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1

The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery. PMID:21682097

Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

2011-01-01

2

We compared the dried MicroScan microdilution panel, Synergy Quad plate agar dilution, and high-potency disk diffusion screening methods for the detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 815 enterococcal bloodstream isolates. Agreement between the three methods was 99% when testing for high-level gentamicin resistance and 96% when testing for high-level streptomycin resistance. PMID:12791910

Murdoch, David R.; Mirrett, Stanley; Harrell, Lizzie J.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Reller, L. Barth

2003-01-01

3

Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals. PMID:23349569

Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

2013-01-01

4

Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals. PMID:23349569

Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

2013-01-01

5

Thirty-three clinical isolates of Corynebacterium jeikeium were examined for susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution test. Sheep-blood-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar performed better than Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Disk susceptibility (Bauer-Kirby) tests were carried out in parallel with 24 of the chemotherapeutic agents. All isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. All isolates resisted fosfomycin, mupirocin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The isolates varied in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fusidic acid, ofloxacin, and tetracycline; most were susceptible to rifampin. Surprisingly few discrepancies between agar dilution and disk diffusion tests were encountered when utilizing NCCLS interpretive criteria currently valid for enterococcal isolates. PMID:9681199

Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B; Bauer, D

1998-01-01

6

A comparative study of the antimicrobial action of seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, Diaket-A, AH26 with silver, Tubli Seal, and Sealapex was done with 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Two antimicrobial susceptibility tests were used: the agar dilution test and the agar diffusion test. The Diaket-A and Traitement Spad sealer cements showed the highest efficiency in the dilution test, whereas Diaket-A was in fourth place in the diffusion test, only better than the antimicrobial activity of the Tubli Seal and Sealapex sealers. PMID:1508532

Pumarola, J; Berastegui, E; Brau, E; Canalda, C; Jiménez de Anta, M T

1992-08-01

7

Arbovirus Identification by an Agar-Gel Diffusion Technique

A double diffusion-in-agar test was used to investigate precipitation reactions of 75 arboviruses. Specific reactions were regularly observed with members of arbovirus groups B, California, Simbu, Turlock, Hart Park, vesicular stomatitis, and several other arboviruses as well as with a member of the Tacaribe group and a herpesvirus. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying this technique to the identification of arboviruses. PMID:4315859

Calisher, C. H.; Maness, K. S. C.

1970-01-01

8

Several agar media (Mueller-Hinton agar, MHA; diagnostic sensitivity test agar, DSTA; Schaedler agar, SchA; Todd-Hewitt agar with added yeast extract, THYA; Wilkins-Chalgren agar, WCA) were compared using the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test against six nonfastidious quality control strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. MHA, DSTA, and THYA yielded essentially comparable inhibition zones. However, WCA and SchA antagonized cotrimoxazole and aminoglycoside antibiotics; furthermore, SchA antagonized polymyxin B, and both WCA and SchA antagonized imipenem against the P. aeruginosa strain, but not against the E. coli strains. Sheep blood-MHA (Bl-MHA), WCA, THYA, and DSTA were examined with Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6306. In comparison with Bl-MHA, both WCA and THYA yielded comparable inhibition zones against S. pyogenes; DSTA afforded suboptimal growth. DSTA yielded larger inhibition zones with the majority of antimicrobial drugs against S. agalactiae, whereas WCA and THYA enhanced the activity of oxacillin and penicillin G against this strain. S. pneumoniae strain ATCC 6306 grew well on Bl-MHA, yielded suboptimal growth on WCA and faint growth on THYA, and failed to grow on DSTA. Chocolate-supplemented sheep blood-MHA (CHOC-MHA) was compared with Haemophilus test medium (HTM), WCA with added NAD, and THYA with added hematin and NAD against Haemophilus influenzae strains ATCC 35056 and ATCC 49247. The activities of doxycycline and rifampin were enhanced against both strains by HTM, WCA+NAD, and THYA+hematin+NAD. Only WCA+NAD antagonized cotrimoxazole against both H. influenzae strains, an effect due to thymidine; however, HTM antagonized cotrimoxazole against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922. It was concluded that Bl-MHA performed best for beta-hemolytic streptococci quality control strains. Likewise, CHOC-MHA was optimal for the two H. influenzae strains used in this comparative agar disk diffusion study. PMID:7842820

Traub, W H; Leonhard, B

1994-01-01

9

The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

Bailey, Tom A.

1983-01-01

10

Diffusion of Methylene Blue in Phantoms of Agar Using a Photoacoustic Technique

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the kinetics of diffusion of methylene blue in agar aqueous solution is studied using a photoacoustic technique. Two agar phantoms solutions in water with a relation of mass/volume of 0.01% and 0.05% were analyzed. The study was performed using a modified Rosencwaig photoacoustic cell that is enclosed by transparent windows, on both sides. The sample is deposited directly on top of the upper window. A red light beam, at a fixed modulation frequency, is sent through the lower window illuminating the sample and inducing the photoacoustic effect inside the closed chamber of the cell. At the beginning of the experiment, a droplet of 100?L of agar solution is deposited; afterwards, the signal stabilizes, and 10?L of methylene blue aqueous solution (0.0125 g · mL-1) is added to the surface of the agar. During the first seconds of the experiment, the photoacoustic signal amplitude increases followed by a gradual and long decay. Results for modulation frequencies in the range from 10Hz to 80Hz for both agar concentrations are presented. A simple theoretical approach is presented to analyze the experimental data. It is demonstrated that the kinetics of the process can be parameterized as a function of the changes of an effective optical absorption coefficient. From these results, the characteristic time, in which the dye diffusion process stabilizes, is obtained. It is found that this time is larger for samples with a higher agar concentration. These differences provide important results for biomedical sciences in which agar gels are used as phantoms resembling some of the properties of living organs and tissues.

Vilca-Quispe, L.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Quintana, P.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.

2010-05-01

11

Forty-two isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 56 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, including 8 vancomycin-resistant strains, were examined for comparative susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution method, employing Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISTA), and Wilkins-Chalgren (WCA) agar. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method was used to comparatively test 24 of the agents in parallel. The enterococci yielded better growth on ISTA and WCA. However, WCA completely antagonized co-trimoxazole and, though less, fosfomycin. Importantly, WCA slightly reduced the activities of teicoplanin (minimal inhibitory concentrations, MICs, raised up to twofold) and vancomycin (MICs raised two- to fourfold) against enterococci and staphylococcal quality control strains. Therefore, WCA was judged unsuitable for susceptibility testing of enterococci. For E. faecalis no discrepancies between agar dilution MICs and inhibition zone diameters were encountered with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, and co-trimoxazole. Overall, MHA yielded fewer very major (category I) and major (category II) discrepancies than ISTA. However, numerous minor (category III), slight (category IV), minimal (category V), and/or negligible (category VI) discrepancies were encountered with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, meropenem, ofloxacin and rifampin. With respect to E. faecium, only cefotaxime, mupirocin, oxacillin, and teicoplanin yielded nondiscrepant results. Several very major (I) and major (II) discrepancies were observed with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, fusidic acid, imipenem, and penicillin G. Minor discrepancies (categories III-VI) were particularly numerous with augmentin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and piperacillin. The largest numbers of negligible (VI) discrepancies were noted with fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and ofloxacin. It is recommended to test one cephalosporin (cefuroxime or the like) in parallel for educational purposes and to exclude fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and rifampin from test batteries because of the wide scatter of test results. The large number of minimal (V) discrepancies of ciprofloxacin against E. faecalis, the numerous minor (III) and slight (IV) discrepancies of chloramphenicol against E. faecium, and the not insignificant number of very major (I) and minor (III) discrepancies observed with meropenem against isolates of E. faecalis necessitated proposals for new disk intermediate susceptibility criteria. PMID:9681198

Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B

1998-01-01

12

This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar. PMID:24849537

Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; ?mura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

2014-11-01

13

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is increasingly important due to resistance to the most used antimicrobials agents. Only agar dilution method is approved by CLSI, but it is difficult to perform routinely. We evaluated the reliability of E-test and disk diffusion comparing to agar dilution method on Helicobacter pylori antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, furazolidone, metronidazole and tetracycline using E-test, disk-diffusion and agar dilution method in 77 consecutive Helicobacter pylori strains from dyspeptic children and adolescents. Resistance rates were: amoxicillin - 10.4%, 9% and 68.8%; clarithromycin - 19.5%, 20.8%, 36.3%; metronidazole - 40.2%33.7%, 38.9%, respectively by agar dilution, E-test and disk diffusion method. Furazolidone and tetracycline showed no resistance rates. Metronidazole presented strong correlation to E-test (r = 0.7992, p < 0.0001) and disk diffusion method (r=-0.6962, p < 0.0001). Clarithromycin presented moderate correlation to E-test (r = 0.6369, p < 0.0001) and disk diffusion method (r=?0.5656, p < 0.0001). Amoxicillin presented weak correlation to E-test (r = 0.3565, p = 0.0015) and disk diffusion (r=?0.3565, p = 0.0015). Tetracycline presented weak correlation with E-test (r = 0.2346, p = 0.04) and furazolidone to disk diffusion (r=?0.0288, p = 0.8038). E-test presented better agreement with gold standard. It is an easy and reliable method for Helicobacter pylori susceptibility testing. Disk diffusion method presented high disagreement and high rates of major errors. PMID:25763052

Ogata, Silvio Kazuo; Gales, Ana Cristina; Kawakami, Elisabete

2014-01-01

14

Eikenella corrodens is a slow-growing, capnophilic, gram-negative rod which often grows poorly in liquid media. Consequently, the agar dilution technique is the method of choice for susceptibility testing of E. corrodens. We report a new microtiter broth dilution method for susceptibility testing of E. corrodens which compared favorably with results obtained by the agar dilution technique. Minimal bactericidal concentrations correlated well with minimal inhibitory concentrations. PMID:6338819

Goldstein, E J; Cherubin, C E; Shulman, M

1983-01-01

15

Smart approach to evaluate drug diffusivity in injectable agar-carbomer hydrogels for drug delivery.

Hydrogels are commonly studied for tissue engineering applications and controlled drug delivery. In order to evaluate their reliability as scaffolds and delivery devices, literature describes many release studies performed involving different analytical techniques. However, these experiments can be expensive, time-consuming, and often not reproducible. In this study, two injectable agar-carbomer-based hydrogels were studied, both being loaded with sodium fluorescein, a harmless fluorophore with a steric hindrance similar to many small drugs, such as for example steroids and other neuroprotecting agents. Starting from simple, traditional, and inexpensive release experiments, it was possible to indirectly estimate the self-diffusion coefficient (D) of loaded sodium fluorescein. Such a parameter was also directly measured in the gel matrix by means of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR. Because of the agreement between the calculated values and those measured by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy, the latter approach can be considered as a simple and fast alternative to long analytic procedures. PMID:21355616

Santoro, M; Marchetti, P; Rossi, F; Perale, G; Castiglione, F; Mele, A; Masi, M

2011-03-24

16

Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical mastitis isolates. The activities of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, erythromycin, oxacillin, penicillin, the penicillin-novobiocin combination, pirlimycin, and tetracycline were tested against the isolates. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; intertest essential and categorical agreements were determined as well. Sensititre and the ADD method demonstrated moderate to highly accurate (71 to 99%) and moderate to perfect (71 to 100%) predictive accuracies for 74 and 76% of the isolate-antimicrobial MIC combinations, respectively. However, the diagnostic accuracy was low for S. aureus-ceftiofur/oxacillin combinations and other streptococcus-ampicillin combinations by either testing method. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic MIC readings and MIC readings obtained by the broth microdilution test method was 87%. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic and manual MIC reading methods was 97%. Furthermore, the ADD test method and Sensititre MIC method exhibited 92 and 91% categorical agreement (sensitive, intermediate, resistant) of results, respectively, compared with the reference method. However, both methods demonstrated lower agreement for E. coli-ampicillin/cephalothin combinations than for Gram-positive isolates. In conclusion, the Sensititre and ADD methods had moderate to high diagnostic accuracy and very good essential and categorical agreement for most udder pathogen-antimicrobial combinations and can be readily employed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:21270215

Saini, V.; Riekerink, R. G. M. Olde; McClure, J. T.; Barkema, H. W.

2011-01-01

17

Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical mastitis isolates. The activities of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, erythromycin, oxacillin, penicillin, the penicillin-novobiocin combination, pirlimycin, and tetracycline were tested against the isolates. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; intertest essential and categorical agreements were determined as well. Sensititre and the ADD method demonstrated moderate to highly accurate (71 to 99%) and moderate to perfect (71 to 100%) predictive accuracies for 74 and 76% of the isolate-antimicrobial MIC combinations, respectively. However, the diagnostic accuracy was low for S. aureus-ceftiofur/oxacillin combinations and other streptococcus-ampicillin combinations by either testing method. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic MIC readings and MIC readings obtained by the broth microdilution test method was 87%. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic and manual MIC reading methods was 97%. Furthermore, the ADD test method and Sensititre MIC method exhibited 92 and 91% categorical agreement (sensitive, intermediate, resistant) of results, respectively, compared with the reference method. However, both methods demonstrated lower agreement for E. coli-ampicillin/cephalothin combinations than for Gram-positive isolates. In conclusion, the Sensititre and ADD methods had moderate to high diagnostic accuracy and very good essential and categorical agreement for most udder pathogen-antimicrobial combinations and can be readily employed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:21270215

Saini, V; Riekerink, R G M Olde; McClure, J T; Barkema, H W

2011-04-01

18

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

19

Agar plate method for rapid screening of rhizobium for tolerance to acid-aluminum stress

An agar plate method has been developed for the rapid, preliminary screening of large numbers of rhizobia for tolerance to acidity and aluminum (acid-Al). Media containing pH indicators are used, and distinguish true tolerance from cases where growth depends on a previous pH shift. Strains which were highly tolerant or sensitive to acid Al on agar behaved similarly in defined liquid media. Strains that formed dry, pinpoint colonies were more sensitive to acid-Al than those that formed large, gummy colonies.

Ayanaba, A.; Asanuma, S.; Munns, D.N.

1983-01-01

20

MODIFIED AGAR MEDIUM FOR DETECTING ENVIRONMENTAL SALMONELLAE BY THE MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER METHOD

Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most probable number methods that require careful colony selection from plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine bri...

21

Modified agar medium for detecting environmental salmonellae by the most-probable-number method.

Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most-probable-number methods which require careful colony selection from a plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine brilliant green medium was prepared to control the loss of selectivity caused by heating the brilliant green component. Added agar reduced colony spreading. The medium contained 47 g of xylose lysine agar base per liter; the agar content was adjusted to 2%, autoclaved, cooled to 50 degrees C, and then amended just before pouring to include H2S indicator and 7 ppm (7 ml of 1:1,000 brilliant green per liter) of unheated brilliant green dye. H2S-positive salmonellae were easily detected from sewage sludge compost to the exclusion of most other gram-negative bacteria. As a result, fewer non-salmonellae were picked for further most-probable-number analysis, greatly reducing the work load associated with the most-probable-number method. Direct plating was possible for enumerating salmonellae in laboratory composts containing ca. 10(3) or more salmonellae. PMID:6439119

Hussong, D; Enkiri, N K; Burge, W D

1984-01-01

22

. A multicentre study was carried out in order to validate the E test in comparison with the reference agar dilution method\\u000a for testing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole. Ten clinical isolates and one control collection isolate (Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504) were tes\\u000a \\u000a ted blindly at four centres according to a uniform methodology. The E test

Y. Glupczynski; N. Broutet; A. Cantagrel; L. Andersen; T. Alarcon; M. López-Brea; F. Mégraud

2002-01-01

23

The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for estimation of bacterial growth interference between various bacteria using a Bioscreen robot analyzer, allowing kinetic documentation, and a cocultivation test on blood agar plates. Six laboratory strains with different virulence and growth requirements were used: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The interference activity was correlated with a reference system of Streptococcus sanguis (strain alpha 89) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS serotypes T 9 and T 22). The methods used and results obtained were as follows: 1. Estimation of synergistic and antagonistic bacterial interferences using a Bioscreen robot analyzer. Suspensions of viable bacteria were added to microtiter plates with different concentrations of UV light-killed bacteria in liquid media. The Bioscreen analyzer monitored bacterial growth every 10 min for 24 h giving kinetic data during the growth period. Synergisms as well as antagonisms were demonstrated between the tested bacterial strains which have not earlier been reported in the literature. However, the antagonistic effect observed between the six strains was less than that induced by the S. sanguis strain on the two strains of S. pyogenes. 2. Cocultivation of bacterial strains on blood agar surface with precultivated or simultaneously stamped interfering bacteria indicated no detectable interference between the six tested bacterial strains, while the S. sanguis strain inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes strains as well as the hemolysis around the colonies. The Bioscreen method was found more sensitive for testing bacterial interference compared to the commonly used blood agar test. PMID:7833000

Johansson, A; Bergenholtz, A; Holm, S E

1994-11-01

24

The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha. PMID:24259681

Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

2014-01-01

25

To maintain waters that are "fishable and swimmable", mandated by the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a list of approved methods for use in enumerating enterococci and E. coli in ambient waters. As part of this effort, we compared mEn...

