient errors were estimated by using linear regression analyses on quadratic functions of diffusion gradients along 3 orthogonal directions. A 6-element total effective scaling vector is generated from the calibration protocol to retrospectively correct gradient errors in DTI experiments. Results The accuracy of the calibration protocol was within 1% or less in estimating gradient scaling errors. On both the brain study and the computer simulations, the retrospective correction minimized undesirable estimate biases of DTI measurements due to gradient errors. Conclusion The protocol and retrospective correction are shown to be effective. The method may be used for prospective correction if actual diffusion-gradient waveforms are available. The methodology is expandable to general diffusion imaging schemes. PMID:18043367

Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

2009-01-01

33

Radial diffusion method for determining tannin in plant extracts

Tannin in plant extracts can be determined by reacting the tannin with a protein and quantitating the precipitated complex. In the new assay described here, a tannin-containing solution is placed in a well in a protein-containing agar slab. As the tannin diffuses into the gel and complexes with protein, a visible ring of precipitation develops. The area of the ring

Ann E. Hagerman

1987-01-01

34

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7 degrees C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were used to compare the recovery of bacteria stressed under combination treatment. Influence of temperature, storage time, and Cornus fruit on survival of cells was evaluated. The most dramatic reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in apple juice with Cornus fruit extract at 21 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.3logcfu/ml in the apple juice with Cornus fruit extract compared to the control sample on day 7. TAL and TSA were more efficient than MSA. Cornus fruit extract can be used in combination with temperature and storage time controls to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice. This study has shown that TAL is a viable method of recovering and differentiating injured microorganisms and apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit has potential as a value-added beverage with antimicrobial effects and potential health benefits. PMID:17993394

Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; Peggy Hsieh, Y-H

2008-02-01

35

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???-???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert??-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h-a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Aulenbach, B.T.

2010-01-01

36

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)(-1) for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h--a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. PMID:19165613

Aulenbach, Brent T

2010-02-01

37

Molecular methods such as quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) are intended to shorten the period between sampling and publicly available results. Cross comparison studies in Racine, WI, USA evaluated QPCR against agar-based (US EPA Method 1600) and defined substrate (IDEXX Colilert-18) methods for the detection and quantification of Escherichia coli and enterococci in a variety of aqueous environments (wastewater, stormwater, and surface water). Regulatory outcomes were also compared based on choice of indicator and method. Positive correlation was seen between QPCR cell equivalents and viable cells through the wastewater treatment process and in all surface water samples (river or freshwater bathing beach) but not in direct stormwater discharge. For surface water samples, correlation improved with the application of a site-specific corrective factor, with regulatory action correctly predicted 98% of the time at bathing beaches. This study suggests the potential utility of QPCR for certain water quality monitoring applications. PMID:19717179

Lavender, Jennifer S; Kinzelman, Julie L

2009-11-01

38

The SimPlate Total Plate Count (TPC) test, developed by IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., detects and quantitates total bacterial concentration in food after 24 h of incubation. The performance of SimPlate TPC was compared with that of the plate count agar (PCA) method for enumerating total bacterial concentration of 255 food samples representing 15 different food matrixes. Total bacterial counts on SimPlate TPC were measured after 24 h of incubation and plotted against values obtained from PCA after 48 h. Simple regression analysis of the data showed strong correlation between the methods (r = 0.95); the sensitivity of SimPlate TPC for foodborne bacteria was 96% relative to PCA (slope = 0.96). It was concluded that SimPlate TPC is a suitable alternative for the detection and quantitation of foodborne bacteria. The method has been granted Performance Tested Certification by the AOAC Research Institute. PMID:9606922

Townsend, D E; Naqui, A

1998-01-01

39

An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5–BT, belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FST, at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5–BT was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15–37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0–8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso–C15:0, C16:1?7c, and iso–C17:1?9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FST was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1?8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5–BT (JCM 18477T = KCTC 32107T) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24621511

Sakai, Masao; Hosoda, Akifumi; Ogura, Kenjiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

2014-01-01

40

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

41

AIMS--To test 10 culture media for their ability to detect resistance and sensitivity of staphylococci to methicillin by disc diffusion. METHODS--Fifty strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 135 strains of coagulase negative staphylococci were tested using Columbia, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test, Mueller Hinton, Sensitest and Iso-sensitest agars with and without 5% added sodium chloride. Cultures were examined after 18 and 40 hours

L M Milne; M R Crow; A G Emptage; J B Selkon

1993-01-01

42

We tested the ability of three PCR assays, targeting uidA and tuf genes to correctly identify Escherichia coli colonies isolated from water and we compared them to two ?-glucuronidase-based culture methods (Colilert(®) and Readycult(®)), in terms of specificity and sensitivity. E. coli isolates recovered on mFC agar were first tested for the presence of the uidA positive colonies were presumed to be E. coli. For further characterization, uidA-negative colonies were subsequently identified using the Vitek 2 automated system. Colilert(®) and Readycult(®) detected 436 and 442 of 468 colonies identified as E. coli on mFC corresponding to sensitivities of 93.2 and 94.4%, respectively. None of the 59 non-E. coli isolates was detected by both methods for a specificity of 100%. Two (2) uidA and 1 tuf PCR assays were also tested. The uidA PCR assays yielded positive signals for 447 (95.5%) and 434 (92.7%) of 468 E. coli isolates tested respectively, whereas the tuf PCR assay showed a sensitivity of 100%. None of the 59 non-E. coli isolates was detected by both uidA PCR assays (100% specificity), whereas tuf PCR false-positive signals were obtained with Escherichia fergusonii and Escherichia albertii. However, since these 2 species are principally found in the feces of mammals and birds, their detection indicates a fecal contamination. Consequently, using a 1-h tuf rtPCR assay to confirm the identity of E. coli colonies on mFC agar is as specific, more sensitive, and potentially more cost-efficient than culture methods based on ?-glucuronidase detection. PMID:21420142

Maheux, Andrée F; Bérubé, Eve; Boudreau, Dominique K; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc; Rodrigue, Lynda; Bergeron, Michel G

2011-04-01

43

Clustering method for estimating principal diffusion directions

Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) is a non-invasive tool for the investigation of white matter structure within the brain. However, the traditional tensor model is unable to characterize anisotropies of orders higher than two in heterogeneous areas containing more than one fiber population. To resolve this issue, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) with a large number of diffusion encoding gradients is used along with reconstruction methods such as Q-ball. Using HARDI data, the fiber orientation distribution function (ODF) on the unit sphere is calculated and used to extract the principal diffusion directions (PDDs). Fast and accurate estimation of PDDs is a prerequisite for tracking algorithms that deal with fiber crossings. In this paper, the PDDs are defined as the directions around which the ODF data is concentrated. Estimates of the PDDs based on this definition are less sensitive to noise in comparison with the previous approaches. A clustering approach to estimate the PDDs is proposed which is an extension of fuzzy c-means clustering developed for orientation of points on a sphere. MDL (Minimum description length) principle is proposed to estimate the number of PDDs. Using both simulated and real diffusion data, the proposed method has been evaluated and compared with some previous protocols. Experimental results show that the proposed clustering algorithm is more accurate, more resistant to noise, and faster than some of techniques currently being utilized. PMID:21642005

Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Davoodi-Bojd, Esmaeil; Jiang, Quan; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

2012-01-01

44

Automated annotation removal in agar plates.

Agar plates are widely used in the biomedical field as a medium in which to artificially grow bacteria, algae or fungi. Agar plates (Petri dishes) are used routinely in microbiology laboratories in order to identify the type of micro-organism responsible for infections. Such diagnoses are based on counting the number and type of bacterial colonies growing in the Petri dish. The count of bacterial colonies is a time consuming task prone to human error, so interest in automated counting systems has increased in the recent years. One of the difficulties of automatizing the counting process is the presence of markers and annotations made in the lower part of the agar plate. Efficient removal of such markers can increase the accuracy of the bacterial counting system. This article introduces a fast method for detection, segmentation and removal of annotations in agar plates that improves the results of existing bacterial colony counting algorithms. PMID:24110362

Vera, Sergio; Perez, Frederic; Lara, Laura; Ceresa, Mario; Carranza, Noemi; Herrero Jover, Javier; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A

2013-01-01

45

Mimetic Finite Difference Methods for Diffusion Equations

This paper reviews and extends the theory and application of mimetic finite difference methods for the solution of diffusion problems in strongly heterogeneous non-isotropic materials. These difference operators satisfy the fundamental identities, conservation laws and theorems of vector and tensor calculus on nonorthogonal, nonsmooth, structured and unstructured computational grids. We provide explicit approximations for equations in two dimensions with discontinuous

J. Hyman; J. Morel; M. Shashkov; S. Steinberg

2001-01-01

46

Mimetic Finite Difference Methods for Diffusion Equations

This paper reviews and extends the theory and application of mimetic finite difference methods for the solution of diffusion problems in strongly heterogeneous anisotropic materials. These difference operators satisfy the fundamental identities, conservation laws and theorems of vector and tensor calculus on nonorthogonal, nonsmooth, structured and unstructured computational grids. We provide explicit approximations for equations in two dimensions with discontinuous

J. Hyman; J. Morelb; M. Shashkova; S. Steinberg

2002-01-01

47

The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S. Infantis and E. coli O157:H7 were more resistant. PMID:20171250

Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

2010-05-01

48

Agar medium for gas-liquid chromatography of anaerobes.

This study evaluates a method of performing gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) by direct extraction of fatty acids from agar for identification of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria. The potential use of agar cultures for GLC was studied by comparing chromatograms of 117 clinically isolated anaerobes grown in peptone yeast glucose broth and chopped meat carbohydrate broth, and on enriched brucella blood agar. For 98 of 117 anaerobes, fatty acid patterns from agar cultures were similar to those in broth. Significant differences were only found with Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tertium, and Actinomyces species, which produced less of certain fatty acids on agar than in broth. Results of this study indicate that GLC of short chain fatty acids produced on agar medium by anaerobes, combined with simple tests such as Gram's stain and colonial morphology, may allow fir direct presumptive genus identification from an initial pure agar culture. PMID:3940426

Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

1986-01-01

49

Introduction to the Diffusion Monte Carlo Method

A self-contained and tutorial presentation of the diffusion Monte Carlo method for determining the ground state energy and wave function of quantum systems is provided. First, the theoretical basis of the method is derived and then a numerical algorithm is formulated. The algorithm is applied to determine the ground state of the harmonic oscillator, the Morse oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the electronic ground state of the H2+ ion and of the H2 molecule. A computer program on which the sample calculations are based is available upon request.

Ioan Kosztin; Byron Faber; Klaus Schulten

1997-02-20

50

Quality control procedures during food processing may involve direct inoculation of food samples onto appropriate selective media for subsequent enumeration. However, sublethally injured bacteria often fail to grow, enabling them to evade detection and intervention measures and ultimately threaten the health of consumers. This study compares traditional selective and nonselective agar-based overlays versus two commercial systems (Petrifilm and Easygel) for recovery of injured E. coli B-41560 and O157:H7 strains. Bacteria were propagated in tryptic soy broth (TSB), ground beef slurry, and infant milk formula to a density of 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml and then were stressed for 6 min either in lactic acid (pH 4.5) or heat shocked for 3 min at 60°C. Samples were pour plated in basal layers of either tryptic soy agar (TSA), sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), or violet red bile agar (VRB) and were resuscitated for 4 h prior to addition of agar overlays. Other stressed bacteria were plated directly onto Petrifilm and Easygel. Results indicate that selective and nonselective agar overlays recovered significantly higher numbers (greater than 1 log) of acid- and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 from TSB, ground beef, and infant milk formula compared with direct plating onto selective media, Petrifilm, or Easygel, while no significant differences among these media combinations were observed for stressed E. coli B-41560. Nonstressed bacteria from TSB and ground beef were also recovered at densities significantly higher in nonselective TSA-TSA and in VRB-VRB and SMAC-SMAC compared with Petrifilm and Easygel. These data underscore the need to implement food safety measures that address sublethally injured pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 in order to avoid underestimation of true densities for target pathogens. PMID:23575132

Smith, Amanda R; Ellison, Alysha L; Robinson, Amanda L; Drake, Maryanne; McDowell, Susan A; Mitchell, James K; Gerard, Patrick D; Heckler, Rachel A; McKillip, John L

2013-04-01

51

New methods in Diffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Synopsis Considerable strides have been made by countless individual researchers in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to push DWI from an experimental tool – limited to a few institutions with specialized instrumentation – to a powerful tool used routinely for diagnostic imaging. Despite its current success, the field of DWI constantly evolves and progress has been made on several fronts, awaiting adoption by vendors and clinical users to bring in the next generation of DWI. These developments are primarily comprised of improved robustness against patient and physiologic motion, increased spatial resolution, new biophysical and tissue models, and new clinical applications for DWI. This article aims to provide a succinct overview of some of these new developments and a description of some of the major challenges associated with DWI. Trying to understand some of these challenges is helpful not only to the technically savvy MRI user, but also to radiologists who are interested in the potential strengths and weaknesses of these techniques, what is in the “diffusion pipeline”, and in how to interpret artifacts on DWI scans. PMID:19406353

Bammer, Roland; Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Skare, Stefan T.

2009-01-01

52

Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

2014-10-17

53

A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06). PMID:10618266

Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

2000-01-01

54

A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06). PMID:10618266

Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

2000-01-01

55

Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites.

Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field. PMID:24274482

Diaz-Bleis, D; Vales-Pinzón, C; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Alvarado-Gil, J J

2014-01-01

56

Weighted average finite difference methods for fractional diffusion equations

A class of finite difference methods for solving fractional diffusion equations is considered. These methods are an extension of the weighted average methods for ordinary (non-fractional) diffusion equations. Their accuracy is of order (?x)2 and ?t, except for the fractional version of the Crank–Nicholson method, where the accuracy with respect to the timestep is of order (?t)2 if a second-order

S. B. Yuste

2006-01-01

57

Producing leaks by the diffusion welding method

A technique of producing channel-type leaks of a billet preliminarily made with specified geometrical dimensions of a leak\\u000a channel and a plate by the diffusion welding technique is described. The considered technology allows us to obtain leaks with\\u000a different cross sections and when there are local expansions in a segment with the leak channel.

S. G. Sazhin; V. M. Myasnikov; E. S. Kostikov

2009-01-01

58

A finite element method for surface diffusion: the parametric case

A finite element method for surface diffusion: the parametric case Eberhard BÂ¨ansch Pedro Morin Ricardo H. Nochetto April 16, 2004 Abstract Surface diffusion is a (4th order highly nonlinear) geometric-off in finite time. We introduce a mesh regularization algorithm, which helps prevent mesh distortion

Nochetto, Ricardo H.

59

Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems

Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions.

Lee, C.E.; Fan, W.C.P.; Bratton, R.L.

1983-01-01

60

A microfluidic method to measure small molecule diffusion in hydrogels.

Drug release from a fluid-contacting biomaterial is simulated using a microfluidic device with a channel defined by solute-loaded hydrogel; as water is pumped through the channel, solute transfers from the hydrogel into the water. Optical analysis of in-situ hydrogels, characterization of the microfluidic device effluent, and NMR methods were used to find diffusion coefficients of several dyes (model drugs) in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels. Diffusion coefficients for methylene blue and sulforhodamine 101 in PEG-DA calculated using the three methods are in good agreement; both dyes are mobile in the hydrogel and elute from the hydrogel at the aqueous channel interface. However, the dye acid blue 22 deviates from typical diffusion behavior and does not release as expected from the hydrogel. Importantly, only the microfluidic method is capable of detecting this behavior. Characterizing solute diffusion with a combination of NMR, optical and effluent methods offer greater insight into molecular diffusion in hydrogels than employing each technique individually. The NMR method made precise measurements for solute diffusion in all cases. The microfluidic optical method was effective for visualizing diffusion of the optically active solutes. The optical and effluent methods show potential to be used to screen solutes to determine if they elute from a hydrogel in contact with flowing fluid. Our data suggest that when designing a drug delivery device, analyzing the diffusion from the molecular level to the device level is important to establish a complete picture of drug elution, and microfluidic methods to study such diffusion can play a key role. PMID:24411384

Evans, Stephanie M; Litzenberger, Andrew L; Ellenberger, Anne E; Maneval, James E; Jablonski, Erin L; Vogel, Brandon M

2014-02-01

61

Asymptotic diffusion accelerated discontinuous finite element methods for transport problems.

??The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating the iterative convergence rate of discrete-ordinate transport calculations. However, in multi-dimensional… (more)

Wareing, Todd Arlin

1991-01-01

62

Background Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Clostridium difficile is increasingly important because of the rise in resistant strains. The standard medium for the AST of C. difficile is supplemented Brucella agar (sBA), but we found that the growth of C. difficile on sBA was not optimal. Because active growth is critical for reliable AST, we developed a new, modified C. difficile (mCD) agar. C. difficile grew better on mCD agar than on sBA. Methods C. difficile isolates were collected from patients with healthcare-associated diarrhea. sBA medium was prepared according to the CLSI guidelines. Homemade mCD agar containing taurocholate, L-cysteine hydrochloride, and 7% horse blood was used. For 171 C. difficile isolates, we compared the agar dilution AST results from mCD agar with those from sBA. Results No significant differences were observed in the 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and 90% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of clindamycin (CLI), metronidazole (MTZ), moxifloxacin (MXF), piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), and rifaximin (RIX), but the values for vancomycin (VAN) were two-fold higher on mCD agar than on sBA. The MICs of CLI, MXF, and RIX were in 100% agreement within two-fold dilutions, but for MTZ, VAN, and PTZ, 13.7%, 0.6%, and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively, were outside the acceptable range. Conclusions The MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90, were acceptable when AST was performed on mCD agar. Thus, mCD agar could be used as a substitute medium for the AST of C. difficile. PMID:25368819

Kim, Gye Hyeong; Kim, Jieun; Pai, Hyunjoo

2014-01-01

63

A Fractional Lie Group Method For Anomalous Diffusion Equations

Lie group method provides an efficient tool to solve a differential equation. This paper suggests a fractional partner for fractional partial differential equations using a fractional characteristic method. A space-time fractional diffusion equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the Lie group method.

Guo-cheng Wu

2010-09-21

64

The method for detecting diffusion ring diameter in Hemagglutinin measuring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuser ring diameter measurement is the most critical in hemagglutinin Measuring. The traditional methods, such as a vernier caliper or high-definition scanned images are subjective and low for the measurement data reliability. Propose high-resolution diffusion ring image for drop-resolution processing, adaptive Canny operator and local detection method to extract complete and clear diffusion ring boundaries, and finally make use of polynomial interpolation algorithm to make diffusion ring outer boundary pixel coordinates achieve sub-pixel accuracy and the least-squares fitting circle algorithm to calculate the precise center of the circle and the diameter of the diffuser ring. Experimental results show that the method detection time is only 63.61ms, which is a faster speed; diffuser ring diameter estimation error can achieve 0.55 pixel, high stability in experimental data. This method is adapted to the various types of influenza vaccine hemagglutinin content measurements, and has important value in the influenza vaccine quality detection.

Jing, Wenbo; Liu, Xue; Duan, Jin; Wang, Xiao-man

2014-11-01

65

An explicit high order method for fractional advection diffusion equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a high order explicit finite difference method for fractional advection diffusion equations. These equations can be obtained from the standard advection diffusion equations by replacing the second order spatial derivative by a fractional operator of order ? with 1method through consistency and stability. The order of convergence varies between two and three and for advection dominated flows is close to three. Although the method is conditionally stable, the restrictions allow wide stability regions. The analysis is confirmed by numerical examples.

Sousa, Ercília

2014-12-01

66

Assessment of Diffusion Operators in a Novel Moving Particle Method

In this study, solution effectiveness is assessed to gether with its accuracy and required computational cost for three diffusion operators in a newly developed moving-particle method (MPPM) to simulate incompressible flow. The salient feature in the present particle method is the insertion of a pressure mesh within the computational particle cloud to deal with the pressure-related operators in governing equations.

Yao-Hsin Hwang

2012-01-01

67

Asymptotic diffusion accelerated discontinuous finite element methods for transport problems

The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has emerged has a powerful tool for accelerating the iterative convergence rate of discrete-ordinate transport calculations. In multi-dimensional geometries, only the diamond-differenced scheme has been efficiently solved by the DSA procedure. More advanced and accurate schemes, such as the discontinuous finite element (DFE) schemes, have not been efficiently solved by DSA because applying the standard DSA procedure results in a large, complicated system of equations that cannot be collapsed into a efficiently solvable diffusion equation. We present a new procedure for diffusion-accelerating certain DFE schemes for slab and x-y geometries. The novel aspect of this procedure is that the discrete diffusion problem is derived from an asymptotic expansion of the discrete transport problem.

Wareing, T.A.

1992-11-01

68

A method for thermal diffusivity measurement in fluids.

A technique is proposed for thermal diffusivity measurement in fluids. It is based on the Angstrom method, but with excitation of thermal waves by electromagnetic energy absorption and pyroelectric detection. The good agreement between measured thermal diffusivity of air and some test liquids with literature values shows the validity of the method. It is free of some limitations of conventional photopyroelectric technique with length scanning because it is free of moving parts inside the sample and because it avoids problems associated with the non-parallelism between thermal wave generator surface and sensor. It does not require any data normalization procedure or special sample preparation. PMID:24182147

Marín, E; Hernández-Rosales, E; Mansanares, A M; Ivanov, R; Rojas-Trigos, J B; Calderón, A

2013-10-01

69

Generalized method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in periodic channels.

The method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in an arbitrary periodic two-dimensional channel, presented in our previous paper [P. Kalinay, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 144101 (2014)], is generalized to 3D channels of cylindrical symmetry, as well as to 2D or 3D channels with particles driven by a constant longitudinal external driving force. The next possible extensions are also indicated. The former calculation was based on calculus in the complex plane, suitable for the stationary diffusion in 2D domains. The method is reformulated here using standard tools of functional analysis, enabling the generalization. PMID:25573552

Kalinay, Pavol

2015-01-01

70

A Method for Thermal Diffusivity Determination of Thermal Insulators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A so-called “three-point” (3P) method has been developed for thermal diffusivity measurements of thermal insulating materials. One side of a cylindrical specimen, sandwiched between two thin metal plates, is subjected to intense light from an incandescent lamp to generate a thermal perturbance. The temperature response is measured in three locations along the test specimen. Thermocouples are located at the front and rear faces of the specimen, and the third is placed inside the specimen at a known location. The two outside temperatures are used as boundary conditions, and the unknown thermal diffusivity is calculated from the third temperature versus time curve. The method combines the advantages of rapid transient non-contact heating methods with the well-defined boundary conditions of steady-state methods. The results of the 3P method are compared with those from steady-state methods for a micro-porous insulation material and for a honeycomb structure.

Gembarovic, Jozef; Taylor, Raymond E.

2007-12-01

71

Stochastic operator-splitting method for reaction-diffusion systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biochemical processes at the sub-cellular level involve a small number of molecules. The local numbers of these molecules vary in space and time, and exhibit random fluctuations that can only be captured with stochastic simulations. We present a novel stochastic operator-splitting algorithm to model such reaction-diffusion phenomena. The reaction and diffusion steps employ stochastic simulation algorithms and Brownian dynamics, respectively. Through theoretical analysis, we have developed an algorithm to identify if the system is reaction-controlled, diffusion-controlled or is in an intermediate regime. The time-step size is chosen accordingly at each step of the simulation. We have used three examples to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The first example deals with diffusion of two chemical species undergoing an irreversible bimolecular reaction. It is used to validate our algorithm by comparing its results with the solution obtained from a corresponding deterministic partial differential equation at low and high number of molecules. In this example, we also compare the results from our method to those obtained using a Gillespie multi-particle (GMP) method. The second example, which models simplified RNA synthesis, is used to study the performance of our algorithm in reaction- and diffusion-controlled regimes and to investigate the effects of local inhomogeneity. The third example models reaction-diffusion of CheY molecules through the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli during chemotaxis. It is used to compare the algorithm's performance against the GMP method. Our analysis demonstrates that the proposed algorithm enables accurate simulation of the kinetics of complex and spatially heterogeneous systems. It is also computationally more efficient than commonly used alternatives, such as the GMP method.

Choi, TaiJung; Maurya, Mano Ram; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Subramaniam, Shankar

2012-11-01

72

The Flux-integral Method for Multidimensional Convection and Diffusion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flux-integral method is a procedure for constructing an explicit, single-step, forward-in-time, conservative, control volume update of the unsteady, multidimensional convection-diffusion equation. The convective plus diffusive flux at each face of a control-volume cell is estimated by integrating the transported variable and its face-normal derivative over the volume swept out by the convecting velocity field. This yields a unique description of the fluxes, whereas other conservative methods rely on nonunique, arbitrary pseudoflux-difference splitting procedures. The accuracy of the resulting scheme depends on the form of the subcell interpolation assumed, given cell-average data. Cellwise constant behavior results in a (very artificially diffusive) first-order convection scheme. Second-order convection-diffusion schemes correspond to cellwise linear (or bilinear) subcell interpolation. Cellwise quadratic subcell interpolants generate a highly accurate convection-diffusion scheme with excellent phase accuracy. Under constant-coefficient conditions, this is a uniformly third-order polynomial interpolation algorithm (UTOPIA).

Leonard, B. P.; Macvean, M. K.; Lock, A. P.

1994-01-01

73

Asymptotic Diffusion Accelerated Discontinuous Finite Element Methods for Transport Problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating the iterative convergence rate of discrete-ordinate transport calculations. However, in multi-dimensional geometries, only the diamond-differenced scheme has been efficiently solved by the DSA procedure. More advanced and accurate schemes, such as the discontinuous finite element schemes, have not been efficiently solved by DSA because applying the standard DSA procedure results in a large, complicated system of equations that cannot be collapsed into an efficiently solvable discrete diffusion equation. Here we present a new procedure for diffusion -accelerating certain discontinuous finite element schemes for slab and x-y geometry discrete-ordinates problems. The novel aspect of this procedure is that the discretized diffusion problem is derived from an asymptotic expansion of the discrete transport problem. The motivation for this procedure is that the resulting diffusion problem is relatively "simple" and easily solvable. The asymptotic expansion also shows that these discontinuous finite element schemes are highly accurate for diffusive problems with optically thick spatial meshes. Therefore, these schemes possess two very desirable properties: they are very accurate for all problems with optically thin meshes and diffusive problems with optically thick meshes, and they are efficiently solved by a diffusion-synthetic acceleration procedure. Specifically, we consider the conventional and lumped linear discontinuous schemes in slab geometry and a certain lumped bilinear discontinuous scheme in x-y geometry. In slab geometry, the new "asymptotic" DSA procedure is very efficient for problems that contain either isotropic scattering or linearly-anisotropic scattering. In x-y geometry, this procedure is very efficient provided the spatial cells do not have large aspect ratios and the system does not have highly anisotropic scattering. Also, the resulting discrete diffusion equation has a very simple five-point stencil with a one-point removal term and is very efficiently solved by the multigrid method. We provide numerical results that demonstrate the high level of accuracy and rapid convergence of the new methods.

Wareing, Todd Arlin

74

Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step. PMID:22339759

2012-01-01

75

Methods for diffusive relaxation in the Pn equation

We present recent progress in the development of two substantially different approaches for simulating the so-called of P{sub N} equations. These are linear hyperbolic systems of PDEs that are used to model particle transport in a material medium, that in highly collisional regimes, are accurately approximated by a simple diffusion equation. This limit is based on a balance between function values and gradients of certain variables in the P{sub N} system. Conventional reconstruction methods based on upwinding approximate such gradients with an error that is dependent on the size of the computational mesh. Thus in order to capture the diffusion limit, a given mesh must resolve the dynamics of the continuum equation at the level of the mean-free-path, which tends to zero in the diffusion limit. The two methods analyzed here produce accurate solutions in both collisional and non-collisional regimes; in particular, they do not require resolution of the mean-free-path in order to properly capture the diffusion limit. The first method is a straight-forward application of the discrete Galerkin (DG) methodology, which uses additional variables in each computational cell to capture the balance between function values and gradients, which are computed locally. The second method uses a temporal splitting of the fast and slow dynamics in the P{sub N} system to derive so-called regularized equations for which the diffusion limit is built-in. We focus specifically on the P{sub N} equations for one-dimensional, slab geometries. Preliminary results for several benchmark problems are presented which highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Further improvements and extensions are also discussed.

Hauck, Cory D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclarren, Ryan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

76

Method of making gas diffusion layers for electrochemical cells

A method is provided for making a gas diffusion layer for an electrochemical cell comprising the steps of: a) combining carbon particles and one or more surfactants in a typically aqueous vehicle to make a preliminary composition, typically by high shear mixing; b) adding one or more highly fluorinated polymers to said preliminary composition by low shear mixing to make a coating composition; and c) applying the coating composition to an electrically conductive porous substrate, typically by a low shear coating method.

Frisk, Joseph William (Oakdale, MN); Boand, Wayne Meredith (Lino Lakes, MN); Larson, James Michael (Saint Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

77

Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.

2010-02-15

78

Some basic mathematical methods of diffusion theory. [emphasis on atmospheric applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introductory treatment of the fundamentals of diffusion theory is presented, starting with molecular diffusion and leading up to the statistical methods of turbulent diffusion. A multilayer diffusion model, designed to permit concentration and dosage calculations downwind of toxic clouds from rocket vehicles, is described. The concepts and equations of diffusion are developed on an elementary level, with emphasis on atmospheric applications.

Giere, A. C.

1977-01-01

79

Novel integral method for the convection-diffusion heat equation

Motivated by the desire to implement accurate and efficient nodal methods into thermal-hydraulics production codes, a nodal integral method (NIM) has been developed for the linear steady-state convection-diffusion heat equation and solved iteratively. Current NIMs for convection-diffusion problems employ direct solvers such as Newton-Raphson, rather then iterative schemes, which make them less suitable for use in large-scale production codes that use iterations between momentum and energy modules. The NIM developed here, for a given velocity field, solves the energy equation iteratively, making it possible to implement it as a module in production codes. The simple iterative scheme for the NIM described here converges very well and the method has a 0(h[sup 2]) error.

Michael, E.P.E.; Dorning, J.J.; Rizwan-uddin (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Gelbard, E.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1993-01-01

80

Background and Mathematical Analysis of Diffusion MRI Methods

The addition of a pair of magnetic field gradient pulses had initially provided the measurement of spin motion with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. In the adaptation of DW-NMR techniques to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the taxonomy of mathematical models is divided in two categories: model matching and spectral methods. In this review, the methods are summarized starting from early diffusion weighted (DW) NMR models followed up with their adaptation to DW MRI. Finally, a newly introduced Fourier analysis based unifying theory, so-called Complete Fourier Direct MRI, is included to explain the mechanisms of existing methods. PMID:23661905

Özcan, Alpay; Wong, Kenneth H.; Larson-Prior, Linda; Cho, Zang-Hee; Mun, Seong K.

2013-01-01

81

A diffusion accelerated solution method for the nonlinear characteristic scheme

Recently the nonlinear characteristic scheme for spatially discretizing the discrete-ordinate equations was introduced. This scheme is accurate for both optically thin and optically thick spatial meshes and produces strictly positive angular and scalar fluxes. The nonlinear characteristic discrete-ordinate equations can be solved using the source iteration method; however, it is well known that the this method converges prohibitively slowly for optically thick problems with scattering ratios at or near unity. In this paper we describe a diffusion accelerated solution method for solving the nonlinear characteristic equations in slab geometry.

Wareing, T.A.; Walters, W.F.; Morel, J.E.

1995-02-01

82

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

83

A Numerical Method for Determining Diffusivity from Annealing Experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial analogs of lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) have been implanted with solar-wind energy 4He at 4 keV and 3He at 3 keV using Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII). Isochronal annealing of the samples revealed thermally induced 4He evolution similar to the helium release of the Apollo 11 regoliths reported by Pepin, et. al., [1970]. These annealing experiments are analyzed with a three dimensional numerical method based on Fick's law for diffusion. An iterative method is used to calculate the diffusivity. The code uses an assumed diffusivity to calculate the amount of gas released during a temperature step. The initial depth profile of the implanted species is generated using the TRIM electronic stopping code [Ziegler, 1996]. The calculated value is compared to the measured value and a linear regression is used to calculate a new diffusivity until there is convergence within a specified tolerance level. The diffusivity as a function of temperature is then fitted to an Arrhenius equation. Analysis of results for 4 keV 4He on ilmenite shows two distinct regions of Arrehnius behavior with activation energies of 0.5 +/- 0.1 eV at emperatures below 800 deg C and 1.5 +/- 0.2 eV at temperatures from 800 deg C to 1100 deg C. Pepin, R. O., L. E. Nyquist, D. Phinney, and D. C. Black (1970) "Rare Gases in Apollo 11 Lunar Material," Proceedings of the Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference, 2, pp. 1435-1454. Ziegler, J. P. (1996) SRIM Instruction Manual: The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, (Yorktown, New York: IBM - Research); based on Ziegler, J. P., J. P. Biersack and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, (New York: Pergamon Press, 1985).

Harris-Kuhlman, K. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.

1998-12-01

84

Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials

A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.

Winters, Andrew R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

85

Diffusely reflecting paints including polytetrafluoroethylene and method of manufacture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention pertains to a high diffuse, reflective paint comprising an alcohol soluble binder, polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and an alcohol for coating a substrate and forming an optical reference with a superior Lambertian characteristic. A method for making the paint by first mixing the biner and alcohol, and thereafter by mixing in outgassed TFE is described. A wetting agent may be employed to aid the mixing process.