26

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

27

A standardized broth microdilution method was compared to the E test and an agar dilution method for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. A group of 47 human clinical isolates, 37 isolates from retail poultry, and 29 isolates from living turkeys (total, 113 isolates) was included in the study. These encompassed 92 C. jejuni and

Petra Luber; Edda Bartelt; Elke Genschow; Jutta Wagner; Helmut Hahn

2003-01-01

28

We describe a novel method of fungal slide preparation named “agar block smear preparation.” A total of 510 agar block smears of 25 fungal strains obtained from culture collections, 90 QC fungal strains, and 82 clinical fungal strains from our clinical microbiology laboratory, which included a total of 137 species of yeasts, molds, and thermal dimorphic fungi, were prepared and examined. In contrast to adhesive tape preparation, agar block smears preserved the native fungal structures, such as intact conidiophores of Aspergillus species and arrangements of conidia in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, agar block smears allowed examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, such as the ascomata with ascomal hairs in Chaetomium funicola; pycnidium of Phoma glomerata; the intercalary ovoidal chlamydospores arranged in chains of Fusarium dimerum; and the lateral, spherical chlamydospores arranged in pairs of Fusarium solani. After 1 year of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 459 (90%) of the 510 agar block smears. After 3 years of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 72 (71%) of the 102 smears prepared in 2006. Agar block smear preparation preserves the native fungal structures and allows long-term storage and examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, hence overcoming the major drawbacks of adhesive tape preparation. The major roles of agar block smear should be diagnosis for difficult cases, accurate identification of fungal species for clinical management of patients and epidemiological studies, and long-term storage for transportation of slides and education purposes. PMID:20660221

Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Chui, Hon-Kit; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2010-01-01

29

A study was undertaken to compare beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli counts produced by the ISO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter method using SD-39 agar (test method) with those produced by AOAC Official Method 990.11, an existing ISO-GRID method using lactose monensin glucuronate agar and buffered MUG agar (reference method). The methods were evaluated using 21 food products, with three independent lots of five replicate samples analyzed per product by both methods. The test and reference methods were statistically equivalent for 19 of the 21 products; frozen, raw ground lamb produced significantly higher counts using the reference method, whereas counts obtained from cottage cheese were significantly higher using the SD-39 agar-based method. PMID:9678181

Entis, P; Lerner, I

1998-07-01

30

A method modification study was conducted for the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay (AOAC Performance Tested Method 020901) using the EasySLM method to validate a matrix extension for peanut butter. The VIDAS EasySLM method is a simple enrichment procedure compared to traditional Salmonella methods, requiring only pre-enrichment and a single selective enrichment media, Salmonella Xpress 2 (SX2) broth. SX2 replaces the two selective broths in traditional methods and eliminates the M broth transfer, incubation, and subsequent pooling of M broths prior to VIDAS assay. The validation study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. VIDAS SLM was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for detection of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium in peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were prepared, blind-coded, and shipped to the method developers' laboratory by Q Laboratories. In addition, Q Laboratories performed most probable number and reference method analyses on peanut butter samples. The VIDAS EasySLM ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella in roast beef, raw ground pork, turkey, pork sausage, raw chicken breast, dry pet food, whole milk, ice cream, bagged spinach, shrimp (raw, peeled), raw cod, spent irrigation water, pecans, peanut butter, dry pasta, cake mix, ground black pepper, nonfat dry milk, liquid eggs, cantaloupe, and orange juice. In the matrix extension study for peanut butter, the VIDAS EasySLM method was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference culture procedure using both buffered peptone water pre-enrichment and the FDA-BAM lactose pre-enrichment in the two-step enrichment method with SX2 media. The current study extends the validation to include peanut butter. PMID:20166608

Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John; Colón-Reveles, Judith

2009-01-01

31

Methods in diffuse optical imaging.

We describe some modelling and reconstruction methods for optical imaging in the macroscopic and mesoscopic regimes. Beginning with the basic model of radiative transport, we describe the diffusion approximation and its extensions. Some linear and nonlinear problems in diffuse optical imaging are outlined, together with some indications of current trends and future directions. PMID:22006906

Arridge, Simon R

2011-11-28

32

This study compared the Quanti-Disc™ most probable number (MPN) test for heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water with the widely used yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method. The Quanti-Disc™ test module contains 50 reaction wells in which a medium has been pre-deposited. The medium contains a suite of three fluorogenic enzyme substrates selected for the detection of enzymes expressed widely

David P. Sartory; Haoyi Gu; Chun-Ming Chen

2008-01-01

33

Abstract-- Hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) is a new diffusion MRI method for characterizing complex diffusion. Diffusion-weighted measurements are obtained on multiple `shells' of constant diffusion weighting. This diffusion encoding approach is amenable to multiple types of diffusion imaging analysis. The inner shells

Bucci, David J.

34

We validated a novel method for screening Escherichia coli resistance to antibiotics in environmental samples using modified Difco MI agar (Becton Dickinson) impregnated with selected antibiotics (tetracycline, ampi- cillin, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole), termed MI-R. This method combines an existing rapid assessment technique for E. coli enumeration with clinical reference data for breakpoint analysis of antibiotic resistance and was developed to

A. J. Watkinson; G. R. Micalizzi; J. R. Bates; S. D. Costanzo

2007-01-01

35

Generalizing the finite element method: Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements

This paper describes the new “diffuse approximation” method, which may be presented as a generalization of the widely used “finite element approximation” method. It removes some of the limitations of the finite element approximation related to the regularity of approximated functions, and to mesh generation requirements. The diffuse approximation method may be used for generating smooth approximations of functions known

B. Nayroles; G. Touzot; P. Villon

1992-01-01

36

An interlaboratory evaluation (two centers) of the Etest method was conducted for testing the antifungal susceptibilities of yeasts. The MICs of amphotericin B,fluconazole,flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were determined for 83 isolates ofCandidaspp.,Cryptococcus neoformans, andTorulopsis glabrata. Two buffered (phosphate buffer) culture media were evaluated: solidified RPMI 1640 medium with 2% glucose and Casitone agar. MIC endpoints were determined after both 24

A. ESPINEL-INGROFF; M. PFALLER; M. E. ERWIN; N. JONES

1996-01-01

37

Triple antimicrobial therapy that includes metronidazole has been recommended as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori because it has the highest eradication rates. However, resistance in H. pylori to metronidazole has been reported worldwide and its presence may reduce the efficacy of triple therapy. Various methods for testing H. pylori against metronidazole have been used including agar dilution, disk diffusion

Peter D. Midolo; John Turnidge; John R. Lambert; Jan M. Bell

1995-01-01

38

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

Aulenbach, Brent T.

2010-01-01

39

Radial diffusion method for determining tannin in plant extracts

Tannin in plant extracts can be determined by reacting the tannin with a protein and quantitating the precipitated complex. In the new assay described here, a tannin-containing solution is placed in a well in a protein-containing agar slab. As the tannin diffuses into the gel and complexes with protein, a visible ring of precipitation develops. The area of the ring

Ann E. Hagerman

1987-01-01

40

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

Foy, Barry G.

1977-01-01

41

An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5–BT, belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FST, at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5–BT was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15–37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0–8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso–C15:0, C16:1?7c, and iso–C17:1?9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FST was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1?8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5–BT (JCM 18477T = KCTC 32107T) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24621511

Sakai, Masao; Hosoda, Akifumi; Ogura, Kenjiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

2014-01-01

42

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

43

Reducing activity is a physiological property of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of technological importance. We developed a solid medium with tetrazolium dyes enabling weakly and strongly reducing LAB to be discriminated. It was used to quantify populations in a mixed culture (spreading method) and screen strains (spot method). PMID:23063698

Michelon, Damien; Tachon, Sybille; Ebel, Bruno; De Coninck, Joëlle; Feron, Gilles; Gervais, Patrick; Yvon, Mireille; Cachon, Rémy

2013-02-01

44

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hektoen enteric agar is a selective and differential media for the recovery of enteric gram-negative rods from mixed microbiota. The growth of gram-positive organisms and nonpathogenic enteric coliforms is inhibited through the use of bile salts and dyes, allowing intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Shigella, to be more easily recovered. The media can also differentiate between organisms that produce H2S and those that do not due to the presence of an iron-containing compound. The use and interpretation of growth on this media is discussed in this protocol.

American Society For Microbiology

2010-11-11

45

Preparation of an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film for increasing the shelf-life of fruits.

Preparation of protective coating possessing antimicrobial properties is present day need as they increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, preparation of agar-silver nanoparticle film for increasing the shelf life of fruits is reported. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesised using an extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves, were mixed with agar-agar to prepare an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film. This film was surface-coated over the fruits, Citrus aurantifolium (Thornless lime) and Pyrus malus (Apple), and evaluated for the determination of antimicrobial activity of A-AgNp films using disc diffusion method, weight loss and shelf life of fruits. This study demonstrates that these A-AgNp films possess antimicrobial activity and also increase the shelf life of fruits. PMID:25429496

Gudadhe, Janhavi A; Yadav, Alka; Gade, Aniket; Marcato, Priscyla D; Durán, Nelson; Rai, Mahendra

2014-12-01

46

Detection of chlamydial antibody in serums of wild birds was compared for the following methods: direct complement-fixation (DCF), modified DCF (MDCF), and agar-gel precipitin (AGP). The birds species used were great-tailed grackles (Cassidix mexicanus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), bronzed cowbirds (Tangavius aeneus), and mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). The birds were either inoculated with an isolate of Chlamydia psittaci obtained originally from turkeys or kept as uninoculated cagemates. DCF detected antibody in most inoculated common grackles, mourning doves, and brown-headed cowbirds. It was unreliable, however, for great-tailed grackles and bronzed cowbirds inoculated intramuscularly. MDCF method detected antibody in all inoculated birds except 1 mourning dove, and gave higher titers than did DCF. AGP detected antibody in all inoculated brown-headed cowbirds and all mourning doves, 1 inoculated and 1 exposed great-tailed grackle, and none of the other 2 species. Chlamydiae were apparently transmitted to the uninoculated great-tailed and common grackles and mourning doves, for antibody was detected by all 3 methods in these species kept as uninoculated cagemates. PMID:100098

Grimes, J E; Page, L A

1978-01-01

47

Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter

Rex B

1976-01-01

48

Coliform counts in a variety of foods, including dairy products (raw milk, pasteurized milk, yogurt, butter, and ice cream), meats (pork sausage, ground beef, and raw chicken), raw eggs, and chocolate, were performed by the rapid automated BioSys optical assay and the conventional method with violet red bile agar (VRBA). The standard deviation (SD) among five replicate counts for the optical assay was similar to or better than that obtained with VRBA plates for all foods tested. The average SD for all foods tested was 0.21 for the optical assay and 0.30 for the VRBA plates. At very low concentrations of coliforms (1 to 10 CFU/ml for liquid products and 10 to 100 CFU/g for solid samples), the average SDs were 0.26 and 0.47, respectively. The optical assay was less susceptible to interference by noncoliform organisms. In naturally contaminated samples, bacteria such as Serratia liquefaciens, Pantoea spp., Vibrio fluvialis, Aeromonas hydrophilia, and Pseudomonas spp. formed typical colonies in VRBA, resulting in false-positive results or a need to verify colonies in brilliant green lactose broth. The optical assay appeared to be more selective than the VRBA conventional method, detecting fewer noncoliforms. There was close agreement in test results between the two methods, as indicated by correlation coefficients of 0.92 to 0.99 obtained for the regression analysis of the two methods. In most cases both methods distinguished accurately between positive samples containing coliforms and negative controls. All products tested using the automated BioSys Optical Assay for coliforms yielded results more quickly (typically 10 to 12 h) than did those tested with the conventional VRBA method (24 to 72 h with confirmation). PMID:15633683

Firstenberg-Eden, Ruth; Foti, Debra; McDougal, Susan; Beck, Stephen

2004-12-01

49

Introduction to the Diffusion Monte Carlo Method

A self-contained and tutorial presentation of the diffusion Monte Carlo method for determining the ground state energy and wave function of quantum systems is provided. First, the theoretical basis of the method is derived and then a numerical algorithm is formulated. The algorithm is applied to determine the ground state of the harmonic oscillator, the Morse oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the electronic ground state of the H2+ ion and of the H2 molecule. A computer program on which the sample calculations are based is available upon request.

Ioan Kosztin; Byron Faber; Klaus Schulten

1997-02-20

50

Direct Sampling Method for Diffusive Optical Tomography

In this work, we are concerned with the diffusive optical tomography (DOT) problem in the case when only one or two pairs of Cauchy data is available. We propose a simple and efficient direct sampling method (DSM) to locate inhomogeneities inside a homogeneous background and solve the DOT problem in both full and limited aperture cases. This new method is easy to implement and less expensive computationally. Numerical experiments demonstrate its effectiveness and robustness against noise in the data. This provides a new promising numerical strategy for the DOT problem.

Yat Tin Chow; Kazufumi Ito; Keji Liu; Jun Zou

2014-10-06

51

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

52

Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-?g ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ?24 mm (ertapenem), ?34 mm (meropenem), and ?32 mm (imipenem). PMID:23135936

Blackburn, Julie; Tsimiklis, Catherine; Lavergne, Valéry; Pilotte, Josée; Grenier, Sophie; Gilbert, Andrée; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile; Bourgault, Anne-Marie

2013-01-01

53

Fastidious anaerobe agar supported the growth of 82 strains of fusobacteria better than brain heart infusion agar, brucella agar, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Fastidious anaerobe agar showed less hazing and fewer tailing endpoints with beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-blood supplementation improved the performance of all media. Wilkins-Chalgren agar without blood failed to support the growth of 17% of the strains. All Fusobacterium ulcerans strains were resistant to clindamycin. PMID:2073122

Brazier, J S; Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Ostovari, M I

1990-11-01

54

Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

2014-10-17

55

Adaptive streamline diffusion finite element methods for stationary convection-diffusion problems

Adaptive finite element methods for stationary convection-diffusion problems are designed and analyzed. The underlying discretization scheme is the Shock-capturing Streamline Diffusion method. The adaptive algorithms proposed are based on a posteriori error estimates for this method leading to reliable methods in the sense that the desired error control is guaranteed. A priori error estimates are used to show that the

Kenneth Eriksson; Claes Johnson

1993-01-01

56

Rapid isolation of Salmonella from food is essential for faster typing and source tracking in an outbreak. The objective of this study was to investigate a rapid isolation method that would augment the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method. Food samples with low microbial load, including egg salad and ice cream, moderately high-microbial-load tomatoes, and high-microbial-load ground beef were intentionally inoculated with 2 to 48 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The samples were preenriched in buffered peptone water for 6 h, and then selectively concentrated by immunomagnetic separation and plated for isolation on xylose-lysine-desoxycholate agar: the 6IX method. Salmonella Typhimurium was presumptively identified from approximately 97% of the low-microbial-load and moderately high-microbial-load samples by the 6IX method 2 days before the BAM standard method for isolation of Salmonella. In 49% of the beef samples, Salmonella Typhimurium was presumptively identified 1 or 2 days earlier by the 6IX method. Given the inocula used, our data clearly indicated that for most of the food samples tested, with the exception of ground beef, Salmonella Typhimurium could be isolated two laboratory days earlier with the 6IX method compared with the BAM method. In conclusion, this 6IX method may expedite Salmonella isolation and, therefore, has the potential to accelerate strain tracking for epidemiological analysis in a foodborne outbreak. PMID:19343948

Tatavarthy, Aparna; Peak, Kealy; Veguilla, William; Cutting, Teresa; Harwood, Valerie J; Roberts, Jill; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline; Cannons, Andrew

2009-03-01

57

We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP(-)/rtPCR(+) colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP(+)/rtPCR(-) colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection. PMID:24077714

Maheux, Andrée F; Bérubé, Eve; Boudreau, Dominique K; Villéger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc; Bergeron, Michel G

2013-12-01

58

We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP?/rtPCR+ colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP+/rtPCR? colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection. PMID:24077714

Maheux, Andrée F.; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Villéger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc

2013-01-01

59

New methods in Diffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Synopsis Considerable strides have been made by countless individual researchers in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to push DWI from an experimental tool – limited to a few institutions with specialized instrumentation – to a powerful tool used routinely for diagnostic imaging. Despite its current success, the field of DWI constantly evolves and progress has been made on several fronts, awaiting adoption by vendors and clinical users to bring in the next generation of DWI. These developments are primarily comprised of improved robustness against patient and physiologic motion, increased spatial resolution, new biophysical and tissue models, and new clinical applications for DWI. This article aims to provide a succinct overview of some of these new developments and a description of some of the major challenges associated with DWI. Trying to understand some of these challenges is helpful not only to the technically savvy MRI user, but also to radiologists who are interested in the potential strengths and weaknesses of these techniques, what is in the “diffusion pipeline”, and in how to interpret artifacts on DWI scans. PMID:19406353

Bammer, Roland; Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Skare, Stefan T.

2009-01-01

60

Cell aggregates in the soft agar “human tumour stem-cell assay”

We evaluated colony formation in soft agar by cells obtained after mechanical and\\/or enzymatic disaggregation of 455 malignant human tumours. Counting and assessment of cell colonies in the agar plates were done by inverted microscopy, computerized image analysis, and inspection of serial photomicrographs of the agar plates. Our results indicate that standard methods of tumour disaggregation did not usually produce

M V Agrez; J S Kovach; M M Lieber

1982-01-01

61

Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates

Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amount of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis that consists in the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of the solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often lose contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is a priori difficult to anticipate since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on the syneresis phenomena in agar plates that consist in Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time $t^*$ is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, $t^*$ is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness $e_{min}$ measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of $e_{min}$ independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by the water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels.

Thibaut Divoux; Bosi Mao; Patrick Snabre

2015-02-20

62

A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 1°C and transfer to 44 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such

A. Leclercq; C. Wanegue; P. Baylac

2002-01-01

63

Range Image Segmentation by an Effective Jump-Diffusion Method

Range Image Segmentation by an Effective Jump-Diffusion Method Feng Han, Zhuowen Tu, and Song-Chun Zhu Abstract--This paper presents an effective jump-diffusion method for segmenting a range image accuracy and speed. Then, the algorithm is applied to three data sets of range images under the same

Zhu, Song Chun

64

Migration of chemotactic bacteria in soft agar: role of gel concentration

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4-0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays.

O. A. Croze; G. P. Ferguson; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

2011-08-06

65

Background Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Clostridium difficile is increasingly important because of the rise in resistant strains. The standard medium for the AST of C. difficile is supplemented Brucella agar (sBA), but we found that the growth of C. difficile on sBA was not optimal. Because active growth is critical for reliable AST, we developed a new, modified C. difficile (mCD) agar. C. difficile grew better on mCD agar than on sBA. Methods C. difficile isolates were collected from patients with healthcare-associated diarrhea. sBA medium was prepared according to the CLSI guidelines. Homemade mCD agar containing taurocholate, L-cysteine hydrochloride, and 7% horse blood was used. For 171 C. difficile isolates, we compared the agar dilution AST results from mCD agar with those from sBA. Results No significant differences were observed in the 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and 90% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of clindamycin (CLI), metronidazole (MTZ), moxifloxacin (MXF), piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), and rifaximin (RIX), but the values for vancomycin (VAN) were two-fold higher on mCD agar than on sBA. The MICs of CLI, MXF, and RIX were in 100% agreement within two-fold dilutions, but for MTZ, VAN, and PTZ, 13.7%, 0.6%, and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively, were outside the acceptable range. Conclusions The MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90, were acceptable when AST was performed on mCD agar. Thus, mCD agar could be used as a substitute medium for the AST of C. difficile. PMID:25368819

Kim, Gye Hyeong; Kim, Jieun; Pai, Hyunjoo

2014-01-01

66

Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.

Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.

1997-01-01

67

With the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group isolates the need of susceptibility testing in routine laboratories is increasing. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing in case of different clinical isolates of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 h. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement between the inhibition zone diameters and the MICs for imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and tigecyclin. The inhibition zone diameters of meropenem also separated clearly the isolates, which can be considered wild-type isolates. In case of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam intermediate and susceptible isolates according to the MIC determination, overlap during the zone diameter determination. Isolates with an inhibition zone <23 mm for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and <25 mm for piperacillin/tazobactam should be retested by a MIC determination method. The 10 ?g clindamycin disc clearly separated the resistant and the susceptible population of B. fragilis group strains. In the case of cefoxitin only resistant population could be separated with an inhibition zone <17 mm, intermediate and susceptible isolates overlap. In conclusion, we suggest that disk diffusion can be an option for susceptibility testing of B. fragilis group isolates for most relevant antibiotics in routine laboratories. PMID:25464140

Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa; Urbán, Edit

2015-02-01

68

Tigecycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic having activity against multiresistant isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing is difficult to perform with the use of traditional microbiological techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disk diffusion test with three different Mueller-Hinton agar brands, and the Vitek 2 automated system in comparison with the standard broth microdilution method against 200 gram-negative isolates (Escherichia coil, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Acinetobacter baumannii). Among Enterobacteriaceae, the Becton Dickinson agar had the lowest rate of minor (32.5%) and major errors (3.8%). No very major errors were found. For A. baumanni, the rate of minor and major errors was lower. A high rate of agreement (94%) was found between the broth microdilution method and the Vitek 2 system. Our results show that there are important differences between agars used for the disk diffusion test, and that Vitek 2 is a valid tool for susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories. PMID:21180392

Leal Castro, A L; Buitrago Gutierrez, G; Ovalle, V; Cortes, J A; Alvarez, C A

2010-01-01

69

Lattice mean-field method for stationary polymer diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to study mean-field stationary diffusion (MFSD) in polymer systems. When gradients in chemical potentials vanish, our method reduces to the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent field (SF-SCF) method for inhomogeneous polymer systems in equilibrium. To illustrate the concept of our MFSD method, we studied stationary diffusion between two different bulk mixtures, containing, for simplicity, noninteracting homopolymers. Four alternatives for the diffusion equation are implemented. These alternatives are based on two different theories for polymer diffusion (the slow- and fast-mode theories) and on two different ways to evaluate the driving forces for diffusion, one of which is in the spirit of the SF-SCF method. The diffusion profiles are primarily determined by the diffusion theory and they are less sensitive to the evaluation of the driving forces. The numerical stationary state results are in excellent agreement with analytical results, in spite of a minor inconsistency at the system boundaries in the numerical method. Our extension of the equilibrium SF method might be useful for the study of fluxes, steady state profiles and chain conformations in membranes (e.g., during drug delivery), and for many other systems for which simulation techniques are too time consuming.

Scheinhardt-Engels, S. M.; Leermakers, F. A.; Fleer, G. J.

2003-07-01

70

A Method for Identifying Diffusive Trajectories with Stochastic Models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle tracking is a tool that is being increasingly used to study diffusive or dispersive processes in many branches of natural science. Often the ability to collect these trajectories experimentally or produce them numerically outpaces the ability to understand them theoretically. On the other hand many stochastic models have been developed and continue to be developed capable of capturing complex diffusive behavior such as heavy tails, long-range correlations, nonstationarity, and combinations of these things. We describe a computational method for connecting particle trajectory data with stochastic models of diffusion. Several tests are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the method, and the method is applied to polymer diffusion, RNA diffusion in E. coli, and RAFOS dispersion in the Gulf of Mexico.

O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Cushman, J. H.

2014-09-01

71

Background Neisseria gonorrhea is the etiological agent of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) gonorrhea, and primarily infects the mucous membranes of the urethra, endocervix, pharynx or rectum of females which may result in substantial morbidity. N. gonorrhea also causes disseminated infection, with complications that may result in ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, chronic pelvic pain or maternal transmission of gonorrhea, and also increases susceptibility to HIV. Objectives In the present investigation, we used conventional agar-based culture method, and nucleic acid amplification of CCPB gene for detection of Neisseria gonorrhea in endocervical swabs samples collected from pregnant women studied Patients and Methods Endocervical swabs specimens for this study were obtained from 1100 pregnant women who presented to Shiraz (Iran) Hospitals from 2009 to 2011. In the present investigation we used conventional agar-based culture method, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) of CCPB gene for detection of Neisseria gonorrhea in endocervical swabs samples collected from pregnant women studied. From each pregnant woman two endocervical swabs were taken: one swab placed in tubes containing phosphate buffered saline for Polymerase Chain Reaction, and the other to inoculate on culture media. Results Among 1100 endocervical swabs examined, 13 (1.18%) samples had positive results by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on Neisseria gonorrhea CCPB gene. All endocervical swabs culture had negative results for Neisseria gonorrhea. 84 (7%) of the women had vaginal discharge, in whom PCR on endocervical swabs of these individuals had negative findings. Conclusions Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are very appropriate in detection of infected individuals. Detection techniques such as NAATs are independent of bacterial viability, and have a potential to limit false negative samples, therefore, in our country, the application of different laboratory diagnosis methods including NAATs with culture as gold standard for determination antimicrobial susceptibility is essential. PMID:23983999

Hassanzadeh, Parvin; Mardaneh, Jalal; Motamedifar, Mohammad

2013-01-01

72

We compared the caspofungin (CAS) susceptibility testing results generated by the disk diffusion (DD) assay with the results of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution (BD) reference method for 106 yeast isolates. The isolates represented 11 different fungal species, including Candida albicans (n = 50), C. parapsilosis (n = 10), C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 10), C. guillermondii (n = 6), C. rugosa (n = 5), C. krusei (n = 5), C. kefyr (n = 2), C. pelliculosa (n = 2), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n = 3), and Geotrichum candidum (n = 3). The DD assay was performed in supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar with CAS, which was tested at concentrations of 2, 10, and 25 ?g per disk. MICs and inhibition zone diameters were evaluated at 24 and 48 h. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BD method. In particular, a significant correlation between methods was observed when CAS was used at concentration of 2 ?g/disk at a reading time of either 24 or 48 h. PMID:17728477

Milici, Maria Eleonora; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Ravazzolo, Barbara; Oliveri, Salvatore; Scalise, Giorgio; Barchiesi, Francesco

2007-01-01

73

Simplified measurement of soil pH using an agar-contact technique

A method for the indirect measurement of soil-pH is described. This method allows the spatial arrangement of soil and rhizosphere to be conserved. The soil is brought into contact with a layer of agar, containing bromocresol purple. A nylon gauze is placed between soil and agar. For quantitative pH measurements, a micro-electrode is inserted into the agar after three hours

Jan W. M. Pijnenborg; T. A. Lie; A. J. B. Zehnder

1990-01-01

74

The method for detecting diffusion ring diameter in Hemagglutinin measuring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuser ring diameter measurement is the most critical in hemagglutinin Measuring. The traditional methods, such as a vernier caliper or high-definition scanned images are subjective and low for the measurement data reliability. Propose high-resolution diffusion ring image for drop-resolution processing, adaptive Canny operator and local detection method to extract complete and clear diffusion ring boundaries, and finally make use of polynomial interpolation algorithm to make diffusion ring outer boundary pixel coordinates achieve sub-pixel accuracy and the least-squares fitting circle algorithm to calculate the precise center of the circle and the diameter of the diffuser ring. Experimental results show that the method detection time is only 63.61ms, which is a faster speed; diffuser ring diameter estimation error can achieve 0.55 pixel, high stability in experimental data. This method is adapted to the various types of influenza vaccine hemagglutinin content measurements, and has important value in the influenza vaccine quality detection.

Jing, Wenbo; Liu, Xue; Duan, Jin; Wang, Xiao-man

2014-11-01

75

Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.

2010-02-15

76

Leapfrog/Finite Element Method for Fractional Diffusion Equation

We analyze a fully discrete leapfrog/Galerkin finite element method for the numerical solution of the space fractional order (fractional for simplicity) diffusion equation. The generalized fractional derivative spaces are defined in a bounded interval. And some related properties are further discussed for the following finite element analysis. Then the fractional diffusion equation is discretized in space by the finite element method and in time by the explicit leapfrog scheme. For the resulting fully discrete, conditionally stable scheme, we prove an L 2-error bound of finite element accuracy and of second order in time. Numerical examples are included to confirm our theoretical analysis. PMID:24955431

Zhao, Zhengang; Zheng, Yunying

2014-01-01

77

Generalized method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in periodic channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in an arbitrary periodic two-dimensional channel, presented in our previous paper [P. Kalinay, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 144101 (2014)], is generalized to 3D channels of cylindrical symmetry, as well as to 2D or 3D channels with particles driven by a constant longitudinal external driving force. The next possible extensions are also indicated. The former calculation was based on calculus in the complex plane, suitable for the stationary diffusion in 2D domains. The method is reformulated here using standard tools of functional analysis, enabling the generalization.

Kalinay, Pavol

2015-01-01

78

Two analytical methods for measuring the bacteriological quality of drinking water are described. hey are approved for determining compliance of public water systems with the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. he presence of Escherichia coli in drinking water is an indi...

79

The whole-block method and water diffusion in olivine

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate knowledge of the diffusion rates and mechanisms of water (hydrogen) in geologic materials is critical for geologic applications such as understanding the deep earth water cycle and determining ascent rates of pre-eruptive magmas. However, diffusion rates and mechanisms are often poorly known. Obtaining robust diffusion profile data for water with transmission FTIR traditionally requires cutting the sample after an experiment to isolate the central slice. Here we develop a method for interpreting diffusion profile data in three dimensions without cutting the sample. This 'whole-block' method is nondestructive, which simplifies the analytical procedure and allows multiple experiments on the same sample (e.g., a time series or reversal). Whole-block data represent concentration values that are integrated through the entire sample in the direction parallel to the infrared beam ray path during the measurement, and they are determined by taking the average value of a non-path-integrated 3 dimensional model (e.g., based on error functions or infinite sums in a rectangular parallelepiped) down the ray path for a given position. The whole-block method was tested by comparing whole-block profiles with profiles cut from the center of an oriented diopside sample after a dehydration experiment [1]. Water profiles were measured in the cut slice by both SIMS and FTIR. The results of the two methods are in good agreement both with each other and with diffusion profiles calculated based on the results of the whole-block method. Interpreting whole block measurements without taking into account the integration effects through the crystal can lead to errors in calculated diffusivities and inferred mechanisms. We have used numerical simulations to demonstrate as much as a half an order of magnitude error (typically indicating diffusivities that are too fast) if whole-block data are interpreted using non-path integrated diffusion models. The largest errors are in short and/or fast directions, in which diffusion profiles are well developed. Whole block data also inevitably involve central values that are contaminated by edge concentrations integrated in the signal. This integration effect results in a plateau in the whole-block data that may complicate the interpretation of the whole-block data. For example, previous experimental work on water diffusion in olivine has identified a central plateau using whole block measurements, and this plateau is interpreted to result from a transitional state between two diffusion mechanisms [2]. However, a whole-block model also produces a reasonable fit to this data using the observed initial concentration of zero and a single-step diffusion mechanism. Thus, whole block effects need to be taken into account for the accurate determination of diffusivities and mechanisms. [1] Ferriss et al 2012 AGU; [2] Demouchy&Mackwell 2006 Phys Chem Mineral 33(5).

Ferriss, E.; Plank, T. A.; Walker, D.

2013-12-01

80

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

81

The Flux-integral Method for Multidimensional Convection and Diffusion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flux-integral method is a procedure for constructing an explicit, single-step, forward-in-time, conservative, control volume update of the unsteady, multidimensional convection-diffusion equation. The convective plus diffusive flux at each face of a control-volume cell is estimated by integrating the transported variable and its face-normal derivative over the volume swept out by the convecting velocity field. This yields a unique description of the fluxes, whereas other conservative methods rely on nonunique, arbitrary pseudoflux-difference splitting procedures. The accuracy of the resulting scheme depends on the form of the subcell interpolation assumed, given cell-average data. Cellwise constant behavior results in a (very artificially diffusive) first-order convection scheme. Second-order convection-diffusion schemes correspond to cellwise linear (or bilinear) subcell interpolation. Cellwise quadratic subcell interpolants generate a highly accurate convection-diffusion scheme with excellent phase accuracy. Under constant-coefficient conditions, this is a uniformly third-order polynomial interpolation algorithm (UTOPIA).

Leonard, B. P.; Macvean, M. K.; Lock, A. P.

1994-01-01

82

An adaptive SUPG method for evolutionary convection-diffusion equations

An adaptive SUPG method for evolutionary convection-diffusion equations Javier de Frutos a,1 and coarsening. The main idea consists in considering the SUPG solution of the evolutionary problem as the SUPG] will be applied, which has proved to be robust in the SUPG norm. The effectivity of this error estimator

John, Volker

83

Methods for diffusive relaxation in the Pn equation

We present recent progress in the development of two substantially different approaches for simulating the so-called of P{sub N} equations. These are linear hyperbolic systems of PDEs that are used to model particle transport in a material medium, that in highly collisional regimes, are accurately approximated by a simple diffusion equation. This limit is based on a balance between function values and gradients of certain variables in the P{sub N} system. Conventional reconstruction methods based on upwinding approximate such gradients with an error that is dependent on the size of the computational mesh. Thus in order to capture the diffusion limit, a given mesh must resolve the dynamics of the continuum equation at the level of the mean-free-path, which tends to zero in the diffusion limit. The two methods analyzed here produce accurate solutions in both collisional and non-collisional regimes; in particular, they do not require resolution of the mean-free-path in order to properly capture the diffusion limit. The first method is a straight-forward application of the discrete Galerkin (DG) methodology, which uses additional variables in each computational cell to capture the balance between function values and gradients, which are computed locally. The second method uses a temporal splitting of the fast and slow dynamics in the P{sub N} system to derive so-called regularized equations for which the diffusion limit is built-in. We focus specifically on the P{sub N} equations for one-dimensional, slab geometries. Preliminary results for several benchmark problems are presented which highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Further improvements and extensions are also discussed.

Hauck, Cory D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclarren, Ryan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

84

Method of making gas diffusion layers for electrochemical cells

A method is provided for making a gas diffusion layer for an electrochemical cell comprising the steps of: a) combining carbon particles and one or more surfactants in a typically aqueous vehicle to make a preliminary composition, typically by high shear mixing; b) adding one or more highly fluorinated polymers to said preliminary composition by low shear mixing to make a coating composition; and c) applying the coating composition to an electrically conductive porous substrate, typically by a low shear coating method.

Frisk, Joseph William (Oakdale, MN); Boand, Wayne Meredith (Lino Lakes, MN); Larson, James Michael (Saint Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

85

Thermal diffusivity of nonflat plates using the flash method

The flash method is the standard technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid samples. It consists of heating the front surface of an opaque sample by a brief light pulse and detecting the temperature evolution at its rear surface. The thermal diffusivity is obtained by measuring the time corresponding to the half maximum of the temperature rise, which only depends on the sample thickness and thermal diffusivity through a simple formula. Up to now, the flash method has been restricted to flat samples. In this work, we extend the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of nonflat samples. In particular, we focus on plates with cylindrical and spherical shapes. The theoretical model indicates that the same expression for flat samples can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical plates, except for extremely curved samples. Accordingly, a curvature limit for the application of the expression for flat samples is established. Flash measurements on lead foils of cylindrical shape confirm the validity of the model.

Salazar, Agustin; Fuente, Raquel; Apinaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

2011-01-15

86

Some basic mathematical methods of diffusion theory. [emphasis on atmospheric applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introductory treatment of the fundamentals of diffusion theory is presented, starting with molecular diffusion and leading up to the statistical methods of turbulent diffusion. A multilayer diffusion model, designed to permit concentration and dosage calculations downwind of toxic clouds from rocket vehicles, is described. The concepts and equations of diffusion are developed on an elementary level, with emphasis on atmospheric applications.

Giere, A. C.

1977-01-01

87

Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) is an imaging modality that provides images of the fluorochrome distribution within the object of study. The image reconstruction problem is ill-posed and highly underdetermined and, therefore, regularisation techniques need to be used. In this paper we use a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion regularisation term that incorporates anatomical prior information. We introduce a split operator method that reduces the nonlinear inverse problem to two simpler problems, allowing fast and efficient solution of the fDOT problem. We tested our method using simulated, phantom and ex-vivo mouse data, and found that it provides reconstructions with better spatial localisation and size of fluorochrome inclusions than using the standard Tikhonov penalty term. PMID:22091447

Correia, Teresa; Aguirre, Juan; Sisniega, Alejandro; Chamorro-Servent, Judit; Abascal, Juan; Vaquero, Juan J.; Desco, Manuel; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arridge, Simon

2011-01-01

88

MICs of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifampin, gentamicin, and doxycycline against 101 isolates of Rhodococcus equi were determined by broth macrodilution, disk diffusion, and Etest. Categorical agreement ranged between 85.1 and 100%. Overall, the agreement between Etest and disk diffusion was better than the agreement between broth macrodilution and the agar-based methods. PMID:25378571

Berghaus, Londa J; Giguère, Steeve; Guldbech, Kristen; Warner, Eleanor; Ugorji, Ukachi; Berghaus, Roy D

2015-01-01

89

Some Experiments With Agar-Grown Seedlings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent agar gel is reported as a better medium for germination and growth studies. Students can be encouraged to undertake many simple experiments and make precise observations by using this medium. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1973-01-01

90

A diffusion accelerated solution method for the nonlinear characteristic scheme

Recently the nonlinear characteristic scheme for spatially discretizing the discrete-ordinate equations was introduced. This scheme is accurate for both optically thin and optically thick spatial meshes and produces strictly positive angular and scalar fluxes. The nonlinear characteristic discrete-ordinate equations can be solved using the source iteration method; however, it is well known that the this method converges prohibitively slowly for optically thick problems with scattering ratios at or near unity. In this paper we describe a diffusion accelerated solution method for solving the nonlinear characteristic equations in slab geometry.

Wareing, T.A.; Walters, W.F.; Morel, J.E.

1995-02-01

91

Benchmarking with high-order nodal diffusion methods

Significant progress in the solution of multidimensional neutron diffusion problems was made in the late 1970s with the introduction of nodal methods. Modern nodal reactor analysis codes provide significant improvements in both accuracy and computing speed over earlier codes based on fine-mesh finite difference methods. In the past, the performance of advanced nodal methods was determined by comparisons with fine-mesh finite difference codes. More recently, the excellent spatial convergence of nodal methods has permitted their use in establishing reference solutions for some important bench-mark problems. The recent development of the self-consistent high-order nodal diffusion method and its subsequent variational formulation has permitted the calculation of reference solutions with one node per assembly mesh size. In this paper, we compare results for four selected benchmark problems to those obtained by high-order response matrix methods and by two well-known state-of-the-art nodal methods (the [open quotes]analytical[close quotes] and [open quotes]nodal expansion[close quotes] methods).

Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1993-01-01

92

Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials

A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.

Winters, Andrew R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

93

Diffusely reflecting paints including polytetrafluoroethylene and method of manufacture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention pertains to a high diffuse, reflective paint comprising an alcohol soluble binder, polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and an alcohol for coating a substrate and forming an optical reference with a superior Lambertian characteristic. A method for making the paint by first mixing the biner and alcohol, and thereafter by mixing in outgassed TFE is described. A wetting agent may be employed to aid the mixing process.