Schutt, J. B.; Shai, M. C. (inventors)

1985-01-01

86

Asymptotic Diffusion Accelerated Discontinuous Finite Element Methods for Transport Problems

The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating the iterative convergence rate of discrete-ordinate transport calculations. However, in multi-dimensional geometries, only the diamond-differenced scheme has been efficiently solved by the DSA procedure. More advanced and accurate schemes, such as the discontinuous finite element schemes, have not been efficiently solved by DSA because applying the

Todd Arlin Wareing

1991-01-01

87

MICs of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifampin, gentamicin, and doxycycline against 101 isolates of Rhodococcus equi were determined by broth macrodilution, disk diffusion, and Etest. Categorical agreement ranged between 85.1 and 100%. Overall, the agreement between Etest and disk diffusion was better than the agreement between broth macrodilution and the agar-based methods. PMID:25378571

Berghaus, Londa J; Giguère, Steeve; Guldbech, Kristen; Warner, Eleanor; Ugorji, Ukachi; Berghaus, Roy D

2015-01-01

88

Wavelets method for the time fractional diffusion-wave equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient and accurate computational method based on the Legendre wavelets (LWs) is proposed for solving the time fractional diffusion-wave equation (FDWE). To this end, a new fractional operational matrix (FOM) of integration for the LWs is derived. The LWs and their FOM of integration are used to transform the problem under consideration into a linear system of algebraic equations, which can be simply solved to achieve the solution of the problem. The proposed method is very convenient for solving such problems, since the initial and boundary conditions are taken into account automatically.

Heydari, M. H.; Hooshmandasl, M. R.; Maalek Ghaini, F. M.; Cattani, C.

2015-01-01

89

Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion

The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton`s method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton`s method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step.

Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.

1998-03-10

90

On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on ?m2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on ?mRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme ?m2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de ?mRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro ?m2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de ?mRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c) discriminar entre difusión en la matriz y otros problemas, como las reacciones con cinética

Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

91

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

92

Extrapolation techniques applied to matrix methods in neutron diffusion problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general matrix method is developed for the solution of characteristic-value problems of the type arising in many physical applications. The scheme employed is essentially that of Gauss and Seidel with appropriate modifications needed to make it applicable to characteristic-value problems. An iterative procedure produces a sequence of estimates to the answer; and extrapolation techniques, based upon previous behavior of iterants, are utilized in speeding convergence. Theoretically sound limits are placed on the magnitude of the extrapolation that may be tolerated. This matrix method is applied to the problem of finding criticality and neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron-diffusion equations is treated. Results for this example are indicated.

Mccready, Robert R

1956-01-01

93

The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

2014-08-01

94

Evaluation of Amorphous Diffusion Bonding by Nonlinear Ultrasonic Method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic of bond interface in amorphous diffusion bonding, of which evaluation is impossible by conventional method, was quantitatively evaluated by the second harmonic amplitude. Steel bars were bonded with Ni-based amorphous film. Conventional ultrasonic method, e.g. the echo height reflected from bond interface, could not identify samples manufactured at different bonding temperatures 1050, 1150 and 1250°C. Therefore, nonlinear ultrasonic method was applied for distinguishing the difference of bond strength. The nonlinear ultrasonic method is to measure the higher harmonics generated by nonlinear stress-strain relationship at weak bonds. Measurements were conducted in contact using piezoelectric transducers in through-transmission. The fundamental and second harmonic wave frequencies are 5 and 10 MHz. To measure second harmonic wave amplitude, a commercial superheterodyne receiver and pulse inversion method were used. The pulse inversion method is the digital signal processing to extract only second and even orders harmonic wave by superposing two burst waves with a 180° phase difference after corrected time-lag by cross-correlation function. These results were compared to destructive tests for examining the relationship between tensile strength and the second harmonics. Besides, elemental analysis by EPMA was performed for manifesting the source of second harmonics generation.

Ohara, Y.; Kawashima, K.; Yamada, R.; Horio, H.

2004-02-01

95

An approach entirely based on the entropy dissipation has been used in the past in the study of reaction-diffusion equations arising in reversible chemistry. In particular, it is possible to study the existence (and smoothness) of solutions to these PDEs in many situations, but in general under the requirement that the diffusion be nondegenerate (or at least that all diffusion

L. DESVILLETTES; K. FELLNER

2007-01-01

96

Adaptive inexact Newton methods for discretizations of nonlinear diffusion PDEs. II. Applications

Adaptive inexact Newton methods for discretizations of nonlinear diffusion PDEs. II. Applications to various discretization schemes like finite elements, nonconforming finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin words: nonlinear diffusion PDE, nonlinear algebraic system, adaptive linearization, adaptive algebraic

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

97

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms Michael R estimates were performed at two institutions over the frequency range 1Â13 MHz, and compared to three models: 903Â908 I. INTRODUCTION This work investigates ultrasonic scattering from ho- mogenous media

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

98

Three-dimensional characterization of bacterial microcolonies on solid agar-based culture media.

For the last century, in vitro diagnostic process in microbiology has mainly relied on the growth of bacteria on the surface of a solid agar medium. Nevertheless, few studies focused in the past on the dynamics of microcolonies growth on agar surface before 8 to 10h of incubation. In this article, chromatic confocal microscopy has been applied to characterize the early development of a bacterial colony. This technology relies on a differential focusing depth of the white light. It allows one to fully measure the tridimensional shape of microcolonies more quickly than classical confocal microscopy but with the same spatial resolution. Placing the device in an incubator, the method was able to individually track colonies growing on an agar plate, and to follow the evolution of their surface or volume. Using an appropriate statistical modeling framework, for a given microorganism, the doubling time has been estimated for each individual colony, as well as its variability between colonies, both within and between agar plates. A proof of concept led on four bacterial strains of four distinct species demonstrated the feasibility and the interest of the approach. It showed in particular that doubling times derived from early tri-dimensional measurements on microcolonies differed from classical measurements in micro-dilutions based on optical diffusion. Such a precise characterization of the tri-dimensional shape of microcolonies in their late-lag to early-exponential phase could be beneficial in terms of in vitro diagnostics. Indeed, real-time monitoring of the biomass available in a colony could allow to run well established microbial identification workflows like, for instance, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, as soon as a sufficient quantity of material is available, thereby reducing the time needed to provide a diagnostic. Moreover, as done for pre-identification of macro-colonies, morphological indicators such as three-dimensional growth profiles derived from microcolonies could be used to perform a first pre-identification step, but in a shorten time. PMID:25533218

Drazek, Laurent; Tournoud, Maud; Derepas, Frédéric; Guicherd, Maryse; Mahé, Pierre; Pinston, Frédéric; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Chatellier, Sonia

2015-02-01

99

Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

2007-01-01

100

Thermal diffusivity measurements by Ångström's method in a fluid environment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ångström's method has been used for measuring the thermal diffusivity, a, and the radial heat loss coefficients of a thin constantan wire, both in a vacuum and with the wire immersed in air and in four different liquids, and using temperature wave periods of 1 to 1000 s. The presence of a surrounding fluid medium causes errors of up to 90% in the measured values of a. It is shown that both the experimental errors and the radial heat loss coefficients can be accurately calculated using simple models, both at high and at low frequencies, and that a previously developed two-frequency model can be used to obtain accurate data for a even under these conditions, provided the frequency is high enough. We also present a new variety of Ångström's model, valid only at very low frequencies and with purely convective heat loss.

Sundqvist, B.

1991-01-01

101

In this study, we evaluated the performance of blood agar (by macroscopic growth) and nutrient agar (by a microcolony detection method) for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), using 67 smear-positive sputum specimens. The direct proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was used as the “gold standard.” Compared with LJ medium, results for both media were in 100% agreement for RIF, while for INH the agreement levels for blood agar and nutrient agar were 98% and 95%, respectively. Within 2 weeks, 100% of specimens yielded results on blood agar, while 96.8% of specimens yielded results on nutrient agar. Our study showed that blood agar and nutrient agar can be used as alternative media for direct susceptibility testing of RIF and INH, especially in resource-poor settings. PMID:22357498

Ikram, Aamer; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Martin, Anandi

2012-01-01

102

Antigen-antibody Reactions in Agar

Experiments have been carried out to test the predictions of a new theoretical approach to the Oudin technique (Spiers and Augustin, 1957). The graphical method employed for this purpose is described in detail. The antigen (Ag)-antibody (Ab) systems used were crystalline Bovine serum albumin (BSa) and crystalline egg albumin (Ea), with the corresponding rabbit antiserum globulin concentrates. The experimental results fitted the theoretical curves best when both Ag and Ab were incorporated in gel. With Ag in solution the same theoretical curves fitted as for Ag in gel (except for the highest Ag/Ab ratios), but there was a slightly greater scatter of experimental points. The results supported throughout the assumption that the Ag diffused towards the interface and that the Ag concentration was not maintained homogeneous, as claimed by Becker et al. (1951). Conditions for the formation of a stationary line at the gel-gel or liquid-gel interface agreed with those predicted by the new theory rather than with those predicted by Becker et al. By means of the new method it is also possible to obtain estimates of Ag-Ab combining ratios (in the gel) together with a rough estimate of the ratios of the diffusion coefficients of Ag and Ab, neither of which had previously been possible. Diffusion coefficients determined by this new graphical method were about 15 per cent below the accepted values, and the combining ratios R had values in excess of equivalence ratios. Diffusion coefficients calculated from our experimental results according to the theory of Becker et al. (1951) were below those found by the new method. The reasons for this, and results obtained by previous workers, are critically discussed. The effect of variations of temperature and of absolute concentration of the reactants are also examined. PMID:13513143

Augustin, R.; Hayward, B. J.; Spiers, J. A.

1958-01-01

103

Electro-osmosis in gel -Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, Jer^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude Benet

Electro-osmosis in gel - Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, JÂ´er^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude B-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis from liquid phase transport phenomena that take place in porous media (osmosis, electro-osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

104

Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria in Soft Agar: Role of Gel Concentration

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15–0.5% (w/v). For C?0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4–0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15–0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays. PMID:21806920

Croze, Ottavio A.; Ferguson, Gail P.; Cates, Michael E.; Poon, Wilson C.K.

2011-01-01

105

An approximate solution for a fractional diffusion-wave equation using the decomposition method

The partial differential equation of diffusion is generalized by replacing the first order time derivative by a fractional derivative of order ?, 0method is given for the generalized fractional diffusion (diffusion-wave) equation. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Numerical example is given to show the application of the present

Kamel Al-khaled; Shaher Momani

2005-01-01

106

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an analysis of a flash thermographic method to measure thermal diffusivity that is particularly insensitive to heat loss mechanisms near thermal boundaries. This approach is an alternative to the "Parker method" which requires that a plate-like region subject to a uniform energy flux must reach a maximum constant temperature in order to obtain an accurate measurement of thermal diffusivity at the half-temperature point in time. The present approach relies on evaluating another unique point, the inflection point, of the same back-side thermal response curve as Parker's or, from the front side, using a contrast versus time curve in the sample region of interest. This inflection point occurs so early in the response history that little heat loss, for example, near heat-sink boundaries or surface convection, is expressed. Since the method is insensitive to the achieved temperature, it is also insensitive to surface emissivity variations.

Ringermacher, Harry I.

2013-04-01

107

Exact solutions for time-fractional diffusion-wave equations by decomposition method

The time-fractional diffusion-wave equation is considered. The time-fractional diffusion equation is obtained from the standard diffusion equation by replacing the first-order time derivative with a fractional derivative of order ? ? (0,2]. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. This paper presents the analytical solutions of the fractional diffusion equations by an Adomian decomposition method. By using initial

Santanu Saha Ray

2007-01-01

108

A hidden pitfall in the preparation of agar media undermines microorganism cultivability.

Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the "great plate count anomaly," that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27(T) and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Kamagata, Yoichi

2014-12-15

109

AEROSOL SIZE MEASUREMENT BY ELECTRICAL MOBILITY AND DIFFUSION ANALYSIS - A COMPARISON OF METHODS

The principle of the electrical aerosol analyzer method is reviewed and the diffusion battery method is described in detail. An appendix explains the basis of the calculations used. The diffusion battery method is complicated by counting losses of very small particles, inherent t...

110

Mucoadhesive microspheres prepared by interpolymer complexation and solvent diffusion method.

Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared to increase gastric residence time using an interpolymer complexation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and a solvent diffusion method. The complexation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as a result of hydrogen bonding was confirmed by the shift in the carbonyl absorption bands of poly(acrylic acid) using FT-IR. A mixture of ethanol/water was used as the internal phase, corn oil was used as the external phase of emulsion, and span 80 was used as the surfactant. Spherical microspheres were prepared and the inside of the microspheres was completely filled. The optimum solvent ratio of the internal phase (ethanol/water) was 8/2 and 7/3, and the particle size increased as the content of water was increased. The mean particle size increased with the increase in polymer concentration. The adhesive force of microspheres was equivalent to that of Carbopol. The release rate of acetaminophen from the complex microspheres was slower than the PVP microspheres at pH 2.0 and 6.8. PMID:15620870

Chun, Myung-Kwan; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Hoo-Kyun

2005-01-20

111

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01

112

A magnetic resonance imaging method for simultaneous and accurate determination of gaseous diffusion constant and longitudinal relaxation time is presented. The method is based on direct observation of diffusive motion. Initially, a slice-selective saturation of helium-3 (3He) spins was performed on a 3He\\/O2 phantom (9 atm\\/ 2 atm). A time-delay interval was introduced after saturation, allowing spins to diffuse in

Ivan E. Dimitrov; Sridhar R. Charagundla; Rahim Rizi; Ravinder Reddy; John S. Leigh

1999-01-01

113

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant-magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. An unmodulated illumination provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a

Bernard Goldstein; Joseph Dresner; Daniel J. Szostak

1983-01-01

114

A Diffusion-Split Method To Deal With Thermal Shocks Using Standard Linear Tetrahedral Finite. INTRODUCTION The Galerkin (standard) version of the finite element method (FEM) applied to diffusion problems of thermal shocks is not longer necessary. But in many important applications processes, such as welding, hot

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

115

Uncertainty of the Thermal Diffusivity Measurement Using the Laser Flash Method1

ABSTRACT The paper deals with uncertainty analysis of the thermal diffusivity measurement,using the laser flash method. It carried out a general metrological characterizationof the high temperature thermal diffusivity measurement,apparatus. The metrological investigation follows general rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement. The work presents a brief introduction into the flash method. It summarizes ,the main disturbing phenomena ,that may

L. Vozár; W. Hohenauer

116

An error analysis of white matter tractography methods: synthetic diffusion tensor field simulations

White matter tractography using diffusion tensor MR images is a promising method for estimating the pathways of white matter tracts in the human brain. The success of this method ultimately depends upon the accuracy of the white matter tractography algorithms. In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to investigate the impact of SNR, tensor anisotropy, and diffusion tensor

Mariana Lazar; Andrew L. Alexander

2003-01-01

117

We investigated the performance of blood and chocolate agar as alternatives to Middlebrook 7H11 agar for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-and second-line drugs by the Etest method. A total of 39 strains of M. tuberculosis including 22 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains and 17 susceptible strains were tested. In conclusion, our results showed that chocolate agar gave insufficient growth, needing up to 21 days of incubation, while results on blood agar were comparable to those on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and can be further explored as an alternative for Etest-based susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18945843

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Bilgin, Kemal; Uzun, Meltem; Akgunes, Alper; Yusof, Anne; Durupinar, Belma

2008-01-01

118

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None;)

2006-11-09

119

Violet red bile 2 agar for stressed coliforms.

Counts on a new, autoclave-sterilizable violet red bile (VRB-2) agar were compared with counts on freshly boiled VRB agar. Yields on VRB-2 agar averaged 217, 180, 130, and 112% of counts obtained on the control medium for samples of water, cottage cheese, frozen vegetables, and raw milk, respectively. The general principle used for the development of VRB-2 agar could be applied to many other kinds of selective plating media. PMID:1092265

Hartman, P A; Hartman, P S; Lanz, W W

1975-04-01

120

Multilevel methods for transport equations in diffusive regimes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the numerical solution of the single-group, steady state, isotropic transport equation. An analysis by means of the moment equations shows that a discrete ordinate S(sub N) discretization in direction (angle) with a least squares finite element discretization in space does not behave properly in the diffusion limit. A scaling of the S(sub N) equations is introduced so that the least squares discretization has the correct diffusion limit. For the resulting discrete system a full multigrid algorithm was developed.

Manteuffel, Thomas A.; Ressel, Klaus

1993-01-01

121

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

122

Application of an explicit numerical method to a reaction-diffusion system in combustion

Numerical methods are applied to one-dimensional unsteady reaction-diffusion equations to seek propagating wave solutions. These equations describe flame propagation in certain combustion systems. It is shown that the steady flame speed is invariant under this coordinate transformation. Model reaction-diffusion equations which admit traveling waves as exact solutions are formulated and one of these is solved. The diffusion terms are differenced

1979-01-01

123

Range Image Segmentation by an Effective Jump-Diffusion Method

--Energy minimization, jump-diffusion, range segmentation, Markov chain Monte Carlo, data clustering, edge detection), animate objects (human and animals), and free-form objects (trees and terrain). These objects should, ceilings, and floors; middle size objects such as people, chairs and tables; and small objects suchas

Zhu, Song Chun

124

Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. c2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Wang, R.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

2002-01-01

125

A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

2009-09-01

126

A NEW METHOD FOR FIBER TRACTOGRAPHY IN DIFFUSION TENSOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

A NEW METHOD FOR FIBER TRACTOGRAPHY IN DIFFUSION TENSOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES L. M. San,marcma,caralb}@tel.uva.es ABSTRACT This paper deals with the development of a new fiber tracking algorithm to be used with high resolution diffusion tensor fields acquired via magnetic resonance imaging. The tracking of white matter

127

In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method to approximate solutions of a doubly nonlinear diffusion equation, known in the literature as the diffusive wave approximation of the shallow water equations (DSW). This equation arises in shallow water flow models when special assumptions are used to simplify the shallow water equations and contains as particular cases: the

Mauricio Santillana; Clint Dawson

2010-01-01

128

A local incident flux response expansion transport method is developed to generate transport solutions for coupling to diffusion theory codes regardless of their solution method (e.g., fine mesh, nodal, response based, finite element, etc.) for reactor core calculations in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cylindrical geometries. In this approach, a Monte Carlo method is first used to precompute the local transport solution (i.e., response function library) for each unique transport coarse node, in which diffusion theory is not valid due to strong transport effects. The response function library is then used to iteratively determine the albedo coefficients on the diffusion-transport interfaces, which are then used as the coupling parameters within the diffusion code. This interface coupling technique allows a seamless integration of the transport and diffusion methods. The new method retains the detailed heterogeneity of the transport nodes and naturally constructs any local solution within them by a simple superposition of local responses to all incoming fluxes from the contiguous coarse nodes. A new technique is also developed for coupling to fine-mesh diffusion methods/codes. The local transport method/module is tested in 2-D and 3-D pebble-bed reactor benchmark problems consisting of an inner reflector, an annular fuel region, and a controlled outer reflector. It is found that the results predicted by the transport module agree very well with the reference fluxes calculated directly by MCNP in both benchmark problems.

Dingkang Zhang; Farzad Rahnema; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2013-09-01

129

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystals of human serum albumin have been successfully grown in a variety of gels using crystallization conditions otherwise equivalent to those utilized in the popular hanging-drop vapor-equilibrium method. Preliminary comparisons of gel grown crystals with crystals grown by the vapor diffusion method via both ground-based and microgravity methods indicate that crystals superior in size and quality may be grown by limiting solutal convection. Preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics are presented.

Miller, Teresa Y.; He, Xiao-Min; Carter, Daniel C.

1992-01-01

130

Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts. PMID:335970

Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

1977-01-01

131

Molecular orientation in anisotropic gels of chitosan, Curdlan and DNA obtained by dialysis of those aqueous solutions in gelation-inducing solutions was investigated. In this diffusion method (or dialysis method), the gel formation was induced by letting small molecules diffuse in or out of the polymer solutions through the surface. For the gels of DNA and chitosan, the polymer chains aligned perpendicular to the diffusion direction. The same direction of molecular orientation was observed for the Curdlan gel prepared in the dialysis cell. On the other hand, a peculiar nature was observed for the Curdlan gel prepared in the dialysis tube: the molecular orientation was perpendicular to the diffusion direction in the outermost layer of the gel, while the orientation was parallel to the diffusion direction in the inner translucent layer. The orientation parallel to the diffusion direction is attributed to a small deformation of the inner translucent layer caused by a slight shrinkage of the central region after the gel formation. At least near the surface of the gel, the molecular orientation perpendicular to the diffusion direction is a universal characteristic for the gels prepared by the diffusion method. PMID:24751255

Maki, Yasuyuki; Furusawa, Kazuya; Yasuraoka, Sho; Okamura, Hideki; Hosoya, Natsuki; Sunaga, Mari; Dobashi, Toshiaki; Sugimoto, Yasunobu; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

2014-08-01

132

Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar. PMID:14613587

Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

2003-01-01

133

Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.

The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

2013-10-01

134

The performance of sheep sera instead of sheep blood in agar-based media was investigated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against primary drugs. The levels of agreement between agar-based medium supplemented with sheep sera and the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H11 agar as the reference method for determining susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR) were 98.4, 98.4, 95.3, and 100%, respectively. PMID:24131699

Uzun, Meltem; Bozdogan, Bulent

2013-01-01

135

obtained using the finite element method and find good consistency. We solve the inverse problem using,7, 8 random walk method,9, 10 finite element method (FEM),11, 12 and finite difference method (FDMSolutions for diffuse optical tomography using the Feynman-Kac formula and interacting particle

Nehorai, Arye

136

Cosmic-ray diffusion modeling: Solutions using variational methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of energetic particles in turbulent magnetic fields is usually described via the two-point, two-time velocity correlation function. A variational principle is used to determine the characteristic function that results from the Fourier-transformed correlation function. Both for a linear approximation and for the wave vector set to zero, explicit solutions are derived that depend on the Fokker-Planck coefficient of pitch-angle scattering. It is shown that, for an isotropic form of the Fokker-Planck coefficient, the characteristic function is divergent, which can be remedied only by using a Fokker-Planck coefficient that is finite at all pitch angles.

Tautz, R. C.; Lerche, I.

2013-05-01

137

Investigation into the properties and application of the Diffusion Monte Carlo method

This paper shall be a discussion of the properties of the Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method and its applications. The discussion shall cover the basic theory behind the algorithm and the class of problems it is designed ...

Orieka, Ogheneovie (Ogheneovie O.)

2014-01-01

138

Convergence of the Mimetic Finite Difference Method for Diffusion Problems on Polyhedral Meshes

The stability and convergence properties of the mimetic finite difference method for diffusion-type problems on polyhedral meshes are analyzed. The optimal convergence rates for the scalar and vector variables in the mixed formulation of the problem are proved.

Franco Brezzi; Konstantin Lipnikov; Mikhail J. Shashkov

2005-01-01

139

Accurate determination of specific heat at high temperatures using the flash diffusivity method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flash diffusivity method of Parker et al. (1961) was used to measure accurately the specific heat of test samples simultaneously with thermal diffusivity, thus obtaining the thermal conductivity of these materials directly. The accuracy of data obtained on two types of materials (n-type silicon-germanium alloys and niobium), was + or - 3 percent. It is shown that the method is applicable up to at least 1300 K.

Vandersande, J. W.; Zoltan, A.; Wood, C.

1989-01-01

140

Development of a numerical method for the prediction of turbulent flows in dump diffusers

In order to obtain an effective tool to design dump diffusers for gas turbine combustors, a finite-volume numerical calculation method has been developed for the solution of two-dimensional\\/axisymmetric incompressible steady Navier-Stokes equation in general curvilinear coordinate system. This method was applied to the calculations of turbulent flows in a two-dimensional dump diffuser with uniform and distorted inlet velocity profiles as

Yasunori Ando; Masafumi Kawai; Yukinori Sato; Hidemi Toh

1987-01-01

141

An efficient wavelet analysis method to film-pore diffusion model arising in mathematical chemistry.

In this paper, we have established an efficient Legendre wavelet based approximation method to solve film-pore diffusion model arising in engineering. Film-pore diffusion model is widely used to determine study the kinetics of adsorption systems. The use of Legendre wavelet based approximation method is found to be accurate, simple, fast, flexible, convenient, and computationally attractive. It is shown that film-pore diffusion model satisfactorily describe kinetics of methylene blue adsorption onto the three low-cost adsorbents, Guava, teak and gulmohar plant leaf powders, used in this study. PMID:24562792

Hariharan, G

2014-04-01

142

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

143

Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P?0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P?0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P?0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market. PMID:24075344

Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

2013-01-01

144

The ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Susceptibility Program (ARTEMIS Program) was initiated in 2001 to provide focused surveillance of the activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp. isolated from blood and other normally sterile sites. A total of 1,586 episodes of infection were detected at 61 international study sites. Overall, 57.7% of the infections were due to Candida albicans, followed by C. glabrata (14.8%), C. parapsilosis (12.5%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), C. krusei (2.7%), and C. lusitaniae (1.5%). Isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were all highly susceptible to fluconazole (for 99% of the isolates the MICs were ?8 ?g/ml). Likewise, 99 to 100% of these species were inhibited by ?1 ?g of voriconazole per ml. Voriconazole was also active against C. glabrata (93% of the isolates were susceptible [MICs ? 1 ?g/ml]) and C. krusei (100% of the isolates were susceptible). The agar-based Etest and disk diffusion methods performed well for the testing of both fluconazole and voriconazole compared to the broth microdilution MIC reference method. These observations establish the continued importance of C. albicans as a pathogen and the sustained activity of fluconazole and the broad spectrum of activity of voriconazole and will serve as the first-year benchmark for the ARTEMIS Program. Continued surveillance and refinement of broth- and agar-based test methods will help to identify susceptibility trends and improve the laboratory capability for antifungal susceptibility testing. PMID:12682127

Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Messer, S. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.

2003-01-01

145

Determination of thermal diffusivity of opaque materials using the photothermal mirror method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pump-probe photothermal mirror (PTM) method has been developed to determine the thermal diffusivity of opaque solid samples. The method involves the detection of the distortion of a probe beam whose reflection profile is affected by the photoelastic deformation of a polished material surface induced by the absorption of a focused pump field. We have measured the time dependence of the PTM signal of Ti, Al, Cu, Sn, Ag, and Ni samples. We show theoretically and experimentally that the time derivative of the signal in the first microseconds is proportional to the square root of the thermal diffusivity coefficient. The method affords a simple calibration and efficient interpretation of experimental data for a sensitive determination of the thermal diffusivity coefficient for materials. We demonstrate the applicability of the technique by measuring the thermal diffusivities of wadsleyite (?-Mg2SiO4) and diopside (MgCaSi2O6), two important minerals relevant to geophysical studies.

Marcano, Aristides; Gwanmesia, Gabriel; King, Mark; Caballero, Daniel

2014-12-01

146

Evaluation of the chromogenic agar chromID C. difficile.

Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. The sensitivities of chromID C. difficile agar at 24 h and 48 h, CLO medium, and TCCA were 74.1%, 87%, 85.2%, and 70.4%, respectively. PMID:23269743

Eckert, Catherine; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Lalande, Valérie; Barbut, Frederic

2013-03-01

147

Evaluation of the Chromogenic Agar chromID C. difficile

Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. The sensitivities of chromID C. difficile agar at 24 h and 48 h, CLO medium, and TCCA were 74.1%, 87%, 85.2%, and 70.4%, respectively. PMID:23269743

Burghoffer, Béatrice; Lalande, Valérie; Barbut, Frederic

2013-01-01

148

Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci. PMID:6490866

Gunn, B A

1984-01-01

149

For reaction-diffusion-advection equations, the stiffness from the reaction and diffusion terms often requires very restricted time step size, while the nonlinear advection term may lead to a sharp gradient in localized spatial regions. It is challenging to design numerical methods that can efficiently handle both difficulties. For reaction-diffusion systems with both stiff reaction and diffusion terms, implicit integration factor (IIF) method and its higher dimensional analog compact IIF (cIIF) serve as an efficient class of time-stepping methods, and their second order version is linearly unconditionally stable. For nonlinear hyperbolic equations, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) methods are a class of schemes with a uniformly high-order of accuracy in smooth regions of the solution, which can also resolve the sharp gradient in an accurate and essentially non-oscillatory fashion. In this paper, we couple IIF/cIIF with WENO methods using the operator splitting approach to solve reaction-diffusion-advection equations. In particular, we apply the IIF/cIIF method to the stiff reaction and diffusion terms and the WENO method to the advection term in two different splitting sequences. Calculation of local truncation error and direct numerical simulations for both splitting approaches show the second order accuracy of the splitting method, and linear stability analysis and direct comparison with other approaches reveals excellent efficiency and stability properties. Applications of the splitting approach to two biological systems demonstrate that the overall method is accurate and efficient, and the splitting sequence consisting of two reaction-diffusion steps is more desirable than the one consisting of two advection steps, because CWC exhibits better accuracy and stability. PMID:21666863

Zhao, Su; Ovadia, Jeremy; Liu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Nie, Qing

2011-01-01

150

Development of advanced methods for analysis of experimental data in diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous experimental configurations and data analysis techniques for the characterization of diffusion phenomena. However, the mathematical methods for estimating diffusivities traditionally do not take into account the effects of experimental errors in the data, and often require smooth, noiseless data sets to perform the necessary analysis steps. The current methods used for data smoothing require strong assumptions which can introduce numerical "artifacts" into the data, affecting confidence in the estimated parameters. The Boltzmann-Matano method is used extensively in the determination of concentration - dependent diffusivities, D(C), in alloys. In the course of analyzing experimental data, numerical integrations and differentiations of the concentration profile are performed. These methods require smoothing of the data prior to analysis. We present here an approach to the Boltzmann-Matano method that is based on a regularization method to estimate a differentiation operation on the data, i.e., estimate the concentration gradient term, which is important in the analysis process for determining the diffusivity. This approach, therefore, has the potential to be less subjective, and in numerical simulations shows an increased accuracy in the estimated diffusion coefficients. We present a regression approach to estimate linear multicomponent diffusion coefficients that eliminates the need pre-treat or pre-condition the concentration profile. This approach fits the data to a functional form of the mathematical expression for the concentration profile, and allows us to determine the diffusivity matrix directly from the fitted parameters. Reformulation of the equation for the analytical solution is done in order to reduce the size of the problem and accelerate the convergence. The objective function for the regression can incorporate point estimations for error in the concentration, improving the statistical confidence in the estimated diffusivity matrix. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the reliability and the stability of the method. To the best of our knowledge there is no published analysis of the effects of experimental errors on the reliability of the estimates for the diffusivities. For the case of linear multicomponent diffusion, we analyze the effects of the instrument analytical spot size, positioning uncertainty, and concentration uncertainty on the resulting values of the diffusivities. These effects are studied using Monte Carlo method on simulated experimental data. Several useful scaling relationships were identified which allow more rigorous and quantitative estimates of the errors in the measured data, and are valuable for experimental design. To further analyze anomalous diffusion processes, where traditional diffusional transport equations do not hold, we explore the use of fractional calculus in analytically representing these processes is proposed. We use the fractional calculus approach for anomalous diffusion processes occurring through a finite plane sheet with one face held at a fixed concentration, the other held at zero, and the initial concentration within the sheet equal to zero. This problem is related to cases in nature where diffusion is enhanced relative to the classical process, and the order of differentiation is not necessarily a second--order differential equation. That is, differentiation is of fractional order alpha, where 1 ? alpha < 2. For alpha = 2, the presented solutions reduce to the classical second-order diffusion solution for the conditions studied. The solution obtained allows the analysis of permeation experiments. Frequently, hydrogen diffusion is analyzed using electrochemical permeation methods using the traditional, Fickian-based theory. Experimental evidence shows the latter analytical approach is not always appropiate, because reported data shows qualitative (and quantitative) deviation from its theoretical scaling predictions. Preliminary analysis of data shows better agreement with fractional diffusion analysis when compared to tr

Jaques, Alonso V.

151

A comparison of the Monte Carlo and the flux gradient method for atmospheric diffusion

In order to model the dispersal of atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer, various methods of parameterizing turbulent diffusion have been employed. The purpose of this paper is to use a three-dimensional particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model to compare the Markov chain (Monte Carlo) method of statistical particle diffusion with the deterministic flux gradient (K-theory) method. The two methods are heavily used in the study of atmospheric diffusion under complex conditions, with the Monte Carlo method gaining in popularity partly because of its more direct application of turbulence parameters. The basis of comparison is a data set from night-time drainage flow tracer experiments performed by the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program at the Geysers geothermal region in northern California. The Atmospheric Diffusion Particle-In-Cell (ADPIC) model used is the main model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory emergency response program: Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC). As a particle model, it can simulate diffusion in both the flux gradient and Monte Carlo modes. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Lange, R.

1990-05-01

152

Diffusive shock acceleration simulations comparison with particle methods and bow shock measurements

Direct comparisons of diffusive particle acceleration numerical simulations have been made against Monte Carlo and hybrid plasma simulations by Ellison {\\it et. al.} (1993) and against observations at the earth's bow shock presented by Ellison {\\it et. al.} (1990). Toward this end we have introduced a new numerical scheme for injection of cosmic-ray particles out of the thermal plasma, modeled by way of the diffusive scattering process itself; that is, the diffusion and acceleration across the shock front of particles out of the suprathermal tail of the Maxwellian distribution. We find that all of these computational methods (diffusion-advection, two-fluid, Monte Carlo and hybrid) are in substantial agreement on the issues they can simultaneously address, so that the essential physics of diffusive particle acceleration is adequately contained within each. This is despite the fact that each makes what appear to be very different assumptions or approximations.

Kang, H; Kang, Hyesung; Jones, T W

1995-01-01

153

In this letter, the solutions of some nonlinear differential equations have been obtained by means of the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Applications of the homotopy method to some nonlinear reaction–diffusion equations with exponential source term show rapid convergence of the sequence constructed by this method to the exact solutions.

S. O. Ajadi; M. Zuilino

2011-01-01

154

Explictt two-level finite-difference methods for the two-dimensional diffusion equation

Several two-level explicit finite-difference methods for solving the constant coefficient two-dimensional diffusion equation are developed. The methods use grid points from only two time levels, and are optimised to give the truncation error of highest order in their modified equivalent equations. The accuracy of the resulting methods are verified by numerical testing.