Schutt, J. B.; Shai, M. C. (inventors)

1985-01-01

94

Wavelets method for the time fractional diffusion-wave equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient and accurate computational method based on the Legendre wavelets (LWs) is proposed for solving the time fractional diffusion-wave equation (FDWE). To this end, a new fractional operational matrix (FOM) of integration for the LWs is derived. The LWs and their FOM of integration are used to transform the problem under consideration into a linear system of algebraic equations, which can be simply solved to achieve the solution of the problem. The proposed method is very convenient for solving such problems, since the initial and boundary conditions are taken into account automatically.

Heydari, M. H.; Hooshmandasl, M. R.; Maalek Ghaini, F. M.; Cattani, C.

2015-01-01

95

Physical-mechanical properties of agar/?-carrageenan blend film and derived clay nanocomposite film.

Binary blend films with different mixing ratio of agar and ?-carrageenan were prepared using a solution casting method with and without nanoclay and the effect of their composition on the mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties was tested. The tensile strength (TS) of the ?-carrageenan film was greater than that of agar film. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the agar film was lower than that of ?-carrageenan film, the swelling ratio (SR) and water solubility (WS) of ?-carrageenan film were higher than those of agar film. Each property of the binary blend films varied proportionately depending on the mixing ratio of each component. The XRD result indicated that the nanocomposite with agar/?-carrageenan/clay (Cloisite(®) Na(+)) was intercalated. Consequently, the mechanical strength, water vapor barrier properties, and water contact angle (CA) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved through nanocomposite formation. PMID:23170836

Rhim, Jong-Whan

2012-12-01

96

The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

2014-08-01

97

DOUBLE WELL POTENTIAL AS DIFFUSIVE FUNCTION FOR PDE-BASED SCALAR IMAGE RESTORATION METHOD

DOUBLE WELL POTENTIAL AS DIFFUSIVE FUNCTION FOR PDE-BASED SCALAR IMAGE RESTORATION METHOD A michel.menard@univ-lr.fr Keywords: Image Diffusion, Double well potential, Directional diffusion integrating a double-well potential as diffusive function. It is shown that this particular potential leads

Histace, Aymeric

98

Fungal mycelium grown in liquid culture is easy to harvest for RNA extraction and gene expression analyses, but liquid cultures often develop rather heterogeneously. In contrast, growth of fungal mycelium on agar plates is highly reproducible. However, this biological material cannot be harvested easily for downstream analyses. This article describes a PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane-assisted agar plate culture method that enables the harvest of mycelium grown on agar plates. This culture method leads to a strongly reduced variation in gene expression between biological replicates and requires less growth space as compared with liquid cultures. PMID:24607793

Lange, Mario; Müller, Carolin; Peiter, Edgar

2014-05-15

99

Three-dimensional characterization of bacterial microcolonies on solid agar-based culture media.

For the last century, in vitro diagnostic process in microbiology has mainly relied on the growth of bacteria on the surface of a solid agar medium. Nevertheless, few studies focused in the past on the dynamics of microcolonies growth on agar surface before 8 to 10h of incubation. In this article, chromatic confocal microscopy has been applied to characterize the early development of a bacterial colony. This technology relies on a differential focusing depth of the white light. It allows one to fully measure the tridimensional shape of microcolonies more quickly than classical confocal microscopy but with the same spatial resolution. Placing the device in an incubator, the method was able to individually track colonies growing on an agar plate, and to follow the evolution of their surface or volume. Using an appropriate statistical modeling framework, for a given microorganism, the doubling time has been estimated for each individual colony, as well as its variability between colonies, both within and between agar plates. A proof of concept led on four bacterial strains of four distinct species demonstrated the feasibility and the interest of the approach. It showed in particular that doubling times derived from early tri-dimensional measurements on microcolonies differed from classical measurements in micro-dilutions based on optical diffusion. Such a precise characterization of the tri-dimensional shape of microcolonies in their late-lag to early-exponential phase could be beneficial in terms of in vitro diagnostics. Indeed, real-time monitoring of the biomass available in a colony could allow to run well established microbial identification workflows like, for instance, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, as soon as a sufficient quantity of material is available, thereby reducing the time needed to provide a diagnostic. Moreover, as done for pre-identification of macro-colonies, morphological indicators such as three-dimensional growth profiles derived from microcolonies could be used to perform a first pre-identification step, but in a shorten time. PMID:25533218

Drazek, Laurent; Tournoud, Maud; Derepas, Frédéric; Guicherd, Maryse; Mahé, Pierre; Pinston, Frédéric; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Chatellier, Sonia

2015-02-01

100

Diffuse optical methods for assessing breast cancer chemotherapy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his talk, "Diffuse Optical Methods for Assessing Breast Cancer Chemotherapy," SPIE Fellow Bruce Tromberg (Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic) describes a method combining frequency domain photon migration, essentially a method of tracking photon motion in tissue, with a NIR spectroscopy technique using 850nm LEDs. The result is a scatter corrected absorption spectra. The technique takes advantage of elevated blood and water levels and decreased lipid levels in the presence of tumors to provide a more accurate mapping of the breast, allowing more effective treatment. Tromberg's team recently completed their first full mapping of the breast and have taken the instrument from a standalone unit to a portable one suitable for travel. In addition to providing feedback to enhance breast cancer treatment, Tromberg expects that this technique will be applicable in treating other forms of cancer as well.

Tromberg, Bruce J.

2014-03-01

101

On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on ?m2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on ?mRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme ?m2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de ?mRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro ?m2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de ?mRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c) discriminar entre difusión en la matriz y otros problemas, como las reacciones con cinética

Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

102

Electro-osmosis in gel -Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, Jer^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude Benet

Electro-osmosis in gel - Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, J´er^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude B-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis from liquid phase transport phenomena that take place in porous media (osmosis, electro-osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

104

Extrapolation techniques applied to matrix methods in neutron diffusion problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general matrix method is developed for the solution of characteristic-value problems of the type arising in many physical applications. The scheme employed is essentially that of Gauss and Seidel with appropriate modifications needed to make it applicable to characteristic-value problems. An iterative procedure produces a sequence of estimates to the answer; and extrapolation techniques, based upon previous behavior of iterants, are utilized in speeding convergence. Theoretically sound limits are placed on the magnitude of the extrapolation that may be tolerated. This matrix method is applied to the problem of finding criticality and neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron-diffusion equations is treated. Results for this example are indicated.

Mccready, Robert R

1956-01-01

105

Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.

Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.

2015-03-01

106

Modelling of transient heat conduction with diffuse interface methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a survey on different numerical interpolation schemes used for two-phase transient heat conduction problems in the context of interface capturing phase-field methods. Examples are general transport problems in the context of diffuse interface methods with a non-equal heat conductivity in normal and tangential directions to the interface. We extend the tonsorial approach recently published by Nicoli M et al (2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 1–6) to the general three-dimensional (3D) transient evolution equations. Validations for one-dimensional, two-dimensional and 3D transient test cases are provided, and the results are in good agreement with analytical and numerical reference solutions.

Ettrich, J.; Choudhury, A.; Tschukin, O.; Schoof, E.; August, A.; Nestler, B.

2014-12-01

107

Sepsis represents a life-threatening infection requiring the immediate start of antibacterial treatment to reduce morbidity. Thus, laboratories use direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) to rapidly generate preliminary results from positive blood cultures. As the direct AST has not yet been published to be evaluated with EUCAST breakpoints, the purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability of the direct agar diffusion test to correctly produce AST results from positive monobacterial blood cultures compared with the VITEK2-based definitive AST, when current EUCAST breakpoints were used. A total of 428 isolates from unselected monobacterial routine blood cultures and 110 challenge strains were included. Direct agar diffusion-based and standard VITEK2-based AST of 2803 bacterium–drug combinations yielded a total clinical category agreement of 95.47% with 1.28% very major errors and 3.42% combined major and minor errors. On the species level, very major errors were observed in the species–drug combinations Enterococcus spp.–high-level gentamicin (10.87%) and Staphylococcus spp.–rifampicin (5%), only. No very major errors occurred with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In most species–drug combinations, the direct agar diffusion test using EUCAST breakpoints precisely predicted the result of the definitive antibiotic susceptibility test and, thus, it can be used to optimize empiric antibiotic therapy until definitive results are available.

Stokkou, Sofia; Geginat, Gernot; Schlüter, Dirk

2015-01-01

108

Sepsis represents a life-threatening infection requiring the immediate start of antibacterial treatment to reduce morbidity. Thus, laboratories use direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) to rapidly generate preliminary results from positive blood cultures. As the direct AST has not yet been published to be evaluated with EUCAST breakpoints, the purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability of the direct agar diffusion test to correctly produce AST results from positive monobacterial blood cultures compared with the VITEK2-based definitive AST, when current EUCAST breakpoints were used. A total of 428 isolates from unselected monobacterial routine blood cultures and 110 challenge strains were included. Direct agar diffusion-based and standard VITEK2-based AST of 2803 bacterium-drug combinations yielded a total clinical category agreement of 95.47% with 1.28% very major errors and 3.42% combined major and minor errors. On the species level, very major errors were observed in the species-drug combinations Enterococcus spp.-high-level gentamicin (10.87%) and Staphylococcus spp.-rifampicin (5%), only. No very major errors occurred with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In most species-drug combinations, the direct agar diffusion test using EUCAST breakpoints precisely predicted the result of the definitive antibiotic susceptibility test and, thus, it can be used to optimize empiric antibiotic therapy until definitive results are available. PMID:25883798

Stokkou, Sofia; Geginat, Gernot; Schlüter, Dirk; Hinz, Rebecca

2015-03-01

109

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for interpreting diffusional transport in porous geological materials is developed. The model is based on a laboratory method described in a companion paper [van der Kamp et al., this issue] by which radial diffusion from or into a cylindrical reservoir in a core-sized sample is measured. The model accounts for radial diffusion, mass balance in the reservoir, linear adsorption, decay or transformation, and periodic abstraction of samples. The model is derived using the Laplace transform method for both finite and semi-infinite domains. For conditions where solute concentrations equilibrate (i.e., in finite diameter samples), a simple expression is derived that can be used to interpret the results for effective porosity and a retardation factor. It is demonstrated that the method can provide independent measures of the effective diffusion coefficient, adsorption, and effective porosity when the results are interpreted using the model. Several real and hypothetical diffusion experiments are presented to illustrate the use of the model.

Novakowski, K. S.; van der Kamp, G.

110

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab, learners evaluate the relative effectiveness of various chemical substances (i.e. garlic powder, bathroom cleaner, mouthwash, etc.) as antimicrobial agents. Learners use the agar diffusion method to determine "zones of inhibition." This lesson guide includes background information, questions for learners, and additional activity ideas.

Fran Slowiczek, Ed.D.

2009-01-01

111

Improving diffuse optical tomography imaging with adaptive regularization method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is to reconstruct the images of internal optical parameters distribution from boundary measurements. Due to the amount of available boundary measurements is less than the number of unknown optical parameters to be recovered, this inverse problem usually shows the ill-posed characteristics. This will result in the problem of low reconstruction image quality. In this paper, an adaptive regularization method based on the objective function values is proposed, which reduces the ill-posed characteristics in the inverse problem by selecting an appropriate regularization value at teach iteration. Results from computer simulations indicated that using this regularization technique, DOT imaging quality is improved effectively. Furthermore, using the regularization technique, the sensitivity to noise of the reconstructed images can be decreased greatly.

Niu, Haijing; Guo, Ping; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Tianzi

2007-12-01

112

Preparation and characterization of dysprosium-neodymium modified magnetic fluid coated by agar

The experiment used agar as a coating agent to manufacture dysprosium-neodymium modified water-based magnetic fluid coated by agar with the method of chemical co-precipitation when the two rare-earth element dysprosium and neodymium were precipitated with Fe3+ and Fe2+ together, which has high stability and a strong magnetic field. After the experimental research on all aspects of factors influencing the magnetic

Yuan Xing-hai; Liu Ru; Deng Yan-jun

2009-01-01

113

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01

114

A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

2011-01-01

115

A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris

2009-01-01

116

Salt-starch xylose lysine deoxycholate agar

Salt dependent gram-negative bacilli responsible for gastroenteritis and tissue infections are often not recovered because proper media for isolation are not used. A salt-starch XLD agar with 1.5% NaCl and 0.5% starch medium has been found to permit the isolation of pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, non-Enterobacteriaceae gram-negative bacilli, and salt-dependent gram-negative bacilli, among which isVibrio parahemolyticus. As far as the Enterobacteriaceae are

Fredy P. Roland

1977-01-01

117

A Genetic Algorithm Method for Multi-spot Diffuse Infrared Wireless Communications

A Genetic Algorithm Method for Multi-spot Diffuse Infrared Wireless Communications M Nikkar SNR in multi-spot diffuse infrared communication systems is proposed. The technique aims to adjust on the SNR that can be achieved by spot-diffuse system such as LSMS[1] in a mobile scenario. In practice

Haddadi, Hamed

118

The measurement of grain boundary diffusion by the method of autoradiography

The method of autoradiography is used in the quantitative measurement of grain boundary diffusion. The autoradiographic image is examined using the Joyce-Loebl isodensitracer to produce an accurate two-dimensional density map of the grain boundary region sufficient in detail to allow a more extensive analysis of grain boundary diffusion. Tracer diffusion of the very high, medium and very low energy isotopes

T. J. Renouf

1970-01-01

119

Method for manufacturing nuclear radiation detector with deep diffused junction

Germanium radiation detectors are manufactured by diffusing lithium into high purity p-type germanium. The diffusion is most readily accomplished from a lithium-lead-bismuth alloy at approximately 430Â°C and is monitored by a quartz half cell containing a standard composition of this alloy. Detectors having n-type cores may be constructed by converting high purity p-type germanium to n-type by a lithium diffusion

Hall

1977-01-01

120

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for measuring effective diffusion coefficient of porous materials is developed. The oxygen concentration gradient is established by an air-breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The porous sample is set in a sample holder located in the cathode plate of the PEMFC. At a given oxygen flux, the effective diffusion coefficients are related to the difference of oxygen concentration across the samples, which can be correlated with the differences of the output voltage of the PEMFC with and without inserting the sample in the cathode plate. Compared to the conventional electrical conductivity method, this method is more reliable for measuring non-wetting samples.

Yang, Linlin; Sun, Hai; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Suli; Jiang, Luhua; Sun, Gongquan

2014-07-01

121

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ouchterlony agar plate for clinical use is a device containing an agar gel used to examine antigen-antibody reactions. In immunodiffusion, antibodies and antigens migrate toward each other through gel which originally contained neither of...

2010-04-01

122

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an analysis of a flash thermographic method to measure thermal diffusivity that is particularly insensitive to heat loss mechanisms near thermal boundaries. This approach is an alternative to the "Parker method" which requires that a plate-like region subject to a uniform energy flux must reach a maximum constant temperature in order to obtain an accurate measurement of thermal diffusivity at the half-temperature point in time. The present approach relies on evaluating another unique point, the inflection point, of the same back-side thermal response curve as Parker's or, from the front side, using a contrast versus time curve in the sample region of interest. This inflection point occurs so early in the response history that little heat loss, for example, near heat-sink boundaries or surface convection, is expressed. Since the method is insensitive to the achieved temperature, it is also insensitive to surface emissivity variations.

Ringermacher, Harry I.

2013-04-01

123

The effect of mixing on the properties of agar gels was investigated with consideration being given to both macrostructural and microstructural characteristics of the gel through rheological techniques that include conventional and ultrasound based methods and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.Agar gels of 1 and 3% concentrations were prepared. The gels were subjected to three different mixing conditions: no mix, slow mix

K. A. Ross; L. J. Pyrak-Nolte; O. H. Campanella

2006-01-01

124

An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

Lessing, Paul A.

2004-09-07

125

AEROSOL SIZE MEASUREMENT BY ELECTRICAL MOBILITY AND DIFFUSION ANALYSIS - A COMPARISON OF METHODS

The principle of the electrical aerosol analyzer method is reviewed and the diffusion battery method is described in detail. An appendix explains the basis of the calculations used. The diffusion battery method is complicated by counting losses of very small particles, inherent t...

126

Maltose degrading enzyme was immobilized within agar-agar support via entrapment method due to its industrial utilization. The maximum immobilization efficiency (82.77 %) was achieved using 4.0 % agar-agar keeping the diameter of bead up to 3.0 mm. The matrix entrapment showed maximum catalytic activity at pH 7.0 and temperature 65 °C. Substrate saturation kinetics showed that the K m of immobilized enzyme increased from 1.717 to 2.117 mM ml(-1) where as Vmax decreased from 8,411 to 7,450 U ml(-1 )min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. The immobilization significantly increased the stability of maltase against various temperatures and immobilized maltase retain 100 % of its original activity after 2 h at 50 °C, whereas the free maltase only showed 60 % residual activity under same condition. The reusability of entrapped maltase showed activity up to 12 cycles and retained 50 % of activity even after 5th cycle. Storage stability of agar entrapped maltase retain 73 % of its initial activity even after 2 months when stored at 30 °C while free enzyme showed only 37 % activity at same storage conditions. PMID:25326060

Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Karim, Asad; Aman, Afsheen; Marchetti, Roberta; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Molinaro, Antonio

2015-04-01

127

The relative responses of neomycins B and C have been determined by a microbiological agar-diffusion method, a turbidimetric method, and by a recently developed gas-liquid-chromatographic (GLC) method capable of separating the neomycin isomers. The ratios of response of neomycin C to neomycin B by the individual methods were as follows: agar-diffusion method, 1:3; turbidimetric method, 1:2.5; and GLC method, 1:1. When neomycin C is assumed to have 35% biological activity of neomycin B, the calculated drug contents of neomycin sulfate powders obtained by the GLC method correlated well with values obtained by the microbiological agar-diffusion assay method. PMID:4907002

Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Robertson, John H.; Baas, Ruth; McInnis, D. J.