B. J. Noye; K. J. Hayman

1992-01-01

155

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2013-04-01

156

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2014-04-01

157

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2012-04-01

158

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

159

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

160

Diffusion-synthetic acceleration methods for the discrete-ordinates equations

The diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) method is an iterative procedure for obtaining numerical solutions of discrete-ordinates problems. The DSA method is operationally more complicated than the standard source-iteration (SI) method, but if encoded properly it converges much more rapidly, especially for problems with diffusion-like regions. In this article we describe the basic ideas beind the DSA method and give a (roughly chronological) review of its long development. We conclude with a discussion which covers additional topics, including some remaining open problems and the status of current efforts aimed at solving these problems.

Larsen, E.W.

1983-01-01

161

A New Method for the Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients with Monte Carlo

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new Monte Carlo-based method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. One distinctive feature of this method is that it does not resort to the computation of transport cross sections directly, although their functional form is retained. Instead, a special type of tally derived from a deterministic estimate of Fick's Law is used for tallying the total cross section, which is then combined with a set of other standard Monte Carlo tallies. Some properties of this method are presented by means of numerical examples for a multi-group 1-D implementation. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in general good agreement with values obtained by other methods.

Dorval, Eric

2014-06-01

162

The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 ?g/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-02-15

163

Antimicrobial potentials of Mentha longifolia by disc diffusion method.

This study was conducted for the assessment of the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples from the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia against ten microbial species through the disc diffusion assay using two different concentrations of 1 and 2 mg disc1. All extracts from Mentha longifolia showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Butanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed inhibitory activities against all microbial species. Methanol fraction showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi was also not controlled by methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracted samples. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria was Bacillus atropheus and Bacillus subtilis and were inhibited by all extracts and Staphylococus aureus was least susceptible among gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most susceptible gram negative bacterium and Salmonella typhi was highly resistant among the gram negative bacteria. Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciene were susceptible to all fractions. All fractions showed antifungal activities against Candida albicans except water extracted samples. PMID:25015464

Bakht, Jehan; Shaheen, Salma; Shafi, Mohammad

2014-07-01

164

Drugs are sometimes covered with oblate or agar jelly. It is said that the medicinal effect of drugs covered with oblate is slow, but no studies have reported results confirming this. Therefore, we examined the dissolution behavior when the drug was covered with oblate or agar jelly. Three types of commercially available formulations of benzodiazepine were used: medazepam sugarcoated tablets, prazepam uncoated tablets, and clorazepate dipotassium capsules. Dissolution tests were performed using solutions of pH 1.2 and 5.6 to simulate normal gastric juice and gastric anacidity, respectively. Drugs covered with oblate were tested by the paddle method, and those covered with agar jelly were tested using the rotating basket method. Dissolution of clorazepate capsules not covered with oblate increased by approximately 10% when the pH was adjusted from 1.2 to 5.6, while those of medazepam and prazepam tablets decreased by approximately 40-60%. In contrast, the dissolution decreased significantly at both pH values for each drug covered with oblate. Dissolution further decreased when the amount of oblate was doubled. No detectable dissolution of medazepam tablets or of clorazepate capsules occurred when the drug was covered with agar jelly. Dissolution of prazepam tablets covered with agar jelly was only about 10% at the end of the test. These results indicate that dissolution is slowed and prolonged when a drug is covered with oblate or agar jelly, permitting sustained release of the drug. But, it is necessary to improve a suitable method for the dissolution. PMID:21212625

Hayase, Nobumasa; Iwayama, Kuninori; Ohtaki, Ko-Ichi; Yamashita, Yasunori; Awaya, Toshio; Matsubara, Kazuo

2011-01-01

165

First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion system is discretized by the second-order upwind residual-distribution scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations is solved by Newton's method over every physical time step. The numerical results are presented for linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems, demonstrating solutions and gradients produced to the same order of accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iterations.

Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

166

Diffusion in Homicide: Exploring a General Method for Detecting Spatial Diffusion Processes

This article proposes a new method for examining dynamic changes in thespatial distribution of a phenomenon. Recently introduced exploratoryspatial data analysis (ESDA) techniques provide social scientists with anew set of tools for distinguishing between random and nonrandom spatialpatterns of events (Anselin, 1998). Existing ESDA measures, however, arestatic and do not permit comparisons of distributions of events in the samespace but

Jacqueline Cohen; George Tita

1999-01-01

167

Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida. PMID:20346288

Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

2010-06-30

168

Stable and low diffusive hybrid upwind splitting methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new concept for upwinding is introduced, named the hybrid upwind splitting (HUS), which is achieved by combining the basically distinct flux vector splitting (FVS) and the flux difference splitting (FDS) approaches. The HUS approach yields upwind methods which share the robustness of the FVS schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some of the FDS schemes. Numerical illustrations are presented proving the relevance of the HUS methods for viscous calculations.

Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

1992-01-01

169

Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S[sub N] problems

This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. A alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.

Martin, W.R.

1993-01-01

170

Accelerated molecular dynamics and equation-free methods for simulating diffusion in solids.

Many of the most important and hardest-to-solve problems related to the synthesis, performance, and aging of materials involve diffusion through the material or along surfaces and interfaces. These diffusion processes are driven by motions at the atomic scale, but traditional atomistic simulation methods such as molecular dynamics are limited to very short timescales on the order of the atomic vibration period (less than a picosecond), while macroscale diffusion takes place over timescales many orders of magnitude larger. We have completed an LDRD project with the goal of developing and implementing new simulation tools to overcome this timescale problem. In particular, we have focused on two main classes of methods: accelerated molecular dynamics methods that seek to extend the timescale attainable in atomistic simulations, and so-called 'equation-free' methods that combine a fine scale atomistic description of a system with a slower, coarse scale description in order to project the system forward over long times.

Deng, Jie; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brown, William Michael (Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN); Plimpton, Steven James; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Wagner, Gregory John; Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

2011-09-01

171

We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest. PMID:24554750

Taylor, Thomas H.; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

2014-01-01

172

A First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo method for reaction–drift–diffusion processes

Stochastic reaction–diffusion models are now a popular tool for studying physical systems in which both the explicit diffusion of molecules and noise in the chemical reaction process play important roles. The Smoluchowski diffusion-limited reaction model (SDLR) is one of several that have been used to study biological systems. Exact realizations of the underlying stochastic processes described by the SDLR model can be generated by the recently proposed First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo (FPKMC) method. This exactness relies on sampling analytical solutions to one and two-body diffusion equations in simplified protective domains. In this work we extend the FPKMC to allow for drift arising from fixed, background potentials. As the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations that describe the motion of each molecule can no longer be solved analytically, we develop a hybrid method that discretizes the protective domains. The discretization is chosen so that the drift–diffusion of each molecule within its protective domain is approximated by a continuous-time random walk on a lattice. New lattices are defined dynamically as the protective domains are updated, hence we will refer to our method as Dynamic Lattice FPKMC or DL-FPKMC. We focus primarily on the one-dimensional case in this manuscript, and demonstrate the numerical convergence and accuracy of our method in this case for both smooth and discontinuous potentials. We also present applications of our method, which illustrate the impact of drift on reaction kinetics.

Mauro, Ava J., E-mail: avamauro@bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, 111 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Sigurdsson, Jon Karl; Shrake, Justin [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Atzberger, Paul J., E-mail: atzberg@math.ucsb.edu [6712 South Hall, Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Isaacson, Samuel A., E-mail: isaacson@math.bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, 111 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

2014-02-15

173

A First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo method for reaction-drift-diffusion processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic reaction-diffusion models are now a popular tool for studying physical systems in which both the explicit diffusion of molecules and noise in the chemical reaction process play important roles. The Smoluchowski diffusion-limited reaction model (SDLR) is one of several that have been used to study biological systems. Exact realizations of the underlying stochastic processes described by the SDLR model can be generated by the recently proposed First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo (FPKMC) method. This exactness relies on sampling analytical solutions to one and two-body diffusion equations in simplified protective domains. In this work we extend the FPKMC to allow for drift arising from fixed, background potentials. As the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations that describe the motion of each molecule can no longer be solved analytically, we develop a hybrid method that discretizes the protective domains. The discretization is chosen so that the drift-diffusion of each molecule within its protective domain is approximated by a continuous-time random walk on a lattice. New lattices are defined dynamically as the protective domains are updated, hence we will refer to our method as Dynamic Lattice FPKMC or DL-FPKMC. We focus primarily on the one-dimensional case in this manuscript, and demonstrate the numerical convergence and accuracy of our method in this case for both smooth and discontinuous potentials. We also present applications of our method, which illustrate the impact of drift on reaction kinetics.

Mauro, Ava J.; Sigurdsson, Jon Karl; Shrake, Justin; Atzberger, Paul J.; Isaacson, Samuel A.

2014-02-01

174

Stable and low diffusive hybrid upwind splitting methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We introduce in this paper a new concept for upwinding: the Hybrid Upwind Splitting (HUS). This original strategy for upwinding is achieved by combining the two previous existing approaches, the Flux Vector (FVS) and Flux Difference Splittings (FDS), while retaining their own interesting features. Indeed, our approach yields upwind methods that share the robustness of FVS schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some FDS schemes in the capture of linear waves. We describe here some examples of such HUS methods obtained by hybridizing the Osher approach with FVS schemes. Numerical illustrations are displayed and will prove in particular the relevance of the HUS methods we propose for viscous calculations.

Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

1992-01-01

175

In this study ten laboratories in Greece compared the performance of reference method TTC Tergitol 7 Agar (with the additional test of beta-glucuronidase production) with five alternative methods, to detect E. coli in water, in line with European Water Directive recommendations. The samples were prepared by spiking drinking water with sewage effluent following a standard protocol. Chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples were used. The statistical analysis was based on the mean relative difference of confirmed counts and was performed in line with ISO 17994. The results showed that in total, three of the alternative methods (Chromocult Coliform agar, Membrane Lauryl Sulfate agar and Trypton Bilex-glucuronidase medium) were not different from TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs Chromocult Coliform agar, 294 samples, mean RD% 5.55; vs MLSA, 302 samples, mean RD% 1; vs TBX, 297 samples, mean RD% -2.78). The other two alternative methods (Membrane Faecal coliform medium and Colilert 18/ Quantitray) gave significantly higher counts than TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs MFc, 303 samples, mean RD% 8.81; vs Colilert-18/Quantitray, 76 samples, mean RD% 18.91). In other words, the alternative methods generated performance that was as reliable as, or even better than, the reference method. This study will help laboratories in Greece overcome culture and counting problems deriving from the EU reference method for E. coli counts in water samples. PMID:20057092

Mavridou, A; Smeti, E; Mandilara, G; Mandilara, G; Boufa, P; Vagiona-Arvanitidou, M; Vantarakis, A; Vassilandonopoulou, G; Pappa, O; Roussia, V; Tzouanopoulos, A; Livadara, M; Aisopou, I; Maraka, V; Nikolaou, E; Mandilara, G

2010-01-01

176

Chappter 6. Diffusion of Gases in Amorphous Polymers: The Monte Carlo Void Method.

VI - 1 Chappter 6. Diffusion of Gases in Amorphous Polymers: The Monte Carlo Void Method. Mihail based on biased random walk in the free volume extracted from a polymer ("the Monte Carlo Void Method experiment.iv As a result there is little in the way of reliable predictions on how to design polymer films

Goddard III, William A.

177

In this work a new method is proposed for the choice of basis functions in diffusion theory (DT) calculations. This method, named hybrid basis approach (HBA), combines the two previously adopted long time sorting procedure (LTSP) and maximum correlation approximation (MCA) techniques; the first emphasizing contributions from the long time dynamics, the latter being based on the local correlations along

Roberto Gaspari; Arnaldo Rapallo

2008-01-01

178

Wavelet soft-threshold method for determining an unknown source in a diffusion equation

We consider the problem of determining an unknown source, which depends only on the spatial variable, in a diffusion equation. This is an ill-posed problem. For a reconstruction of the solution from indirect data, the dual least squares method generated by the family of Shannon wavelet subspaces is applied. Moreover, a certain simple nonlinear modification of the method based on

Jin-Ru Wang

2009-01-01

179

The Galerkin/least-squares method for advective-diffusive equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galerkin/least-squares finite-element methods are presented for advective-diffusive equations. Galerkin/least-squares represents a conceptual simplification of streamline-upwind Petrov-Galerkin methods, and is in fact applicable to a wide variety of other problem types. A convergence analysis and error estimates are presented. Some numerical results for compressible Navier-Stokes flows are presented.

Hughes, T. J. R.; Franca, L. P.; Hulbert, G. M.; Johan, Z.; Shakib, F.

180

The Galerkin/least-squares method for advective-diffusive equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galerkin/least-squares finite-element methods are presented for advective-diffusive equations. Galerkin/least-squares represents a conceptual simplification of streamline-upwind Petrov-Galerkin methods, and is in fact applicable to a wide variety of other problem types. A convergence analysis and error estimates are presented. Some numerical results for compressible Navier-Stokes flows are presented.

Hughes, T. J. R.; Franca, L. P.; Hulbert, G. M.; Johan, Z.; Shakib, F.

1988-01-01

181

We have constructed mimetic finite difference methods for both the TE and TM modes for 2-D Maxwell's curl equations and equations of magnetic diffusion with discontinuous coefficients on nonorthogonal, nonsmooth grids. The discrete operators were derived using the discrete vector and tensor analysis to satisfy discrete analogs of the main theorems of vector analysis. Because the finite difference methods satisfy

J. M. Hyman; M. Shashkov

2001-01-01

182

Combined Triangular FV Triangular FE Method for Nonlinear Convection-Diffusion Problems 1

Combined Triangular FV Â Triangular FE Method for Nonlinear Convection-Diffusion Problems 1 Michal boundaries of control volumes, combined with approximate Riemann solvers. On the other hand, the finite to the approximation of viscous terms. This idea leads us to the combined finite volumeÂfinite element method (FV

GallouÃ«t, Thierry

183

Practical method of diffusion-welding steel plate in air

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method is ideal for critical service requirements where parent metal properties are equaled in notch toughness, stress rupture and other characteristics. Welding technique variations may be used on a variety of materials, such as carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, ceramics, and reactive and refractory materials.

Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J.

1971-01-01

184

Method for site characterization of anisotropic diffuse illumination of photovoltaic systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a method to characterize the anisotropy of diffuse illumination incident on photovoltaic systems is presented. PV systems are designed based on standard conditions in which only consider direct and isotropic diffuse illumination. Anisotropic illumination can cause the PV system output to step outside of the design specifications. A baffled multi-detector sensor system is described having a discrete set of azimuthal and declination angle combinations in order to constantly sample the irradiance and the incidence angle of the diffuse illumination in all zenith directions. The sensor was deployed in the Tucson Electric Power Solar Test Yard alongside with commercially available PV systems that are independently monitored. Constant and transient sources of anisotropic diffuse illumination, such as surface reflection and cloud edge effects respectively, are measured and modeled with ray tracing software. Results of the method are described for characterizing diffuse illumination at the TEP Solar Test Yard. Understanding the anisotropic diffuse illumination can potentially allow to more accurately predict PV system or to optimize energy harvesting of systems with non-standard mounting conditions as well as building integrated photovoltaic applications.

Russo, Juan M.; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Gordon, Michael; Castillo, Jose; Brooks, Adria; Lonij, Vincent; Cronin, Alex; Kostuk, Raymond

2012-10-01

185

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drift-resonance interactions with magnetohydrodynamic waves and cyclotron-resonance interactions with whistler-mode chorus waves (as well as other cyclotron-frequency waves) are thought to be important mechanisms for energizing and transporting relativistic electrons in the radiation belts, and these processes are often modeled using quasilinear diffusion equations. In this paper we report on recent efforts to solve radiation belt diffusion equations using stochastic differential equation (SDE) methods. Specifically, we make use of existing mathematical research which shows that radiation belt diffusion equations are equivalent to sets of SDEs and we adopt numerical methods of solving the SDEs to obtain solutions of the corresponding diffusion equation. Solutions of the 2D bounce-averaged energy-pitch-angle diffusion equation for cyclotron-resonance interactions of relativistic electrons with whistler-mode chorus waves will be presented, in which we have investigated the effects of (i) ignoring off-diagonal diffusion terms, and (ii) assuming purely parallel-propagating waves.

Chan, Anthony; Albert, Jay; Tao, Xin

186

Washington State University: Defects and Diffusion studied by Hyperfine Methods

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hyperfine Interactions Laboratory at Washington State University addresses its research of "how solids are affected by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or irradiation treatment" with atom-scale resolution. Students and researchers can discover their nuclear hyperfine interactions methods. To learn about the Laboratory's research, users can find detailed descriptions, pictures, publications, meeting abstracts, and more. The website features undergraduate, graduate, postdocs, and visiting scientist research opportunities. Users can also find out about the International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions held in August 2004.

187

Numerical methods and stochastic simulation algorithms for reaction-drift-diffusion systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been increased awareness that stochasticity in chemical reactions and diffusion of molecules can have significant effects on the outcomes of intracellular processes, particularly given the low copy numbers of many proteins and mRNAs present in a cell. For such molecular species, the number and locations of molecules can provide a more accurate and detailed description than local concentration. In addition to diffusion, drift in the movements of molecules can play a key role in the dynamics of intracellular processes, and can often be modeled as arising from potential fields. Examples of sources of drift include active transport, variations in chemical potential, material heterogeneities in the cytoplasm, and local interactions with subcellular structures. This dissertation presents a new numerical method for simulating the stochastically varying numbers and locations of molecular species undergoing chemical reactions and drift-diffusion. The method combines elements of the First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo (FPKMC) method for reaction--diffusion systems and the Wang--Peskin--Elston lattice discretization of the Fokker--Planck equation that describes drift-diffusion processes in which the drift arises from potential fields. In the FPKMC method, each molecule is enclosed within a "protective domain", either by itself or with a small number of other molecules. To sample when a molecule leaves its protective domain or a reaction occurs, the original FPKMC method relies on analytic solutions of one- and two-body diffusion equations within the protective domains, and therefore cannot be used in situations with non-constant drift. To allow for such drift in our new method (hereafter Dynamic Lattice FPKMC or DL-FPKMC), each molecule undergoes a continuous-time random walk on a lattice within its protective domain, and the lattices change adaptively over time. One of the most commonly used spatial models for stochastic reaction-diffusion systems is the Smoluchowski diffusion-limited reaction (SDLR) model. The DL-FPKMC method generates convergent realizations of an extension of the SDLR model that includes drift from potentials. We present detailed numerical results demonstrating the convergence and accuracy of our method for various types of potentials (smooth, discontinuous, and constant). We also present several illustrative applications of DL-FPKMC, including examples motivated by cell biology.

Mauro, Ava J.

188

Objective: Urine is the most frequent specimen received for culture/sensitivity by clinical laboratories. The microbiological performance of HiCrome UTI agar medium was compared with Blood agar and MacConkey agar for isolation and presumptive identification of bacteria from urine culture. Methods: A total of 443 consecutively collected midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples from patients attending the Islami Bank Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during January to December, 2012 were cultured. Urine samples showing pus cells ? 5/HPF were inoculated on to Blood agar (BA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and HiCrome UTI agar (CA) media simultaneously and incubated overnight aerobically at 370C. Rate of isolation and presumptive identification of bacterial species were compared for different media. Results: Culture yielded a total of 199 bacterial isolates from 189 (42.67%) positive plates including 179 (40.40%) unimicrobial and 10 (2.26%) polymicrobial (mixed growth of pair of bacteria) growths. Both HiCrome UTI agar and Blood agar media supported 100% growths while 151 (75.88%) growths were observed on MacConkey agar. The rate of presumptive identification was found significantly higher on HiCrome UTI agar (97.49%) than MAC agar (67.34%) (P<0.001) as primary urine culture medium. Of 199 isolates, E. coli was found to be the leading uropathogen isolated from 118 (59.30%) samples with its presumptive identification rate of 95.76%, 93.22% and 5.93% on CA, MAC and BA respectively. All 10 (100%) polymicrobial growths were demonstrated distinctly on CA against only 01(10%) on each BA and MAC. Conclusion: HiCrome UTI agar was found to be more useful as primary urine culture medium in both higher rate of isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens in comparison to conventional media. Its inherent characteristics in demonstrating polymicrobial growth and ease of rapid identification by distinct colony colour are unique. PMID:25225521

Akter, Laila; Haque, Rezwana; Salam, Md. Abdus

2014-01-01

189

An ink-diffusion-based rendering method for Chinese ink painting

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), the Chinese ink painting style rendering is a traditional NPR skill of China. In this paper, we propose a method for image-based and ink-diffusion-based Chinese ink painting NPR. Users without painting experience can also convert a normal image to a Chinese ink painting automatically. As we known, ink is an important pigment for Chinese ink painting and the various ink shade effects on the painting are produced by ink mixed with water. In addition, the ink diffusion along the boundaries is a very important aspect of Chinese ink painting. In order to realize the effects described above, we present a Chinese ink painting NPR method based on ink diffusion. We use Mean Shift based image segmentation algorithm to preprocess the input image to get regions with different tones. Then, we detect the segmentation regions' edges letting the edge points to be the start points for diffusion. We set each point an ink value which is corresponding to its gray value. At the same time, a new algorithm simulating ink diffusion is proposed to make the segmentation image look like a black-ink painting. Results in this paper demonstrate our method is promising.

Zhang, Yao; Miao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yanghua; Zhou, Wei

2012-04-01

190

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings are used as heat and wear shields of gas turbine blades. There is a strong need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of coating for thermal design and use. The thermal conductivity of a bulk material is obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density above room temperature in many cases. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are unique for a given material because they are sensitive to the structure of the material. Therefore, it is important to measure them in each sample. However it is difficult to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of coatings because coatings are attached to substrates. In order to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of a coating attached to the substrate, we have examined the laser flash method with the multilayer model on the basis of the response function method. We carried out laser flash measurements in layered samples composed of a CoNiCrAlY bond coating and a 8YSZ top coating by thermal spraying on a Ni-based superalloy substrate. It was found that the procedure using laser flash method with the multilayer model is useful for the thermal diffusivity evaluation of a coating attached to a substrate.

Akoshima, Megumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Endo, Satoshi; Baba, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshio; Kojima, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Akira; Ono, Fumio

2011-11-01

191

Background ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMérieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). Methods A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMérieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. Results The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. Conclusions The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation. PMID:24422190

Lee, Eun Joo

2014-01-01

192

A rare event sampling method for diffusion Monte Carlo using smart darting

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify a set of multidimensional potential energy surfaces sufficiently complex to cause both the classical parallel tempering and the guided or unguided diffusion Monte Carlo methods to converge too inefficiently for practical applications. The mathematical model is constructed as a linear combination of decoupled Double Wells [(DDW)n]. We show that the set (DDW)n provides a serious test for new methods aimed at addressing rare event sampling in stochastic simulations. Unlike the typical numerical tests used in these cases, the thermodynamics and the quantum dynamics for (DDW)n can be solved deterministically. We use the potential energy set (DDW)n to explore and identify methods that can enhance the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate that the smart darting method succeeds at reducing quasiergodicity for n ? 100 using just 1 × 106 moves in classical simulations (DDW)n. Finally, we prove that smart darting, when incorporated into the regular or the guided diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm, drastically improves its convergence. The new method promises to significantly extend the range of systems computationally tractable by the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm.

Roberts, K.; Sebsebie, R.; Curotto, E.

2012-02-01

193

A Novel Chromogenic Ester Agar Medium for Detection of Salmonellae

A novel agar medium, chromogenic Salmonella esterase (CSE) agar, for the differentiation of salmonellae is described. The agar contains peptones and nutrient extracts together with the following (grams per liter unless otherwise specified): 4-(2-(4-octanoyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl)-quinolinium-1-(propan-3-yl carboxylic acid) bromide (SLPA-octanoate; bromide form), 0.3223; lactose, 14.65; trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.5; Tween 20, 3.0; ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 0.035% (wt\\/vol), novobiocin, 70 mg liter 21 .

VENITIA M. COOKE; R. J. MILES; R. G. PRICE; A. C. RICHARDSON

1999-01-01

194

New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry.

Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r0 and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%-10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r0/100 ? L ? r0/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement. PMID:24880399

Pham Tu Quoc, S; Cheymol, G; Semerok, A

2014-05-01

195

New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r0 and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%-10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r0/100 ? L ? r0/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

Pham Tu Quoc, S.; Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A.

2014-05-01

196

Soot formation in a turbulent jet diffusion flame is modeled using an unsteady flamelet approach in post-process. In the present work, we apply a detailed kinetic soot model with a sectional method, and study the evolution of the particle size distribution. Detailed information on the evolution of the soot particle size distribution function is acquired. It is found that the

Karl Netzell; Harry Lehtiniemi; Fabian Mauss

2007-01-01

197

A Level Set Method for Anisotropic Geometric Diffusion in 3D Image Processing

A new morphological multiscale method in 3D image processing is presented which combines the image processing methodology based on nonlinear diffusion equations and the theory of geometric evolution prob- lems. Its aim is to smooth level sets of a 3D image while simultaneously preserving geometric features such as edges and corners on the level sets. This is obtained by an

Martin Rumpf

2000-01-01

198

Denoising for Diffusion Tensor Imaging with Low Signal to Noise Ratios: Method and

Denoising for Diffusion Tensor Imaging with Low Signal to Noise Ratios: Method and Monte Carlo Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance technique which enables the in vivo visualisation, biomedical imaging and signal processing 92C55, Stochastic systems and control, data smoothing 93E14

Rodenacker, Karsten

199

Introduction We have improved the pol-FRAP method to measure the rotational diffusion coefficient

Introduction We have improved the pol-FRAP method to measure the rotational diffusion coefficient anisotropic particles needed for other techniques. Pol-FRAP proves to be very sensitive to lowproves.21 s at infinite dilution. Figure 3. Comparison of pol-FRAP with TEM. The hydrodynamic particle radius

Utrecht, Universiteit

200

Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtainable in the prior art.

Rutherford, William M. (Dayton, OH)

1988-05-24

201

Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtained in the prior art.

Rutherford, W.M.

1985-12-04

202

The apparent thermal diffusivity, D, of the active layer and permafrost can be determined using finite difference methods provided that the heat flow is conductive, appropriate space (?x) and time (?t) intervals have been selected, accurate ( ± 0.01°C) temperature measurements have been obtained, and phase change does not occur in the volume of interest. Selection of values for ?x

T. Zhang; T. E. Osterkamp

1995-01-01

203

A modified fuzzy C-means classification method using a multiscale diffusion filtering scheme.

A fully automatic, multiscale fuzzy C-means (MsFCM) classification method for MR images is presented in this paper. We use a diffusion filter to process MR images and to construct a multiscale image series. A multiscale fuzzy C-means classification method is applied along the scales from the coarse to fine levels. The objective function of the conventional fuzzy C-means (FCM) method is modified to allow multiscale classification processing where the result from a coarse scale supervises the classification in the next fine scale. The method is robust for noise and low-contrast MR images because of its multiscale diffusion filtering scheme. The new method was compared with the conventional FCM method and a modified FCM (MFCM) method. Validation studies were performed on synthesized images with various contrasts and on the McGill brain MR image database. Our MsFCM method consistently performed better than the conventional FCM and MFCM methods. The MsFCM method achieved an overlap ratio of greater than 90% as validated by the ground truth. Experiments results on real MR images were given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our multiscale fuzzy C-means classification method is accurate and robust for various MR images. It can provide a quantitative tool for neuroimaging and other applications. PMID:18684658

Wang, Hesheng; Fei, Baowei

2009-04-01

204

Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from

Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea

2005-01-01

205

Preparation of PLA and PLGA nanoparticles by binary organic solvent diffusion method

The nanoparticles of polylactide (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were prepared by the binary organic solvent diffusion\\u000a method. The yield, particle size and size distribution of these nanoparticles were evaluated. The yield of nanoparticles prepared\\u000a by this method is over 90%, and the average size of the nanoparticles is between 130–180 nm. In order to clarify the effect\\u000a of the organic

Xin-yu Jiang; Chun-shan Zhou; Ke-wen Tang

2003-01-01

206

USE OF MUELLER-HINTON BROTH AND AGAR IN THE GERM TUBE TEST

Candida albicans is often isolated from clinical samples, thus its presumptive differentiation from other species of the same genus can be based on its ability to form the germ tube in human serum. Nevertheless, there are two other species that share this characteristic: C. dubliniensis and C. africana. The aim of this study was to compare four different substrates to perform the germ tube (GT) test. The Candida spp. isolates were identified using a manual system (135 C. albicans, 24 C. tropicalis and one C. dubliniensis). The germ tube test was performed with fresh, previously frozen serum and Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth and agar. GT was observed in 96% (130/136) of the isolates through the fresh serum technique, 94% (128/136) through previously frozen serum, 92% (125/136) in MH agar, and 90% (122/136) in MH broth. The sensitivity of each test was higher than 90%, with 100% specificity. Both the MH agar and broth were able to identify the true positives, and false positives were not found. However, some C. albicans isolates were not identified. MH agar and broth may be used in laboratory for the rapid presumptive identification of C. albicans, as an alternative method for germ tube test. PMID:25351541

Mattei, Antonella Souza; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Severo, Luiz Carlos

2014-01-01

207

Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance spectra measured in the visible and near-infrared spectral range from 400 and 1,000 nm (473 narrow spectral bands). Multivariate regression methods were used to estimate and predict hyperspectral data from RGB color values. The six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Eschetichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were grown on Rainbow agar plates. A line-scan pushbroom hyperspectral image sensor was used to scan 36 agar plates grown with pure STEC colonies at each plate. The 36 hyperspectral images of the agar plates were divided in half to create training and test sets. The mean Rsquared value for hyperspectral image estimation was about 0.98 in the spectral range between 400 and 700 nm for linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models and the detection accuracy of the hyperspectral image classification model with the principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors for the test set was up to 92% (99% with the original hyperspectral images). Thus, the results of the study suggested that color-based detection may be viable as a multispectral imaging solution without much loss of prediction accuracy compared to hyperspectral imaging.

Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

2014-03-01

208

A semi-discrete finite element method for a class of time-fractional diffusion equations.

As fractional diffusion equations can describe the early breakthrough and the heavy-tail decay features observed in anomalous transport of contaminants in groundwater and porous soil, they have been commonly used in the related mathematical descriptions. These models usually involve long-time-range computation, which is a critical obstacle for their application; improvement of computational efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, a semi-discrete method is presented for solving a class of time-fractional diffusion equations that overcome the critical long-time-range computation problem. In the procedure, the spatial domain is discretized by the finite element method, which reduces the fractional diffusion equations to approximate fractional relaxation equations. As analytical solutions exist for the latter equations, the burden arising from long-time-range computation can effectively be minimized. To illustrate its efficiency and simplicity, four examples are presented. In addition, the method is used to solve the time-fractional advection-diffusion equation characterizing the bromide transport process in a fractured granite aquifer. The prediction closely agrees with the experimental data, and the heavy-tail decay of the anomalous transport process is well represented. PMID:23547234

Sun, HongGuang; Chen, Wen; Sze, K Y

2013-05-13

209

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simple pulse sequence ? x-? 1-2? y-? 1+? 2-2? y-? 2-Hahn echo used to measure the self-diffusion coefficient D under constant-relaxation condition, i.e., for ?1+ ?2=const. was investigated in the presence of strongly inhomogeneous static as well as radiofrequency magnetic fields. The encoding of the Hahn-echo amplitude by the pulse flip angle and diffusion was evaluated by taking into account the spatial distribution of the off-resonance field, the strength and orientation of the local field gradients, and the pulse flip angles by a computer simulation program. As input files, this program uses maps of static and radiofrequency fields, and the D coefficient can be evaluated from the time dependence of the Hahn-echo amplitude. The method was applied to a mobile one-sided NMR sensor, NMR-MOUSE with a bar magnet by measuring D for a series of liquids with different viscosities. The method was shown to be particularly useful for measuring D of solvents in elastomers without the need for measurements of the transverse relaxation rates. The self-diffusion coefficient of toluene in a series of crosslinked natural rubber samples was measured and correlated with the crosslink density. Finally, the method was applied to measure the diffusion anisotropy of free water in bovine Achilles tendon.

Klein, M.; Fechete, R.; Demco, D. E.; Blümich, B.

2003-10-01

210

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical solution methods for Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) have become an important tool to study charged particle transport, due to their simplicity and conformance with modern computer architecture. Their field of application ranges from the detailed calculation of solar energetic particle events to the cosmic ray transport in the outer heliosphere and in the Galaxy. At the heart of the applicability of SDEs to kinetic equations is the fundamental equivalence between the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation of parabolic type and an SDE involving a Wiener process to represent the stochastic Brownian motion of (pseudo-)particles. This equivalence has recently been extended to anomalous diffusion involving a Fokker-Planck equation of fractional order and generalized Lévy distributions. Numerical tests and applications of this approach to anomalous diffusion and future prospects of the SDE approach in the space physics context are outlined.

Effenberger, F.

2014-09-01

211

Evaluation of methods to correct for IR loss in Eppley PSP diffuse measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR loss in diffuse measurements made by thermopile pyranometers is examined. Diffuse measurements are used for the study of IR losses because diffuse irradiance is much smaller than the total irradiance and hence the IR effects can be more clearly seen. Specifically, diffuse measurements of an Eppley PSP pyranometer are compared to those made with a Schenk Star pyranometer. Pyranometers with black and white or star type junctions suffer minimal IR loss because the reference and receiving junctions of the thermopile are at the same thermal level. The difference between diffuse values can be attributed to calibration and cosine response errors as well as IR loss. This is a preliminary study over one month when pyrgeometer data are available. Examination of the differences at various times of the year and at more than one location is necessary to generalize the findings in this report. Several methods of correcting for IR loss are examined. First subtracting out the average nighttime offset during the day is tested. Next an extrapolation between early morning and late evening offsets is tested. This should help eliminate the IR offset in both the morning and evening hours, but underestimate the IR losses during the rest of the day. Next, correlations of IR losses calculated using pyrgeometer measurements with temperature, relative humidity, and irradiance are evaluated. Initial results show that it should be possible to use more commonly available measurements rather than prygeometer data to estimate IR loss for Eppley PSP pyranometers.