1969-01-01

128

LINEARLY IMPLICIT IMEX RUNGE-KUTTA METHODS FOR A CLASS OF DEGENERATE CONVECTION-DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

LINEARLY IMPLICIT IMEX RUNGE-KUTTA METHODS FOR A CLASS OF DEGENERATE CONVECTION-DIFFUSION PROBLEMS of polydisperse sedimentation and multi-class traffic flow. Implicit- explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) methods an explicit treatment of the diffusive term. These schemes usually combine an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme

Bürger, Raimund

129

A discontinuous residual-free bubble method for advection-diffusion problems

-diffusion, finite element method, stabilization, SUPG, residual-free bub- bles, multiscale. AMS Subject in the eight- ies [12,18,19]. Their Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method adds diffusion only;consistency of the variational formulation. The SUPG technique performs better than the naive artificial

Sangalli, Giancarlo

130

We analyze the so-called the minimal dissipation local discontin- uous Galerkin method for convection-diffusion or diffusion problems. The dis- tinctive feature of this method is that the stabilization parameters associated with the numerical trace of the flux are identically equal to zero in the interior of the domain; this is why its dissipation is said to be minimal. We show

Bernardo Cockburn; Bo Dong

2007-01-01

131

The local discontinuous Galerkin method has been developed recently by Cockburn and Shu for convection-dominated convection-diffusion equations. In this paper, we extend the method to multidimensional equations with non-periodic boundary conditions, and with a positive semi-definite diffusion coecient which may depend on space and time. Stability and a priori error estimates are derived.

Bernardo Cockburn; Clint Dawson

1999-01-01

132

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. c...

133

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None; )

2006-11-09

134

Streptococcus pneumoniae grows well and generally exhibits typical morphology on Columbia blood agar, whereas Haemophilus influenzae requires a more complex medium to meet its growth requirements - usually chocolated blood agar - on which S. pneumoniae is less easily recognisable. Therefore, a single medium that produces typical morphology of S. pneumoniae and facilitates the growth of H. influenzae would have

K. J. NYE; D. FALLON; B. GEE; S. MESSER; R. E. WARREN; N. ANDREWS

1999-01-01

135

A chronopotentiometric method is proposed for the determination of the diffusion coefficients of free ionophores in solvent\\u000a polymeric membranes. For the pH sensitive chromoionophore ETH 5294, the method was shown to give diffusion coefficients that\\u000a correlate well with those assessed by both optical and chronoamperometric methods. The limit of applicability of the chronoamperometric\\u000a and chronopotentiometric methods in terms of membrane

Sándor Bodor; Justin M. Zook; Ern? Lindner; Klára Tóth; Róbert E. Gyurcsányi

2009-01-01

136

The Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Time-Dependent Convection-Diffusion Systems

this paper, we study the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods fornonlinear, time-dependent convection-diffusion systems. These methods are an extensionof the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin methods for purely hyperbolicsystems to convection-diffusion systems and share with those methods their highparallelizability, their high-order formal accuracy, and their easy handling of complicatedgeometries, for convection dominated problems. It is proven that for scalarequations, the Local...

Bernardo Cockburn; Chi-Wang Shu

1998-01-01

137

A Multiresolution Method for Parameter Estimation of Diffusion Processes

Diffusion process models are widely used in science, engineering and finance. Most diffusion processes are described by stochastic differential equations in continuous time. In practice, however, data is typically only observed at discrete time points. Except for a few very special cases, no analytic form exists for the likelihood of such discretely observed data. For this reason, parametric inference is often achieved by using discrete-time approximations, with accuracy controlled through the introduction of missing data. We present a new multiresolution Bayesian framework to address the inference difficulty. The methodology relies on the use of multiple approximations and extrapolation, and is significantly faster and more accurate than known strategies based on Gibbs sampling. We apply the multiresolution approach to three data-driven inference problems – one in biophysics and two in finance – one of which features a multivariate diffusion model with an entirely unobserved component. PMID:25328259

Kou, S. C.; Olding, Benjamin P.; Lysy, Martin; Liu, Jun S.

2014-01-01

138

The performance of sheep sera instead of sheep blood in agar-based media was investigated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against primary drugs. The levels of agreement between agar-based medium supplemented with sheep sera and the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H11 agar as the reference method for determining susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR) were 98.4, 98.4, 95.3, and 100%, respectively. PMID:24131699

Uzun, Meltem; Bozdogan, Bulent

2013-01-01

139

Multilevel methods for transport equations in diffusive regimes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the numerical solution of the single-group, steady state, isotropic transport equation. An analysis by means of the moment equations shows that a discrete ordinate S(sub N) discretization in direction (angle) with a least squares finite element discretization in space does not behave properly in the diffusion limit. A scaling of the S(sub N) equations is introduced so that the least squares discretization has the correct diffusion limit. For the resulting discrete system a full multigrid algorithm was developed.

Manteuffel, Thomas A.; Ressel, Klaus

1993-01-01

140

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

141

The stochastic variational method is applied to particle systems and continuum mediums. As the brief review of this method, we first discuss the application to particle Lagrangians and derive a diffusion-type equation and the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with the minimum gauge coupling. We further extend the application of the stochastic variational method to Lagrangians of continuum mediums and show that the Navier-Stokes, Gross-Pitaevskii and generalized diffusion equations are derived. The correction term for the Navier-Stokes equation is also obtained in this method. We discuss the meaning of this correction by comparing with the diffusion equation.

T. Koide; T. Kodama

2011-08-24

142

Atomic diffusion theory challenging the Cahn-Hilliard method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our development of the self-consistent mean-field (SCMF) kinetic theory for nonuniform alloys leads to the statement that kinetic correlations induced by the vacancy diffusion mechanism have a dramatic effect on nanoscale diffusion phenomena, leading to nonlinear features of the interdiffusion coefficients. Lattice rate equations of alloys including nonuniform gradients of chemical potential are derived within the Bragg-Williams statistical approximation and the third shell kinetic approximation of the SCMF theory. General driving forces including deviations of the free energy from a local equilibrium thermodynamic formulation are introduced. These deviations are related to the variation of vacancy motion due to the spatial variation of the alloy composition. During the characteristic time of atomic diffusion, multiple exchanges of the vacancy with the same atoms may happen, inducing atomic kinetic correlations that depend as well on the spatial variation of the alloy composition. As long as the diffusion driving forces are uniform, the rate equations are shown to obey in this form the Onsager formalism of thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP) and the TIP-based Cahn-Hilliard diffusion equation. If now the chemical potential gradients are not uniform, the continuous limit of the present SCMF kinetic equations does not coincide with the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation. In particular, the composition gradient and higher derivative terms depending on kinetic parameters add to the CH thermodynamic-based composition gradient term. Indeed, a diffusion equation written as a mobility multiplied by a thermodynamic formulation of the driving forces is shown to be inadequate. In the reciprocal space, the thermodynamic driving force has to be multiplied by a nonlinear function of the wave vector accounting for the variation of kinetic correlations with composition inhomogeneities. Analytical expressions of the effective interdiffusion coefficient are given for two limit behaviors of the vacancy, the latter treated as either a conservative species (fixed concentration) or a nonconservative species (time-dependent equilibrium concentration). Relying on the same vacancy diffusion model, we perform kinetic Monte Carlo simulations starting from a sinusoidal composition modulation in binary model alloys, with no interaction or nearest-neighbor interactions leading to clustering or ordering tendencies, along the [100] crystallographic direction of a body centered cubic (bcc) lattice. The resulting temporal variation of the modulation amplitude is compared to the corresponding SCMF equations. Qualitative and satisfying quantitative agreements systematically strengthen our theoretical conclusions. The model alloys are shown to be representative enough of some real alloys, so that one may expect these new heterogeneous correlation effects to be non-negligible in these alloys.

Nastar, M.

2014-10-01

143

The dioecious liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L., is an emerging model plant. Various molecular biological techniques have been optimized for M. polymorpha for the past several years, and recently we reported a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using sporelings (immature thalli from spores) of M. polymorpha. This method, termed AgarTrap (Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions), completed by exchanging appropriate solutions on a single Petri dish to produce a sufficient number of independent transgenic sporelings. However, because spores are produced by crosses between males and females, the genetic backgrounds of resulting transgenic sporelings are not uniform. To easily produce transgenic liverworts with a uniform genetic background using AgarTrap, we developed an AgarTrap-mediated transformation method using intact gemmae/gemmalings produced by asexual reproduction. Using AgarTrap with male and female gemmae/gemmalings produced a sufficient number of independent transgenic gemmalings with uniform genetic backgrounds. The optimized transformation efficiencies were approximately 30 and 50 % in males and females, respectively. As with AgarTrap using sporelings, AgarTrap using intact gemmae/gemmalings will be useful in promoting studies of the molecular biology of M. polymorpha. PMID:25663453

Tsuboyama-Tanaka, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

2015-03-01

144

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

145

Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P?0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P?0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P?0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market. PMID:24075344

Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

2013-01-01

146

A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

2009-09-01

147

Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. c2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Wang, R.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

2002-01-01

148

On the Choice of Parameters in Stabilization Methods for ConvectionDiffusion Equations

Âdiffusion equations is the streamline upwind/PetrovÂGalerkin(SUPG) method. Unfortunately, in the convectionÂdominated regime, the SUPG solution often con- tains spurious oscillations along sharp layers. A possible remedy is to introduce an additional artificial diffusion term in the SUPG discretization. We call such ap- proaches

John, Volker

149

A Stabilized Finite Element Method for AdvectionDiffusion Equations on Surfaces

method, transport equations, advectionÂdiffusion equation, SUPG stabilization AMS Subject Classifications is sufficiently fine. The paper introduces a stabilized finite element formulation based on the SUPG technique, advection-diffusion equation, SUPG stabilization AMS subject classifications. 58J32, 65N12, 65N30, 76D45, 76

150

ANALYSIS OF A FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR A CROSS-DIFFUSION MODEL IN POPULATION DYNAMICS

of interest for various applications, namely the discrete Sobolev embedding inequali- ties with general a convergent finite volume method for a reaction-diffusion system with cross-diffusion. First, we sketch and presentation of the problem. The interaction between species has been widely studied with reaction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

A Review of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Computational Methods and Software Tools

In this work we provide an up-to-date short review of computational magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and software tools that are widely used to process and analyze diffusion-weighted MRI data. A review of different methods used to acquire, model and analyze diffusion-weighted imaging data (DWI) is first provided with focus on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The major preprocessing, processing and post-processing procedures applied to DTI data are discussed. A list of freely available software packages to analyze diffusion MRI data is also provided. PMID:21087766

Hasan, Khader M.; Walimuni, Indika S.; Abid, Humaira; Hahn, Klaus R.

2010-01-01

152

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2013-04-01

153

Gaseous contaminant dosimeter with diffusion device therefor and method

A personal dosimeter for measuring the average concentration of a gaseous contaminant over a given period of time is provided. The dosimeter comprises a sealed pouch having a reaction chamber, which contains a gas-collecting medium, and at least one compartment. Each compartment can be separately sealed and can contain a different reagent, the seals being individually breakable such that the reagents can be separately released into the reaction chamber. Into the pouch is sealed a gas diffusion device which consists of a formation of parallel, potted, hollow fibers or filaments. The diffusion device is oriented such that one end of the fibers is open to the atmosphere and the other end communicates with the interior of the reaction chamber.

Kring, E.V.

1980-06-17

154

A local incident flux response expansion transport method is developed to generate transport solutions for coupling to diffusion theory codes regardless of their solution method (e.g., fine mesh, nodal, response based, finite element, etc.) for reactor core calculations in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cylindrical geometries. In this approach, a Monte Carlo method is first used to precompute the local transport solution (i.e., response function library) for each unique transport coarse node, in which diffusion theory is not valid due to strong transport effects. The response function library is then used to iteratively determine the albedo coefficients on the diffusion-transport interfaces, which are then used as the coupling parameters within the diffusion code. This interface coupling technique allows a seamless integration of the transport and diffusion methods. The new method retains the detailed heterogeneity of the transport nodes and naturally constructs any local solution within them by a simple superposition of local responses to all incoming fluxes from the contiguous coarse nodes. A new technique is also developed for coupling to fine-mesh diffusion methods/codes. The local transport method/module is tested in 2-D and 3-D pebble-bed reactor benchmark problems consisting of an inner reflector, an annular fuel region, and a controlled outer reflector. It is found that the results predicted by the transport module agree very well with the reference fluxes calculated directly by MCNP in both benchmark problems.

Dingkang Zhang; Farzad Rahnema; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2013-09-01

155

A new emulsion solvent diffusion method to prepare the microspheres of ketoprofen with an acrylic polymer was developed by utilizing sugar esters as solvent diffusion modifiers. The microspheres were produced via transient o/w emulsion droplets of the polymer, which was formed by the interaction of drug and water-miscible organic solvent, e.g. ethanol. The solvent consisting in oil droplets diffused into the outer aqueous medium. In the droplets, ethanol interacted with ketoprofen via hydrogen bonding between -OH group of ethanol and both -COOH and = CO groups of ketoprofen. These hydrogen bonds made ethanol solution strongly hydrophobic. The sugar ester added in the ethanol could inhibit such intermolecular interaction between ethanol and the = CO group of ketoprofen. Modulation in the binding force of ketoprofen-ethanol by the sugar ester contributed to achieving a desirable initial ethanol diffusion rate from the oil droplets for the formation of ketoprofen microspheres with high yield (> 85 per cent) and drug entrapment ratio (> 90 per cent). PMID:8377091

Kawashima, Y; Iwamoto, T; Niwa, T; Takeuchi, H; Hino, T

1993-01-01

156

Diffusion zone formation in aluminized MAR-247 from Bi-velocity Phase Field Method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bi-velocity Phase Field Method (BPFM), which allows a quantitative description of diffusion mass transport in multi-phase materials, is presented and applied to simulate formation of a diffusion zone in aluminized MAR-247. The method links the bi-velocity Darken approach with the phase-field model in which the diffusion zone is quantitatively characterized by phase volume fractions. Accordingly, composition dependent diffusivities in a two-phase region are defined. The present method allows calculation of element-distribution profiles and volume fractions of the phases across a diffusion couple. Hence, a diffusion path can be determined for three component systems and, besides, the average stress field and entropy production during diffusion can be calculated. An example of the application of BPFM in the modeling of high-temperature reactive diffusion in an AlCrNi ternary system is presented. The simulated results are compared with experimental data obtained in aluminization of MAR-247 by the chemical vapor deposition process.

Wierzba, Bartek; Tkacz-?miech, Katarzyna

2013-03-01

157

Efficacy of capsicum oleoresin nanocapsules formulation by the modified emulsion-diffusion method.

In this study, we investigated the effect of high pressure homogenizer on the physico-chemical properties of capsicum oleoresin loaded nanoemulsion (NE) or nanocapsules (NCs) based on the emulsion-diffusion method. According to the application stage of high pressure process at principle emulsion-diffusion method, NCs was prepared by conventional-emulsion-diffusion method (CED), modified-emulsion-microfluidization-diffusion method (MEMD) and modified-emulsion-diffusion-microfluidization method (MEDM). The nanocapsules of MEMD showed homogeneous and the smallest particle size as compared with CED. In addition, MEMD presented the surface tension at the value 36.5 mN/m. The encapsulated capsicum oleoresin was generated the bright color and suppressed the dark red color. Furthermore, MEMD gave the high encapsulation efficiency of capsicum oleoresin around 95% and showed the slow release rate. On the other hand, MEDM presented the non-homogeneous and agglomerate of the particle, low percentage of encapsulation efficiency and the high initial release rate when compared with CED and MEMD methods. According these results, it was supposed that the microfluidization was interesting technique to ameliorate the physical properties and efficiency of NCs. However, it was depending on the appropriate combination of microfluidization based on the emulsion-diffusion method. PMID:21446515

Surassmo, Suvimol; Min, Sang-Gi; Bejrapha, Piyawan; Choi, Mi-Jung

2011-01-01

158

A comparison of the point kinetics equations with the QUANDRY analytic nodal diffusion method

The point kinetics equations were incorporated into QUANDRY, a nuclear reactor analysis computer program which uses the analytic nodal method to solve the neutron diffusion equation. Both the point kinetics equations, solved using the IMSL MATH...

Velasquez, Arthur

1993-01-01

159

Investigation into the properties and application of the Diffusion Monte Carlo method

This paper shall be a discussion of the properties of the Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method and its applications. The discussion shall cover the basic theory behind the algorithm and the class of problems it is designed ...

Orieka, Ogheneovie (Ogheneovie O.)

2014-01-01

160

Homotopy analysis method for solving linear and nonlinear fractional diffusion-wave equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we adopt the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to obtain solutions of linear and nonlinear fractional diffusion and wave equation. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Some illustrative examples are presented.

Jafari, H.; Seifi, S.

2009-05-01

161

Homotopy analysis method for solving linear and nonlinear fractional diffusion-wave equation

In this paper, we adopt the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to obtain solutions of linear and nonlinear fractional diffusion and wave equation. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Some illustrative examples are presented.

H. Jafari; S. Seifi

2009-01-01

162

Multilaboratory comparison of anaerobe susceptibility results using 3 different agar media.

A 5-laboratory study was performed that used the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) reference agar dilution method with 3 media formulations to determine whether the use of different media would affect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results. Wilkins-Chalgren, Brucella-based blood agar (BRU), and Wilkins-Chalgren agar plus blood (WCB) and 6 antibiotics (clindamycin, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, piperacillin, metronidazole, and trovafloxacin) were evaluated with 58 isolates. The MIC values were compared, and a significant correlation of >0.80 was demonstrated for all media and each antibiotic/organism group. The cumulative rate of errors for all antibiotics was 0.1%. These data indicate that a change in the NCCLS reference medium for testing of anaerobic bacteria susceptibility to either BRU or WCB will not affect the MIC results for the antibiotics and organisms evaluated. PMID:12173107

Roe, D E; Finegold, S M; Citron, D M; Goldstein, E J C; Wexler, H M; Rosenblatt, J E; Cox, M E; Jenkins, S G; Hecht, D W

2002-09-01

163

In this paper, we propose a characteristic tailored finite point method (CTFPM) for solving the convection-diffusion-reaction\\u000a equation with variable coefficients. We develop an algorithm to construct a streamline-aligned grid for the CTFPM. Our numerical\\u000a tests show for small diffusion coefficient the CTFPM solution resolves the internal and boundary layers regardless the mesh\\u000a size, and depicts that CTFPM method with a

Yintzer Shih; R. Bruce Kellogg; Yoyo Chang

2011-01-01

164

Fabrication and characterization of oxygen - diffused titanium using spectroscopy method.