Vignola, Frank; Long, Chuck; Reda, Ibrahim

2007-09-01

212

A finite volume method for trace element diffusion and partitioning during crystal growth

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite volume method on a uniform grid is presented to compute the polythermal diffusion and partitioning of a trace element during the growth of a porphyroblast crystal in a uniform matrix and in linear, cylindrical and spherical geometry. The motion of the crystal-matrix interface and the thermal evolution are prescribed functions of time. The motion of the interface is discretized and it advances from one cell boundary to next as the prescribed interface position passes the cell center. The appropriate conditions for the flux across the crystal-matrix interface are derived from discrete mass conservation. Numerical results are benchmarked against steady and transient analytic solutions for isothermal diffusion with partitioning and growth. Two applications illustrate the ability of the model to reproduce observed rare-earth element patterns in garnets (Skora et al., 2006) and water concentration profiles around spherulites in obsidian (Watkins et al., 2009). Simulations with diffusion inside the growing crystal show complex concentration evolutions for trace elements with high diffusion coefficients, such as argon or hydrogen, but demonstrate that rare-earth element concentrations in typical metamorphic garnets are not affected by intracrystalline diffusion.

Hesse, Marc A.

2012-09-01

213

Negative magnetic eddy diffusivities from test-field method and multiscale stability theory

The generation of large-scale magnetic field in the kinematic regime in the absence of an alpha-effect is investigated by following two different approaches, namely the test-field method and multiscale stability theory relying on the homogenisation technique. We show analytically that the former, applied for the evaluation of magnetic eddy diffusivities, yields results that fully agree with the latter. Our computations of the magnetic eddy diffusivity tensor for the specific instances of the parity-invariant flow-IV of G.O. Roberts and the modified Taylor-Green flow in a suitable range of parameter values confirm the findings of previous studies, and also explain some of their apparent contradictions. The two flows have large symmetry groups; this is used to considerably simplify the eddy diffusivity tensor. Finally, a new analytic result is presented: upon expressing the eddy diffusivity tensor in terms of solutions to auxiliary problems for the adjoint operator, we derive relations between magnetic eddy diffusivity tensors that arise for opposite small-scale flows v(x) and -v(x).

Alexander Andrievsky; Axel Brandenburg; Alain Noullez; Vladislav Zheligovsky

2015-01-19

214

A method for measuring the diffusivity of a liquid into a porous matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for measuring diffusivity of a liquid into a saturated porous matrix is introduced. The experiment involves monitoring, by the "whole sample" NMR, the diffusion of D2O water into a H2O-saturated porous cylinder indirectly by detecting the proton NMR signal as a function of immersion time. An H2O-saturated hardened cement cylinder was immersed into a D2O bath, and the diminishing proton magnetization was monitored over 400 h of immersion. The average radial diffusivity which characterizes this porous medium was found to be 1.9×10-7 cm2/s (±10%), which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the water diffusion constant. The proton spin-spin relaxation time and its stretched exponential parameter ? of water were found to be independent of immersion time. This means that, throughout the porous medium, the pores of different size are uniformly distributed. The movement of a radial advection front of D2O towards the center of the porous cylinder describes the phenomenon only for short immersion times. If this process is monitored by magnetic resonance imaging, a distinct dividing line between the D2O advection "front" and H2O is observed only during the beginning of the process. As the diffusion proceeds, the line between H2O and D2O domains becomes progressively more blurred. This problem is avoided if the signal of the whole cylinder is recorded, as in the whole-sample NMR.

Choi, Changho; Peternelj, J.; Pintar, M. M.

1998-08-01

215

GPU-accelerated 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method

Finite difference method, as a traditional numerical solution to neutron diffusion equation, although considered simpler and more precise than the coarse mesh nodal methods, has a bottle neck to be widely applied caused by the huge memory and unendurable computation time it requires. In recent years, the concept of General-Purpose computation on GPUs has provided us with a powerful computational engine for scientific research. In this study, a GPU-Accelerated multi-group 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method was developed. First, a clean-sheet neutron diffusion code (3DFD-CPU) was written in C++ on the CPU architecture, and later ported to GPUs under NVIDIA's CUDA platform (3DFD-GPU). The IAEA 3D PWR benchmark problem was calculated in the numerical test, where three different codes, including the original CPU-based sequential code, the HYPRE (High Performance Pre-conditioners)-based diffusion code and CITATION, were used as counterpoints to test the efficiency and accuracy of the GPU-based program. The results demonstrate both high efficiency and adequate accuracy of the GPU implementation for neutron diffusion equation. A speedup factor of about 46 times was obtained, using NVIDIA's Geforce GTX470 GPU card against a 2.50 GHz Intel Quad Q9300 CPU processor. Compared with the HYPRE-based code performing in parallel on an 8-core tower server, the speedup of about 2 still could be observed. More encouragingly, without any mathematical acceleration technology, the GPU implementation ran about 5 times faster than CITATION which was speeded up by using the SOR method and Chebyshev extrapolation technique. (authors)

Xu, Q.; Yu, G.; Wang, K. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua Univ. (China)

2012-07-01

216

The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

Farzad Rahnema; Dingkang Zhang; Abderrafi Ougouag; Frederick Gleicher

2011-04-04

217

The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the antimicrobial effect and diffusion against E. faecalis of new intracanal medications on the external root surface. The medications tested were a placebo gel (PC); the new formulations with either 3% nitrofurantoin (NIT) or 3% doxycycline hydrochloride (DX) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel as positive control. The new formulations were tested using the traditional agar diffusion test (ADT) and an adapted agar diffusion method (AADM), where the teeth were filled with the medications and left to diffuse on agar surface seeded with E. faecalis. In the ADT, the larger zones of microbial growth inhibition were seen in DX, followed by CHX and NIT. In the AADM test only DX and CHX showed antimicrobial effect. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (?2=47.126; p<0.001). The new intracanal formulations with DX and NIT have demonstrated antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis, but only DX was able to diffuse through the dentinal tubules and exert antimicrobial effect outside the roots. PMID:25517779

Silva, Ana Rita; Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Gomes, João Carlos; Vaz, Irene Pina; Carvalho, Manuel Fontes

2014-10-01

218

In the present work a novel kind of dense nanoporous composite matrix for expanded bed application has been successfully first prepared with Nickel powder as a densifier and was covered with Agar-Agar layer as a skeleton, through the method of water-in-oil emulsification. Agar-Agar is a porous and inexpensive polymer. In order to fabricate cost-effective adsorbent with favorable qualities Agar-Agar polymer was used. Thereafter, the customized composite particle was modified by pseudo-affinity dye-ligand, Reactive Blue 4 (RB4), aimed at preparing a pseudo-affinity adsorbent (RB4-Agar-Ni) for bioprodut adsorption from aqueous solution. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was selected as a model protein to investigate the adsorption behavior in batchwise and expanded bed chromatography, and the obtained results were evaluated with that of Streamline™ (Amersham-Pharmacia Biotech, Sweden). Spherical appearance and porous structure of composite particles were observed by the optical microscope (OM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results suggested that the matrices followed the logarithmic normal size distribution with the range of 65-300 ?m and average diameter of 126.81-151.47 ?m, proper wet density of 1.64-2.78 g/ml, water content of 62.74-34%, porosity of 98-90% and pore size of about 38-130 nm. For better comprehension of the impact of solid phase properties on the performance of the expanded bed, the expansion and hydrodynamic properties of a composite matrix with a series of densities was evaluated and estimated by the retention time distribution method (RTD) in an expanded bed and was compared with that of other matrices. According to obtained results the expansion factors under the same fluid velocity decreased by increasing the matrix density. Moreover, the axial dispersion coefficient (Dax) is the most appropriate parameter for evaluating the stability of expanded bed, on various operating conditions, such as different flow velocity, bed expansion degree, viscosity of the liquid phase and the density of adsorbent. It was observed that the application of matrix with high density was proper for high operation, fluid velocity, since the addition of densifier improves the rigidity of the matrix. Three momentous factors, pH, ionic strength and initial concentration of BSA were analyzed. The best results showed that the adsorption equilibrium isotherms seems to follow a typical Langmuir isotherm and also the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of BSA on RB4-Agar-Ni (64.01 mg/ml adsorbent) was higher than that on RB4-Streamline commercial adsorbent (about 54 mg.ml adsorbent). Additionally kinetic adsorption processes were characterized by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics equations. The experimental data followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation. Also the breakthrough curves were investigated. It was found that dynamic binding capacity (DBC) decreased with increasing the flow rate and the values of DBC decreased from 21.08 to 11.15 mg/ml adsorbent when the density of composite beads increased from 1.64 to 2.78 g/ml. All results indicate that the prepared composite is promising for efficient bioproduct adsorption with good hydrodynamic characteristics, high stability and it is suitable for expanded bed usage as a cost-effective adsorbent. PMID:25152492

Asgari, Setareh; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rahimpour, Ahmad

2014-09-26

219

A Monte Carlo synthetic-acceleration method for solving the thermal radiation diffusion equation

We present a novel synthetic-acceleration-based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diffusion equation in three spatial dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that our Monte Carlo method is an effective solver for sparse matrix systems. For solutions converged to the same tolerance, it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned conjugate gradient and GMRES. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

Evans, Thomas M., E-mail: evanstm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mosher, Scott W., E-mail: moshersw@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Slattery, Stuart R., E-mail: sslattery@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53716 (United States); Hamilton, Steven P., E-mail: hamiltonsp@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2014-02-01

220

The intrinsic diffusion coefficients in a liquid GaGe alloy were determined using a novel method based on Fick’s first law. The mutual and self diffusion coefficients also were derived. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients of both components are similar to each other and so both components equally contribute to the mutual diffusion coefficient. Also, the values of the self diffusion coefficient

Toru Ujihara; Kozo Fujiwara; Gen Sazaki; Noritaka Usami; Kazuo Nakajima

2002-01-01

221

Application of Electrode Methods in Studies of Nitric Oxide Metabolism and Diffusion Kinetics

Nitric oxide (NO) has many important physiological roles in the body. Since NO electrodes can directly measure NO concentration in the nM range and in real time, NO electrode methods have been generally used in laboratories for measuring NO concentration in vivo and in vitro. This review focuses on the application of electrode methods in studies of NO diffusion and metabolic kinetics. We have described the physical and chemical properties that need to be considered in the preparation of NO stock solution, discussed the effect of several interfering factors on the measured curves of NO concentration that need to be eliminated in the experimental setup for NO measurements, and provided an overview of the application of NO electrode methods in measuring NO diffusion and metabolic kinetics in solution and in biological systems. This overview covers NO metabolism by oxygen (O2), superoxide, heme proteins, cells and tissues. Important conclusions and physiological implication of these studies are discussed. PMID:23730264

Liu, Xiaoping; Zweier, Jay L.

2012-01-01

222

A new integrated method is described for measuring the transverse diffusion and thermal conductivity coefficients of a parallel turbulent liquid stream. The method differs from other methods in a number of ways: the location of the temperature or impurity-concentration sensors outside and not inside the medium under study; simplicity of implementation; speed of measurements; and applicability to finely divided porous media as well as large bundles of tubes, lattices, and charges, and to free turbulent streams. On the basis of experimental data we establish a {open_quotes}limiting law of mixing{close_quotes} of a liquid in porous media and the previously known interrelation of turbulent diffusion and thermal conductivity with the hydraulic resistance of the porous medium.

Kharitonov, V.V.; Fedoseev, V.N.

1994-12-01

223

A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ?3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress. PMID:25053312

Tchitchekova, Deyana S; Morthomas, Julien; Ribeiro, Fabienne; Ducher, Roland; Perez, Michel

2014-07-21

224

We have adapted the “ammonia diffusion” method of nitrate extraction for natural-abundance level nitrogen isotopic measurement of oceanic nitrate. The method involves: (1) sample concentration (by boiling or evaporation); (2) conversion of nitrate to ammonia using Devarda's alloy; and (3) the gas-phase diffusion of ammonia onto an acidified glass fiber disk which is sandwiched between two porous Teflon membranes. We

D. M. Sigman; M. A. Altabet; R. Michener; D. C. McCorkle; B. Fry; R. M. Holmes

1997-01-01

225

of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. We present two new methods for solving the diffusion equations on the brain [Gi], we have a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) d[Fi] dt = -[Ai]-1[Ci][Fi] for all i methods uses the heat kernel on the brain manifolds and the diffusion equations are solved via iterative

Chung, Moo K.

226

We describe in this paper the recent advances in spectral nodal methods applied to discrete ordinates (SN) and diffusion problems in Cartesian geometry for neutron multiplying systems. We divide this paper into three major parts. Part I and II deal with SN and diffusion eingenvalue problems. In Part III we describe the progress of spectral nodal methods applied to time-dependent

Dany S. Dominguez; Carlos R. G. Hernández

2003-01-01

227

MRI Phantoms – Are There Alternatives to Agar?

The suitability of different gelling agents as MRI phantoms was evaluated in terms of homogeneity, gel stability and reproducibility. Time and effort for preparation were also taken into account. The relaxation times of various gel compositions were estimated. Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P were determined to be promising novel phantom materials. These gelling agents are readily available, inexpensive and easy to handle given that thermal treatment is not required. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of their polymer network is pH-dependent. With such characteristics, it was even possible to embed sensitive objects and retrieve them after testing. This was demonstrated with a fiber phantom for Diffusion Weighted MRI applications. Since Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P are non-hazardous, they are also suitable for multimodal setups (e.g., MRI as well as ultrasonic imaging). PMID:23940563

Hellerbach, Alexandra; Schuster, Verena; Jansen, Andreas; Sommer, Jens

2013-01-01

228

Polyvinyl alcohol-cryogel (PVA-C) is a hydrogel that is an excellent tissue mimic. In order to characterize mass transfer in this material, as well as to demonstrate in principle the ability to noninvasively measure solute diffusion in tissue, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadolinium diethylene triaminopentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) through PVA-C using a clinical MR imager. The method involved filling thick-walled rectangular PVA-C "cups" with known concentrations of Gd-DTPA solutions. Then by using a fast inversion recovery spin echo MR imaging protocol, a signal "null" contour was created in the MR image that corresponded to a second, known concentration of Gd-DTPA. By collecting a series of MR images through the PVA-C wall as a function of time, the displacement of this second known isoconcentration contour could be tracked. Application of Fick's second law of diffusion yielded the diffusion coefficient. Seven separate experiments were performed using various combinations of initial concentrations of Gd-DTPA within the PVA-C cups (3.2, 25.6, or 125 mM) and tracked isoconcentrations contours (0.096, 0.182, or 0.435 mM Gd-DTPA). The experimental results and the predictions of Fick's law were in excellent agreement. The diffusivity of Gd-DTPA through 10% PVA hydrogel was found to be (2.6 +/- 0.04) x 10(-10) m(2)/s (mean +/- s.e.m.). Separate permeability studies showed that the diffusion coefficient of Gd-DTPA through this hydrogel did not change with an applied pressure of up to 7.1 kPa. Accurate measurements could be made within 30 min if suitable Gd-DTPA concentrations were selected. Due to the excellent repeatability and fast data acquisition time, this technique is very promising for future in vivo studies of species transport in tissue. PMID:10506421

Gordon, M J; Chu, K C; Margaritis, A; Martin, A J; Ethier, C R; Rutt, B K

1999-11-20

229

Validation of the Delvotest SP NT. Performance Tested Methods(SM) 011102.

Delvotest SP NT is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a pH indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is placed for incubation at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into the agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT is therefore granted Performance Tested Method(SM) certification. PMID:23451401

Hennart, Stephen L A; Faragher, John

2012-01-01

230

A new X-radiography based method for measuring thermal diffusivity at high pressures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new variation of the Ångstrom method for measuring thermal diffusivity at high pressures by using X-radiography. We have measured the thermal diffusivity of a number of upper-mantle and transition-zone phases and our data are in agreement with previous measurements. The Ångstrom method for measuring thermal diffusivity at high pressure uses a stationary thermal wave which is induced in the sample by varying the power sinusoidally in the surrounding cylindrical furnace. The thermal diffusivity (?) is determined from the phase lag, ?0 - ?R, and amplitude difference, ?0-?R, of the thermal wave between points at the axis of the sample and radius, R (e.g. Khedari et al., 1995). Our method differs from previous multi-anvil implementations of the Ångstrom method in that instead of using thermocouples to monitor the temperature variation we use thin strips of metal foil, which are placed at discrete intervals along the sample length and imaged X-radiographically. The metal strips monitor the thermal expansion of a slice across the sample in response to the sinusoidal temperature profile. This represents an improvement over previous methods since (i) the change in temperature is averaged along the sample length, (ii) we measure the phase of the thermal wave at all radii and (iii) since the expansion of the sample is observed as a proxy for the change in temperature there are no problems associated with contact thermal resistance at the thermocouples. Furthermore, this development does away with the need to prepare long cylinders of weakly metastable phases with a thermocouple inserted precisely down the middle; a process which is technically extremely difficult. To date we have measured the thermal diffusivity of NaCl, olivine, majorite and a number of other upper-mantle and transition-zone phases. The measurements we have made are all in agreement with previously published data. The simplifications to the technique inherent in this X-radiographic technique will allow us to measure the thermal diffusivity of lower-mantle phases.

Hunt, Simon; Weidner, Don; Li, Li; McCormack, Richard; Dobson, David

2010-05-01

231

Diffusion of molecules in cells plays an important role in providing a biological reaction on the surface by finding a target on the membrane surface. The water retardation (slow diffusion) near the target assists the searching molecules to recognize the target. Here, we consider effects of the surface on the diffusivity in three-dimensional diffusion processes, where diffusion on the surface is slower than that in bulk. We show that the ensemble-averaged mean square displacements increase linearly with time when the desorption rate from the surface is finite even when the diffusion on the surface is subdiffusion. Moreover, this slow diffusion on the surface affects the fluctuations of the time-averaged mean square displacements (TAMSDs). We find that fluctuations of the TAMSDs remain large when the measurement time is smaller than a characteristic relaxation time, and decays according to an increase of the measurement time for a relatively large measurement time. Therefore, we find a transition from non-ergo...

Akimoto, Takuma

2014-01-01

232

Two-Dimensional Space-Time Dependent Multi-group Diffusion Equation with SLOR Method

The research of two-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with SLOR (Successive-Line Over Relaxation) has been done. SLOR method is chosen because this method is one of iterative methods that does not required to defined whole element matrix. The research is divided in two cases, homogeneous case and heterogeneous case. Homogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity. Heterogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity and ramp reactivity. In general, the results of simulations are agreement, even in some points there are differences.

Yulianti, Y. [Physics Department, University of Lampung (UNILA), Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Su'ud, Z.; Waris, A.; Khotimah, S. N. [Physics Department, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

233

Calculations are undertaken to study the approach to equilibrium for systems of reaction-diffusion equations on bounded domains. It is demonstrated that a number of systems approach equilibrium along attractive low-dimensional manifolds over significant ranges of parameter space. Numerical methods for generating the manifolds are adapted from methods that were developed for systems of ordinary differential equations. The truncation of the infinite spectrum of the partial differential equations makes it necessary to devise a new version of one of these methods, the well-known algorithm of Maas and Pope. PMID:16623451

Davis, Michael J

2006-04-27

234

A study on the comparison of median filter regularization methods in diffusion tensor MRI.

Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) is a method which makes it possible to study non-invasively the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system. Since eigenvectors obtained from DT-MRI usually contain noise, the calculated vector directions may be deviated from the real fiber orientation. Therefore, noise errors can be accumulated as fiber tract becomes longer in tractography of DT-MRI. We used three algorithms for computing matrix medians which are the Simple Median Method, the Gradient Descent Method, and the Successive Fermat Method, because matrix-valued median filters show excellent capabilities for structure-preserving denoising. The results of the Successive Fermat Method give better than those of the Simple Median Method and is faster and the performance is similar to those of the Gradient Descent Method. PMID:18002740

Kim, Sunghee; Kwon, Kiwoon; Park, Insung; Han, Bongsu; Kim, Dongyoun

2007-01-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel method to solve the forward and inverse problems in diffuse optical tomography. Our forward solution is based on the diffusion approximation equation and is constructed using the Feynman-Kac formula with an interacting particle method. It can be implemented using Monte-Carlo (MC) method and thus provides great flexibility in modeling complex geometries. But different from conventional MC approaches, it uses excursions of the photons' random walks and produces a transfer kernel so that only one round of MC-based forward simulation (using an arbitrarily known optical distribution) is required in order to get observations associated with different optical distributions. Based on these properties, we develop a perturbation-based method to solve the inverse problem in a discretized parameter space. We validate our methods using simulated 2D examples. We compare our forward solutions with those obtained using the finite element method and find good consistency. We solve the inverse problem using the maximum likelihood method with a greedy optimization approach. Numerical results show that if we start from multiple initial points in a constrained searching space, our method can locate the abnormality correctly.

Cao, Nannan; Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye

2007-02-01

236

Non-invasive measurements of tissue hemodynamics with hybrid diffuse optical methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse optical techniques were used to measure hemodynamics of tissues non-invasively. Spectroscopy and tomography of the brain, muscle and implanted tumors were carried out in animal models and humans. Two qualitatively different methods, diffuse optical tomography and diffuse correlation tomography, were hybridized permitting simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation and blood flow. This combination of information was processed further to derive estimates of oxygen metabolism (e.g. CMRO 2) in tissue. The diffuse correlation measurements of blood flow were demonstrated in human tissues, for the first time, demonstrating continous, non-invasive imaging of oxygen metabolism in large tissue volumes several centimeters below the tissue surface. The bulk of these investigations focussed on cerebral hemodynamics. Extensive validation of this methodology was carried out in in vivo rat brain models. Three dimensional images of deep tissue hemodynamics in middle cerebral artery occlusion and cortical spreading depression (CSD) were obtained. CSD hemodynamics were found to depend strongly on partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The technique was then adapted for measurement of human brain. All optical spectroscopic measurements of CMRO2 during functional activation were obtained through intact human skull non-invasively. Finally, a high spatio-temporal resolution measurement of cerebral blood flow due to somatosensory cortex activation following electrical forepaw stimulation in rats was carried out with laser speckle flowmetry. New analysis methods were introduced for laser speckle flowmetry. In other organs, deep tissue hemodynamics were measured on human calf muscle during exercise and cuff-ischemia and were shown to have some clinical utility for peripheral vascular disease. In mice tumor models, the measured hemodynamics were shown to be predictive of photodynamic therapy efficacy, again suggesting promise of clinical utility. In total, the research has pioneered the development of diffuse optical measurements of blood flow, oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in a large range of research and clinical applications.

Durduran, Turgut

237

Development of a GIS method to localize critical source areas of diffuse nitrate pollution.

The present study aimed at developing a universal method for the localization of critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse nitrate (NO3-) pollution in rural catchments with low data availability. Based on existing methods, land use, soil, slope, riparian buffer strips and distance to surface waters were identified as the most relevant indicator parameters for diffuse agricultural NO3- pollution. The five parameters were averaged in a GIS-overlay to localize areas with low, medium and high risk of NO3- pollution. A first application of the GIS approach to the Ic catchment in France, showed that identified CSAs were in good agreement with results from river monitoring and numerical modelling. Additionally, the GIS approach showed low sensitivity to single parameters, which makes it robust to varying data availability. As a result, the tested GIS-approach provides a promising, easy-to-use CSA identification concept, applicable for a wide range of rural catchments. PMID:22097076

Orlikowski, D; Bugey, A; Périllon, C; Julich, S; Guégain, C; Soyeux, E; Matzinger, A

2011-01-01

238

The combination of more than 2 different microbials might show interactions with various effects (synergistic, additive, antagonistic, or indifferent) on target microorgnisms. An objective of this paper was to evaluate the possible interactions of several antimicrobials--those used most frequently in the treatment of mastitis in clinical veterinary practice (beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, peptides, other antibiotics, and sulfonamides)--and their consequences on detection limits. In the model experiment with milk artificially altered by means of Delvotest SP and the disk diffusion method with Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C 953, we observed the synergistic effect between all the antimicrobials tested. The results show that Delvotest SP is more sensitive (approximately 7.5- to 40-fold) than the disk diffusion method in estimating the detection limits of cephalosporin antibiotics. PMID:12852571

Kukurová, Iveta; Hozová, Bernadetta

2003-01-01

239

Calculation of the Effective Emissivities of Specular-Diffuse Cavities by the Monte Carlo Method

An algorithm of the Monte Carlo method is described which allows evaluation of the effective emissivities of isothermal and nonisothermal specular-diffuse black-body cavities for use in radiometry, photometry and optical pyrometry. The calculation provides estimates of normal spectral effective emissivity for black-body cavities, formed by cone surfaces and a cylinder. It does this for an isothermal cavity and for a

V. I. Sapritsky; A. V. Prokhorov

1992-01-01

240

New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ? L ? r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

Pham Tu Quoc, S., E-mail: sang.phamtuquoc@cea.fr; Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)] [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

2014-05-15

241

Principle and Method of Image Recognition under Diffusive Distortions of Image

\\u000a The results of investigation and development of software and hardware tools for processing images of ring objects under diffusive\\u000a dissipation are presented. The proposed algorithm was demonstrated to be efficient in endoscopy for measuring the sizes of\\u000a biological objects. A principal scheme of a hardware system for the implementation of the new method is presented. A plan\\u000a of clinical testing

Jaser Doroshenko; Lev Dulkin; Viktor Salakhutdinov; Yury Smetanin

242

A Study on the Comparison of Median Filter Regularization Methods in Diffusion Tensor MRI

Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method which makes it possible to study non-invasively the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system. Since eigenvectors obtained from DT-MRI usually contain noise, the calculated vector directions may be deviated from the real fiber orientation. Therefore, noise errors can be accumulated as fiber tract becomes longer in tractography of

Sunghee Kim; Kiwoon Kwon; Insung Park; Bongsu Han; Dongyoun Kim

2007-01-01

243

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose accurate explicit numerical schemes based on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for multi-dimensional diffusion equations. In LB schemes, the velocity models D2Q9 and D2Q13 are used for two-dimensional equations and D3Q19 and D3Q25 for three-dimensional equations. We introduce free parameters that characterize the weight of the equilibrium distribution functions to reduce numerical errors. Consistency analysis through the fourth-order Chapman-Ensgok expansion of the distribution functions gives an approximate diffusion equation with error terms up to fourth-order. The relaxation parameter and weight parameters are determined so that second-order error terms are eliminated in the approximate equation. Stability analysis shows that we can find a relaxation parameter so that each of the presented schemes is stable for given diffusion coefficients and discretizing parameters. Numerical experiments for the isotropic and anisotropic benchmark problems show that the presented schemes derived from the velocity models D2Q13 and D3Q25 are useful for numerical simulations of practical problems governed by two- and three-dimensional diffusion equations, respectively. In particular, schemes in which the value of the relaxation parameter is set to be 1 demonstrate a fourth-order accuracy under the stability condition.

Suga, Shinsuke

2014-11-01

244

Negative magnetic eddy diffusivities from test-field method and multiscale stability theory

The generation of large-scale magnetic field in the kinematic regime in the absence of an alpha-effect is investigated by following two different approaches, namely the test-field method and multiscale stability theory relying on the homogenisation technique. We show analytically that the former, applied for the evaluation of magnetic eddy diffusivities, yields results that fully agree with the latter. Our computations of the magnetic eddy diffusivity tensor for the specific instances of the parity-invariant flow-IV of G.O. Roberts and the modified Taylor-Green flow in a suitable range of parameter values confirm the findings of previous studies, and also explain some of their apparent contradictions. The two flows have large symmetry groups; this is used to considerably simplify the eddy diffusivity tensor. Finally, a new analytic result is presented: upon expressing the eddy diffusivity tensor in terms of solutions to auxiliary problems for the adjoint operator, we derive relations between magnetic eddy dif...

Andrievsky, Alexander; Noullez, Alain; Zheligovsky, Vladislav

2015-01-01

245

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant-magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. An unmodulated illumination provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV. A vibrating Kelvin method-type probe electrode couples the SPV to a measurement system. The operating optical wavelength of an adjustable monochromator to compensate for the wavelength dependent sensitivity of a photodetector is selected to measure the illumination intensity (photon flux) on the silicon. Measurements of the relative photon flux for a plurality of wavelengths are plotted against the reciprocal of the optical absorption coefficient of the material. A linear plot of the data points is extrapolated to zero intensity. The negative intercept value on the reciprocal optical coefficient axis of the extrapolated linear plot is the diffusion length of the minority carriers.

Goldstein, Bernard (Princeton, NJ); Dresner, Joseph (Princeton, NJ); Szostak, Daniel J. (Mercerville, NJ)

1983-07-12

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal diffuse scattering provides a powerful probe of the complex disorder associated with many emergent phenomena of great interest. It provides a determination not only of the local distortions around a point defect but also of the length scale and morphology of short-range order on the nanoscale. However, obtaining accurate models of the local structure usually demands measurements over large volumes of reciprocal space with sufficiently high momentum and energy resolution. In order to overcome limitations of current instrumentation, we propose to utilize the cross-correlation method at pulsed neutron sources. This concept that combines the high efficiency of white-beam Laue diffraction for measuring large volumes of reciprocal space with energy discrimination produced by the use of a statistical chopper is currently being implemented in a dedicated instrument, Corelli , under construction at the Spallation Neutron Source. Here, we present our detailed investigation of the effectiveness of this method for measuring weak diffuse signals, based on full experiment simulations as well as actual measurements of the diffuse scattering from powder and single crystal samples obtained utilizing the cross correlation method on a prototype instrument.

Rosenkranz, Stephan; Castellan, John Paul; Vitt, Rich; Osborn, Raymond; Riedel, Rick; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Mariano; Funk, Loren

2013-03-01

247

The transition density function of the Wright–Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright–Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation–selection balance. PMID:22209899

Song, Yun S.; Steinrücken, Matthias

2012-01-01

248

A Mesh-Free Method for the Simulation of Magnetic Diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays an important role in various physical systems at large and small scales. Recently, mesh-free methods such as Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics [1] (SPMHD) have been developed to study these systems by simulating magnetic fields in the presence of conducting media. However, these methods currently do not incorporate realistic models for electrical resistivity, which can significantly affect the dynamics of the system by introducing magnetic diffusion, thereby altering the field's topology. We describe a Meshless Local Petrov Galerkin (MLPG) method that solves such magnetic diffusion problems using local weak forms composed of mesh-free shape functions. This MLPG method accommodates inhomogeneous and anisotropic electrical resistivity models and allows the magnetic field to be evolved implicitly in time. We have assembled several test problems of interest in order to verify the method. Ultimately, we aim to combine this MLPG method with a form of SPMHD in order to treat realistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic systems. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. [1] D. J. Price, J. J. Monaghan, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. Volume 348 Issue 1 pp. 123-138 (2004)

Johnson, Jeffrey; Owen, Michael

2007-11-01

249

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image formation in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography is critically dependent on construction of the Jacobian matrix. For clinical and preclinical applications, because of the highly heterogeneous characteristics of the medium, Monte Carlo methods are frequently adopted to construct the Jacobian. Conventional adjoint Monte Carlo method typically compute the Jacobian by multiplying the photon density fields radiated from the source at the excitation wavelength and from the detector at the emission wavelength. Nonetheless, this approach assumes that the source and the detector in Green's function are reciprocal, which is invalid in general. This assumption is particularly questionable in small animal imaging, where the mean free path length of photons is typically only one order of magnitude smaller than the representative dimension of the medium. We propose a new method that does not rely on the reciprocity of the source and the detector by tracing photon propagation entirely from the source to the detector. This method relies on the perturbation Monte Carlo theory to account for the differences in optical properties of the medium at the excitation and the emission wavelengths. Compared to the adjoint methods, the proposed method is more valid in reflecting the physical process of photon transport in diffusive media and is more efficient in constructing the Jacobian matrix for densely sampled configurations.

Zhang, Xiaofeng

2012-03-01

250

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.

Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints. PMID:15904689

Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

2005-06-01

251

Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

2015-01-01

252

Universal growth of microdomains and gelation transition in agar hydrogels.

Investigations were carried out on aqueous sols and gels of agar (extracted from red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa) to explore the growth of microdomains en route to gelation. Isothermal frequency sweep studies on gel samples revealed master plots showing power-law dependence of gel elastic modulus, |G*|, on oscillation frequency, omega as |G*| approximately omegan, independent of temperature, with 0.5

Boral, Shilpi; Saxena, Anita; Bohidar, H B

2008-03-27

253

Melioidosis is caused by the Gram-negative soil saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of southeast Asia and northern Australia. Cotrimoxazole has been traditionally used for the therapy of melioidosis despite results indicating resistance often produced in the disc diffusion test against B. pseudomallei. This inconsistency was addressed by comparing this method with the agar dilution,

Peter Piliouras; Glen C. Ulett; Christopher Ashhurst-Smith; Robert G. Hirst; Robert E. Norton

2002-01-01

254

Numerical methods of solving a system of multi-dimensional nonlinear equations of the diffusion type

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principles of conservation and stability of difference schemes achieved using the iteration control method were examined. For the schemes obtained of the predictor-corrector type, the conversion was proved for the control sequences of approximate solutions to the precise solutions in the Sobolev metrics. Algorithms were developed for reducing the differential problem to integral relationships, whose solution methods are known, were designed. The algorithms for the problem solution are classified depending on the non-linearity of the diffusion coefficients, and practical recommendations for their effective use are given.

Agapov, A. V.; Kolosov, B. I.

1979-01-01

255

Network simulation method applied to models of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in tissue

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the Network Simulation Method is used to study decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects after diving and/or flying exposures. Bubble dynamics models suitable for these applications assume the bubble to be either contained in an unstirred tissue (two-region model) or surrounded by a boundary layer within a well stirred tissue (three-region model). The main results are obtained using the three-region model of gas bubble dynamics, which consists of a bubble and a well-stirred tissue region with an intervening unperfused diffusion region previously assumed to have a constant thickness and uniform gas diffusivity. Spatial discretization is used to numerically solve the diffusion equation considering the transitory term, where programming does not involve manipulation of the sophisticated mathematical software that is inherent in other numerical methods. The technique in question is always stable and convergent. Different effects (among them, tissue volume, initial bubble radius, surface tension of intercellular fluid and boundary layer thickness) are studied and plotted.

Zueco, Joaquín; Hernández-González, A.

2010-08-01

256

Porous structures of shales are reconstructed using the markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) method based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analysis of the reconstructed shales is performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to simulate fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion within the reconstructed shales. Simulation results reveal that the tortuosity of the shales is much higher than that commonly employed in the Bruggeman equation, and such high tortuosity leads to extremely low intrinsic permeability. Correction of the intrinsic permeability is performed based on the dusty gas model (DGM) by considering the contribution of Knudsen diffusion to the total flow flux, resulting in apparent permeability. The correction factor over a range of Knudsen number and pressure is estimated and compared with empirical correlations in the literature. For the wide pressure range investigated, the correction factor is always greater than 1, indicating Knudsen diffusion always plays a role on shale gas transport mechanisms in the reconstructed shales. Specifically, we found that most of the values of correction factor fall in the slip and transition regime, with no Darcy flow regime observed. PMID:25627247

Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Qinjun; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

2015-01-01

257

Porous structures of shales are reconstructed using the markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) method based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analysis of the reconstructed shales is performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to simulate fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion within the reconstructed shales. Simulation results reveal that the tortuosity of the shales is much higher than that commonly employed in the Bruggeman equation, and such high tortuosity leads to extremely low intrinsic permeability. Correction of the intrinsic permeability is performed based on the dusty gas model (DGM) by considering the contribution of Knudsen diffusion to the total flow flux, resulting in apparent permeability. The correction factor over a range of Knudsen number and pressure is estimated and compared with empirical correlations in the literature. For the wide pressure range investigated, the correction factor is always greater than 1, indicating Knudsen diffusion always plays a role on shale gas transport mechanisms in the reconstructed shales. Specifically, we found that most of the values of correction factor fall in the slip and transition regime, with no Darcy flow regime observed. PMID:25627247

Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Qinjun; Viswanathan, Hari S; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

2015-01-01

258

Diffusion-synthetic method for acceleration of linear nodal S/sub n/ calculations

Application of the differencing procedures devised by Alcouffe and Larsen to the diffusion-synthetic acceleration of multidimensional nodal S/sub n/ calculations yields difference equations that may not be efficiently solvable and has so far been accomplished only for the lowest order constant-constant (C-C) nodal scheme. An alternative differencing technique has been described in which the spatial approximations applied to the continuous diffusion operator are consistent in the P/sub 1/ limit with corresponding approximations made in deriving the nodal S/sub n/ equations. The effectiveness of this technique, which is applicable to any S/sub n/ method, has previously been demonstrated for the C-C and constant-linear (C-L) nodal schemes. Here the author extends the technique to the higher order linear nodal (LN) scheme and demonstrates that the diffusion difference equations obtained can be solved efficiently despite their increased complexity and that the resulting synthetic iteration procedure is stable and rapidly convergent. Very recently, Lawrence developed a different synthetic acceleration method based on an interface-current approach and also applied it successfully to the LN equations.

Khalil, H.

1986-01-01

259

Simulated blood cultures were used to evaluate Thermonuclease agar (Remel) for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) without subculture to agar media, and a new slide agglutination test (Staphylochrome; Innovative Diagnostic Systems) was evaluated for its ability to distinguish S. aureus from CNS after growth on blood agar. A total of 125 S. aureus and 124 CNS isolates were tested by each method. Reference identification methods included tube coagulase, thermonuclease detection from solid media, and biochemical characterization. Direct thermonuclease testing with simulated blood cultures correctly identified all 249 isolates. Staphylochrome correctly identified 121 of 125 S. aureus and all CNS isolates. S. aureus was reliably distinguished from CNS by both tests evaluated in this study. PMID:10149420

McDowell, B; Papasian, C J

1991-01-01

260

A new method for obtaining three-dimensional neutron flux distribution in a reactor has been developed by taking into account the fact that the X-Y planar geometry is generally complex but the geometry along Z-axis is simple. In this method, the finite element method is applied to the X-Y plane calculation and the finite difference method to the Z-axis. For solving

Yoshitaka NAITO; Shin-ichiro TSURUTA; Masatoshi HAYASHI

1981-01-01

261

Evaluation of a new chromogenic agar medium for Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

Spoilage of fruit juices by a thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacterium, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, is a big problem for fruit juice industries worldwide. We have developed a novel chromogenic selective agar medium (EAATSM) for the isolation and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris. A. acidoterrestris strains appeared as blue colonies on the EAATSM. Other Alicyclobacillus strains appeared as white colonies or were inhibited. A study comparing EAATSM and YSG agar was carried out using artificially contaminated samples of 50 fruit juice products. The correlation coefficient between EAATSM and YSG was 0.991. PMID:23796641

Uchida, Masafumi; Teramura, Hajime; Kashida, Mitsuaki; Kodaka, Hidemasa

2013-01-01

262

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

263

A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems

The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.

Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing

2008-12-10

264

Cardiac Motion in Diffusion Weighted MRI of the Liver: Artifact and a Method of Correction

Purpose To characterize cardiac motion artifacts in the liver and assess the use of a post-processing method to mitigate these artifacts in repeat measurements. Materials and methods Three subjects underwent breathhold diffusion-weighted (DW) scans consisting of 25 repetitions for three b-values (0, 500, 1000 sec/mm2). Statistical maps computed from these repetitions were used to assess the distribution and behavior of cardiac motion artifacts in the liver. An objective post-processing method to reduce the artifacts were compared with radiologist-defined gold standards. Results Signal dropout is pronounced in areas proximal to the heart, such as the left lobe, but also present in the right lobe and in distal liver segments. The dropout worsens with b-value and leads to overestimation of the diffusivity. By reference to a radiologist-defined gold standard, a post-processing correction method is shown to reduce cardiac motion artifact. Conclusion Cardiac motion leads to significant artifacts in liver DW imaging; we propose a post-processing method that may be used to mitigate the artifact and is advantageous to standard signal averaging in acquisitions with multiple repetitions. PMID:21959926

Liau, Joy; Lee, Jimmy; Schroeder, Michael E.; Sirlin, Claude B.; Bydder, Mark

2011-01-01

265

Gradient diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing of potentially probiotic lactobacilli.

Minimum inhibitory contentrations (MICs) of selected inhibitors of cell wall synthesis (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin), protein synthesis (gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin), and nucleic acid synthesis (co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and metronidazole) were determined by gradient diffusion (E test; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar for Lactobacillus strain GG and 11 closely related, rapidly growing, facultatively anaerobic, potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. All strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC90 > or = 256 microg/ml), co-trimoxazole (MIC90 > or = 32 microg/ml), metronidazole (MIC90 > or = 32 microg/ml), gentamicin (MIC90 > or = 128 microg/ml), and streptomycin (MIC90 > or = 256 microg/ml), and sensitive to pencillin G (MIC90 > 0.375 microg/ml), ampicillin (MIC90 > 0.750 microg/ml), rifampicin (MIC90 > 0.375 microg/ml), tetracycline (MIC90 > 1.5 microg/ml), chloramphenicol (MIC90 > 8 microg/ml), and erythromycin (MIC90 > 2 microg/ml). E test MICs were also determined for L. acidophilus National Collection of Food Bacteria (NCFB) 1748 and L. reuteri Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 20016T by the inoculum application method recommended by the manufacturer (swabbing), with and without antibiotic prediffusion for 1 h at room temperature, and by an alternative inoculum application (agar overlay) method, without antibiotic prediffusion. Antibiotic prediffusion increased the MICs for penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol by up to 2 log2 MIC dilutions without changing antibiotic susceptibility category. Agar overlay application also increased the MICs for these antibiotics as well as for gentamicin by up to 3 log2 MIC dilutions without changing antibiotic susceptibility category. Exact agreement between MICs determined by swab and agar overlay application without antibiotic prediffusion was strain dependent: 54.5% for strain DSM 20016T and 72.7% for strain NCFB 1748. The swab and agar overlay gradient diffusion methods provide a reliable basis for antibiotic susceptibility testing of rapidly growing, facultatively anaerobic lactobacilli, using MRS agar as test medium and are readily applicable for testing individual isolates as needed. PMID:11770631

Charteris, W P; Kelly, P M; Morelli, L; Collins, J K

2001-12-01

266

A diffuse-interface method for two-phase flows with soluble surfactants

A method is presented to solve two-phase problems involving soluble surfactants. The incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved along with equations for the bulk and interfacial surfactant concentrations. A non-linear equation of state is used to relate the surface tension to the interfacial surfactant concentration. The method is based on the use of a diffuse interface, which allows a simple implementation using standard finite difference or finite element techniques. Here, finite difference methods on a block-structured adaptive grid are used, and the resulting equations are solved using a non-linear multigrid method. Results are presented for a drop in shear flow in both 2D and 3D, and the effect of solubility is discussed. PMID:21218125

Teigen, Knut Erik; Song, Peng; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel

2010-01-01

267

Fast non-overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation

Studying numerically the steady state of a nuclear core reactor is expensive, in terms of memory storage and computational time. In order to address both requirements, one can use a domain decomposition method, implemented on a parallel computer. We present here such a method for the mixed neutron diffusion equations, discretized with Raviart–Thomas–Nédélec finite elements. This method is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. We analyse this method from the continuous point of view to the discrete point of view, and we give some numerical results in a realistic highly heterogeneous 3D configuration. Computations are carried out with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® neutronics code.

Jamelot, Erell [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergie Alternatives, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergie Alternatives, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ciarlet, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.ciarlet@ensta.fr [POEMS Laboratory, CNRS-INRIA-ENSTA UMR 7231, ENSTA ParisTech 32, Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)] [POEMS Laboratory, CNRS-INRIA-ENSTA UMR 7231, ENSTA ParisTech 32, Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

2013-05-15

268

Ceftriaxone sodium is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and belongs to the third generation of cephalosporins. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for the determination of ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution has not been reported yet. This paper reports the development and validation of a simple, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of ceftriaxone sodium on the strain of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9371 IAL 1027 used as test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance and were found to be linear (r = 0.999) in the selected range of 15.0–60.0 ?g/mL, precise with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability intraday = 1.40%, accurate (100.46%) and robust with a RSD lower than 1.28%. The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable ceftriaxone sodium quantitation in pharmaceutical samples and therefore can be used as a useful alternative methodology for the routine quality control of this medicine. PMID:24300294

Aléssio, Patrícia V.; Salgado, Hérida R. N.

2012-01-01

269

Self-feeding MUSE: A robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging using interleaved EPI.

Single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) with parallel imaging techniques has been well established as the most popular method for clinical diffusion imaging, due to its fast acquisition and motion insensitivity. However, this approach is limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and image distortion. Interleaved EPI is able to break the limitations but the phase variations among different shots must be considered for artifact suppression. The introduction of multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) can address the phase issue using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for self-navigation of each interleave. However, MUSE has suboptimal results when the number of shots is high. To achieve higher spatial resolution and lower geometric distortion, we introduce two new schemes into the MUSE framework: 1) a self-feeding mechanism is adopted by using prior information regularized SENSE in order to obtain reliable phase estimation; and 2) retrospective motion detection and data rejection strategies are performed to exclude unusable data corrupted by severe pulsatile motions. The proposed method is named self-feeding MUSE (SF-MUSE). Experiments on healthy volunteers demonstrate that this new SF-MUSE approach provides more accurate motion-induced phase estimation and fewer artifacts caused by data corruption when compared with the original MUSE method. SF-MUSE is a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging and suitable for practical applications with reasonable scan time. PMID:25451470

Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Feng; Ma, Xiaodong; Xie, Sheng; Guo, Hua

2015-01-15

270

A model assay to demonstrate how intrinsic factors affect diffusion of bacteriocins.

A rapid and simple method to elucidate how intrinsic factors in a given food product affect bacteriocin diffusion and efficacy is described. The basic idea of this assay is to help predict which bacteriocin or other inhibitory substance to select for a given product, where increased security towards specific microorganisms is wanted. In an agar plate model system the effect of five factors (number of indicator cells, pH and concentration of NaCl, agar and soy oil) on the diffusion of the bacteriocins sakacin A, sakacin P, pediocin PA-1, piscicolin 61 and nisin was studied. An experimental design permitting simultaneous evaluation of the effect of all factors was used. The results indicated that each bacteriocin has a characteristic intrinsic factor effect profile. However, pH and load of indicator cells affect all the bacteriocins. PMID:9506275

Blom, H; Katla, T; Hagen, B F; Axelsson, L

1997-09-16

271

A Numerical Method for Pricing Electricity Derivatives for Jump-Diffusion Processes Based.tompaidis@mccombs.utexas.edu Corresponding author. Tel. 512-4715252, Fax 512-4710587. #12;A Numerical Method for Pricing Electricity method for pricing derivatives on electricity prices. The method is based on approximating the generator

Albanese, Claudio

272

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental observation of the spatio-temporal pattern of supersaturation in counter-diffusion methods. These complex patterns were recorded by dynamical interferometric analysis using a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Tetragonal hen egg white lysozyme crystals were grown inside APCF (advanced protein crystallisation facility) reactors. Salt and protein diffusion profiles were obtained independently by performing duplicated experiments with and without protein in the protein chamber; salt gradients were observed directly while protein concentration profiles are computed from the differences in refractive index between the two experiments. As expected from computer simulations, the time evolution of supersaturation shows a maximum about 45 h after activation (although this value can change as a function of the starting conditions and the geometry of the reactor). Nucleation takes place before this maximum supersaturation is reached. This explains the trend of the growth rate versus time curves for experiments performed within APCF reactors (both on ground and in space) and in capillaries by the gel acupuncture technique. By using very low concentration agarose gel in the protein chamber, sedimentation and buoyancy effects are eliminated so that the effects of gravity on fluid dynamics and hence on the spatio-temporal evolution of supersaturation can be assessed. These results confirm experimentally the predicted behaviour of counter-diffusion systems and support their use in growing large high-quality protein single crystals.

García-Ruiz, J. M.; Novella, M. L.; Otálora, F.

1999-01-01

273

Maintenance of Leptospira Species in Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun Agar

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.

2014-01-01

274

Direct Cloning of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Agar1

We have recently developed an in vitro assay for human tumor stem cells that permits cloning of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar. Tumor colonies grew from both effusions and biopsies from 85% of 31 ovarian cancer patients. The cloning efficiency did not vary with the histology of the tumor. Growth was induced with medium conditioned by the adherent

Anne W. Hamburger; Sydney E. Salmon; Mary B. Kim; Jeff M. Trent; Barbara J. Soehnlen

275

Plating of isolated tobacco mesophyll protoplasts on agar medium

A technique was developed to derive cell and plant clones from isolated mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco. The protoplasts, plated on a fully defined agar medium, divided and grew actively forming visible colonies after one month of culture. Efficiency of colony formation depended on cell density and light condition during incubation. Under standard conditions, 60% of plated protoplasts formed colonies. Upon

Toshiyuki Nagata; Itaru Takebe

1971-01-01

276

A new method for choosing the computational cell in stochastic reaction–diffusion systems

How to choose the computational compartment or cell size for the stochastic simulation of a reaction–diffusion system is still an open problem, and a number of criteria have been suggested. A generalized measure of the noise for finite-dimensional systems based on the largest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of the number of molecules of all species has been suggested as a measure of the overall fluctuations in a multivariate system, and we apply it here to a discretized reaction–diffusion system. We show that for a broad class of first-order reaction networks this measure converges to the square root of the reciprocal of the smallest mean species number in a compartment at the steady state. We show that a suitably re-normalized measure stabilizes as the volume of a cell approaches zero, which leads to a criterion for the maximum volume of the compartments in a computational grid. We then derive a new criterion based on the sensitivity of the entire network, not just of the fastest step, that predicts a grid size that assures that the concentrations of all species converge to a spatially-uniform solution. This criterion applies for all orders of reactions and for reaction rate functions derived from singular perturbation or other reduction methods, and encompasses both diffusing and non-diffusing species. We show that this predicts the maximal allowable volume found in a linear problem, and we illustrate our results with an example motivated by anterior-posterior pattern formation in Drosophila, and with several other examples. PMID:22071651

Kang, Hye-Won; Zheng, Likun; Othmer, Hans G.

2013-01-01

277

Pore size distribution of bioresorbable films using a 3-D diffusion NMR method.

Pore size distribution (PSD) within porous biomaterials is an important microstructural feature for assessing their biocompatibility, longevity and drug release kinetics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is the most common method used to obtain the PSD of soft biomaterials. The method is highly invasive and user dependent, since it requires fracturing of the sample and then considers only the small portion that the user had acquired in the image. In the current study we present a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method as an alternative method for estimation of PSD in soft porous materials. This noninvasive 3-D diffusion NMR method considers the entire volume of the specimen and eliminates the user's need to choose a specific field of view. Moreover, NMR does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation and can potentially have preclinical and clinical uses. The method was applied on four porous 50/50 poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) bioresorbable films with different porosities, which were created using the freeze-drying of inverted emulsions technique. We show that the proposed NMR method is able to address the main limitations associated with SEM-based PSD estimations by being non-destructive, depicting the full volume of the specimens and not being dependent on the magnification factor. Upon comparison, both methods yielded a similar PSD in the smaller pore size range (1-25?m), while the NMR-based method provided additional information on the larger pores (25-50?m). PMID:24534719

Benjamini, Dan; Elsner, Jonathan J; Zilberman, Meital; Nevo, Uri

2014-06-01

278

CCMR: Method Development of Dynamic Mass Diffusion Monte Carlo using Lennard-Jones Clusters

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lennard-Jones clusters, clusters of inert particles have a long history of being studied. Many algorithms have been proposed and used with a varying level of success from "basin hopping" [1] to “greedy search” [2]. Despite these achievements, the Lennard-Jones potential continues to be a widely studied model. Not only is it a good test case for new particle structure algorithms, but it is still an interesting model that we can yet learn from. In this project we proposed to study these cluster using a method never before attempted: dynamic mass diffusion Monte Carlo.

Craig, Helen A.

2007-08-29

279

Sinc-Chebyshev Collocation Method for a Class of Fractional Diffusion-Wave Equations

This paper is devoted to investigating the numerical solution for a class of fractional diffusion-wave equations with a variable coefficient where the fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The approach is based on the collocation technique where the shifted Chebyshev polynomials in time and the sinc functions in space are utilized, respectively. The problem is reduced to the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations. Through the numerical example, the procedure is tested and the efficiency of the proposed method is confirmed. PMID:24977177

Mao, Zhi; Xiao, Aiguo; Yu, Zuguo; Shi, Long

2014-01-01

280

The Galerkin finite element method for a multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the initial/boundary value problem for a diffusion equation involving multiple time-fractional derivatives on a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyze a space semidiscrete scheme based on the standard Galerkin finite element method using continuous piecewise linear functions. Nearly optimal error estimates for both cases of initial data and inhomogeneous term are derived, which cover both smooth and nonsmooth data. Further we develop a fully discrete scheme based on a finite difference discretization of the time-fractional derivatives, and discuss its stability and error estimate. Extensive numerical experiments for one- and two-dimensional problems confirm the theoretical convergence rates.

Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Liu, Yikan; Zhou, Zhi

2015-01-01

281

We present a new convenient method for quantitative three-dimensionally resolved diffusion measurements based on the photobleaching (FRAP) or photoactivation (FRAPa) of a disk-shaped area by the scanning laser beam of a multiphoton microscope. Contrary to previously reported spot-photobleaching protocols, this method has the advantage of full scalability of the size of the photobleached area and thus the range of diffusion

Davide Mazza; Kevin Braeckmans; Francesca Cella; Ilaria Testa; Dries Vercauteren; J. Demeester; Stefaan S. De Smedt; Alberto Diaspro

2008-01-01

282

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250942

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

283

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250936

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

284

Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) allows one to explore axonal connectivity patterns in neuronal tissue by linking local predominant diffusion directions determined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The majority of existing tractography approaches use continuous coordinates for calculating single trajectories through the diffusion tensor field. The tractography algorithm we propose is characterized by (1) a trajectory propagation rule that uses voxel

N. C. Bodammer; J. Kaufmann; M. Kanowski; C. Tempelmann

2009-01-01

285

One-sampling rebreathing method to measure diffusing capacity for CO.

To simplify the rebreathing method to obtain the pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO (DLCO), a one-sampling method was developed, combined with a simulation technique. The change in CO fraction in rebreathing air depends on the rebreathing volume (VRB), the dead space volume (VD), the gas volume in the lung-bag-system (VS) as well as the DLCO: Using the measured VRB, VD, and VS, the changes in CO fraction in bag and alveolar air were simulated by varying the DLCO, where the expired and inspired gas volumes were represented by a sinusoidal function of time. The DLCO was determined by checking the similarity between the simulated and measured CO fractions at the 7th expiratory period. To confirm the validity of the simulation method, two-sampling rebreathing and single breath methods were additionally carried out in 6 normal subjects in the sitting position. The DLCO measured by the simulation agreed well with that measured simultaneously by the two-sampling method. The DLCO measured by this method was also compatible with that obtained from the single breath method, when the dead space was excluded from the measured lung gas volume. PMID:3613279

Niizeki, K; Doi, K

1987-01-01

286

We designed a new culture method for neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria using liquid medium (i) to study the formation and mineralogical characteristics of biogenic iron oxides (BIOS) and (ii) to apply BIOS to various scientific and engineering applications. An iron-oxidizing bacterium, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1(T) (ATCC, BAA-1020), was cultured using a set of diffusion chambers to prepare a broad anoxic-oxic interface, upon which BIOS formation is typically observed in natural environments. Iron oxide precipitates were generated in parallel with bacterial growth. A scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the morphological features of the iron oxide precipitates in the medium (in vitro BIOS) were similar to those of BIOS collected from natural deep-sea hydrothermal environments in the Northwest Eifuku Seamount field in the northern Mariana Arc (in situ BIOS). Further chemical speciation of both the in vitro and in situ BIOS was examined with X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). A bulk XAFS analysis showed that the minerals in both BIOS were mainly ferrihydrite and oligomeric stages of amorphous iron oxyhydroxides with edge-sharing octahedral linkages. The amount of in vitro BIOS produced with the diffusion-chamber method was greater than those produced previously with other culture methods, such as gel-stabilized gradient and batch liquid culture methods. The larger yields of BIOS produced with the new culture method will allow us to clarify in the future the mineralization mechanisms during bacterial growth and to examine the physicochemical properties of BIOS, such as their adsorption to and coprecipitation with various elements and substances. PMID:24382149

Kikuchi, S; Makita, H; Takai, K; Yamaguchi, N; Takahashi, Y

2014-03-01

287

Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Convection: Advection and Diffusion Schemes for Marker Methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's deep mantle can be studied by modeling vigorous convection in a chemically heterogeneous fluid. Numerical modeling of such a system poses several computational challenges. Dominance of heat advection over the diffusive heat transport, and a negligible amount of chemical diffusion results in sharp gradients of thermal and chemical fields. The exponential dependence of the viscosity of mantle materials on temperature also leads to high gradients of the velocity field. The accuracy of many numerical advection schemes degrades quickly with increasing gradient of the solution, while the computational effort, in terms of the scheme complexity and required resolution, grows. Additional numerical challenges arise due to a large range of length-scales characteristic of a thermochemical convection system with highly variable viscosity. To examplify, the thickness of the stem of a rising thermal plume may be a few percent of the mantle thickness. An even thinner filament of an anomalous material that is entrained by that plume may consitute less than a tenth of a percent of the mantle thickness. We have developed a two-dimensional FEM code to model thermochemical convection in a hollow cylinder domain, with a depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity representative of the mantle (Steinberger and Calderwood, 2006). We use marker-in-cell method for advection of chemical and thermal fields. The main advantage of perfoming advection using markers is absence of numerical diffusion during the advection step, as opposed to the more diffusive field-methods. However, in the common implementation of the marker-methods, the solution of the momentum and energy equations takes place on a computational grid, and nodes do not generally coincide with the positions of the markers. Transferring velocity-, temperature-, and chemistry- information between nodes and markers introduces errors inherent to inter- and extrapolation. In the numerical scheme that we use for this study, the velocity field is discretised using second order triangular elements, which gives second order accuracy of interpolation from grid-nodes to markers. A fourth order Runge-Kutta solver is used to compute marker-trajectories. We reevaluate the velocity field for each of the intermediate steps of the ODE-solver, rendering our advection scheme to be fourth-order accurate in time. We compare two different approaches for performing the thermal diffusion step. In the first, more conventional approach, the energy equation is solved on a static grid. For this grid, we use first-order triangular elements and a higher resolution than for the velocity-grid, to compensate for the lower order elements. The temperature field is transferred between grid-nodes and markers, and a subgrid diffusion correction step (Gerya and Yuen, 2003) is included to account for the different spatial resolutions of the markers and the grid. In the second approach, the energy equation is solved directly on markers. To do this, we compute a constrained Delaunay triangulation, with markers as nodes, at every time step. We wish to resolve the large range of spatial scales of the solution at lowest possible computational cost. In several existing codes this is achieved with dynamically adaptive meshes, which use high resolution in regions with high solution gradients, and vice versa. The numerical scheme used in this study can be extended to include a similar feature, by regenerating the thermal and mechanical grids in the course of computation, adapting them to the temperature and chemistry fields carried by the markers. We present the results of thermochemical convection simulations obtained using the schemes outlined above, as well as the results of the numerical benchmarks commonly used in the geodynamics community. The quality of the solutions, as well as the computational cost of our schemes, are discussed.

Mulyukova, Elvira; Dabrowski, Marcin; Steinberger, Bernhard

2013-04-01

288

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and numerical studies have been performed to determine the soot refractive index in methane turbulent diffusion flames with two oxidizers: air and oxygen. In the flame zone, soot particles were sampled with a cooled probe. Measurements of optical soot properties have been carried out to obtain extinction and vertical-vertical (90°) scattering coefficients. The size distributions were obtained by electrical mobility analysis. Using these distributions, the optical properties have been computed with the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for fractal aggregates by considering the morphology of soot aggregates and using morphological parameter values based on literature reports for other similar systems. Then, the refractive index has been obtained from a numerical inversion method by matching the measured and computed optical coefficients. This refractive index determination method is new to our knowledge. In turbulent diffusion methane oxygen flames the soot refractive index averaged value found is m = 1.95(±0.13)-0.51i(±0.12), and in the air flame m = 2.10(±0.12)-0.48i(±0.06). In view of the uncertainties, the refractive index is independent of the oxidizer type, the aerodynamic conditions and the flame zone location for the sampling. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the influence of some morphological and experimental parameters on the refractive index value.

Van-Hulle, P.; Talbaut, M.; Weill, M.; Coppalle, A.

2002-03-01

289

A Simple and Efficient Diffuse Interface Method for Compressible Two-Phase Flows

In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. For many reasons, to be discussed, there is growing interest in the application of two-phase flow models to provide diffuse, but nevertheless resolved, simulation of interfaces between two immiscible compressible fluids – diffuse interface method (DIM). Because of its ability to dynamically create interfaces and to solve interfaces separating pure media and mixtures for DNS-like (Direct Numerical Simulation) simulations of interfacial flows, we examine the construction of a simple, robust, fast, and accurate numerical formulation for the 5-equation Kapila et al. [1] reduced two-phase model. Though apparently simple, the Kapila et al. model contains a volume fraction differential transport equation containing a nonlinear, non-conservative term which poses serious computational challenges. To circumvent the difficulties encountered with the single velocity and single pressure Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model, a 6-equation relaxation hyperbolic model is built to solve interface problems with compressible fluids. In this approach, pressure non-equilibrium is first restored, followed by a relaxation to an asymptotic solution which is convergent to the solutions of the Kapila et al. reduced model. The apparent complexity introduced with this extended hyperbolic model actually leads to considerable simplifications regarding numerical resolution, and the various ingredients used by this method are general enough to consider future extensions to problems involving complex physics.

Ray A. Berry; Richard Saurel; Fabien Petitpas

2009-05-01

290

It was found that the convergence rate of the alternating direction implicit method for the nodal equation for the diffusion equation in x-y geometry derived by the finite Fourier transformation became slow as the absorption cross section decreases. This difficulty was found to be removed by eliminating the leakage term from the equation. An acceleration method and a method to

Nobuyuki HIYAMA; Keisuke KOBAYASHI

1991-01-01

291

Numerical method using cubic B-spline for a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system.

In this paper, a numerical method for the solution of a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system, with suitable initial and Neumann boundary conditions, by using cubic B-spline collocation scheme on a uniform grid is presented. The scheme is based on the usual finite difference scheme to discretize the time derivative while cubic B-spline is used as an interpolation function in the space dimension. The scheme is shown to be unconditionally stable using the von Neumann method. The accuracy of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by applying it on a test problem. The performance of this scheme is shown by computing L? and L2 error norms for different time levels. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with known exact solutions. PMID:24427270

Abbas, Muhammad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Md Ismail, Ahmad Izani; Rashid, Abdur

2014-01-01

292

Reprint of Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.

Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.

2015-04-01

293

Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results

In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.

Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Levermore, C.D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

1990-01-01

294

Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum.

Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100mg/L) and mucin (20g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples. PMID:25217723

Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman

2014-11-17

295

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is devoted to the theory and experiment of the forced Rayleigh scattering method for measurement of thermal diffusivity of liquids which can be employed in the form of an instrument operated optically in a contact-free manner. The theoretical considerations included are: (1) effect of cell wall, (2) effect of dye, (3) effect of Gaussian beam intensity distribution, (4) effect of heating duration time, and (5) effect of coupled dye and wall for a heavily absorbing sample. The errors caused by inadequate setting of optical conditions are also analyzed: (1) effects of grating thickness and (2) effects of initial temperature amplitude. Experimental verifications of the theory have been carried out through the measurements on toluene and water as standard reference substances. As a result of these experiments and theory, the criteria for optimum measuring conditions became available. To demonstrate the applicability of the present theory and the apparatus, the thermal diffusivities of toluene and methanol have been measured near room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The accuracy of the present measurement is estimated to be ±3%.

Nagasaka, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Okuda, M.; Nagashima, A.

1988-07-01

296

Detection of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by diffusion tests.

Four different diffusion tests used to detect penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae were evaluated for 34 penicillin-susceptible pneumococci (MIC < 0.1 microgram/ml), 35 intermediate pencillin-resistant (MIC 0.1-1.0 microgram/ml) and 23 penicillin-resistant strains (MIC > 2 micrograms/ml). The 1 microgram oxacillin disk from AB Biodisk, the 1 microgram oxacillin Neo-Sensitabs from Rosco, the 5 micrograms penicillin Low Neo-Sensitabs and the penicillin E test were tested on Mueller-Hinton blood agar, PDM Antibiotic Sensitivity Medium II supplemented with blood, and Danish Blood Agar. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method were used as reference. The 1 microgram oxacillin AB Biodisk was able to separate all the penicillin-susceptible pneumococci correctly from those with reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC > or = 0.1 microgram/ml), whereas use of the 1 microgram oxacillin Neo-Sensitabs resulted in high frequencies (14-29%) of intermediate penicillin-resistant strains interpreted as penicillin susceptible. The 5 micrograms penicillin Low Neo-Sensitabs proved completely useless for detecting penicillin resistance in pneumococci. High rates of agreement (82-93%) were found between the penicillin E test and the reference MIC determination method on all the tested media. PMID:8920808

Poulsen, R L; Knudsen, J D; Petersen, M B; Fuursted, K; Espersen, F; Frimodt-Møller, N

1996-01-01

297

Algebraic Methods for Direct and Feature Based Registration of Diffusion Tensor Images

. We test our approach on synthetic, brain and heart diffusion tensor images. 1 Introduction Diffusion that the largest principal axis of the diffusion tensor (DT) aligns with the predominant fiber orientation, one can obtain a 3-D vector field representing A. Leonardis, H. Bischof, and A. Pinz (Eds.): ECCV 2006, Part III

Vidal, RenÃ©

298

Folding a 20 amino acid ?? peptide with the diffusion process-controlled Monte Carlo method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we report on the application of the diffusion process-controlled Monte Carlo method to a 20 amino acid ?? peptide (Ac-E-T-Q-A-A-L-L-A-A-Q-K-A-Y-H-P-M-T-M-T-G-Am). The polypeptide chain is represented by a set of 126 particles, the side chains are modeled by spheres, and the backbone dihedral angles ? and ? of each of the amino acid residue are essentially restricted to a set of ten high probability regions, although the whole ?-? space may be visited in the course of the simulation. The method differs from other off-lattice Monte Carlo methods, in that the escape time from one accepted conformation to the next is estimated and limited at each iteration. The conformations are evaluated on the basis of pairwise nonbonded side chain energies derived from statistical distributions of contacts in real proteins and a simple main chain hydrogen bonding potential. As a result of four simulations starting from random extended conformations and one starting from a structure consistent with NMR data, the lowest-energy conformation (i.e., the ?? fold) is detected in ˜103 Monte Carlo steps, although the estimated probability of getting the ?? motif is ˜10-12. The predicted conformations deviate by 3.0 Å rms from a model structure compatible with the experimental results. In this work further evidence is provided that this method is useful in determining the lowest-energy region of medium-size polypeptide chains.