A thin native oxide film that forms on the titanium surface makes contact with the bone tissue has been considered to be of great importance to successful osseointegration. The study investigated oxygen-diffused grade 2 titanium obtained by introducing oxygen into the titanium crystal lattice using thermal treatment in fluidized bed performed at 610°C and 640°C in 6, 8, 12h. The thermal treatment at different temperatures and different times led to the formation of a TiO2 rutile film on the titanium surface and a concentration gradient of oxygen into titanium (XRD/GID analyses and GDOS results). Moreover Raman spectroscopy results showed that the TiO2 film on the surface titanium was composed of two oxides (TiO2), i.e. anatase and rutile, for the analyzed variants of heat treatment. The aim of the present study was to establish the optimum conditions for obtaining oxygen-diffused TiO2 film. The results obtained in the study demonstrated that the use of a fluidized bed for titanium oxidation processes allows for obtaining uniform oxide layers with good adhesion to the substrate, thus improving the titanium surface to suit biomedical applications. PMID:25008161

Lubas, M; Sitarz, M; Jasinski, J J; Jelen, P; Klita, L; Podsiad, P; Jasinski, J

2014-12-10

165

Objective The aim of this study was to assess methods currently used for analyzing fluoridated salt in order to identify the most useful method for this type of analysis. Basic research design Seventy-five fluoridated salt samples were obtained. Samples were analyzed for fluoride content, with and without pretreatment, using direct and diffusion methods. Element analysis was also conducted in selected samples. Fluoride was added to ultra pure NaCl and non-fluoridated commercial salt samples and Ca and Mg were added to fluoride samples in order to assess fluoride recoveries using modifications to the methods. Results Larger amounts of fluoride were found and recovered using diffusion than direct methods (96%–100% for diffusion vs. 67%–90% for direct). Statistically significant differences were obtained between direct and diffusion methods using different ion strength adjusters. Pretreatment methods reduced the amount of recovered fluoride. Determination of fluoride content was influenced both by the presence of NaCl and other ions in the salt. Conclusion Direct and diffusion techniques for analysis of fluoridated salt are suitable methods for fluoride analysis. The choice of method should depend on the purpose of the analysis. PMID:20088217

Martínez-Mier, E. Angeles; Soto-Rojas, Armando E.; Buckley, Christine M.; Margineda, Jorge; Zero, Domenick T.

2010-01-01

166

Stagnant nutrient solution containing 0.1% agar and with an extremely low oxygen level (‘stagnant agar solution’) was used to simulate the gaseous composition and slow gas diffusion of waterlogged soils. Comparisons were made between the growth of two wheat cultivars(Triticum aestivum,cvs. Gamenya and Kite) and one triticale cultivar(Triticosecale,cv. Muir) grown in stagnant relative to aerated solution. For all genotypes tested,

ELIZABETH L. J. WATKIN; CAMPBELL J THOMSON; HANK GREENWAY

1998-01-01

167

Determination of thermal diffusivity of opaque materials using the photothermal mirror method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pump-probe photothermal mirror (PTM) method has been developed to determine the thermal diffusivity of opaque solid samples. The method involves the detection of the distortion of a probe beam whose reflection profile is affected by the photoelastic deformation of a polished material surface induced by the absorption of a focused pump field. We have measured the time dependence of the PTM signal of Ti, Al, Cu, Sn, Ag, and Ni samples. We show theoretically and experimentally that the time derivative of the signal in the first microseconds is proportional to the square root of the thermal diffusivity coefficient. The method affords a simple calibration and efficient interpretation of experimental data for a sensitive determination of the thermal diffusivity coefficient for materials. We demonstrate the applicability of the technique by measuring the thermal diffusivities of wadsleyite (?-Mg2SiO4) and diopside (MgCaSi2O6), two important minerals relevant to geophysical studies.

Marcano, Aristides; Gwanmesia, Gabriel; King, Mark; Caballero, Daniel

2014-12-01

168

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products. Although a direct plating method is widely used for presumptive positive screening of pathogenic Salmonella colonies on agar plates, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and also prone to...

169

Eigenfunction methods in magnetospheric radial-diffusion theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete sets of orthonormal basis functions constructed according to a generalization of the quantum-mechanical WKB approximation can be used to generate a nearly-diagonal matrix representation of the radial-transport operator for ring-current ions in the presence of radial diffusion and charge exchange. The resulting eigenfunctions (constructed by weighting the basis functions in proportion to the respective components of the eigenvectors of the matrix representation) and eigenvalues provide a spatial and temporal description of the evolving phase-space density during and following a magnetospheric disturbance (e.g., a magnetic storm). A linear superposition of the basis functions can also be used to eliminate any discrepancy between the steady-state solution of the transport equation and the appropriate WKB approximation of this steady-state solution.

Schulz, Michael

1986-01-01

170

A MINIMUM-RESIDUAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE CONVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

-Galerkin (SUPG) method [4]. The method can be in- terpreted as adding a sufficient amount of artificial viscosity-diffusion" norm [5]. SUPG is also an example of a residual-based stabilization, where the stabilization mechanism) functions are allowed to differ. Specifically, the SUPG method can be interpreted as a modification

Evans, John A.

171

In this letter, the solutions of some nonlinear differential equations have been obtained by means of the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Applications of the homotopy method to some nonlinear reaction–diffusion equations with exponential source term show rapid convergence of the sequence constructed by this method to the exact solutions.

S. O. Ajadi; M. Zuilino

2011-01-01

172

ANALYSIS OF A MULTISCALE DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR CONVECTION-DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

ANALYSIS OF A MULTISCALE DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR CONVECTION-DIFFUSION PROBLEMS A. BUFFA, T.J.R. HUGHES, AND G. SANGALLI Abstract. We study a multiscale discontinuous Galerkin method introduced in [16] that reduces the com- putational complexity of the discontinuous Galerkin method

Buffa, Annalisa

173

MRSASelect agar (Bio-Rad, Redmond, WA) was evaluated for its performance in detecting MRSA directly from positive blood cultures containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters. Agar plates were evaluated for the presence of pink colonies at 18 to 24 h. Results were compared to organism identification by using standard laboratory methods. Confirming coagulase on pink isolates, the sensitivity and specificity were both 99%. PMID:20392926

Riedel, Stefan; Dam, Lisa; Stamper, Paul D.; Shah, Syed A. R.; Carroll, Karen C.

2010-01-01

174

Diffusion-synthetic acceleration methods for the discrete-ordinates equations

The diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) method is an iterative procedure for obtaining numerical solutions of discrete-ordinates problems. The DSA method is operationally more complicated than the standard source-iteration (SI) method, but if encoded properly it converges much more rapidly, especially for problems with diffusion-like regions. In this article we describe the basic ideas beind the DSA method and give a (roughly chronological) review of its long development. We conclude with a discussion which covers additional topics, including some remaining open problems and the status of current efforts aimed at solving these problems.

Larsen, E.W.

1983-01-01

175

Method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a metallic alloy

A method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a preferred nickel base alloy substrate has been discovered. A cerium oxide paste containing a halide activator is applied to the polished substrate and then dried. The workpiece is heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to diffuse cerium into the substrate. After cooling, any remaining cerium oxide is removed. The resulting cerium diffusion coating on the nickel base substrate demonstrates improved resistance to oxidation. Cerium coated alloys are particularly useful as components in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).

Jablonski, Paul D. (Salem, OR); Alman, David E. (Benton, OR)

2009-06-30

176

A new method of optimal design for a two-dimensional diffuser by using dynamic programming

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for predicting the optimal velocity distribution on the wall of a two dimensional diffuser is presented. The method uses dynamic programming to solve the optimal control problem with inequality constraints of state variables. The physical model of optimization is designed to prevent the separation of the boundary layer while approaching the maximum pressure ratio in a diffuser of a specified length. The computational results are in fair agreement with the experimental ones. Optimal velocity distribution on a diffuser wall is said to occur when the flow decelerates quickly at first and then smoothly, while the flow is near separation, but always protected from it. The optimal velocity distribution can be used to design the contour of the diffuser.

Gu, Chuangang; Zhang, Moujin; Chen, XI; Miao, Yongmiao

1991-01-01

177

Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations in optically thick media. In DDMC, particles take discrete steps between spatial cells according to a discretized diffusion equation. Each discrete step replaces many smaller Monte Carlo steps, thus improving the efficiency of the simulation. In this paper, we present an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold, as optical thickness is typically a decreasing function of frequency. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo, which results in a hybrid transport-diffusion scheme. With a set of frequency-dependent test problems, we confirm the accuracy and increased efficiency of our new DDMC method.

Densmore, Jeffery D., E-mail: jdd@lanl.gov [Computational Physics and Methods Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS D409, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Thompson, Kelly G., E-mail: kgt@lanl.gov [Computational Physics and Methods Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS D409, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urbatsch, Todd J., E-mail: tmonster@lanl.gov [Computational Physics and Methods Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS D409, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2012-08-15

178

First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion system is discretized by the second-order upwind residual-distribution scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations is solved by Newton's method over every physical time step. The numerical results are presented for linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems, demonstrating solutions and gradients produced to the same order of accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iterations.

Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

179

Antimicrobial potentials of Mentha longifolia by disc diffusion method.

This study was conducted for the assessment of the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples from the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia against ten microbial species through the disc diffusion assay using two different concentrations of 1 and 2 mg disc1. All extracts from Mentha longifolia showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Butanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed inhibitory activities against all microbial species. Methanol fraction showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi was also not controlled by methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracted samples. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria was Bacillus atropheus and Bacillus subtilis and were inhibited by all extracts and Staphylococus aureus was least susceptible among gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most susceptible gram negative bacterium and Salmonella typhi was highly resistant among the gram negative bacteria. Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciene were susceptible to all fractions. All fractions showed antifungal activities against Candida albicans except water extracted samples. PMID:25015464

Bakht, Jehan; Shaheen, Salma; Shafi, Mohammad

2014-07-01

180

Background ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMérieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). Methods A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMérieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. Results The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. Conclusions The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation. PMID:24422190

Lee, Eun Joo

2014-01-01

181

Diffusion in Homicide: Exploring a General Method for Detecting Spatial Diffusion Processes

This article proposes a new method for examining dynamic changes in thespatial distribution of a phenomenon. Recently introduced exploratoryspatial data analysis (ESDA) techniques provide social scientists with anew set of tools for distinguishing between random and nonrandom spatialpatterns of events (Anselin, 1998). Existing ESDA measures, however, arestatic and do not permit comparisons of distributions of events in the samespace but

Jacqueline Cohen; George Tita

1999-01-01

182

Method of fluxless brazing and diffusion bonding of aluminum containing components

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of diffusion bonding and fluxless brazing of aluminum containing components is reported. The aluminum surfaces are freed of any aluminum oxide coating and are coated with a polymeric sealer which can be thermally removed leaving essentially no residue. The polymeric sealer is being removed in a substantially oxygen free environment, and the aluminum components are then being brazed or diffusion bonded without the use of a flux to remove oxide coating.

Featherston, A. B.; Okelly, K. P. (inventors)

1976-01-01

183

A fast method for quantitative imaging of T2 and displacement (flow and diffusion) is presented. The pulse sequence combines multi-PGSE NMR with multi-echo acquisition and compensates for flow effects in the read gradient and diffusion during multi-echo trains. The impact of the gradient pulses in a multi-echo train on the signal phase and amplitude is discussed. It is shown that

Bertram Manz

2004-01-01

184

A Two-Fluid Method for Ambipolar Diffusion

We present a semi-implicit method for isothermal two-fluid ion-neutral ambipolar drift that is second-order accurate in space and time. The method has been implemented in the RIEMANN code for astrophysical fluid dynamics. We present four test problems that show the method works and correctly tracks the propagation of MHD waves and the structure of two-fluid C-shocks. The accurate propagation of MHD waves in the two-fluid approximation is shown to be a stringent test of the algorithm. We demonstrate that highly accurate methods are required in order to properly capture the MHD wave behaviour in the presence of ion-neutral friction.

David A. Tilley; Dinshaw S. Balsara

2008-06-24

185

Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S(sub N) problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. An alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.

Martin, W. R.

1993-01-01

186

Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S[sub N] problems

This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. A alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.

Martin, W.R.

1993-01-01

187

A Novel Chromogenic Ester Agar Medium for Detection of Salmonellae

A novel agar medium, chromogenic Salmonella esterase (CSE) agar, for the differentiation of salmonellae is described. The agar contains peptones and nutrient extracts together with the following (grams per liter unless otherwise specified): 4-(2-(4-octanoyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl)-quinolinium-1-(propan-3-yl carboxylic acid) bromide (SLPA-octanoate; bromide form), 0.3223; lactose, 14.65; trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.5; Tween 20, 3.0; ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 0.035% (wt\\/vol), novobiocin, 70 mg liter 21 .

VENITIA M. COOKE; R. J. MILES; R. G. PRICE; A. C. RICHARDSON

1999-01-01

188

Accelerated molecular dynamics and equation-free methods for simulating diffusion in solids.

Many of the most important and hardest-to-solve problems related to the synthesis, performance, and aging of materials involve diffusion through the material or along surfaces and interfaces. These diffusion processes are driven by motions at the atomic scale, but traditional atomistic simulation methods such as molecular dynamics are limited to very short timescales on the order of the atomic vibration period (less than a picosecond), while macroscale diffusion takes place over timescales many orders of magnitude larger. We have completed an LDRD project with the goal of developing and implementing new simulation tools to overcome this timescale problem. In particular, we have focused on two main classes of methods: accelerated molecular dynamics methods that seek to extend the timescale attainable in atomistic simulations, and so-called 'equation-free' methods that combine a fine scale atomistic description of a system with a slower, coarse scale description in order to project the system forward over long times.

Deng, Jie; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brown, William Michael (Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN); Plimpton, Steven James; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Wagner, Gregory John; Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

2011-09-01

189

A method of online quantitative interpretation of diffuse reflection profiles of biological tissues

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method of combined interpretation of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of biological tissues, which makes it possible to determine biophysical parameters of the tissue with a high accuracy in real time under conditions of their general variability. Using the Monte Carlo method, we have modeled a statistical ensemble of profiles of diffuse reflection coefficients of skin, which corresponds to a wave variation of its biophysical parameters. On its basis, we have estimated the retrieval accuracy of biophysical parameters using the developed method and investigated the stability of the method to errors of optical measurements. We have showed that it is possible to determine online the concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin, bilirubin, oxygen saturation of blood, and structural parameters of skin from measurements of its diffuse reflection in the spectral range 450-800 nm at three distances between the radiation source and detector.

Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

2013-02-01

190

A fractional step [theta]-method for convection-diffusion problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we analyze the fractional step [theta]-method for the time-dependent convection-diffusion equation. In our implementation, we completely separate the convection operator from the diffusion operator, and stabilize the convective problem using a Streamline Upwinded Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method. We establish a priori error estimates and show that the optimal value of [theta] yields a scheme that is second-order in time. Numerical computations are presented which demonstrate the method and support the theoretical results.

Chrispell, J. C.; Ervin, V. J.; Jenkins, E. W.

2007-09-01

191

This paper presents a new method for cancer detection based on diffusion reflection measurements. This method enables discrimination between cancerous and noncancerous tissues due to the intense light absorption of gold nanorods (GNRs), which are selectively targeted to squamous cell carcinoma head and neck cancer cells. Presented in this paper are tissue-like phantom and in vivo results that demonstrate the high sensitivity of diffusion reflection measurements to the absorption differences between the GNR-targeted cancerous tissue and normal, noncancerous tissue. This noninvasive and nonionizing optical detection method provides a highly sensitive, simple, and inexpensive tool for cancer detection. PMID:22334777

Ankri, Rinat; Peretz, Vital; Motiei, Menachem; Popovtzer, Rachela; Fixler, Dror

2012-01-01

192

A First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo method for reaction–drift–diffusion processes

Stochastic reaction–diffusion models are now a popular tool for studying physical systems in which both the explicit diffusion of molecules and noise in the chemical reaction process play important roles. The Smoluchowski diffusion-limited reaction model (SDLR) is one of several that have been used to study biological systems. Exact realizations of the underlying stochastic processes described by the SDLR model can be generated by the recently proposed First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo (FPKMC) method. This exactness relies on sampling analytical solutions to one and two-body diffusion equations in simplified protective domains. In this work we extend the FPKMC to allow for drift arising from fixed, background potentials. As the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations that describe the motion of each molecule can no longer be solved analytically, we develop a hybrid method that discretizes the protective domains. The discretization is chosen so that the drift–diffusion of each molecule within its protective domain is approximated by a continuous-time random walk on a lattice. New lattices are defined dynamically as the protective domains are updated, hence we will refer to our method as Dynamic Lattice FPKMC or DL-FPKMC. We focus primarily on the one-dimensional case in this manuscript, and demonstrate the numerical convergence and accuracy of our method in this case for both smooth and discontinuous potentials. We also present applications of our method, which illustrate the impact of drift on reaction kinetics.

Mauro, Ava J., E-mail: avamauro@bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, 111 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Sigurdsson, Jon Karl; Shrake, Justin [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Atzberger, Paul J., E-mail: atzberg@math.ucsb.edu [6712 South Hall, Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Isaacson, Samuel A., E-mail: isaacson@math.bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, 111 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

2014-02-15

193

A First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo method for reaction-drift-diffusion processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic reaction-diffusion models are now a popular tool for studying physical systems in which both the explicit diffusion of molecules and noise in the chemical reaction process play important roles. The Smoluchowski diffusion-limited reaction model (SDLR) is one of several that have been used to study biological systems. Exact realizations of the underlying stochastic processes described by the SDLR model can be generated by the recently proposed First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo (FPKMC) method. This exactness relies on sampling analytical solutions to one and two-body diffusion equations in simplified protective domains. In this work we extend the FPKMC to allow for drift arising from fixed, background potentials. As the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations that describe the motion of each molecule can no longer be solved analytically, we develop a hybrid method that discretizes the protective domains. The discretization is chosen so that the drift-diffusion of each molecule within its protective domain is approximated by a continuous-time random walk on a lattice. New lattices are defined dynamically as the protective domains are updated, hence we will refer to our method as Dynamic Lattice FPKMC or DL-FPKMC. We focus primarily on the one-dimensional case in this manuscript, and demonstrate the numerical convergence and accuracy of our method in this case for both smooth and discontinuous potentials. We also present applications of our method, which illustrate the impact of drift on reaction kinetics.

Mauro, Ava J.; Sigurdsson, Jon Karl; Shrake, Justin; Atzberger, Paul J.; Isaacson, Samuel A.

2014-02-01

194

The Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Time-Dependent Convection-Diffusion Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we study the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods for nonlinear, time-dependent convection-diffusion systems. These methods are an extension of the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin methods for purely hyperbolic systems to convection-diffusion systems and share with those methods their high parallelizability, their high-order formal accuracy, and their easy handling of complicated geometries, for convection dominated problems. It is proven that for scalar equations, the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods are L(sup 2)-stable in the nonlinear case. Moreover, in the linear case, it is shown that if polynomials of degree k are used, the methods are k-th order accurate for general triangulations; although this order of convergence is suboptimal, it is sharp for the LDG methods. Preliminary numerical examples displaying the performance of the method are shown.

Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang

1997-01-01

195

Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity

The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find

M. L. Kirsh; A. M. Sokol; V. S. Lomanets; O. R. Gayka

1999-01-01

196

Assessing Methods and Data for Pore-Size Distribution of PEMFC Gas-Diffusion Media

Data for hydrophilic and hydrophobic pore-size distributions are presented for two gas-diffusion media GDM commonly used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs. The data were obtained using two measurement methods, intrusion porosimetry and the method of standard porosimetry MSP. The use of multiple working fluids to access hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores is discussed as well as limitations associated with

Michael J. Marti?nez; Sirivatch Shimpalee; J. W. Van Zee; A. V. Sakars

2009-01-01

197

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several different numerical methods for calculating diffuse radiation viewfactors are described. Each is applied to a range of surface configurations, from almost completely unobstructed to a dense set of intersecting surfaces. The speed, accuracy and unique characteristics are discussed in order to define optimal methods for different surface geometries.

Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Lobo, M.; Abrous, A.

1988-01-01

198

Stability of the SUPG Finite Element Method for Transient Advection-Diffusion Problems

Stability of the SUPG Finite Element Method for Transient Advection-Diffusion Problems Pavel B coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to addi- tional terms that provide consistency and improve of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this contention

Bochev, Pavel

199

Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed.

Kirsh, M. L.; Sokol, A. M.; Lomanets, V. S.; Gayka, O. R.

1999-11-01

200

A new method is presented for the enlargement of particle size through condensation of water vapor in a laminar, thermally diffusive flow. The method involves the introduction of an air flow at temperature Ti into a wet-walled tube at a temperature Tw > Ti. This approach yields higher supersaturation values than either mixing or cold-walled condensers when operating between the

Susanne V. Hering; Mark R. Stolzenburg

2005-01-01

201

Stability Analysis of ALE-Methods for Advection-Diffusion Problems A. Weddemann*

Stability Analysis of ALE-Methods for Advection-Diffusion Problems A. Weddemann* and V. Thümmler@physik.uni-bielefeld.de Abstract: ALE-methods are frequently used to solve systems of partial differential equations (PDEs implementation of the ALE-equations via a weak formulation with the predefined ALE-mode of COMSOL Multiphysics

Bielefeld, Universität

202

A discontinuous hp finite element method for convection—diffusion problems

This paper presents a new method which exhibits the best features of both finite volume and finite element techniques. Special attention is given to the issues of conservation, flexible accuracy, and stability. The method is elementwise conservative, the order of polynomial approximation can be adjusted element by element, and the stability is not based on the introduction of artificial diffusion,

Carlos Erik Baumann; J. Tinsley Oden

1999-01-01

203

Comparison of some finite element methods for solving the diffusion-convection-reaction equation

In this paper we describe several finite element methods for solving the diffusion-convection-reaction equation. None of them is new, although the presentation is non-standard in an effort to emphasize the similarities and differences between them. In particular, it is shown that the classical SUPG method is very similar to an explicit version of the Characteristic-Galerkin method, whereas the Taylor-Galerkin method

Ramon Codina

1998-01-01

204

The Diffusion of Evaluation Methods among Public Relations Practitioners.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the relationships between public relations practitioners' organizational roles and the type of evaluation methods they used on the job. Based on factor analysis of role data obtained from an earlier study, four organizational roles were defined and ranked: communication manager, media relations specialist, communication liaison,…

Dozier, David M.

205

Method for site characterization of anisotropic diffuse illumination of photovoltaic systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a method to characterize the anisotropy of diffuse illumination incident on photovoltaic systems is presented. PV systems are designed based on standard conditions in which only consider direct and isotropic diffuse illumination. Anisotropic illumination can cause the PV system output to step outside of the design specifications. A baffled multi-detector sensor system is described having a discrete set of azimuthal and declination angle combinations in order to constantly sample the irradiance and the incidence angle of the diffuse illumination in all zenith directions. The sensor was deployed in the Tucson Electric Power Solar Test Yard alongside with commercially available PV systems that are independently monitored. Constant and transient sources of anisotropic diffuse illumination, such as surface reflection and cloud edge effects respectively, are measured and modeled with ray tracing software. Results of the method are described for characterizing diffuse illumination at the TEP Solar Test Yard. Understanding the anisotropic diffuse illumination can potentially allow to more accurately predict PV system or to optimize energy harvesting of systems with non-standard mounting conditions as well as building integrated photovoltaic applications.

Russo, Juan M.; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Gordon, Michael; Castillo, Jose; Brooks, Adria; Lonij, Vincent; Cronin, Alex; Kostuk, Raymond

2012-10-01

206

Porous structures of shales are reconstructed based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analyzes of the nanoscale reconstructed shales are performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) fluid flow model and single-relaxation-time (SRT) LBM diffusion model are adopted to simulate the fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion process within the reconstructed shales, respectively. Tortuosity, intrinsic permeability and effective Knudsen diffusivity are numerically predicted. The tortuosity is much higher than that commonly employed in Bruggeman equation. Correction of the intrinsic permeability by taking into consideration the contribution of Knudsen diffusion, which leads to the apparent permeability, is performed. The correction factor under different Knudsen number and pressure are estimated and compared with existing corrections re...

Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

2014-01-01

207

Kinetic Monte Carlo Method to Model Diffusion Controlled Phase Transformations in the Solid State

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical theories of diffusion-controlled transformations in the solid state (precipitate-nucleation, -growth, -coarsening, order-disorder transformation, domain growth) imply several kinetic coefficients: diffusion coefficients (for the solute to cluster into nuclei, or to move from smaller to larger precipitates…), transfer coefficients (for the solute to cross the interface in the case of interface-reaction controlled kinetics) and ordering kinetic coefficients. If we restrict to coherent phase transformations, i.e., transformations, which occur keeping the underlying lattice the same, all such events (diffusion, transfer, ordering) are nothing but jumps of atoms from site to site on the lattice. Recent progresses have made it possible to model, by various techniques, diffusion controlled phase transformations, in the solid state, starting from the jumps of atoms on the lattice. The purpose of the present chapter is to introduce one of the techniques, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method (KMC).

Martin, Georges; Soisson, Frédéric

208

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

209

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2011-04-01

210

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2014-04-01

211

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2012-04-01

212

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the diffusion of photons in turbid media, like biological tissue has been studied. Due to scattering and absorption of photons in such media, the study of photon propagation in biological tissue is complicated. The several numerical methods have been presented to simulate the behavior of diffused photons. Recently, Boundary Integral Method (BIM) has been offered to simulate photon migration inside biological tissues. This method has advantage, e.g. lower computational time in compared with other numerical methods. In this study, the accuracy and precision of BIM compares with another numerical method like Monte Carlo technique and finite difference method, and also the calculated results obtained by BIM and Monte Carlo method evaluate with measured results. Furthermore, the effects of scattering and absorption coefficient of tissue on the measured signal are studied.

Ansari, Mohammad Ali; Alikhani, Saeid; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Massudi, Reza

2012-03-01

213

Washington State University: Defects and Diffusion studied by Hyperfine Methods

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hyperfine Interactions Laboratory at Washington State University addresses its research of "how solids are affected by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or irradiation treatment" with atom-scale resolution. Students and researchers can discover their nuclear hyperfine interactions methods. To learn about the Laboratory's research, users can find detailed descriptions, pictures, publications, meeting abstracts, and more. The website features undergraduate, graduate, postdocs, and visiting scientist research opportunities. Users can also find out about the International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions held in August 2004.

214

An instrument for small-animal imaging using time-resolved diffuse and fluorescence optical methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe time-resolved optical methods that use diffuse near-infrared photons to image the optical properties of tissues and their inner fluorescent probe distribution. The assembled scanner uses picosecond laser diodes at 4 wavelengths, an 8-anode photo-multiplier tube and time-correlated single photon counting. Optical absorption and reduced scattering images as well as fluorescence emission images are computed from temporal profiles of diffuse photons. This method should improve the spatial resolution and the quantification of fluorescence signals. We used the diffusion approximation of the radiation transport equation and the finite element method to solve the forward problem. The inverse problem is solved with an optimization algorithm such as ART or conjugate gradient. The scanner and its performances are presented, together with absorption, scattering and fluorescent images obtained with it.

Montcel, Bruno; Poulet, Patrick

2006-12-01

215

[Evaluation of blood agar medium for the growth of mycobacteria].

This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of blood agar for the growth of mycobacteria from clinical specimens sent to Mycobacteriology Laboratory of Samsun Chest Diseases Hospital. One hundred fifty six clinical specimens including 123 sputum, 28 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and 5 pleural fluid specimens were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ), BACTEC MGIT 960 system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and blood agar following decontamination process. The specimens were also simultaneously examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Thirty five mycobacteria strains (33 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 2 atypical mycobacteria) grew in blood agar, 38 (36 M.tuberculosis and 2 atypical mycobacteria) in LJ media and 46 (44 M.tuberculosis and 2 atypical mycobacteria) in BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Among 29 AFB negative specimens, 20 revealed growth in both blood agar and LJ medium and 27 in MGIT system. AFB positive 20 samples yielded growth in 15 samples in blood agar, 18 in LJ medium and 19 in MGIT system. Among the total of 156 samples, contamination was observed in 15 (9.6%) samples in blood agar, 16 (10.2%) in LJ medium and 18 (11.5%) in MGIT system. Growth time was 5-35 days (mean 18 ± 7.4), 11-35 days (mean 19 ± 5.9) and 5-15 days (mean 10 ± 2.4) for blood agar, LJ medium and BACTEC MGIT 960 system, respectively. The three samples which revealed contamination in BACTEC MGIT 960 system, grew successfully in both blood agar and LJ medium without contamination. In one sample, growth was observed only in LJ medium but neither in blood agar nor BACTEC MGIT 960 system. However, in another sample, growth was observed only in blood agar while no growth was detected in LJ or BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Six samples yielded mycobacteria only in BACTEC MGIT 960 system. These results indicated that simultaneous use of one liquid and one solid medium to grow mycobacteria from the clinical samples seemed to be complementary. Blood agar was a promising choice since it was found to be as effective as LJ medium for the growth of mycobacteria, however, this issue needs to be further evaluated in a multicentre study with a larger specimen collection. PMID:22090292

Coban, Ahmet Y?lmaz; Akgüne?, Alper; Durup?nar, Belma

2011-10-01

216

Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance spectra measured in the visible and near-infrared spectral range from 400 and 1,000 nm (473 narrow spectral bands). Multivariate regression methods were used to estimate and predict hyperspectral data from RGB color values. The six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Eschetichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were grown on Rainbow agar plates. A line-scan pushbroom hyperspectral image sensor was used to scan 36 agar plates grown with pure STEC colonies at each plate. The 36 hyperspectral images of the agar plates were divided in half to create training and test sets. The mean Rsquared value for hyperspectral image estimation was about 0.98 in the spectral range between 400 and 700 nm for linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models and the detection accuracy of the hyperspectral image classification model with the principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors for the test set was up to 92% (99% with the original hyperspectral images). Thus, the results of the study suggested that color-based detection may be viable as a multispectral imaging solution without much loss of prediction accuracy compared to hyperspectral imaging.

Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

2014-03-01

217

An adaptive pseudo-spectral method for reaction diffusion problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral interpolation error was considered for both the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral and Galerkin approximations. A family of functionals I sub r (u), with the property that the maximum norm of the error is bounded by I sub r (u)/J sub r, where r is an integer and J is the degree of the polynomial approximation, was developed. These functionals are used in the adaptive procedure whereby the problem is dynamically transformed to minimize I sub r (u). The number of collocation points is then chosen to maintain a prescribed error bound. The method is illustrated by various examples from combustion problems in one and two dimensions.

Bayliss, A.; Gottlieb, D.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Minkoff, M.

1987-01-01

218

Numerical methods and stochastic simulation algorithms for reaction-drift-diffusion systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been increased awareness that stochasticity in chemical reactions and diffusion of molecules can have significant effects on the outcomes of intracellular processes, particularly given the low copy numbers of many proteins and mRNAs present in a cell. For such molecular species, the number and locations of molecules can provide a more accurate and detailed description than local concentration. In addition to diffusion, drift in the movements of molecules can play a key role in the dynamics of intracellular processes, and can often be modeled as arising from potential fields. Examples of sources of drift include active transport, variations in chemical potential, material heterogeneities in the cytoplasm, and local interactions with subcellular structures. This dissertation presents a new numerical method for simulating the stochastically varying numbers and locations of molecular species undergoing chemical reactions and drift-diffusion. The method combines elements of the First-Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo (FPKMC) method for reaction--diffusion systems and the Wang--Peskin--Elston lattice discretization of the Fokker--Planck equation that describes drift-diffusion processes in which the drift arises from potential fields. In the FPKMC method, each molecule is enclosed within a "protective domain", either by itself or with a small number of other molecules. To sample when a molecule leaves its protective domain or a reaction occurs, the original FPKMC method relies on analytic solutions of one- and two-body diffusion equations within the protective domains, and therefore cannot be used in situations with non-constant drift. To allow for such drift in our new method (hereafter Dynamic Lattice FPKMC or DL-FPKMC), each molecule undergoes a continuous-time random walk on a lattice within its protective domain, and the lattices change adaptively over time. One of the most commonly used spatial models for stochastic reaction-diffusion systems is the Smoluchowski diffusion-limited reaction (SDLR) model. The DL-FPKMC method generates convergent realizations of an extension of the SDLR model that includes drift from potentials. We present detailed numerical results demonstrating the convergence and accuracy of our method for various types of potentials (smooth, discontinuous, and constant). We also present several illustrative applications of DL-FPKMC, including examples motivated by cell biology.

Mauro, Ava J.

219

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

1987-01-01

220

Recent work in our laboratory shows that it is possible to measure the minute weight changes of skin during exposure to chemical vapor using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method. Further, the TGA weight curves can be analyzed with a two-compartment diffusion model, yielding two sets of diffusion and skin:air partition coefficients. In this study, the dermal diffusion of six chemical

Matias Rauma; Gunnar Johanson

2009-01-01

221

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings are used as heat and wear shields of gas turbine blades. There is a strong need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of coating for thermal design and use. The thermal conductivity of a bulk material is obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density above room temperature in many cases. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are unique for a given material because they are sensitive to the structure of the material. Therefore, it is important to measure them in each sample. However it is difficult to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of coatings because coatings are attached to substrates. In order to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of a coating attached to the substrate, we have examined the laser flash method with the multilayer model on the basis of the response function method. We carried out laser flash measurements in layered samples composed of a CoNiCrAlY bond coating and a 8YSZ top coating by thermal spraying on a Ni-based superalloy substrate. It was found that the procedure using laser flash method with the multilayer model is useful for the thermal diffusivity evaluation of a coating attached to a substrate.

Akoshima, Megumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Endo, Satoshi; Baba, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshio; Kojima, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Akira; Ono, Fumio

2011-11-01

222

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex variable reproducing kernel particle method (CVRKPM) of solving two-dimensional variable coefficient advection—diffusion problems is presented in this paper. The advantage of the CVRKPM is that the shape function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with a one-dimensional basis function. The Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain the discretized system equation, and the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions. Then the corresponding formulae of the CVRKPM for two-dimensional variable coefficient advection—diffusion problems are obtained. Two numerical examples are given to show that the method in this paper has greater accuracy and computational efficiency than the conventional meshless method such as reproducing the kernel particle method (RKPM) and the elementfree Galerkin (EFG) method.

Weng, Yun-Jie; Cheng, Yu-Min

2013-09-01

223

A gradient random walk method for two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations

An extension to two space dimensions of the gradient random walk algorithm for reaction-diffusion equations is presented. This family of algorithms is related closely to the random vortex method of computational fluid dynamics. Although the computational cost is high, the method has the desirable features of being grid free and of automatically adapting to the solution by concentrating elements where the gradient is large. In addition, the method can be extended easily to more than two space dimensions. A key feature of the method is discretization in terms of the dependent, rather than independent, variable, giving it features in common with Lagrangian particle methods. The method is derived here and its application to some simple reaction-diffusion wave propagation problems is illustrated.

Sherman, A. (National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Mascagni, M. (National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States) Inst. for Defense Analyses, Bowie, MD (United States). Supercomputing Research Center)

1994-11-01

224

Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffusers

Techniques for fabricating well-controlled, random relief, engineered surfaces that serve as substrates for EUV optical devices are accomplished with grayscale exposure. The method of fabricating a multilevel EUV optical element includes: (a) providing a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of curable material on a surface of the substrate; (c) creating a relief profile in a layer of cured material from the layer of curable material wherein the relief profile comprises multiple levels of cured material that has a defined contour; and (d) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. The curable material can comprise photoresist or a low dielectric constant material.

Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2005-03-01

225

Susceptibility testing of anidulafungin (AFG) against 32 mold isolates showed an excellent correlation between disk diffusion (DD) and broth microdilution methods. Based on our data, a 2-?g disk of AFG and a 24-h reading time might represent the best parameters for AFG DD testing against filamentous fungi. PMID:18923014

Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Milici, Maria Eleonora; Trovato, Laura; Oliveri, Salvatore; Amodio, Emanuele; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Scalise, Giorgio; Barchiesi, Francesco

2008-01-01

226

The measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been proposed as a surrogate for metal uptake by plants. A small-scale experiment was performed to test the predictive capacity of the DGT method with respect to uranium availability and uptake by ryegrass. Correlation analyses were performed to compare the results obtained with the DGT device with more conventional bioavailability

H. Vandenhove; K. Antunes; J. Wannijn; L. Duquène; M. Van Hees

2007-01-01

227

Numerical simulation of diffusion MRI signals using an adaptive time-stepping method.

The effect on the MRI signal of water diffusion in biological tissues in the presence of applied magnetic field gradient pulses can be modelled by a multiple compartment Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation. We present a method for the numerical solution of this equation by coupling a standard Cartesian spatial discretization with an adaptive time discretization. The time discretization is done using the explicit Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev method, which is more efficient than the forward Euler time discretization for diffusive-type problems. We use this approach to simulate the diffusion MRI signal from the extra-cylindrical compartment in a tissue model of the brain gray matter consisting of cylindrical and spherical cells and illustrate the effect of cell membrane permeability. PMID:24351275

Li, Jing-Rebecca; Calhoun, Donna; Poupon, Cyril; Le Bihan, Denis

2014-01-20

228

Stability and error analysis of nodal expansion method for convection-diffusion equation

The development, and stability and error analyses of nodal expansion method (NEM) for one dimensional steady-state convection diffusion equation is presented. Following the traditional procedure to develop NEM, the discrete formulation of the convection-diffusion equation, which is similar to the standard finite difference scheme, is derived. The method of discrete perturbation analysis is applied to this discrete form to study the stability of the NEM. The scheme based on the NEM is found to be stable for local Peclet number less than 4.644. A maximum principle is proved for the NEM scheme, followed by an error analysis carried out by applying the Maximum principle together with a carefully constructed comparison function. The scheme for the convection diffusion equation is of second-order. Numerical experiments are carried and the results agree with the conclusions of the stability and error analyses. (authors)

Deng, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing10084 (China); Rizwan-Uddin [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 216 Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li, F.; Sun, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing10084 (China)

2012-07-01

229

MRI Phantoms – Are There Alternatives to Agar?