Derreumaux, Philippe

1997-08-01

299

The Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo Method for Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Astrophysics

In this thesis, I discuss the use of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo method to compute the ground state of nuclear Hamiltonians, and I show several applications to interesting problems both in nuclear physics and in nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the AFDMC algorithm is applied to the study of several nuclear systems, finite, and infinite matter. Results about the ground state of nuclei ($^4$He, $^8$He, $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca), neutron drops (with 8 and 20 neutrons) and neutron rich-nuclei (isotopes of oxygen and calcium) are discussed, and the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter are calculated and compared with other many-body calculations. The $^1S_0$ superfluid phase of neutron matter in the low-density regime was also studied.

Stefano Gandolfi

2007-12-09

300

We conducted a systematic investigation of the reflectance diffuse optical tomography using continuous wave (CW) measurements and nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. We illustrated and suggested how to fine-tune the nonlinear reconstruction methods in order to optimize target localization with depth-adaptive regularizations, reduce boundary noises in the reconstructed images using a logarithm based objective function, improve reconstruction quantification using transport models, and resolve crosstalk problems between absorption and scattering contrasts with the CW reflectance measurements. The upgraded nonlinear reconstruction algorithms were evaluated with a series of numerical and experimental tests, which show the potentials of the proposed approaches for imaging both absorption and scattering contrasts in the deep targets with enhanced image quality. PMID:25401014

Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Jiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Changqing

2014-01-01

301

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously introduced method for monitoring environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was further validated. The method is based on diffusive sampling of a vapour-phase marker, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), with 3 M passive monitors (type 3500). Experiments were done in a dynamic chamber to assess diffusive sampling in comparison with active sampling in charcoal tubes or XAD-4 tubes. The sampling rate for 3-EP collected on the diffusive sampler was 23.1±0.6 mL min -1. The relative standard deviation for parallel samples ( n=6) ranged from 4% to 14% among experiments ( n=9). No marked reverse diffusion of 3-EP was detected nor any significant effect of relative humidity at 20%, 50% or 80%. The diffusive sampling of 3-EP was validated in field measurements in 15 restaurants in comparison with 3-EP and nicotine measurements using active sampling. The 3-EP concentration in restaurants ranged from 0.01 to 9.8 ?g m -3, and the uptake rate for 3-EP based on 92 parallel samples was 24.0±0.4 mL min -1. A linear correlation ( r=0.98) was observed between 3-EP and nicotine concentrations, the average ratio of 3-EP to nicotine being 1:8. Active sampling of 3-EP and nicotine in charcoal tubes provided more reliable results than sampling in XAD-4 tubes. All samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after elution with a 15% solution of pyridine in toluene. For nicotine, the limit of quantification of the charcoal tube method was 4 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04 ?g m -3 for an air sample of 96 L. For 3-EP, the limit of quantification of the diffusive method was 0.5-1.0 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04-0.09 ?g m -3 for 8 h sampling. The diffusive method proved suitable for ETS monitoring, even at low levels of ETS.

Kuusimäki, Leea; Peltonen, Kimmo; Vainiotalo, Sinikka

302

A diffusion synthetic acceleration method is developed for the time dependent S{sub N} equations with linear discontinuous finite element time differencing and discontinuous finite element spatial differencing on unstructured grids. Both theoretical and computational results are given which demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the method.

Wareing, T.A.; Morel, J.E.; McGhee, J.M.

1999-09-27

303

Diffused dielectric channel waveguides with an arbitrarily varying refractive index profile in the cross-sectional plane are analyzed with a rigorous finite-difference method. The method is formulated in terms of the wave equation for the transverse components of the magnetic field. This leads to an eigenvalue problem where the nonphysical, spurious modes do not appear. The analysis includes the complete set

N. Schulz; K. Bierwirth; F. Arndt; U. Koster

1990-01-01

304

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convex hilltops formed by diffusive sediment transport are a fundamental feature of soil-mantled landscapes worldwide. Additionally, the competition and interaction between hillslopes and valleys control basic topographic metrics, such as relief, drainage density, and breaks in slope-area scaling. Despite recent progress in erosive landscape experiments, no published work has explored the competition of hillslope diffusion and channel advection experimentally. Here, we present preliminary findings on the plausibility of needle ice driven frost creep as a mechanism for laboratory hillslope transport of wet sediment. In nature, needle ice is a diurnal form of ice segregation, whereby liquid water held in sediment pore space is driven upward toward a near-surface freezing front by a temperature-controlled liquid pressure gradient. As needles grow perpendicular to the surface, sediment is incorporated in the growing needle ice by temperature perturbations and associated downward shifts in the freezing front. Sediment then moves downslope due to melting or sublimation of the ice needles. We constructed a slope of saturated sediment in a freezer to constrain the temperature, grain size, and soil moisture limits on laboratory needle ice growth and sediment transport. Surficial sediment transport is measured during experimentation by tracking the movement of colored grains. Additionally, at the end of each run we measure depth-dependent sediment transport by taking slices of the experimental slope and observing the displacement of buried columns of colored grains. In agreement with past work, we find that with temperatures just below freezing, soil moisture above 35%, and silt-sized sediment, the moisture migration induced by freezing releases enough latent heat to maintain the location of the freezing front and encourage needle ice growth. Our experiments demonstrate that the amount of sediment incorporated during needle growth, i.e., the transport efficiency, can be controlled by systematically varying the frequency and/or duration of temperature perturbations. The rate of sediment transport on soil mantled hillslopes depends on topographic slope and transport occurs in an "active layer", i.e., the soil mantle. We show that needle ice transports sediment diffusively and has great potential as a method for laboratory simulation of a soil-mantled hillslope since transport is confined to a layer only a few millimeters from the surface. Furthermore, while past experiments are limited to modeling landscape response to precipitation or uplift, our method to systematically control the vigor of hillslope processes will enable us to model potential climate-driven changes in hillslope transport efficiency.

Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.

2012-12-01

305

Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?

To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie's method for Markov Chains (MC) simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of a high number of channels. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA). Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties—such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Goldwyn et al., 2011; Linaro et al., 2011; Dangerfield et al., 2012; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Güler, 2013; Huang et al., 2013a), comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that assess numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: (1) the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, (2) a model with faster sodium channels, and (3) a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for a low number of channels (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment) one should use MC—which is the fastest and most accurate method. For a high number of channels, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012), possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012) for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modeling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models—in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels. PMID:25404914

Pezo, Danilo; Soudry, Daniel; Orio, Patricio

2014-01-01

306

In the present paper, we test the suitability of ChCl/urea (DES-U) and ChCl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures, each one prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, for the production of agar films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and subsequent drying. The mechanical properties, water resistance and microstructure of the films were evaluated at different polymer concentrations (i.e. 2-6%, w/w). DES-U showed by far, the best film forming ability. Agreeing with the diffusion and SEM data, films with the best mechanical properties were found at the lowest and highest agar concentrations (tensile strengths of 24.2-42 MPa and elongations of 15.4-38.9%). The water sorption and contact angle studies suggested increased hydrophilicity for the film containing the lowest concentration of agar. The use of choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as solvent and plasticizer might be a promising tool for the development of new non-aqueous materials based on seaweed polysaccharides. PMID:25037344

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Latona, Nicholas; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2014-10-13

307

Electrode polarization analysis is frequently used to determine free-ion diffusivity and number density in ionic conductors. In the present study, this approach is critically examined in a wide variety of electrolytes, including aqueous and nonaqueous solutions, polymer electrolytes, and ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrode polarization analysis based on theMacdonald-Trukhan model [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 144903 (2006); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 3064 (2011)] progressively fails to give reasonable values of free-ion diffusivity and number density with increasing salt concentration. This should be expected because the original model of electrode polarization is designed for dilute electrolytes. An empirical correction method which yields ion diffusivities in reasonable agreement with pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements is proposed. However, the analysis of free-ion diffusivity and number density from electrode polarization should still be exercised with great caution because there is no solid theoretical justification for the proposed corrections.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL; Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Berman, Marc [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Greenbaum, Steve [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2013-01-01

308

A reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap Sterile Insect Release Method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sterile Insect Release Method (SIRM) is used as a biological control for invasive insect species. SIRM involves introducing large quantities of sterilized male insects into a wild population of invading insects. A fertile/sterile mating produces offspring that are not viable and the wild insect population will eventually be eradicated. A U.S. government program maintains a permanent sterile fly barrier zone in the Darien Gap between Panama and Columbia to control the screwworm fly (Cochliomyia Hominivorax), an insect that feeds off of living tissue in mammals and has devastating effects on livestock. This barrier zone is maintained by regular releases of massive quantities of sterilized male screwworm flies from aircraft. We analyze a reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap barrier zone. Simulations of the model equations yield two types of spatially inhomogeneous steady-state solutions representing a sterile fly barrier that does not prevent invasion and a barrier that does prevent invasion. We investigate steady-state solutions using both phase plane methods and monotone iteration methods and describe how barrier width and the sterile fly release rate affects steady-state behavior.

Alford, John G.

2015-05-01

309

In this work a new method is proposed for the choice of basis functions in diffusion theory (DT) calculations. This method, named hybrid basis approach (HBA), combines the two previously adopted long time sorting procedure (LTSP) and maximum correlation approximation (MCA) techniques; the first emphasizing contributions from the long time dynamics, the latter being based on the local correlations along the chain. In order to fulfill this task, the HBA procedure employs a first order basis set corresponding to a high order MCA one and generates upper order approximations according to LTSP. A test of the method is made first on a melt of cis-1,4-polyisoprene decamers where HBA and LTSP are compared in terms of efficiency. Both convergence properties and numerical stability are improved by the use of the HBA basis set whose performance is evaluated on local dynamics, by computing the correlation times of selected bond vectors along the chain, and on global ones, through the eigenvalues of the diffusion operator L. Further use of the DT with a HBA basis set has been made on a 71-mer of syndiotactic trans-1,2-polypentadiene in toluene solution, whose dynamical properties have been computed with a high order calculation and compared to the "numerical experiment" provided by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit solvent. The necessary equilibrium averages have been obtained by a vacuum trajectory of the chain where solvent effects on conformational properties have been reproduced with a proper screening of the nonbonded interactions, corresponding to a definite value of the mean radius of gyration of the polymer in vacuum. Results show a very good agreement between DT calculations and the MD numerical experiment. This suggests a further use of DT methods with the necessary input quantities obtained by the only knowledge of some experimental values, i.e., the mean radius of gyration of the chain and the viscosity of the solution, and by a suitable vacuum trajectory, with great savings in computational time required. This offers a theoretical bridge between the experimental static and dynamical properties of polymers. PMID:18601319

Gaspari, Roberto; Rapallo, Arnaldo

2008-06-28

310

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a new method is proposed for the choice of basis functions in diffusion theory (DT) calculations. This method, named hybrid basis approach (HBA), combines the two previously adopted long time sorting procedure (LTSP) and maximum correlation approximation (MCA) techniques; the first emphasizing contributions from the long time dynamics, the latter being based on the local correlations along the chain. In order to fulfill this task, the HBA procedure employs a first order basis set corresponding to a high order MCA one and generates upper order approximations according to LTSP. A test of the method is made first on a melt of cis-1,4-polyisoprene decamers where HBA and LTSP are compared in terms of efficiency. Both convergence properties and numerical stability are improved by the use of the HBA basis set whose performance is evaluated on local dynamics, by computing the correlation times of selected bond vectors along the chain, and on global ones, through the eigenvalues of the diffusion operator . Further use of the DT with a HBA basis set has been made on a 71-mer of syndiotactic trans-1,2-polypentadiene in toluene solution, whose dynamical properties have been computed with a high order calculation and compared to the ``numerical experiment'' provided by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit solvent. The necessary equilibrium averages have been obtained by a vacuum trajectory of the chain where solvent effects on conformational properties have been reproduced with a proper screening of the nonbonded interactions, corresponding to a definite value of the mean radius of gyration of the polymer in vacuum. Results show a very good agreement between DT calculations and the MD numerical experiment. This suggests a further use of DT methods with the necessary input quantities obtained by the only knowledge of some experimental values, i.e., the mean radius of gyration of the chain and the viscosity of the solution, and by a suitable vacuum trajectory, with great savings in computational time required. This offers a theoretical bridge between the experimental static and dynamical properties of polymers.

Gaspari, Roberto; Rapallo, Arnaldo

2008-06-01

311

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

2009-04-01

312

This paper describes two new nodal methods for solving the multigroup neutron diffusion and transport equations in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry. These methods have been developed for the global analysis of fast-reactor critical experiments once cell-averaged multigroup cross sections for each matrix position or drawer have been computed using appropriate cell-homogenization procedures. Brief descriptions of the nodal diffusion and transport schemes are presented, along with results of two- and three-dimensional calculations for a current Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR) configuration.

Lawrence, R.D.

1984-01-01

313

Oxygen diffusion-concentration product in rhodopsin as observed by a pulse ESR spin labeling method.

Permeation of molecular oxygen in rhodopsin, an integral membrane protein, has been investigated by monitoring the bimolecular collision rate between molecular oxygen and the nitroxide spin label using a pulse electron spin resonance (ESR) T1 method. Rhodopsin was labeled by regeneration with the spin-labeled 9-cis retinal analogue in which the beta-ionone ring of retinal is replaced by the nitroxide tetramethyl-oxypyrrolidine ring. The bimolecular collision rate was evaluated in terms of an experimental parameter W(x), defined as T1(-1)(air,x)--T1(-1)(N2,x) where T1's are the spin-lattice relaxation times of the nitroxide in samples equilibrated with atmospheric air and nitrogen respectively, which is proportional to the product of local oxygen concentration and local diffusion coefficient (transport). W-values at the beta-ionone binding site in spin-labeled rhodopsin are in the range of 0.02-0.13 microseconds-1, which are 10-60 times smaller than W's in water and 1.1-20 times smaller than in model membranes in the gel phase, indicating that membrane proteins create significant permeation resistance to transport of molecular oxygen inside and across the membrane. W(thereby the oxygen diffusion-concentration product) is larger in the meta II-enriched sample than in rhodopsin, indicating light-induced conformational changes of opsin around the beta-ionone binding site. W decreases with increase of temperature for both rhodopsin and meta II-enriched samples, suggesting that temperature-induced conformational changes take place in both samples. These changes were not observable using conventional ESR spectroscopy. It is concluded that W is a sensitive monitor of conformational changes of proteins. PMID:1330032

Subczynski, W K; Renk, G E; Crouch, R K; Hyde, J S; Kusumi, A

1992-01-01

314

Study of protonic diffusion in hydrogen uranyl phosphate using a pulsed field gradient NMR method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of 1H in the fast protonic conductor H(UO 2PO 4) · 4H 2O has been investigated as a function of temperature by employing pulsed field gradient NMR measurements. In the light of the present diffusion results and published conductivity observations on the same compound, it is likely that protonic diffusion and conductivity in this material occur by the same mechanism. Possible mechanistic processes for the proton motion in this material which are consistent with the activation energy for protonic diffusion found in this study are briefly discussed.

Tsai, Y.-T.; Halperin, W. P.; Whitmore, D. H.

1983-12-01

315

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

316

Bifurcation analysis of brown tide by reaction-diffusion equation using finite element method

In this paper, we analyze the bifurcation of a biodynamics system in a two-dimensional domain by virtue of reaction-diffusion equations. The discretization method in space is the finite element method. The computational algorithm for an eigenspectrum is described in detail. On the basis of an analysis of eigenspectra according to Helmholtz`s equation, the discrete spectra in regards to the physical variables are numerically obtained in two-dimensional space. In order to investigate this mathematical model in regards to its practical use, we analyzed the stability of two cases, i.e., hydranth regeneration in the marine hydroid Tubularia and a brown tide in a harbor in Japan. By evaluating the stability according to the linearized stability definition, the critical parameters for outbreaks of brown tide can be theoretically determined. In addition, results for the linear combination of eigenspectrum coincide with the distribution of the observed brown tide. Its periodic characteristic was also verified. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Kawahara, Mutsuto; Ding, Yan [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-01

317

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) signals reflect information about underlying tissue microstructure and cytoarchitecture. We propose a quantitative, efficient, and robust mathematical and physical framework for representing diffusion-weighted MR imaging (MRI) data obtained in “q-space,” and the corresponding “mean apparent propagator (MAP)” describing molecular displacements in “r-space.” We also define and map novel quantitative descriptors of diffusion that can be computed robustly using this MAP-MRI framework. We describe efficient analytical representation of the three-dimensional q-space MR signal in a series expansion of basis functions that accurately describes diffusion in many complex geometries. The lowest order term in this expansion contains a diffusion tensor that characterizes the Gaussian displacement distribution, equivalent to diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). Inclusion of higher order terms enables the reconstruction of the true average propagator whose projection onto the unit “displacement” sphere provides an orientational distribution function (ODF) that contains only the orientational dependence of the diffusion process. The representation characterizes novel features of diffusion anisotropy and the non-Gaussian character of the three-dimensional diffusion process. Other important measures this representation provides include the return-to-the-origin probability (RTOP), and its variants for diffusion in one- and two-dimensions—the return-to-the-plane probability (RTPP), and the return-to-the-axis probability (RTAP), respectively. These zero net displacement probabilities measure the mean compartment (pore) volume and cross-sectional area in distributions of isolated pores irrespective of the pore shape. MAP-MRI represents a new comprehensive framework to model the three-dimensional q-space signal and transform it into diffusion propagators. Experiments on an excised marmoset brain specimen demonstrate that MAP-MRI provides several novel, quantifiable parameters that capture previously obscured intrinsic features of nervous tissue microstructure. This should prove helpful for investigating the functional organization of normal and pathologic nervous tissue. PMID:23587694

Özarslan, Evren; Koay, Cheng Guan; Shepherd, Timothy M.; Komlosh, Michal E.; ?rfano?lu, M. Okan; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.

2014-01-01

318

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) signals reflect information about underlying tissue microstructure and cytoarchitecture. We propose a quantitative, efficient, and robust mathematical and physical framework for representing diffusion-weighted MR imaging (MRI) data obtained in "q-space," and the corresponding "mean apparent propagator (MAP)" describing molecular displacements in "r-space." We also define and map novel quantitative descriptors of diffusion that can be computed robustly using this MAP-MRI framework. We describe efficient analytical representation of the three-dimensional q-space MR signal in a series expansion of basis functions that accurately describes diffusion in many complex geometries. The lowest order term in this expansion contains a diffusion tensor that characterizes the Gaussian displacement distribution, equivalent to diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). Inclusion of higher order terms enables the reconstruction of the true average propagator whose projection onto the unit "displacement" sphere provides an orientational distribution function (ODF) that contains only the orientational dependence of the diffusion process. The representation characterizes novel features of diffusion anisotropy and the non-Gaussian character of the three-dimensional diffusion process. Other important measures this representation provides include the return-to-the-origin probability (RTOP), and its variants for diffusion in one- and two-dimensions-the return-to-the-plane probability (RTPP), and the return-to-the-axis probability (RTAP), respectively. These zero net displacement probabilities measure the mean compartment (pore) volume and cross-sectional area in distributions of isolated pores irrespective of the pore shape. MAP-MRI represents a new comprehensive framework to model the three-dimensional q-space signal and transform it into diffusion propagators. Experiments on an excised marmoset brain specimen demonstrate that MAP-MRI provides several novel, quantifiable parameters that capture previously obscured intrinsic features of nervous tissue microstructure. This should prove helpful for investigating the functional organization of normal and pathologic nervous tissue. PMID:23587694

Özarslan, Evren; Koay, Cheng Guan; Shepherd, Timothy M; Komlosh, Michal E; ?rfano?lu, M Okan; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J

2013-09-01

319

Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1.5% sucrose) with a drop of yeast paste for the required amount of time. 2. Age as required at 25C. 3. With a brush and distilled water transfer the embryos into an egg basket. (egg baskets can be made by cutting

320

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is equipped with two lasers of different wavelengths was used to conduct high resolution measurements of concentration profiles of a ternary mixture inside a diffusion cell. Windowed Fourier transform along with an advanced unwrapping procedure was employed to extract the phase image from fringe images. Then the phase difference was obtained for a spatial resolution of 1920×1240. According to the measured refractive index profile, concentration contours of two components (out of three) were measured. Consequently, the concentration profile of the third components was calculated. Previously, the analytical solution for binary mixtures was used to estimate only the pure diffusion coefficients. In this study, for the first time, the refractive indices measured by two lasers along with the analytical solution for the ternary system, based on Fick's law, and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) known as a genetic algorithm (GA) were employed to measure the pure and cross diffusion coefficients of a transparent ternary mixture simultaneously. The optimization method to estimate diffusion coefficients was tested against various objective functions, and the best approach was that which was proposed herein. In order to validate the proposed measurement method, the experimental results of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures (SODI-DCMIX1 project) on board the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed using this technique and the obtained results were compared with previous techniques.

Ahadi, Amirhossein; Saghir, M. Ziad

2014-08-01

321

A Simple Educational Method for the Measurement of Liquid Binary Diffusivities

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple low-cost experiment has been developed for the measurement of the binary diffusion coefficients of liquid substances. The experiment is suitable for demonstrating molecular diffusion to small or large undergraduate classes in chemistry or chemical engineering. Students use a cell phone camera in conjunction with open-source image…

Rice, Nicholas P.; de Beer, Martin P.; Williamson, Mark E.

2014-01-01

322

Hybrid Monte Carlo-Diffusion Method For Light Propagation in Tissue With a Low-Scattering Region

The heterogeneity of the tissues in a head, especially the low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer surrounding the brain has previously been shown to strongly affect light propagation in the brain. The radiosity-diffusion method, in which the light propagation in the CSF layer is assumed to obey the radiosity theory, has been employed to predict the light propagation in head models.

Toshiyuki Hayashi; Yoshihiko Kashio; Eiji Okada

2003-01-01

323

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

324

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting…

Artun, Huseyin; Costu, Bayram

2013-01-01

325

Diffusion of small molecules into glassy polymers is quite complicated and almost always non-Fickian. Little work has been done with the diffusion of low molecular weight polymers that are liquids at room temperature (such as poly(dodecyl acrylate)) into their miscible monomers. We have studied three molecular weights under 20 000 to determine if poly(dodecyl acrylate) diffusion into dodecyl acrylate could be treated with Fick's law and if so to determine the values of the diffusion coefficients. We compare two methods for measuring the diffusion of dodecyl acrylate into poly(dodecyl acrylate): We used laser line deflection (Wiener's method) and improved upon the method from published reports. We also used the dependence of pyrene's fluorescence on the viscosity to measure the concentration distribution, and thus to extract the diffusion coefficient. After an initial relaxation period, diffusion in all cases followed Fick's law with a single concentration-independent diffusion coefficient. Comparison of the diffusion coefficients obtained by both methods yielded the same order of magnitude for the diffusion coefficients (10(-7) cm2/s) and showed the same trend in the dependence on the average molecular weight of the polymer (a decrease in the diffusion coefficient with an increase in the molecular weight). PMID:16852454

Antrim, Daniel; Bunton, Patrick; Lewis, Lydia Lee; Zoltowski, Brian D; Pojman, John A

2005-06-16

326

Spatial stochastic simulation is a valuable technique for studying reactions in biological systems. With the availability of high-performance computing, the method is poised to allow integration of data from structural, single-molecule, and biochemical studies into coherent computational models of cells. Here we introduce the Lattice Microbes software package for simulating such cell models on high-performance computing systems. The software performs either well-stirred or spatially resolved stochastic simulations with approximated cytoplasmic crowding in a fast and efficient manner. Our new algorithm efficiently samples the reaction-diffusion master equation using NVIDIA GPUs and is shown to be two orders of magnitude faster than exact sampling for large systems while maintaining an accuracy of ?0.1%. Display of cell models and animation of reaction trajectories involving millions of molecules is facilitated using a plug-in to the popular VMD visualization platform. The Lattice Microbes software is open source and available for download at http://www.scs.illinois.edu/schulten/lm. PMID:23007888

Roberts, Elijah; Stone, John E.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

2013-01-01

327

Comparison of dialysis membrane diffusion samplers and two purging methods in bedrock wells

Collection of ground-water samples from bedrock wells using low-flow purging techniques is problematic because of the random spacing, variable hydraulic conductivity, and variable contamination of contributing fractures in each well's open interval. To test alternatives to this purging method, a field comparison of three ground-water-sampling techniques was conducted on wells in fractured bedrock at a site contaminated primarily with volatile organic compounds. Constituent concentrations in samples collected with a diffusion sampler constructed from dialysis membrane material were compared to those in samples collected from the same wells with a standard low-flow purging technique and a hybrid (high-flow/low-flow) purging technique. Concentrations of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, calcium, chloride, and alkalinity agreed well among samples collected with all three techniques in 9 of the 10 wells tested. Iron concentrations varied more than those of the other parameters, but their pattern of variation was not consistent. Overall, the results of nonparametric analysis of variance testing on the nine wells sampled twice showed no statistically significant difference at the 95-percent confidence level among the concentrations of volatile organic compounds or inorganic constituents recovered by use of any of the three sampling techniques.

Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Ehlke, T.A.; Lacombe, P.J.; Dale, J.M.

2002-01-01

328

Secure Multicast Tree Structure Generation Method for Directed Diffusion Using A* Algorithms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of wireless sensor networks to areas such as combat field surveillance, terrorist tracking, and highway traffic monitoring requires secure communication among the sensor nodes within the networks. Logical key hierarchy (LKH) is a tree based key management model which provides secure group communication. When a sensor node is added or evicted from the communication group, LKH updates the group key in order to ensure the security of the communications. In order to efficiently update the group key in directed diffusion, we propose a method for secure multicast tree structure generation, an extension to LKH that reduces the number of re-keying messages by considering the addition and eviction ratios of the history data. For the generation of the proposed key tree structure the A* algorithm is applied, in which the branching factor at each level can take on different value. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed key tree structure against the existing key tree structures of fixed branching factors.

Kim, Jin Myoung; Lee, Hae Young; Cho, Tae Ho

329

Because of its extremely high thermal conductivity, measuring the thermal conductivity or diffusivity of optical-grade diamond can be challenging. Various methods have been used to measure the thermal conductivity of thick diamond films. For the purposes of commercial quality control, the AC laser calorimetry method is appealing because it enables fairly rapid and convenient sample preparation and measurement. In this paper, the method is used to measure the thermal diffusivity of optical diamond. It is found that sample dimensions and measurement parameters are critical, and data analysis must be performed with great care. The results suggest that the method as it is applied to optical-grade diamond could be enhanced by a more powerful laser, higher frequency beam modulation, and post-processing based on 2D thermal simulation.

Rule, Toby D. [II-VI Incorporated; Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01

330

Detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a challenge, especially low-level resistance, which is often misdiagnosed. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the automated Vitek 2 system and disk diffusion tests, using cefoxitin and moxalactam, for the detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus strains. Four sets of genotypically diverse isolates were selected from a national reference collection, including mecA-negative S. aureus isolates (n = 56), hospital-acquired (n = 88) and community-acquired (n = 40) S. aureus isolates, and heterogeneous methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (n = 29). Oxacillin susceptibility was tested by the Vitek 2 system with the AST P549 card and by disk diffusion methods using 10, 30, and 60 ?g cefoxitin and 30 ?g moxalactam. Oxacillin resistance was confirmed by PCR for the mecA gene. The overall sensitivities for oxacillin resistance detection were 97.5% for the Vitek 2 automated system, 98.7% for 60-?g cefoxitin and moxalactam disk diffusion, and 99.6% for 10- and 30-?g cefoxitin disks, respectively. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were correctly reported as susceptible by all methods. The median times for methicillin testing were 7 h for the Vitek 2 system versus 24 h for disk diffusion methods. In conclusion, the cefoxitin and moxalactam disk diffusion methods and the Vitek 2 automated system are highly accurate methods for methicillin resistance detection, including a range of representative Belgian methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains and unusual strains exhibiting cryptic or low-level oxacillin resistance. PMID:18550733

Roisin, Sandrine; Nonhoff, Claire; Denis, Olivier; Struelens, Marc J.

2008-01-01

331

Detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a challenge, especially low-level resistance, which is often misdiagnosed. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the automated Vitek 2 system and disk diffusion tests, using cefoxitin and moxalactam, for the detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus strains. Four sets of genotypically diverse isolates were selected from a national reference collection, including mecA-negative S. aureus isolates (n = 56), hospital-acquired (n = 88) and community-acquired (n = 40) S. aureus isolates, and heterogeneous methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (n = 29). Oxacillin susceptibility was tested by the Vitek 2 system with the AST P549 card and by disk diffusion methods using 10, 30, and 60 microg cefoxitin and 30 microg moxalactam. Oxacillin resistance was confirmed by PCR for the mecA gene. The overall sensitivities for oxacillin resistance detection were 97.5% for the Vitek 2 automated system, 98.7% for 60-microg cefoxitin and moxalactam disk diffusion, and 99.6% for 10- and 30-microg cefoxitin disks, respectively. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were correctly reported as susceptible by all methods. The median times for methicillin testing were 7 h for the Vitek 2 system versus 24 h for disk diffusion methods. In conclusion, the cefoxitin and moxalactam disk diffusion methods and the Vitek 2 automated system are highly accurate methods for methicillin resistance detection, including a range of representative Belgian methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains and unusual strains exhibiting cryptic or low-level oxacillin resistance. PMID:18550733

Roisin, Sandrine; Nonhoff, Claire; Denis, Olivier; Struelens, Marc J

2008-08-01

332

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a great majority of educational cases, testing of materials in the laboratory implies destructive techniques consisting of using universal testing machines (UTMs), where materials are brought to a failure condition under tension, compression, shear, bending or torsion. Common objectives associated with these types of tests are: the evaluation of materials moduli of elasticity and rigidity, yield strength, strain, ultimate strength, etc. In engineering practice, however, in-situ nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials are highly preferable, in order to evaluate rapidly the condition, failure potential, usefulness and serviceability of engineering materials. Thus, nondestructive testing of materials ought to be an essential ingredient of engineering education and training, since it plays a significant role in design, manufacturing and evaluation of engineering equipment. This paper presents an inexpensive, simple and effective method to convey to engineering students the underlying principles of NDT, based on an innovative technique referred to as Capillary Diffusion Method (CDM), which is classified within the category of non-destructive Penetrant Testing (PT). CDM is relatively unknown in the United States, but, it has been used for several years in the former Soviet Union, and more recently, in the Russian Federation. CDM proves to be quite versatile and considerably faster than conventional PT techniques used in the U.S. In this paper, the underlying science behind the CDM technique is discussed in detail, as well as, the academic benefits and educational potential derived from the inclusion of CDM in engineering academic curriculum. Mathematical, graphical and numerical documentation are presented in order to substantiate the suitability of CDM as an educational tool to teach Nondestructive Testing in engineering programs such as: Mechanical engineering, Chemical engineering, Civil engineering, Aeronautical, Aerospace engineering, Power Plant Engineering, and Nuclear engineering.

Berezkina, Nadezda

333

[Development of chromogenic agar medium for isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26].

Agar media for isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have been developed primarily for E. coli O157, because this bacterium has most frequently caused EHEC infection. However, there have been few studies for isolation of other serotypes of EHEC, and media appropriate for isolation of such organisms, especially from food samples, are not yet available. Among such serotypes, E. coli O26 has often been isolated from clinical specimens from patients and animals, but not from food samples in outbreaks, because of lack of an appropriate method for isolation. In this study, we tried to develop a new chromogenic agar medium for selective isolation of E. coli O26 using the characteristics of E. coli O26. Fifteen strains of E. coli O26, 11 strains of E. coli O157 and 36 strains of other sero-types E. coli were tested for fermentation of rhamnose, cellobiose, dulcitol, salicin, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, lactose, mannitol, arabinose, maltose, xylose and glucose. Rhamnose was fermented by all E. coli strains except for E. coli O26. The other substrates were not effective for differentiating E. coli O26 from the other strains of E. coli. Thus the medium containing rhamnose and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, which is a substrate of beta-galactosidase specific to coliforms, produced a color of E. coli O26 colonies different from colors of the other bacteria. Furthermore, cefixime and sodium tellulite were added to the composition of the medium for gaining higher selectivity. PMID:11357319

Ikedo, M; Komatsu, O; Hara-Kudo, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kumagai, S

2001-04-01

334

To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to pumped-sampling methods in a long-term monitoring program, such as at the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2005-01-01

335

[A stat-method of determining antibiotic concentration in biological fluids].

The rapid method for measuring antibiotic concentrations in biologic substrates, developed by the authors, is based on the suppression of Staphylococcus aureus 209 P test culture dehydrogenase activity. Comparison of the rapid method and the routine agar diffusion test has shown a high correlation of the results, the correlation coefficient r being 0.84-0.93 and its probability 99.9%. The new technique permits getting an answer in 4 hours, is simple, and saves nutrient media. PMID:2481139

Pasternak, N A; Shenderovich, V A; Ved'mina, E A

1989-01-01

336

Phenomenological model of diffuse global and regional atrophy using finite-element methods.

The main goal of this work is the generation of ground-truth data for the validation of atrophy measurement techniques, commonly used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. Several techniques have been used to measure atrophy in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, but it is extremely difficult to compare their performance since they have been applied to different patient populations. Furthermore, assessment of performance based on phantom measurements or simple scaled images overestimates these techniques' ability to capture the complexity of neurodegeneration of the human brain. We propose a method for atrophy simulation in structural magnetic resonance (MR) images based on finite-element methods. The method produces cohorts of brain images with known change that is physically and clinically plausible, providing data for objective evaluation of atrophy measurement techniques. Atrophy is simulated in different tissue compartments or in different neuroanatomical structures with a phenomenological model. This model of diffuse global and regional atrophy is based on volumetric measurements such as the brain or the hippocampus, from patients with known disease and guided by clinical knowledge of the relative pathological involvement of regions and tissues. The consequent biomechanical readjustment of structures is modelled using conventional physics-based techniques based on biomechanical tissue properties and simulating plausible tissue deformations with finite-element methods. A thermoelastic model of tissue deformation is employed, controlling the rate of progression of atrophy by means of a set of thermal coefficients, each one corresponding to a different type of tissue. Tissue characterization is performed by means of the meshing of a labelled brain atlas, creating a reference volumetric mesh that will be introduced to a finite-element solver to create the simulated deformations. Preliminary work on the simulation of acquisition artefacts is also presented. Cross-sectional and longitudinal sets of simulated data are shown and a visual classification protocol has been used by experts to rate real and simulated scans according to their degree of atrophy. Results confirm the potential of the proposed methodology. PMID:17117771

Camara, Oscar; Schweiger, Martin; Scahill, Rachael I; Crum, William R; Sneller, Beatrix I; Schnabel, Julia A; Ridgway, Gerard R; Cash, David M; Hill, Derek L G; Fox, Nick C

2006-11-01

337

Investigation to develop a method to apply diffusion barrier to high strength fibers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radio frequency powered ion plating process was used to apply the diffusion barriers of aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide and titanium carbide to a substrate tungsten fiber. Each of the coatings was examined as to its effect on both room temperature strength and tensile strength of the base tungsten fiber. The coated fibers were then overcoated with a nickel alloy to become single cell diffusion couples. These diffusion couples were exposed to 1093 C for 24 hours, cycled between room temperature and 1093 C, and given a thermal anneal for 100 hours at 1200 C. Tensile testing and metallographic examinations determined that the hafnium oxide coating produced the best high temperature diffusion barrier for tungsten of the four coatings.

Veltri, R. D.; Paradis, R. D.; Douglas, F. C.

1975-01-01

338

DEVELOPMENT OF SPLIT-OPERATOR, PETROV-GALERKIN METHODS TO STIMULATE TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

The rate at which contaminants in groundwater undergo sorption and desorption is routinely described using diffusion models. uch approaches, when incorporated into transport models, lead to large systems of coupled equations, often nonlinear. his has restricted applications of co...

339

DEVELOPMENT OF SPLIT-OPERATOR, PETROV-GALERKIN METHODS TO SIMULATE TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

The rate at which contaminants in groundwater undergo sorption and desorption is routinely described using diffusion models. Such approaches, when incorporated into transport models, lead to large systems of coupled equations, often nonlinear. This has restricted applications of ...

340

Simplified, accurate method for antibiotic assay of clinical specimens.

Large glass plates are used for this modified agar-well diffusion assay method, allowing up to 81 replications on a single plate. With a specially designed agar punch, it is possible to prepare the small agar wells very quickly. The saving in serum resulting from fewer replications of standards with the large plates, and the small volume of the agar wells, makes it economically feasible to use pooled human serum for the standard antibiotic solutions. Methods are described for preparing the standard solutions, and for providing controls for the deterioration of standards and unknowns. Procedures for preparing and maintaining the commonly used assay organisms are presented. Serum specimens are tested directly rather than diluting them to a narrow range of antibiotic concentrations. This is possible because of a procedure for calculations that recognizes the curvilinear relationship between zone sizes and antibiotic concentrations. Adaptation of this method to a number of the commonly used antibiotics is described. With this method, it has been possible to test large numbers of clinical specimens in a minimal time, and with accuracy consistently better than 10%. PMID:4959982

Bennett, J V; Brodie, J L; Benner, E J; Kirby, W M

1966-03-01

341

This paper begins by giving the results obtained by the Crank-Gupta method and Gupta-Banik method for the oxygen diffusion problem in absorbing tissue, and then we propose a new resolution method for this problem by the Adomian decomposition method. An approximate analytical solution is obtained, which is demonstrated to be quite accurate by comparison with the numerical and approximate solutions obtained by Crank and Gupta. The study confirms the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm for analytic approximate solutions of this problem. PMID:25165743

Bougoffa, Lazhar

2014-01-01

342

The ability to detect and isolate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major challenge for food microbiologists. Although methods based on nucleic acids and antibodies have improved detection of STECs in foods, isolation of these bacteria remains arduous. STEC isolation is necessary for matching food, environmental, and clinical isolates during outbreak investigations and for distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C (SHIBAM) is a modification of washed sheep blood agar prepared by adding mitomycin-C and optimizing both the washed blood and base agar to better isolate STECs. Most STEC isolates produce a zone of hemolysis on SHIBAM plates and are easily distinguishable from background microbiota. Here, we present data supporting the use of SHIBAM to isolate STECs from fresh produce. SHIBAM was tested for accuracy in identifying STECs (365 of 410 STEC strains were hemolytic, and 63 of 73 E. coli strains that did not produce Shiga toxin were not hemolytic) and for recovery from artificially inoculated fresh produce (11 of 24 romaine lettuce samples and 6 of 24 tomato samples). STEC recovery with SHIBAM agar was greatly improved when compared with recovery on Levine's eosin-methylene blue agar as a reference method. PMID:23127712

Lin, Andrew; Nguyen, Lam; Clotilde, Laurie M; Kase, Julie A; Son, Insook; Lauzon, Carol R

2012-11-01

343

An improved design method and experimental performance of two dimensional curved wall diffusers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer design program was developed to incorporate the suction slots in solving the potential flow equations with prescribed boundary conditions. Using the contour generated from this program two Griffith diffusers were tested having area ratios AR = 3 and 4. The inlet Reynolds number ranged from 600,000 to 7 million. It was found that the slot suction required for metastable operation depends on the sidewall suction applied. Values of slot suction of 8% of the inlet flow rate was required for AR = 4 with metastable condition, provided that enough sidewall suction was applied. For AR = 3, the values of slot suction was about 25% lower than those required for AR = 4. For nearly all unseparated test runs, the effectiveness was 100% and the exit flow was uniform. In addition to the Griffith diffusers, dump and cusp diffusers of comparable area ratios were built and tested. The results obtained from these diffusers were compared with those of the Griffith diffusers. Flow separation occurred in all test runs with the dump and cusp diffusers.

Yang, T.; Hudson, W. G.; El-Nashar, A. M.

1972-01-01

344

Primer on Agar-Based Microbial Imaging Mass Spectrometry

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) applied directly to microbes on agar-based medium captures global information about microbial molecules, allowing for direct correlation of chemotypes to phenotypes. This tool was developed to investigate metabolic exchange factors of intraspecies, interspecies, and polymicrobial interactions. Based on our experience of the thousands of images we have generated in the laboratory, we present five steps of microbial IMS: culturing, matrix application, dehydration of the sample, data acquisition, and data analysis/interpretation. We also address the common challenges encountered during sample preparation, matrix selection and application, and sample adherence to the MALDI target plate. With the practical guidelines described herein, microbial IMS use can be extended to bio-based agricultural, biofuel, diagnostic, and therapeutic discovery applications. PMID:22821974

Yang, Jane Y.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; Simkovsky, Ryan; Watrous, Jeramie D.; Trial, Rachelle M.; Fleming, Tinya C.; Wenter, Roland; Moore, Bradley S.; Golden, Susan S.; Pogliano, Kit

2012-01-01

345

Wetting dynamics of colloidal dispersions on agar gel surfaces.

The effects of silica particle addition on the wetting velocity on flat and fractal agar gel surfaces were analyzed along with the applicability of such particles for controlling the wetting dynamics of water. The contact angles (?D) of the colloidal dispersions obeyed the power law, i.e., ?D?t(-x), where t is time and x is a constant. Wetting was inhibited by the addition of a suitable amount of 20-nm-diameter silica particles. Specifically, the exponent x reached a minimum value for a silica composition of 0.1wt%. However, such inhibition effects were not observed upon the addition of silica particles with diameters of 100, 550, and, 1000nm. The mechanism of the inhibition of the liquid wetting on gel surfaces may be attributed to a slight increase in local viscosity around the contact line during wetting. PMID:25016539

Seino, Eri; Chida, Shigeki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Jun-ichi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

2014-10-01

346

Improvement of bacterial cellulose production by addition of agar in a jar fermentor.

Bacterial cellulose (BC) was produced by Acetobacter xylinum BPR 2001 and its acetan nonproducing mutant EP1 in corn steep liquor-fructose medium in a 10-l jar fermentor supplemented with different agar concentrations ranging from 0% to 1.0% (w/v). The BC productivity of the two strains was increased by adding agar. The maximum BC production of BPR 2001 at an agar concentration of 0.4% was 12.8 g/l compared with 8 g/l without agar. The mutant EP1 produced 11.6 g/l of BC at an agar concentration of 0.6%, while only 5.5 g/l was produced in the control. Enhanced productivity is associated with an increase in viscosity of the culture, dispersion of BC pellets, and number of free cells due to agar addition, suggesting that acetan produced by BPR 2001 has a critical role in enhanced BC production. PMID:16233586

Bae, Sangok; Sugano, Yasushi; Shoda, Makoto

2004-01-01

347

Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future epidemiological studies. Methods We measured NO2 using Palmes' diffusion tubes in 36 sites on streets chosen to be representative of different road types and traffic densities in São Paulo in two one-week periods (July and August 2000). In each study period, two tubes were installed in each site, and two additional tubes were installed in 10 control sites. Results Average NO2 concentrations were related to traffic density, observed on the spot, to number of vehicles counted, and to traffic density strata defined by the city Traffic Engineering Company (CET). Average NO2concentrations were 63?g/m3 and 49?g/m3 in the first and second periods, respectively. Dividing the sites by the observed traffic density, we found: heavy traffic (n = 17): 64?g/m3 (95% CI: 59?g/m3 – 68?g/m3); local traffic (n = 16): 48?g/m3 (95% CI: 44?g/m3 – 52?g/m3) (p < 0.001). Conclusion The differences in NO2 levels between heavy and local traffic sites are large enough to suggest the use of a more refined classification of exposure in epidemiological studies in the city. Number of vehicles counted, traffic density observed on the spot and traffic density strata defined by the CET might be used as a proxy for traffic exposure in São Paulo when more accurate measurements are not available. PMID:16772044

da Silva, Agnes Soares; Cardoso, Maria Regina; Meliefste, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert

2006-01-01

348

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because they improve absorption and bioavailability. The aim of the study was to prepare lipidic nanoparticles containing cyclosporine (CyA) by the emulsification-diffusion method and to study their physicochemical stability. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol® ATO 888) and lauroyl macrogolglycerides (Gelucire® 44/14) were used as carrier materials. Nanoparticles with good stability were obtained with Gelucire®, while it was difficult to obtain stable systems with Compritol®. Systems with Gelucire® were characterized by particle size, Z-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Particle size and Z-potential were evaluated for at least three months. With a high CyA content (?60 mg) in Gelucire® SLNs, variations in size were greater and particle size also increased over time in all batches; this effect may have been caused by a probable expulsion of the drug due to the lipid’s partial rearrangement. While the Z-potential decreased 10 mV after three months, this effect may be explained by the superficial properties of the drug that make the molecules to be preferably oriented at the solid-liquid interface, causing a change in the net charge of the particle. SEM confirmed size and shape of the nanoparticles. DSC studies evidenced that CyA affects the lipid structure by a mechanism still unknown. The entrapment efficiency was higher than 92%, and CyA release from SLNs was relatively fast (99.60% in 45 min). PMID:20856836

Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Ganem-Rondero, Adriana; Melgoza-Contreras, Luz María; Escobar-Chávez, José Juan; Nava-Arzaluz, María Guadalupe; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2010-01-01

349

To determine the optimal media for optochin susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we measured inhibition zones for 72 S. pneumoniae and 22 Streptococcus viridans isolates on three blood-containing media. Because 15.3, 0, and 22.2% of S. pneumoniae organisms were misidentified on Columbia agar, Trypticase soy agar (TSA), and Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively, each containing sheep blood, we recommend that TSA- sheep

M. A. GARDAM; M. A. MILLER; B. Davis-Jewish

1998-01-01

350

Effect of Different Commerical Agar Preparations on the Inhibitory Activities of Phenols

The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 11 phenolic inhibitors were compared in five commercial agars and in nutrient broth. It was found that the brand of agar affected the end point obtained for a particular inhibitor, and that the degree of antagonism varied with each compound studied. The results indicate that there are at least two deleterious factors present in agar, one of which is water-soluble and one which is not. The major portion of the total antagonism was due to the water-soluble factor, which could be removed by washing the agar in warm distilled water prior to use in the test medium. PMID:5959856

Sands, J. G.; Bennett, E. O.

1966-01-01

351

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a computational methodology to evaluate the conductivity tensors of "large-scale" systems in a magnetic field based on the time-dependent wave-packet diffusion method. As demonstrations, we first apply the method to the two-dimensional square lattice model with static disorder and confirm appropriate magnetic-field dependence of conductivities from weak to strong magnetic-field regimes. Furthermore, we extend the method to apply to realistic systems and evaluate the influence of dynamical disorder on the Hall effects of organic semiconductors, taking microscopic molecular vibrations into account.

Ishii, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Tsukada, Masaru; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

2014-10-01

352

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto collocation (L-GL-C) method is applied to solve the space-fractional advection diffusion equation with nonhomogeneous initial-boundary conditions. The Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points are used as collocation nodes for spatial fractional derivatives as well as the Caputo fractional derivative. This approach is reducing the problem to the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations in time which can be solved by using any standard numerical techniques. The proposed numerical solutions when compared with the exact solutions reveal that the obtained solution produces highly accurate results. The results show that the proposed method has high accuracy and is efficient for solving the space-fractional advection diffusion equation.

Bhrawy, A. H.; Baleanu, D.

2013-10-01

353

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-order compact finite difference method is presented for solving the three-dimensional (3D) time-fractional convection-diffusion equation (of order ??(1,2)). The original equation is first transformed to a fractional diffusion-wave equation, then using fourth-order Padé approximation for spatial derivatives and the center difference method for time derivative respectively, a fully discrete implicit compact scheme is obtained. Furthermore, based on different splitting terms, three unconditionally stable ADI compact schemes with optimal convergence order are developed respectively. The resulting schemes in each ADI solution step corresponding to a strictly diagonally dominant matrix equation can be solved using the 1D tridiagonal Thomas algorithm with a considerable saving in computing time. Numerical experiments show that these schemes can significantly improve the time accuracy.

Zhai, Shuying; Feng, Xinlong; He, Yinnian

2014-07-01

354

Non-immunological precipitation by the neutral detergent triton X-100 in agar gel diffusion.

Triton X-100 can be used to clarify vague immunoprecipitin lines from bacterial antigens; however, non-immunological precipitation can lead to mistaken interpretation of immunodiffusion results. If Triton X-100 is added directly to the gel during preparation rather than to the antigen well, this detergent artifact can be eliminated. PMID:6109516

Mansheim, B J; Stenstrom, M L

1980-12-01

355

Non-immunological precipitation by the neutral detergent triton X-100 in agar gel diffusion.

Triton X-100 can be used to clarify vague immunoprecipitin lines from bacterial antigens; however, non-immunological precipitation can lead to mistaken interpretation of immunodiffusion results. If Triton X-100 is added directly to the gel during preparation rather than to the antigen well, this detergent artifact can be eliminated. Images PMID:6109516

Mansheim, B J; Stenstrom, M L

1980-01-01

356

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements are reported of the diffusion constant D(T) for xenon gas, in the form of the radioisotope 133Xe, through liquid n-octane, n-decane, and n-tetradecane, in the range 10-40 °C. The values range from D (10.0 °C, Xe?n-C14H30)=1.32×10-5 cm2/s to D (40.0 °C, Xe?n-C8H18)=6.02×10-5 cm2/s. A new experimental method is used in which D is obtained by monitoring the decrease in concentration as gas diffuses into the liquid in an effectively one-dimensional geometry. As expected, the results do not agree with the Stokes-Einstein law. They do follow the usual correlation D?p=AT, with p=0.708 and A=9.80×10-8, where ? is the liquid viscosity in centipoises and T is in K. Application to these results of the rough-hard-sphere theory of diffusion is discussed. A quantitative analysis cannot be made until molecular dynamics results for smooth-hard-sphere diffusion are available.

Pollack, Gerald L.; Kennan, Richard P.; Himm, Jeffrey F.; Stump, Daniel R.

1990-01-01

357

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an extension of the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method, an atomistic activation-relaxation technique for sampling transition-state pathways. The extended algorithm (ABC-E) allows the sampling of multiple transition pathways from a given minimum, with the additional feature of identifying the pathways in the order of increasing activation barriers, thereby prioritizing them according to their importance in the kinetics. Combined with on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo calculations, the method is applied to simulate the anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr. Multiple migration mechanisms are identified for both the interstitials and vacancies, and benchmarked against results from other methods in the literature. The self-interstitial atom (SIA) diffusion kinetics shows a maximum anisotropy at intermediate temperatures (400~700?K), a non-monotonic behavior that we explain to originate from the stabilities and migration mechanisms associated with different SIA sites. The accuracy of the ABC-E calculations is validated, in part, by the existing results in the literature for point defect diffusion in hcp Zr, and by benchmarking against analytical results on a hypothetical rough-energy landscape. Lastly, sampling prioritization and computational efficiency are demonstrated through a direct comparison between the ABC-E and the activation relaxation technique.

Fan, Yue; Yip, Sidney; Yildiz, Bilge

2014-09-01

358

This paper presents an extension of the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method, an atomistic activation-relaxation technique for sampling transition-state pathways. The extended algorithm (ABC-E) allows the sampling of multiple transition pathways from a given minimum, with the additional feature of identifying the pathways in the order of increasing activation barriers, thereby prioritizing them according to their importance in the kinetics. Combined with on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo calculations, the method is applied to simulate the anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr. Multiple migration mechanisms are identified for both the interstitials and vacancies, and benchmarked against results from other methods in the literature. The self-interstitial atom (SIA) diffusion kinetics shows a maximum anisotropy at intermediate temperatures (400~700 K), a non-monotonic behavior that we explain to originate from the stabilities and migration mechanisms associated with different SIA sites. The accuracy of the ABC-E calculations is validated, in part, by the existing results in the literature for point defect diffusion in hcp Zr, and by benchmarking against analytical results on a hypothetical rough-energy landscape. Lastly, sampling prioritization and computational efficiency are demonstrated through a direct comparison between the ABC-E and the activation relaxation technique. PMID:25134625

Fan, Yue; Yip, Sidney; Yildiz, Bilge

2014-09-10

359

Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

2013-01-01

360

Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems.

Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of wood produced more growth than no wood additions, while ground wood produced more growth than chopped wood. Of the wood types tested, A. saccharum wood stimulated all four isolates, while spalted Populus tremuloides stimulated three of the four isolates. High glucose and sucrose amounts may be partially responsible for the greater stimulatory affect of some woods over others. The development of this simple and reliable method for growth and pigment stimulation of C. aeruginascens in laboratory conditions will allow for further development of this fungus for decorative and commercial use. PMID:22409931

Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Snider, Hilary; Cooper, Paul A

2012-01-01

361

Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems

Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of wood produced more growth than no wood additions, while ground wood produced more growth than chopped wood. Of the wood types tested, A. saccharum wood stimulated all four isolates, while spalted Populus tremuloides stimulated three of the four isolates. High glucose and sucrose amounts may be partially responsible for the greater stimulatory affect of some woods over others. The development of this simple and reliable method for growth and pigment stimulation of C. aeruginascens in laboratory conditions will allow for further development of this fungus for decorative and commercial use. PMID:22409931

2012-01-01

362

Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly used in various diseases as a clinical tool for assessing the integrity of the brain’s white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are nonspecific findings in most pathological processes affecting the brain’s parenchyma. At present, there is no gold standard for validating diffusion measures, which are dependent on the scanning protocols, methods of the softwares and observers. Therefore, the normal variation and repeatability effects on commonly-derived measures should be carefully examined. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 37.8 years, SD 11.4) underwent DTI of the brain with 3T MRI. Region-of-interest (ROI) -based measurements were calculated at eleven anatomical locations in the pyramidal tracts, corpus callosum and frontobasal area. Two ROI-based methods, the circular method (CM) and the freehand method (FM), were compared. Both methods were also compared by performing measurements on a DTI phantom. The intra- and inter-observer variability (coefficient of variation, or CV%) and repeatability (intra-class correlation coefficient, or ICC) were assessed for FA and ADC values obtained using both ROI methods. Results The mean FA values for all of the regions were 0.663 with the CM and 0.621 with the FM. For both methods, the FA was highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean ADC value was 0.727 ×10-3 mm2/s with the CM and 0.747 ×10-3 mm2/s with the FM, and both methods found the ADC to be lowest in the corona radiata. The CV percentages of the derived measures were < 13% with the CM and < 10% with the FM. In most of the regions, the ICCs were excellent or moderate for both methods. With the CM, the highest ICC for FA was in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (0.90), and with the FM, it was in the corona radiata (0.86). For ADC, the highest ICC was found in the genu of the corpus callosum (0.93) with the CM and in the uncinate fasciculus (0.92) with FM. Conclusions With both ROI-based methods variability was low and repeatability was moderate. The circular method gave higher repeatability, but variation was slightly lower using the freehand method. The circular method can be recommended for the posterior limb of the internal capsule and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the freehand method for the corona radiata. PMID:23057584

2012-01-01

363

The photovoltage spectrum measured on back illuminated silicon solar cells of the (passivated emitor solar cell) (PESC) type without original bottom ohmic electrode is evaluated with the aim to find the diffusion length of minority carriers in bulk of the absorber (L). Two junctions, namely pn+ junction of the cell and that spontaneously created on the free surface generally exist

J. Toušek; D. Kindl; J. Toušková; S. Dolhov

2001-01-01

364

Experimental and numerical studies have been performed to determine the soot refractive index in methane turbulent diffusion flames with two oxidizers: air and oxygen. In the flame zone, soot particles were sampled with a cooled probe. Measurements of optical soot properties have been carried out to obtain extinction and vertical-vertical (90°) scattering coefficients. The size distributions were obtained by electrical

P. Van-Hulle; M. Talbaut; M. Weill; A. Coppalle

2002-01-01

365

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A four-year field study was conducted to test alternative control strategies for spotted knapweed and at Fort Carson, CO and diffuse knapweed at Yakima Training Center, WA. We evaluated the control of these alien invasive weeds with a combination of four manipulations to speed up restoration of des...

366

The DC resistance of a lap joint between cabled superconductors can be accurately calculated using a finite element model of static current diffusion. Such models can become too complex to solve, however, if too many cable details, such as multiple filaments, multiple strands, solder, and twist are included. One of the most complicated details to model is the cable twist.

B. Cianciolo

2000-01-01

367

An artificial nonlinear diffusivity method for supersonic reacting flows with shocks

A computational approach for modeling interactions between shocks waves, contact discontinuities and reactions zones with a high order compact scheme is investigated. To prevent the formation of spurious oscillations around shocks, artificial nonlinear viscosity [1], based on high-order derivative of the strain rate tensor is used. To capture temperature and species discontinuities a nonlinear diffusivity based on the entropy gradients

Benoit Fiorina; Sanjiva K. Lele

2005-01-01

368

A high-order finite element method for forward problem in diffuse optical tomography

Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-invasive imaging modality for visualizing and continuously monitoring tissue and blood oxygenation levels in brain and breast. DOT includes an ill-posed inverse problem. The image reconstruction algorithm in the inverse problem involves generating images by means of forward modeling results and the boundary measurements. A for ward model describes the dependence of the photon

Maedeh Hadinia; Reza Jafari

2010-01-01

369

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryostatic setup is described to perform photothermal deflection measurements from room temperature to 77 K. The setup uses gaseous nitrogen as a medium where the photodeflection is produced. The ability of the system to work is demonstrated presenting some measurements of thermal diffusivity of high-temperature superconductor samples and of yttrium-iron garnets with variable aluminum content.

Bertolotti, M.; Liakhou, G.; Li Voti, R.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Sparvieri, N.

1995-12-01

370

Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

Davis, Bill D.

1977-01-01

371

EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

Many numerical methods use characteristic analysis to accommodate the advective component of transport. uch characteristic methods include Eulerian-Lagrangian methods (ELM), modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and operator splitting methods. eneralization of characteristic...

372

AN EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

Many numerical methods use characteristic analysis to accommodate the advective component of transport. Such characteristic methods include Eulerian-Lagrangian methods (ELM), modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and operator splitting methods. A generalization of characteri...

373

Cryptococcus neofomans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus that causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunosuppresive patients. C.neoformans infection is believed to be acquired via inhalation of aerosolized particles from the environment. Avian guano, decaying tree hollows and soil are the related known environmental niches. Brown pigmented yeast growth from the precursors in growth media is an important step for the identification and isolation of C.neoformans. Seeds of plants in nature are preferred owing to easy accessibility and low costs for the preparation of such media. Guizotia abysinicca (Niger seed) as Staib agar, Helianthus annus (Sunflower) as Pal's medium, Brassica nigra (Mustard) agar, tobacco agar, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) seed agar, Perilla frutescens (Beefsteak plant) seed agar, Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry) agar and ground red hot pepper agar are pigment-based selective media for the differentiation of C.neoformans. The aim of this study was to observe the pigment production of C.neoformans in a new medium based on eggplant (Solanum melongena) and also to compare its performance with the simplified Staib, Pal's and tobacco agar for isolation from the environment. Three different eggplant-based medium (S.melongena Melanzaza viserba, S.melongena Pinstripe F1 and S.ovigerum Ivory F1) were included in the study. Pigment-forming eggplant medium, simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and tobacco agar were used for the cultivation of the environmental swabbed samples from 19 Eucalyptus camaldulensis trunk hollows in continuous colonization region. While pigment formation were observed with S.melongena Melanzaza viserba and S.melongena Pinstripe F1 containing media, S.ovigerum Ivory F1 medium was found to be non-reactive. In colonization area (Gökova-Akyaka, Turkey), 11 (57.9%) out of 19 E.camaldulensis samples were positive with simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar while 10 (52.6%) of them are positive with tobacco agar. C.neoformans colony forming unit (cfu) per plate were found as 51, 57 and 48 (median values) on simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar, respectively, while tobacco agar has lower performance with 33 cfu/petri. No statistically significant difference were found between simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar's performances for C.neoformans isolations from the nature (p=0.71). In conclusion, easily prepared eggplant agar is as functional as widely used media such as simplified Staib agar and Pal's agar for the isolation of C.neoformans from the natural environment. PMID:24819266

Sengul, Mustafa; Ergin, Ca?r?; Kartal, Tu?ba

2014-04-01

374

Development of novel agar media for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus spp.

The purpose of this study is to develop a selective and differential medium (SK2 agar) for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Forty-one selected dyes and vanillic acid were incorporated in SK agar for screening selective and differential agents. Two guaiacol producing (1016, 1101) and two non-guaiacol producing (19220, C-GD 1-1) Alicyclobacillus isolates were streaked onto media and color differentiation of the isolates was assessed. Among 41 tested dyes, Chrome Azurol S (CAS) allowed color differentiation of the two types of Alicyclobacillus. Colonies of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates appeared as dark purple to royal blue color with yellow background, whereas non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates produced cream colored colonies with yellow background. Vanillic acid not only served as a precursor for guaiacol formation but also inhibited non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Non-guaiacol producing isolates did not grow on SK agar containing more than 70 ppm vanillic acid, whereas the recovery of guaiacol producing isolates was unaffected. When compared with other Alicyclobacillus isolation media, not only was SK2 agar capable of selectively recovering guaiacol-producing Alicyclobacillus, the degree of growth was also approximately equal if not better than orange serum agar, potato dextrose agar, and K agar. The development of SK2 agar provides the fruit juice industry with an inexpensive, simple to use alternative for the detection of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. PMID:23587706

Chang, S S; Park, S H; Kang, D H

2013-06-01

375

A defined agar medium (hereinafter designated caprylate-thallous [CT5 agar) containing 0.01% yeast extract, 0.1% caprylic (n-octanoic) acid, and 0.025% thallous sulfate is highly selective for all Serratia species and effectively discriminates against most non-Serratia strains likely to be in the same habitats. The selectivity of CT agar is demonstrated by the very high efficiency of colony formation (mean, 80.7% of that on a nonselective complex medium) on CT agar by known Serratia strains and the very low efficiency of colony formation (close to zero) on CT agar by bacterial strains known not to be Serratia. The utility of this medium in actual clinical laboratory practice is demonstrated by the more rapid and higher recovery of Serratia on this selective medium as compared to conventional procedures of in-tandem runs of 513 consecutive urine, feces, and sputum specimens. Pigmented and nonpigmented Serratia strains deliberately added to fecal specimens can be selectively and quantitatively recovered on CT agar. CT agar compares favorably with, or in some cases is an improvement over, other selective media which have been recommended for isolating Serratia. This selective CT agar medium could be quite useful in ecological surveys, especially those related to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:972193

Starr, M P; Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Starr, P B

1976-01-01

376

Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties.

In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by electrospinning technique, using water as solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operating at 50°C, to avoid agar gelation. Agar pure solution (1 wt%) showed inadequate spinnability regardless of the used electrospinning conditions. The addition of a co-blending polymer such as PVA (10 wt% starting solution) improved the solutions viscoelasticity and hence, the solutions spinnability. Agar/PVA solutions were prepared with different mass ratios (100/0, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80 and 0/100) and electrospun at various sets of electrospinning conditions. Best nanofibers were obtained with 30/70 and 20/80 agar/PVA blends while samples with higher agar contents (50/50 and 40/60 agar/PVA) were harder to process and led to discontinuous fibrous mats. This first set of encouraging results can open a new window of opportunities for agar-based biomaterials in the form of nanofibers. PMID:25439904

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2015-01-22

377

Pulsed photothermal temperature profiling of agar tissue phantoms.

We determine experimentally the accuracy of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature depth profiling in water-based samples. We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by very thin absorbing layers. Two configurations of the acquisition system are compared, one using the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (3.0-5.5 microm) and the other with a spectrally narrowed acquisition band (4.5-5.5 microm). The laser-induced temperature depth profiles are reconstructed from measured radiometric signals using a custom minimization algorithm. The results correlate very well with phantom geometry as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology in all evaluated samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectral filtering improves the accuracy and resolution, especially for shallow absorption layers (~120 microm) and more complex structures (e.g., with two absorbing layers). The average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the temperature peaks equals 23% of the layer depth. PMID:17522951

Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J Stuart

2007-11-01

378

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the set of photoelectromagnetic methods for determination of recombination and diffusion parameters of charge carriers in p-type mercury cadmium telluride epitaxial thin films at temperature range 77-125 K is offered. The set of methods includes the photoconductivity in magnetic field for Faraday and Voigt geometries, the photoelectromagnetic effect, the Hall effect and the measurements of magnetoconductivity. Such films parameters as concentrations and mobilities of heavy and light holes, mobility of minor electrons, electrons lifetime and ratio between holes and electrons lifetimes, surface recombination velocities can be determined with help of offered set.

Protasov, D. Y.; Trifanov, A. V.; Kostyuchenko, V. Y.

2013-06-01

379

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is a non-invasive method, which can be performed following a routine Magnetic Resonance investigation within the same examination, and can provide very useful molecular information related to the metabolism and function of the normal and pathological structures of the brain. Its role is increasing in the establishment of a clear diagnosis, in both focal and diffuse central nervous system diseases, and the tendency is to replace the histopathology test, in certain cases, with similar or sometimes better diagnostic accuracy. This paper summarizes the principle, method, and main clinical applications, standing as a guide to procedure performing and results interpretation. PMID:23346244

Scheau, C; Preda, EM; Popa, GA; Ghergus, AE; Capsa, RA; Lupescu, IG

2012-01-01

380

Determining averaged effective diffusion constants from experimental measurements of fluorescent proteins in an inhomogeneous medium in the presence of ligand-receptor interactions poses problems of analytical tractability. Here, we introduced a nonfitting method to evaluate the averaged effective diffusion coefficient of a region of interest (which may include a whole nucleus) by mathematical processing of the entire cellular two-dimensional spatial pattern of recovered fluorescence. Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of protein transport inside cells were obtained using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. Two-dimensional images of fluorescence patterns were collected by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The method was demonstrated by applying it to an estimation of the mobility of green fluorescent protein-tagged heterochromatin protein 1 in the nuclei of living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. This approach does not require the mathematical solution of a corresponding system of diffusion-reaction equations that is typical of conventional fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data processing, and is most useful for investigating highly inhomogeneous areas, such as cell nuclei, which contain many protein foci and chromatin domains. PMID:21244847

Orlova, Darya Y.; Bártová, Eva; Maltsev, Valeri P.; Kozubek, Stanislav; Chernyshev, Andrei V.

2011-01-01

381

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of the measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a sample by the modified Angstrom method is developed for the case in which radiative heat loss from the end surface of the sample is not negligible, and applied to measurements performed on lunar samples. Formulas allowing sample thermal diffusivity to be determined from the amplitude decay and phase lag of a temperature wave traveling through the sample are derived for a flat disk sample for which only heat loss from the end surface is important, and a sample of finite diameter and length for which heat loss through the end and side surfaces must be considered. It is noted that in the case of a flat disk, measurements at a single angular frequency of the temperature wave are sufficient, while the sample of finite diameter and length requires measurements at two discrete angular frequencies. Comparison of the values of the thermal diffusivities of two lunar samples of dimensions approximately 1 x 1 x 2 cm derived by the present methods and by the Angstrom theory for a finite bar reveals them to differ by not more than 5%, and indicates that more refined data are required as the measurement theory becomes more complicated.

Horai, K.-I.

1981-01-01

382

Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.

Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. PMID:24906765

Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2014-09-22

383

The status of the cell-wall polysaccharide of the red seaweed, Gracilaria eucheumatoides upon postharvest storage was assessed in this study. The yield, chemical composition, physical and textural properties of alkali-treated agar extract was determined at different time intervals within 31 months of storage at dried state after harvest. Minimal fluctuation in agar yield was observed, ranging from 22.9% to 29.0%. The gel strength of agar extracts averaged 318gcm(-2) until the third month of storage but decreased considerably thereafter. The relative viscosity and molecular weight of the extracts varied inversely with storage time. Results indicated that both physical and textural parameters of agar generally decreased with storage time, likely due to depolymerization as indicated by decrease in molecular weight. Agar extracted from seaweeds up to 3 months of storage could be considered to exhibit gel quality suitable for food applications. Prolonged storage of the seaweed harvest is not recommended. PMID:18413284

Romero, Jumelita B; Villanueva, Ronald D; Montaño, Marco Nemesio E

2008-11-01

384

Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme.

K. Murugan; S. Saravanababu; M. Arunachalam

2007-01-01

385

Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme. PMID:16839759

Murugan, K; Saravanababu, S; Arunachalam, M

2007-03-01

386

Certain problems involving surface erosion in heat and mass diffusion which are of interest in nuclear engineering systems have been solved by the finite element method. In the first two chapters the accuracy and efficiency of the finite element technique was evaluated. The first chapter deals with linear diffusion problems with reversible trapping and surface erosion in a slab geometry.

Mori

1983-01-01

387

Intrauterine device for laser light diffusion and method of using the same

An improved device for delivery of photoenergy from a light source, such as a laser, into a uterine cavity for photodynamic therapy is comprised of a plurality of optic fibers, which are bundled together and inserted into the uterine cavity by means of a uterine cannula. The cannula is positioned within the uterine cavity at a preferred location and then withdrawn thereby allowing the plurality of optic fibers to splay or diverge one from the other within the cavity. Different portions of the distal tip of the optic fiber is provided with a light diffusing tip, the remainder being provided with a nondiffusing tip portion. The fiber optic shape, as well as the segment which is permitted to actively diffuse light through the tip, is selected in order to provide a more uniform exposure intensity of the photo energy or at least sufficient radiation directed to each segment of the uterine walls.

Tadir, Yona (Irvine, CA); Berns, Michael W. (Trabuco Canyon, CA); Svaasand, Lars O. (Trondheim, NO); Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA)

1995-01-01

388

Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

2007-07-01

389

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity distribution of a laser beam (laser beam profile) is one of its most important characteristics because it yields information on the non-uniformity, centroid, centroid jitter and beam quality. A novel measurement method for obtaining a large laser beam intensity distribution based on CCD diffuse transmission imaging is proposed. The measurement principle is presented. The measurement components of the system have been designed. The layout of the system and the design of a diffuse transmission sampling target are emphasized. The methods of correcting geometric and intensity distortion of the spot are described in detail. The method to calibrate the power coefficient is also given. After the laser spot correction, we can obtain the precise laser beam intensity profile as well as the laser power. The presented test results validate the method. In the measurement field of large laser beams, the method can measure the profile with a non-uniformity of less than 1%, and laser power within 2% error compared with the calibration power meter. The measurement system can be used as a standard measurement instrument after being calibrated when manufactured.

Pang, Miao; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Xuewen; Gao, Xueyan; Hu, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shan

2013-12-01

390

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of black carbon (BC) concentration have long been uncertain. Neither a BC standard or a technique that provides a reliable measurement of BC exist, which precludes the evaluation and optimization of BC measurement methods. In this manuscript, we describe the generation of BC particles (mass absorption efficiency ˜8.5 m 2 g -1 and single scattering albedo ˜0.2 at 530 nm) using an inverted diffusion flame. This flame is remarkably stable and can be used to generate a wide range of nearly constant concentrations of BC particles for many (e.g., 10+) hours. The particles contain essentially no organic carbon (OC), so the quantification of BC mass using any of the thermal or thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods is straightforward instead of highly uncertain. In this case, the TOA measurement of BC can be used to evaluate the accuracy of other BC measurement methods. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the diffusion flame in evaluating BC measurements made with filter-based light transmission methods, and in particular the aethalometer. We show that the amount of light attenuated by a BC-laden filter increases in less than constant proportion to the BC mass loading, and thus the effective BC attenuation coefficient decreases with increased BC mass loading. When sampling BC at constant concentration, the aethalometer erroneously reports decreasing concentrations of BC as its filter becomes increasingly loaded because it treats the attenuation coefficient as a constant. A simple method to correct erroneous aethalometer data when sampling aerosols with low single scattering albedo is presented. Another application of the diffusion flame considered in this paper is the development of BC standards for TOA. We envision the preparation of filter samples with known amounts of BC mixed with other aerosol constituents, which may help in understanding the uncertainty in and optimizing TOA measurements, and may be of use in future TOA method comparison studies. Toward this end, we demonstrate that the diffusion flame can be used to replicate filter samples with known amounts of BC. Additionally, we show that the combustion temperature of BC during TOA depends on sample composition, which suggests that the temperature-defined carbon fractions of some thermal and TOA methods may be of limited value.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.

391

The equations of nonlinear, time-dependent radiative transfer are known to yield the equilibrium diffusion equation as the leading-order solution of an asymptotic analysis when the mean-free path and mean-free time of a photon become small. We apply this same analysis to the Fleck-Cummings, Carter-Forest, and N'kaoua Monte Carlo approximations for grey (frequency-independent) radiative transfer. Although Monte Carlo simulation usually does

Jeffery D. Densmore; Edward W. Larsen

2004-01-01

392

The equations of nonlinear, time-dependent radiative transfer are known to yield the equilibrium diffusion equation as the leading-order solution of an asymptotic analysis when the mean-free path and mean-free time of a photon become small. We apply this same analysis to the Fleck–Cummings, Carter–Forest, and N'kaoua Monte Carlo approximations for grey (frequency-independent) radiative transfer. Although Monte Carlo simulation usually does

Jeffery D. Densmore; Edward W. Larsen

2004-01-01

393

A ray tracing method for geodesic based tractography in diffusion tensor images

We present multi-valued solution algorithm for geodesic-based fiber tracking in a tensor-warped space given by diffusion tensor imaging data. This technique is based on solving ordinary differential equations describing geodesics by a ray tracing algorithm. The algorithm can capture all possible geodesics connecting two given points instead of a single geodesic captured by Hamilton-Jacobi based algorithms. Once the geodesics have

Neda Sepasian; Anna Vilanova; Luc Florack; B. M. Ter Haar Romeny

2008-01-01

394

Plasticizer diffusion into PVC particles as studied by ESR spin probe method

The spin probe technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been applied for studying the plasticizer diffusion, migration, and redistribution processes in suspension polymerized PVC particles. In the first series of experiments six PVC powder samples with different K values (58, 61, 64, 67, 70, and 72) were mixed with diisooctyl phthalate (DOP) containing 10-4 M 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as

Miklós Gy?r; Antal Rockenbauer; László Jókay; Ferenc Tüd?s

1986-01-01

395

Thermoreactive deposition\\/diffusion coating of chromium carbide by contact-free method

A modified TRD (thermoreactive deposition and diffusion) has been investigated in a low-pressure fluidized bed furnace in this study. The specimens were positioned above the surface of the alloying powder. The activator was periodically introduced into the alloying powder to provide the working atmosphere for the required process. Since the pressure of the retort was maintained between 6.7×102 and 5.3×104Pa,

Chen-Yi Wei; Fan-Shiong Chen

2005-01-01

396

Some numerical experiences with an explicit finite element method for diffusion equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explicit time-stepping technique is presented for solving the transient diffusion equation. Initial and boundary conditions are defined, together with a fully discrete equation in matrix form. The Gauss-Lobato quadrature rule is applied to computing the capacity and conduction matrices. A stability criterion is formulated for selecting the initial time step. Uses of the explicit technique are illustrated in the form of heat conduction in a cylinder and one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction dependent on material properties.

Lee, J. K.; Kitamura, M.; Advani, S. H.

397

A self-normalized, full time-resolved method for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography.

A full time-resolved scheme that has been previously applied in diffuse optical tomography is extended to time-domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography regime, based on a finite-element-finite-time-difference photon diffusion modeling and a Newton-Raphson inversion framework. The merits of using full time-resolved data are twofold: it helps evaluate the intrinsic performance of time-domain mode for improvement of image quality and set up a valuable reference to the assessment of computationally efficient featured-data-based algorithms, and provides a self-normalized implementation to preclude the necessity of the scaling-factor calibration and spectroscopic-feature assessments of the system as well as to overcome the adversity of system instability. We validate the proposed methodology using simulated data, and evaluate its performances of simultaneous recovery of the fluorescent yield and lifetime as well as its superiority to the featured-data one in the fidelity of image reconstruction. PMID:18711549

Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Limin; Tanikawa, Yukari; Marjono, Andhi; Yamada, Yukio

2008-08-18

398

The thermal diffusivity tensor of a polymer-carbon fiber composite with unidirectionally distributed fibers has been measured using a modulated photothermal mirage device. The thermal diffusivity along the fibers is k{sub {parallel}} = 6.0 {+-} 0.5 mm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, that perpendicular to the fibers is k{sub {perpendicular}} = 0.35 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, and that perpendicular to the sample surface is k{sub z} = 0.40 {+-} 0.15 mm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. These results have been confirmed by independent measurements on the sample by other laboratories using three other different photothermal techniques. A previous claim on anomalous results found on this sample (k{sub {parallel}} < k{sub {perpendicular}} and high thermal diffusivities) can be explained by the inappropriate use of the frequency range. The authors have also found that there is not perfect thermal contact between the fibers and the matrix, which can be characterized by the thermal contact resistance of R{sub th} = (9 {+-} 2) {times} 10{sup {minus}6} m{sup 2}{center_dot}K{center_dot}W{sup {minus}1}.

Salazar, A.; Sanchez-Lavega, A. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilboa (Spain)] [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilboa (Spain)

1998-03-01

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach that allows the estimation of vertical eddy diffusivity coefficients from buoy measurements made at two or more depths. By measuring the attenuation and phase lag of a scalar signal generated periodically at the surface as it propagates downwards, the vertical eddy diffusivity coefficients can be calculated as Kv = ??z2/2ln 2(? 2/? 1), where ? 2/? 1 is the ratio of the real amplitudes at frequency ? at the two depths separated by ? z = z2 - z1; as KV = ?? z2/ 2?2, where ? is the phase lag at the frequency ?; or as Kv = i?? z2/ln 2( U2/ U1), where U2/ U1 is the ratio of the complex signal amplitudes at the two depths. The method requires that horizontal fluxes be small at the ? frequency and that the signal-to-noise ratios at the two depths allow the determination of the amplitude and phase of ?. Application of this method to summertime 2004 western Long Island Sound oxygen and temperature buoy measurements at two depths provides a time-series of two-day average vertical eddy diffusivity estimates. Using these eddy diffusivities in conjunction with measured vertical concentration gradients, we obtain a time-series of vertical transport rates for oxygen and heat and estimate mean downward fluxes for June and July as 150-260 mMol m - 2 day - 1 and 100-400 W m - 2 respectively. These estimates are of a similar magnitude to sub-pycnocline O 2 and heat demands of 240 ± 200 mMol m - 2 day - 1 and 180 ± 60 W m - 2 that we infer from simple budgets, implying that vertical transport is significant to both budgets. The eddy coefficients obtained from the independent O 2 and temperature measurements have a 68% correlation, and the O 2 flux estimates show a correlation of 41% to measured rates of change in bottom dissolved oxygen levels. Our results indicate that extended time-series of eddy diffusivity coefficients can be obtained from in situ buoy measurements and the method shows promise as a way to constrain the vertical transport variability in budgets of dissolved materials in estuaries.

McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James

2009-06-01

400

This paper describes two SlipChip-based approaches to protein crystallization: a SlipChip-based free interface diffusion (FID) method and a SlipChip-based composite method that simultaneously performs microbatch and FID crystallization methods in a single device. The FID SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple diffusion equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis, against 48 different reagents at five different equilibration times each, consuming 12 {micro}L of each protein for a total of 480 experiments using three SlipChips. The composite SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple mixing ratios and multiple equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis. To prevent cross-contamination while keeping the solution in the neck channels for FID stable, the plates of the SlipChip were etched with a pattern of nanowells. This nanopattern was used to increase the contact angle of aqueous solutions on the surface of the silanized glass. The composite SlipChip increased the number of successful crystallization conditions and identified more conditions for crystallization than separate FID and microbatch screenings. Crystallization experiments were scaled up in well plates using conditions identified during the SlipChip screenings, and X-ray diffraction data were obtained to yield the protein structure of dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase at 1.95 {angstrom} resolution. This free-interface diffusion approach provides a convenient and high-throughput method of setting up gradients in microfluidic devices and may find additional applications in cell-based assays.

Li, Liang; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem F. (UC)

2010-08-04

401

This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

Alman, David E. (Corvallis, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR); Davis, Daniel L. (Albany, OR)

2011-03-08

402

Consider the following convection diffusion equation, $$\\\\left\\\\{\\\\matrix{{\\\\displaystyle{\\\\partial u \\\\over \\\\partial t}} + b_{1}(x, y){\\\\displaystyle{\\\\partial u \\\\over \\\\partial x}} + b_{2}(y){\\\\displaystyle{\\\\partial u \\\\over \\\\partial y}} - \\\\left(a_{1} {\\\\displaystyle{\\\\partial^{2}u \\\\over \\\\partial x^{2}}} + a_{2} {\\\\displaystyle{\\\\partial^{2}u \\\\over \\\\partial y^{2}}}\\\\right) = f\\\\hfill \\\\hbox{in } \\\\Omega \\\\times J,\\\\hfill\\\\cr u(x, y, t) = \\\\varphi (x, t)\\\\hfill \\\\hbox{on } \\\\partial \\\\Omega \\\\times J,\\\\hfill\\\\cr u(x, y, 0) =

Hongxing Rui

2003-01-01

403

Gas diffusion liquid storage bag and method of use for storing blood

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shelf life of stored whole blood may be doubled by adding a buffer which maintains a desired pH level. However, this buffer causes the generation of CO2 which, if not removed at a controlled rate, causes the pH value of the blood to decrease, which shortens the useful life of the blood. A blood storage bag is described which permits the CO2 to be diffused out at a controlled rate into the atmosphere, thereby maintaining the desired pH value and providing a bag strong enough to permit handling.

Bank, H.; Cleland, E. L. (inventors)

1979-01-01

404

New method to diffusion bond superalloys A. A. Shirzadi and E. R. Wallach

, such as brazing and transient liquid phase (TLP) diffusion bonding, normally require long bonding times and superalloy PWA647) Superalloy Cr Co Mo W Al Ti B C Si Zr Others Inconel 718 18.3 0.1 2.85 0.5 0.92 0.003 0.02 0.08 0.01 0.08Mn, 0.0004S Inconel 738 16 8.5 1.75 2.6 3.4 3.4 0.01 0.17 0.1 1.75Ta, 0.9Nb C1023 15

Cambridge, University of

405

A novel DGT probe and analysis protocol were developed for the determination of MeHg concentrations in aquatic system. The DGT probe consisted of an agarose (AG) gel as the diffusive hydrogel and a 3-mercaptoproply functionalised silica resin gel as the resin gel. The polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel which is commonly used in DGT probes to assess trace metal concentrations in aquatic system appeared to be unsuitable for the determination of MeHg. The affinity of the PA hydrogel for MeHg is very high reducing its accumulation by the resin. In contrast, the AG hydrogel presents a by far lower affinity towards MeHg, which makes it suitable as diffusive layer in a DGT probe for MeHg determinations. Two extraction procedures to liberate MeHg from the resin were studied: one is involving thiourea as complexing agent, the other a simple acidic extraction. The extraction step was followed by an ethylation reaction of the liberated MeHg to determine low concentrations of MeHg species by Headspace-Gas Chromatography-Atomic Fluorescence (HS-GC-AFS). With the thiourea extraction method the recovery of the adsorbed MeHg compounds was extremely low while the recovery with the acid extraction method was 100%. The reliability of the novel DGT probe and analysis protocol was studied. A linear dependency between the amount of MeHg accumulated on the resin gel and both the deployment time and the gel thickness were demonstrated. From those experiments a diffusion coefficient of MeHg in AG gel was determined: 5.1±0.20×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Additional experiments showed that the new DGT method can be used in most natural waters independent of the ionic strength and within a pH range of 3-8. PMID:24468398

Gao, Yue; De Craemer, Sam; Baeyens, Willy

2014-03-01

406

While the Stokes–Einstein (SE) equation predicts that the diffusion coefficient of a solute will be inversely proportional to the viscosity of the solvent, this relation is commonly known to fail for solutes, which are the same size or smaller than the solvent. Multiple researchers have reported that for small solutes, the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the viscosity to a fractional power, and that solutes actually diffuse faster than SE predicts. For other solvent systems, attractive solute-solvent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, are known to retard the diffusion of a solute. Some researchers have interpreted the slower diffusion due to hydrogen bonding as resulting from the effective diffusion of a larger complex of a solute and solvent molecules. We have developed and used a novel micropipette technique, which can form and hold a single microdroplet of water while it dissolves in a diffusion controlled environment into the solvent. This method has been used to examine the diffusion of water in both n-alkanes and n-alcohols. It was found that the polar solute water, diffusing in a solvent with which it cannot hydrogen bond, closely resembles small nonpolar solutes such as xenon and krypton diffusing in n-alkanes, with diffusion coefficients ranging from 12.5×10?5 cm2?s for water in n-pentane to 1.15×10?5 cm2?s for water in hexadecane. Diffusion coefficients were found to be inversely proportional to viscosity to a fractional power, and diffusion coefficients were faster than SE predicts. For water diffusing in a solvent (n-alcohols) with which it can hydrogen bond, diffusion coefficient values ranged from 1.75×10?5 cm2?s in n-methanol to 0.364×10?5 cm2?s in n-octanol, and diffusion was slower than an alkane of corresponding viscosity. We find no evidence for solute-solvent complex diffusion. Rather, it is possible that the small solute water may be retarded by relatively longer residence times (compared to non-H-bonding solvents) as it moves through the liquid. PMID:20113048

Su, Jonathan T.; Duncan, P. Brent; Momaya, Amit; Jutila, Arimatti; Needham, David

2010-01-01

407

Diffusive behavior of a surface layer in BaTiO3 crystals grown by Remeika method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaTiO3 crystals, grown by Remeika method, were studied by means of acoustic emission and dielectric response. It is established, that the phase transition in the surface layer occurs on 13 °C below in comparing with the crystals bulk. It is observed, that the imaginary dielectric response of a crystal surface layer exhibits an essential smearing and slight frequency shift to higher temperatures. Reasons of such properties are discussed from a viewpoint of diffusive phase transition, taking place in the surface layer, enriched by K+ ions from KF flux.

Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Roth, Michael

2014-12-01

408

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test problems are used to examine the performance of several one-dimensional numerical schemes based on the space-time conservation and solution element (CE/SE) method. Investigated in this paper are the CE/SE schemes constructed previously for solving the linear unsteady advection-diffusion equation and the schemes derived here for solving the nonlinear viscous and inviscid Burgers equations. In comparison with the numerical solutions obtained using several traditional finite-difference schemes with similar accuracy, the CE/SE solutions display much lower numerical dissipation and dispersion errors.

Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

1999-01-01

409

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a functional brain imaging technique that measures cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume changes. This technique is particularly useful in human neuroimaging measurements because of the coupling between neural and hemodynamic activity in the brain. DOT is a multichannel imaging extension of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS uses laser sources and light detectors on the scalp to obtain noninvasive hemodynamic measurements from spectroscopic analysis of the remitted light. This review explains how NIRS data analysis is performed using a combination of the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBLL) and the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport equation (RTE). Laser diodes, photodiode detectors, and optical terminals that contact the scalp are the main components in most NIRS systems. Placing multiple sources and detectors over the surface of the scalp allows for tomographic reconstructions that extend the individual measurements of NIRS into DOT. Mathematically arranging the DOT measurements into a linear system of equations that can be inverted provides a way to obtain tomographic reconstructions of hemodynamics in the brain.

Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

410

Electrons diffusion study on the nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond film grown by MPECVD method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NNCD) films were deposited onto p-type silicon substrates with three different layer structures: (i) directly onto the silicon substrate (NNCD/Si), (ii) silicon with undoped nanocrystalline diamond layer which was deposited in the same way as the above mentioned NNCD by the recipe Ar/CH 4/H 2 with a ratio of 98%/1%/1% (NNCD/NCD/Si), and (iii) silicon wafer with 100 nm thickness SiO 2 layer (NNCD/SiO 2/Si). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the as-grown nitrogen-doped diamond films. Silver colloid/silver contacts were made at to measure the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics for the three different structures. Electrons from a CVD reactor hydrogen plasma diffuse toward the p-type silicon substrate during a deposition process under the high temperature (˜800 °C). The study concluded that the SiO 2 layer could effectively prevents the diffusion of electrons.

Hu, Qiang; Joshi, Rakesh K.; Kumar, Ashok

2010-08-01

411

Cooling of fruits and vegetables, immediately after the harvest, has been a widely used method for maximizing post-harvest life. In this paper, an optimization algorithm and a numerical solution are used to determine simultaneously the convective heat transfer coefficient, hH, and the thermal diffusivity, ?, for an individual solid with cylindrical shape, using experimental data obtained during its cooling. To this end, the one-dimensional diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates is discretized and numerically solved through the finite volume method, with a fully implicit formulation. This solution is coupled to an optimizer based on the inverse method, in which the chi-square referring to the fit of the numerical simulation to the experimental data is used as objective function. The optimizer coupled to the numerical solution was applied to experimental data relative to the cooling of a cucumber. The obtained results for ? and hH were coherent with the values available in the literature. With the results obtained in the optimization process, the cooling kinetics of cucumbers was described in details. PMID:25190830

da Silva, Wilton Pereira; E Silva, Cleide M D P S

2014-09-01

412

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predictive analysis of natural disasters and their consequences is challenging because of uncertainties and incomplete data. The present article studies the use of variable fuzzy sets (VFS) and improved information diffusion method (IIDM) to construct a composite method. The proposed method aims to integrate multiple factors and quantification of uncertainties within a consistent system for catastrophic risk assessment. The fuzzy methodology is proposed in the area of flood disaster risk assessment to improve probability estimation. The purpose of the current study is to establish a fuzzy model to evaluate flood risk with incomplete data sets. The results of the example indicate that the methodology is effective and practical; thus, it has the potential to forecast the flood risk in flood risk management.

Li, Q.

2013-02-01

413

Diffusion-weighted MRI is an intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio application due to the application of diffusion-weighting gradients and the consequent longer echo times. The signal-to-noise ratio worsens with increasing image resolution and diffusion imaging methods that use multiple and higher b-values. At low signal-to-noise ratios, standard magnitude reconstructed diffusion-weighted images are confounded by the existence of a rectified noise floor, producing poor estimates of diffusion metrics. Herein, we present a simple method of rectified noise floor suppression that involves phase correction of the real data. This approach was evaluated for diffusion-weighted imaging data, obtained from ethanol and water phantoms and the brain of a healthy volunteer. The parameter fits from monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched-exponential diffusion models were computed using phase-corrected real data and magnitude data. The results demonstrate that this newly developed simple approach of using phase-corrected real images acts to reduce or even suppress the confounding effects of a rectified noise floor, thereby producing more accurate estimates of diffusion parameters. PMID:20665786

Prah, Douglas E.; Paulson, Eric S.; Nencka, Andrew S.; Schmainda, Kathleen M.

2015-01-01

414

Improved basis sets for the study of polymer dynamics by means of the diffusion theory, and tests on a melt of cis-1,4-polyisoprene decamers, and a toluene solution of a 71-mer syndiotactic trans-1,2-polypentadiene were presented recently [R. Gaspari and A. Rapallo, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244109 (2008)]. The proposed hybrid basis approach (HBA) combined two techniques, the long time sorting procedure and the maximum correlation approximation. The HBA takes advantage of the strength of these two techniques, and its basis sets proved to be very effective and computationally convenient in describing both local and global dynamics in cases of flexible synthetic polymers where the repeating unit is a unique type of monomer. The question then arises if the same efficacy continues when the HBA is applied to polymers of different monomers, variable local stiffness along the chain and with longer persistence length, which have different local and global dynamical properties against the above-mentioned systems. Important examples of this kind of molecular chains are the proteins, so that a fragment of the protein transthyretin is chosen as the system of the present study. This peptide corresponds to a sequence that is structured in ?-sheets of the protein and is located on the surface of the channel with thyroxin. The protein transthyretin forms amyloid fibrils in vivo, whereas the peptide fragment has been shown [C. P. Jaroniec, C. E. MacPhee, N. S. Astrof, C. M. Dobson, and R. G. Griffin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16748 (2002)] to form amyloid fibrils in vitro in extended ?-sheet conformations. For these reasons the latter is given considerable attention in the literature and studied also as an isolated fragment in water solution where both experimental and theoretical efforts have indicated the propensity of the system to form ? turns or ? helices, but is otherwise predominantly unstructured. Differing from previous computational studies that employed implicit solvent, we performed in this work the classical molecular dynamics simulation on a realistic model solution with the peptide embedded in an explicit water environment, and calculated its dynamic properties both as an outcome of the simulations, and by the diffusion theory in reduced statistical-mechanical approach within HBA on the premise that the mode-coupling approach to the diffusion theory can give both the long-range and local dynamics starting from equilibrium averages which were obtained from detailed atomistic simulations.

Hsu, Po Jen; Lai, S. K., E-mail: sklai@coll.phy.ncu.edu.tw [Complex Liquids Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli 320, Taiwan and Molecular Science and Technology Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Rapallo, Arnaldo [Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole (ISMAC) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), via E. Bassini 15, C.A.P 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole (ISMAC) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), via E. Bassini 15, C.A.P 20133 Milano (Italy)

2014-03-14

415

Improved basis sets for the study of polymer dynamics by means of the diffusion theory, and tests on a melt of cis-1,4-polyisoprene decamers, and a toluene solution of a 71-mer syndiotactic trans-1,2-polypentadiene were presented recently [R. Gaspari and A. Rapallo, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244109 (2008)]. The proposed hybrid basis approach (HBA) combined two techniques, the long time sorting procedure and the maximum correlation approximation. The HBA takes advantage of the strength of these two techniques, and its basis sets proved to be very effective and computationally convenient in describing both local and global dynamics in cases of flexible synthetic polymers where the repeating unit is a unique type of monomer. The question then arises if the same efficacy continues when the HBA is applied to polymers of different monomers, variable local stiffness along the chain and with longer persistence length, which have different local and global dynamical properties against the above-mentioned systems. Important examples of this kind of molecular chains are the proteins, so that a fragment of the protein transthyretin is chosen as the system of the present study. This peptide corresponds to a sequence that is structured in ?-sheets of the protein and is located on the surface of the channel with thyroxin. The protein transthyretin forms amyloid fibrils in vivo, whereas the peptide fragment has been shown [C. P. Jaroniec, C. E. MacPhee, N. S. Astrof, C. M. Dobson, and R. G. Griffin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16748 (2002)] to form amyloid fibrils in vitro in extended ?-sheet conformations. For these reasons the latter is given considerable attention in the literature and studied also as an isolated fragment in water solution where both experimental and theoretical efforts have indicated the propensity of the system to form ? turns or ? helices, but is otherwise predominantly unstructured. Differing from previous computational studies that employed implicit solvent, we performed in this work the classical molecular dynamics simulation on a realistic model solution with the peptide embedded in an explicit water environment, and calculated its dynamic properties both as an outcome of the simulations, and by the diffusion theory in reduced statistical-mechanical approach within HBA on the premise that the mode-coupling approach to the diffusion theory can give both the long-range and local dynamics starting from equilibrium averages which were obtained from detailed atomistic simulations. PMID:24628208

Hsu, Po Jen; Lai, S K; Rapallo, Arnaldo

2014-03-14

416

Nonlinear variants of the TR/BDF2 method for thermal radiative diffusion

We apply the Trapezoidal/BDF2 (TR/BDF2) temporal discretization scheme to nonlinear grey radiative diffusion. This is a scheme that is not well-known within the radiation transport community, but we show that it offers many desirable characteristics relative to other second-order schemes. Several nonlinear variants of the TR/BDF2 scheme are defined and computationally compared with the Crank-Nicholson scheme. It is found for our test problems that the most accurate TR/BDF2 schemes are those that are fully iterated to nonlinear convergence, but the most efficient TR/BDF2 scheme is one based upon a single Newton iteration. It is also shown that neglecting the contributions to the Jacobian matrix from the cross-sections, which is often done due to a lack of smooth interpolations for tabular cross-section data, has a significant impact upon efficiency.

Edwards, Jarrod D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, 129 Zachry Engineering Center, TAMU 3133, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.ed [Department of Nuclear Engineering, 129 Zachry Engineering Center, TAMU 3133, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Knoll, Dana A. [Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Group T-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS B216, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2011-02-20

417

A coarse-mesh nodal diffusion method based on response matrix considerations

The overall objective of this thesis is to develop an economical computational method for multidimensional transient analysis of nuclear power reactors. Specifically, the application of nodal methods based on the multigroup ...

Henry, Allan F.

1977-01-01

418

1. In order to study the kinetics os the oxygen egress from human red cells in the 50 sec-20 min time range, an apparatus for measuring the oxygen dissociation process was constructed, combining a spectrophotometer with an oxygen electrode of quick response. 2. Starting from air-saturated haemolysate or red cell suspensions, the velocity of oxygen dissociation from oxyhaemoglobin (Vdiss) and of oxygen disappearance in the medium (Vobs) after addition of bakers' yeast (consuming the dissolved oxygen at the velocity of Vconsump) were recorded. A parameter (r) was defined as the ratio of two velocities, Vegress (the velocity of oxygen egress into the medium) and Vdiss, r identical to Vegress/Vdiss = (Vconsump -Vobs)/Vdiss. Vcomsump could be calculated by the Michaelis-Menten equation as follows, Vconsump = Vmax [O2]/(Km + [O2]), where Vmax was the maximal velocity of oxygen consumption of bakers' yeast. 3. The r value was always 1.0 for the haemolysate, but it was less than 1.0 for the normal red cells. Further, the oxygen dissociation curve of red cells obtained at higher Vmax was distorted, due to the non-equilibration between intra- and extracellular oxygen concentrations. 4. The r value was (i) independent of the amounts of the allosteric effectors (2,3-diphosphoglycerate and H+) but (ii) dependent on the haemoglobin contents and (iii) dependent on the amounts of the membrane cholesterol. Therefore, the r value reflected only the process of the oxygen diffusion but not the "chemical reaction' rate. The "barrier' of the oxygen diffusion decreased at lower haemoglobin contents, but increased at higher cholesterol contents in the membrane. PMID:7019416

Kon, K; Maeda, N; Sekiya, M; Shiga, T; Suda, T

1980-01-01

419

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent flow in a plane asymmetric diffuser is simulated by the spectral element method (SEM) as a direct numerical simulation (DNS) and with large-eddy simulation (LES) using an adapted version of the dynamic Smagorinsky model. The SEM, which is a high-order numerical method, has opened the possibility to accurately simulate fluid phenomena known to be very sensitive to numerical discretization errors, e.g. flows exhibiting separation. In addition, SEM exhibits favorable parallelization properties. Due to the development of tools for numerical stabilization specific for SEM, SEM is now suitable for turbulence simulations at moderate to high Reynolds numbers. Results from investigations on the influence of such stabilization tools are presented. For the turbulent diffuser flow case, results are presented for Re=4,500 and Re=9,000 (based on bulk velocity and channel half-height) and compared to results by Herbst et al. (2007). Quantities of interest include e.g. the size of the separation bubble and turbulent stresses.

Ohlsson, Johan; Schlatter, Philipp; Fischer, Paul F.; Henningson, Dan S.

2008-11-01

420

Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

2014-10-01

421

Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique (MEDITATE) on a 3T clinical scanner

This paper describes the concepts and implementation of an MRI method, Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique (MEDITATE), which is capable of acquiring apparent diffusion tensor maps in two scans on a 3T clinical scanner. In each MEDITATE scan, a set of RF-pulses generates multiple echoes whose amplitudes are diffusion-weighted in both magnitude and direction by a pattern of diffusion gradients. As a result, two scans acquired with different diffusion weighting strengths suffice for accurate estimation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-parameters. The MEDITATE variation presented here expands previous MEDITATE approaches to adapt to the clinical scanner platform, such as exploiting longitudinal magnetization storage to reduce T2-weighting. Fully segmented multi-shot Cartesian encoding is used for image encoding. MEDITATE was tested on isotropic (agar gel), anisotropic diffusion phantoms (asparagus), and in vivo skeletal muscle in healthy volunteers with cardiac-gating. Comparisons of accuracy were performed with standard twice-refocused spin echo (TRSE) DTI in each case and good quantitative agreement was found between diffusion eigenvalues, mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy derived from TRSE-DTI and from the MEDITATE sequence. Orientation patterns were correctly reproduced in both isotropic and anisotropic phantoms, and approximately so for in vivo imaging. This illustrates that the MEDITATE method of compressed diffusion encoding is feasible on the clinical scanner platform. With future development and employment of appropriate view-sharing image encoding this technique may be used in clinical applications requiring time-sensitive acquisition of DTI parameters such as dynamical DTI in muscle. PMID:23828606

Baete, Steven H.; Cho, Gene; Sigmund, Eric E.

2013-01-01

422

The marine diatom Haslea ostrearia was immobilized in a tubular agar gel layer introduced into a photobioreactor of original design with internal illumination for the continuous synthesis of marennin, a blue-green pigment of biotechnological interest. Marennin was produced for a long-term period (27-43 days) and the volumetric productivity was maximum (18.7 mg day(-1) l(-1) gel) at the highest dilution rate (0.25 day(-1)) and lowest agar layer thickness (3 mm). Heterogeneous cell distribution in the agar layer revealed diffusional limitation of light and nutrients. However, the 3 mm gel thickness led to a more homogeneous cell distribution during incubation and to an increase of the whole biomass in the agar gel layer. PMID:11131387

Lebeau, T; Gaudin, P; Junter, G A; Mignot, L; Robert, J M

2000-11-01

423

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on the diffusion of grown-in beryllium (Be) in indium gallium arsenide (In0.53Ga0.47As) and indium gallium arsenide phosphide (In0.73Ga0.27As0.58P0.42) gas source molecular beam epitaxy alloys lattice-matched to indium phosphide (InP) can be successfully explained in terms of a combined kick-out and dissociative diffusion mechanism, involving neutra