The suitability of different gelling agents as MRI phantoms was evaluated in terms of homogeneity, gel stability and reproducibility. Time and effort for preparation were also taken into account. The relaxation times of various gel compositions were estimated. Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P were determined to be promising novel phantom materials. These gelling agents are readily available, inexpensive and easy to handle given that thermal treatment is not required. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of their polymer network is pH-dependent. With such characteristics, it was even possible to embed sensitive objects and retrieve them after testing. This was demonstrated with a fiber phantom for Diffusion Weighted MRI applications. Since Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P are non-hazardous, they are also suitable for multimodal setups (e.g., MRI as well as ultrasonic imaging). PMID:23940563

Hellerbach, Alexandra; Schuster, Verena; Jansen, Andreas; Sommer, Jens

2013-01-01

230

MRI phantoms - are there alternatives to agar?

The suitability of different gelling agents as MRI phantoms was evaluated in terms of homogeneity, gel stability and reproducibility. Time and effort for preparation were also taken into account. The relaxation times of various gel compositions were estimated. Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P were determined to be promising novel phantom materials. These gelling agents are readily available, inexpensive and easy to handle given that thermal treatment is not required. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of their polymer network is pH-dependent. With such characteristics, it was even possible to embed sensitive objects and retrieve them after testing. This was demonstrated with a fiber phantom for Diffusion Weighted MRI applications. Since Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P are non-hazardous, they are also suitable for multimodal setups (e.g., MRI as well as ultrasonic imaging). PMID:23940563

Hellerbach, Alexandra; Schuster, Verena; Jansen, Andreas; Sommer, Jens

2013-01-01

231

The Stern-Volmer theory, in which the quantum yield ratio (Io/I) depends linearly on the quencher concentration, will typically be inapplicable to fluorescence quenching in membranes. Numerical analysis shows that diffusion-controlled quenching results in a nonlinear concentration dependence for diffusion coefficients less than or of the order of 10(-6) cm2 s-1 and probe fluorescence lifetimes in the region of 10-100 ns. Lateral diffusion coefficients in membranes are typically overestimated an order of magnitude or more by the Stern-Volmer theory. An alternative empirical method is presented, which represents nonlinear concentration curves by a single parameter linear approximation determined by a least-squares analysis. The fitting parameter, P, depends on the interaction distance, the membrane thickness, the maximum extent of quenching and, in the case of biexponential probe fluorescence decay, the fluorescence kinetic parameters. P is presented in tabular form for a useful range of these parameters. The method is used to estimate diffusion coefficients for plastoquinone and plastoquinol from pyrene fluorescence quenching in soya bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes. It is found that the diffusion coefficients are nearly equal and in the region of 1.3-3.5 X 10(-7) cm2 s-1 for interaction radii of 1.5-0.5 nm, respectively. PMID:3593871

Blackwell, M F; Gounaris, K; Zara, S J; Barber, J

1987-01-01

232

Stability of the SUPG finite element method for transient advection–diffusion problems

Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this

Pavel B. Bochev; Max D. Gunzburger; John N. Shadid

2004-01-01

233

Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtainable in the prior art.

Rutherford, William M. (Dayton, OH)

1988-05-24

234

Solution of the steady-state diffusion equation by the WKB method

The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method is used to obtain an approximate solution of the ionization balance equation for the night ionosphere taking into account ambipolar diffusion and recombination. A null approximation of the electron concentration distribution is obtained. The effect of different values for the ratio of atomic to molecular neutral gas component height scales is evident only for the height of

A. G. Khantadze; R. G. Gachechiladze; A. I. Gvelesiani; G. M. Khocholava; B. Ia. Chekhoshvili; N. N. Mebagishvili

1975-01-01

235

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-DIFFUSION FLUX-SPLITTING METHODS FOR DENSE GAS-SOLID FLOWS

The development of a class of low-diffusion upwinding methods for computing dense gas-solid flows is presented in this work. An artificial compressibility/low-Mach preconditioning strategy is developed for a hyperbolic two-phase flow equation system consisting of separate solids ...

236

This study was carried out in response to suggestions that the measurement of NO2 by Palmes-type passive diffusion tubes (PDT) is affected by the method of preparation of the triethanolamine (TEA) absorbent coating on the grids. The following...

Hamilton, Richard P; Heal, Mathew R

2004-01-01

237

The preference of even approximations of the surface pseudo source method for calculation of the diffusion coefficient is substantiated. The homogenization limit for the G{sub 0} approximation in the case of the cell size tending to zero is analytically proved.

Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ru; Laletin, N. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

238

An hp Analysis of the Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Diffusion Problems

We present an hp-error analysis of the local discontinuous Galerkin method for diffusion problems, considering unstructured meshes with hanging nodes and two- and three-dimensional domains. Our estimates are optimal in the meshsize h and slightly suboptimal in the polynomial approximation order p. Optimality in p is achieved for matching grids and polynomial boundary conditions.

Ilaria Perugia; Dominik Schötzau

2002-01-01

239

1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

240

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are grouped into two or three regions that are invariant with order of the method. Local relaxation methods are constructed that rapidly damp high frequencies for arbitrarily large time step.

Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang

2001-01-01

241

Error diffusion method applied to design combined CSG-BSG element used in ICF driver

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the final optics assembly of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) driver, Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are applied to achieve some important functions, such as harmonic wave separation, beam sampling, beam smoothing and pulse compression etc. However, in order to optimize the system structure, decrease the energy loss and avoid the damage of laser induction or self-focusing effect, the number of elements used in the ICF system, especially in the final optics assembly, should be minimized. The multiple exposure method has been proposed, for this purpose, to fabricate BSG and CSG on one surface of a silica plate. But the multiple etch processes utilized in this method is complex and will introduce large alignment error. Error diffusion method that based on pulse-density modulation has been widely used in signal processing and computer generated hologram (CGH). In this paper, according to error diffusion method in CGH and partial coherent imaging theory, we present a new method to design coding mask of combine CSG-BSG element with error diffusion method. With the designed mask, only one exposure process is needed in fabricating combined element, which will greatly reduce the fabrication difficulty and avoid the alignment error introduced by multiple etch processes. We illustrate the designed coding mask for CSG-BSG element with this method and compare the intensity distribution of the spatial image in partial coherent imaging system with desired relief.

Zhang, Yixiao; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fuhua; Guo, Yongkang; Wang, Lei; Hou, Xi

2006-08-01

242

COMPARISON OF THE COMPLETE FOURIER DIRECT MRI WITH EXISTING DIFFUSION WEIGHTED MRI METHODS

The Complete Fourier Direct (CFD) MRI method introduced in earlier work for modeling the diffusion weighted MRI signal is compared with the existing methods. The preservation of Hermitian symmetry in the diffusion weighted MRI signal without affecting its energy is the key point that differentiates CFD–MRI from the existing methods. By keeping the correct Fourier relationship intact, the joint distribution function is represented ‘as it is’, without any constraints, e.g. being symmetric. The necessity to model or assume models for spin motion and try to fit the model to the samples of the Fourier transform as in case of model matching methods is not required because the Discrete Fourier Transform applied to correctly processed signal in CFD–MRI gives more accurate results. PMID:21918715

Özcan, Alpay

2011-01-01

243

A high-order Padé ADI method for unsteady convection diffusion equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-order alternating direction implicit (ADI) method for computations of unsteady convection-diffusion equations is proposed. By using fourth-order Padé schemes for spatial derivatives, the present scheme is fourth-order accurate in space and second-order accurate in time. The solution procedure consists of a number of tridiagonal matrix operations which make the computation cost effective. The method is unconditionally stable, and shows higher accuracy and better phase and amplitude error characteristics than the standard second-order ADI method [D.W. Peaceman, H.H. Rachford Jr., The numerical solution of parabolic and elliptic differential equations, Journal of the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics 3 (1959) 28-41] and the fourth-order ADI scheme of Karaa and Zhang [High order ADI method for solving unsteady convection-diffusion problem, Journal of Computational Physics 198 (2004) 1-9].

You, Donghyun

2006-05-01

244

New chromogenic agar medium for the identification of Candida spp.

A new chromogenic agar medium (Candida diagnostic agar [CDA]) for differentiation of Candida spp. is described. This medium is based on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid CM41) and contains (per liter) 40.0 g of glucose, 10.0 g of mycological peptone, and 15.0 g of agar along with a novel chromogenic glucosaminidase substrate, ammonium 4-(2-[4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-vinyl)-1-(propan-3-yl-oate)-quinolium bromide (0.32 g liter(-1)). The glucosaminidase substrate in CDA was hydrolyzed by Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, yielding white colonies with deep-red spots on a yellow transparent background after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Colonies of Candida tropicalis and Candida kefyr were uniformly pink, and colonies of other Candida spp., including Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis, were white. CDA was evaluated by using 115 test strains of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts and was compared with two commercially available chromogenic agars (Candida ID agar [bioMerieux] and CHROMagar Candida [CHROMagar Company Ltd.]). On all three agars, colonies of C. albicans were not distinguished from colonies of C. dubliniensis. However, for the group containing C. albicans plus C. dubliniensis, both the sensitivity and the specificity of detection when CDA was used were 100%, compared with values of 97.6 and 100%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida and 100 and 96.8%, respectively, with Candida ID agar. In addition, for the group containing C. tropicalis plus C. kefyr, the sensitivity and specificity of detection when CDA was used were also 100%, compared with 72.7 and 98.1%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida. Candida ID agar did not differentiate C. tropicalis and C. kefyr strains but did differentiate members of a broader group (C. tropicalis, C. kefyr, Candida lusitaniae plus Candida guilliermondii); the sensitivity and specificity of detection for members of this group were 94.7 and 93.8%, respectively. In addition to the increased sensitivity and/or specificity of Candida detection when CDA was used, differentiation of colony types on CDA (red spotted, pink, or no color) was unambiguous and did not require precise assessment of colony color. PMID:12089051

Cooke, Venitia M; Miles, R J; Price, R G; Midgley, G; Khamri, W; Richardson, A C

2002-07-01

245

Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from

Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea

2005-01-01

246

A streamline diffusion finite-element method is introduced for the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a bounded domain in R squared and R cubed in the case of a flow with a high Reynolds number. An error estimate is proved and numerical results are given. The method is based on a mixed velocity-pressure formulation using the same finite-element discretization of space-time

Peter Hansbo; Anders Szepessy

1990-01-01

247

A semi-discrete finite element method for a class of time-fractional diffusion equations.

As fractional diffusion equations can describe the early breakthrough and the heavy-tail decay features observed in anomalous transport of contaminants in groundwater and porous soil, they have been commonly used in the related mathematical descriptions. These models usually involve long-time-range computation, which is a critical obstacle for their application; improvement of computational efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, a semi-discrete method is presented for solving a class of time-fractional diffusion equations that overcome the critical long-time-range computation problem. In the procedure, the spatial domain is discretized by the finite element method, which reduces the fractional diffusion equations to approximate fractional relaxation equations. As analytical solutions exist for the latter equations, the burden arising from long-time-range computation can effectively be minimized. To illustrate its efficiency and simplicity, four examples are presented. In addition, the method is used to solve the time-fractional advection-diffusion equation characterizing the bromide transport process in a fractured granite aquifer. The prediction closely agrees with the experimental data, and the heavy-tail decay of the anomalous transport process is well represented. PMID:23547234

Sun, HongGuang; Chen, Wen; Sze, K Y

2013-05-13

248

Quantitative comparison of reconstruction methods for intra-voxel fiber recovery from diffusion MRI.

Validation is arguably the bottleneck in the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) community. This paper evaluates and compares 20 algorithms for recovering the local intra-voxel fiber structure from diffusion MRI data and is based on the results of the "HARDI reconstruction challenge" organized in the context of the "ISBI 2012" conference. Evaluated methods encompass a mixture of classical techniques well known in the literature such as diffusion tensor, Q-Ball and diffusion spectrum imaging, algorithms inspired by the recent theory of compressed sensing and also brand new approaches proposed for the first time at this contest. To quantitatively compare the methods under controlled conditions, two datasets with known ground-truth were synthetically generated and two main criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the reconstructions in every voxel: correct assessment of the number of fiber populations and angular accuracy in their orientation. This comparative study investigates the behavior of every algorithm with varying experimental conditions and highlights strengths and weaknesses of each approach. This information can be useful not only for enhancing current algorithms and develop the next generation of reconstruction methods, but also to assist physicians in the choice of the most adequate technique for their studies. PMID:24132007

Daducci, Alessandro; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick Jorge; Descoteaux, Maxime; Garyfallidis, Eleftherios; Gur, Yaniv; Lin, Ying-Chia; Mani, Merry; Merlet, Sylvain; Paquette, Michael; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Reisert, Marco; Reis Rodrigues, Paulo; Sepehrband, Farshid; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Choupan, Jeiran; Deriche, Rachid; Jacob, Mathews; Menegaz, Gloria; Pr?kovska, Vesna; Rivera, Mariano; Wiaux, Yves; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2014-02-01

249

A semi-discrete finite element method for a class of time-fractional diffusion equations

As fractional diffusion equations can describe the early breakthrough and the heavy-tail decay features observed in anomalous transport of contaminants in groundwater and porous soil, they have been commonly employed in the related mathematical descriptions. These models usually involve long-time range computation, which is a critical obstacle for its application, improvement of the computational efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, a semi-analytical method is presented for solving a class of time-fractional diffusion equations which overcomes the critical long-time range computation problem of time fractional differential equations. In the procedure, the spatial domain is discretized by the finite element method which reduces the fractional diffusion equations into approximate fractional relaxation equations. As analytical solutions exist for the latter equations, the burden arising from long-time range computation can effectively be minimized. To illustrate its efficiency and simplicity, four examples are presented. In addition, the method is employed to solve the time-fractional advection-diffusion equation characterizing the bromide transport process in a fractured granite aquifer. The prediction closely agrees with the experimental data and the heavy-tail decay of anomalous transport process is well-represented.

HongGuang Sun; Wen Chen; K. Y. Sze

2013-04-10

250

The interpretation and analysis of diffuse scattering using Monte Carlo simulation methods.

Studies of diffuse scattering had a prominent place in the first issue of Acta Crystallographica 60 years ago at a time when conventional crystallography (determination of the average structure from Bragg peaks) was in its infancy. Since that time, conventional crystallography has developed enormously while diffuse-scattering analysis has seemingly lagged well behind. The paper highlights some of the extra difficulties involved in the measurement, interpretation and analysis of diffuse scattering and plots the progress that has been made. With the advent of the latest X-ray and neutron sources, area detectors and the ever-increasing power of computers, most disorder problems are now tractable. Two recent contrasting examples are described which highlight what can be achieved by current methods. PMID:18156669

Welberry, T R; Goossens, D J

2008-01-01

251

In order to verify the results predicted by the model in Part 1 of this work, permeation experiments were conducted at room and high temperatures on fully-annealed-commercially-pure iron with two kinds of surface treatment, one group with plasma cleaning and presputtering and the other without it. The experimental results show that the diffusivity evaluated by the new model is independent of sample thickness and surface treatment, while the diffusivity evaluated by the time-lag model varies two orders of magnitude. The experimental results confirm that a fine surface treatment yields a low energy barrier for desorption. The energy barrier for either group is higher than the activation energy of diffusion. Consequently, the ratio of drift velocity through surface to that in bulk increases with increasing temperature and makes the time-lag method appropriate at elevated temperatures.

Zheng, Y.P.; Zhang, T.Y. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-12-31

252

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical solution methods for Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) have become an important tool to study charged particle transport, due to their simplicity and conformance with modern computer architecture. Their field of application ranges from the detailed calculation of solar energetic particle events to the cosmic ray transport in the outer heliosphere and in the Galaxy. At the heart of the applicability of SDEs to kinetic equations is the fundamental equivalence between the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation of parabolic type and an SDE involving a Wiener process to represent the stochastic Brownian motion of (pseudo-)particles. This equivalence has recently been extended to anomalous diffusion involving a Fokker-Planck equation of fractional order and generalized Lévy distributions. Numerical tests and applications of this approach to anomalous diffusion and future prospects of the SDE approach in the space physics context are outlined.

Effenberger, F.

2014-09-01

253

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

2005-01-01

254

Preparation and performance of cross-linked agar encapsulated activated charcoal (CAAC-III).

A technique is described to encapsulate activated charcoal for hemoperfusion to be used in an artificial liver support. Spherical activated charcoal was coated with agar and shaped in organic solvent, as well as cross-linked by epichlorohydrin (40-50 degrees C). The product withstood autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 0.5 hours, and had a good adsorption ability for compounds with molecular weight ranging from 113-5200. The adsorption kinetic showed pore diffusion limitation to compounds of small molecular weight, and film diffusion limitation to compounds of large molecular weight. Microparticles of charcoal release were greatly reduced, and within the permissible range according to the requirements in the U.S. Pharmacopeia (1985). PMID:1941439

Chen, Y M; Tang, X J; Xu, C X; Li, Z M

1991-01-01

255

The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

Farzad Rahnema; Dingkang Zhang; Abderrafi Ougouag; Frederick Gleicher

2011-04-04

256

GPU-accelerated 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method

Finite difference method, as a traditional numerical solution to neutron diffusion equation, although considered simpler and more precise than the coarse mesh nodal methods, has a bottle neck to be widely applied caused by the huge memory and unendurable computation time it requires. In recent years, the concept of General-Purpose computation on GPUs has provided us with a powerful computational engine for scientific research. In this study, a GPU-Accelerated multi-group 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method was developed. First, a clean-sheet neutron diffusion code (3DFD-CPU) was written in C++ on the CPU architecture, and later ported to GPUs under NVIDIA's CUDA platform (3DFD-GPU). The IAEA 3D PWR benchmark problem was calculated in the numerical test, where three different codes, including the original CPU-based sequential code, the HYPRE (High Performance Pre-conditioners)-based diffusion code and CITATION, were used as counterpoints to test the efficiency and accuracy of the GPU-based program. The results demonstrate both high efficiency and adequate accuracy of the GPU implementation for neutron diffusion equation. A speedup factor of about 46 times was obtained, using NVIDIA's Geforce GTX470 GPU card against a 2.50 GHz Intel Quad Q9300 CPU processor. Compared with the HYPRE-based code performing in parallel on an 8-core tower server, the speedup of about 2 still could be observed. More encouragingly, without any mathematical acceleration technology, the GPU implementation ran about 5 times faster than CITATION which was speeded up by using the SOR method and Chebyshev extrapolation technique. (authors)

Xu, Q.; Yu, G.; Wang, K. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua Univ. (China)

2012-07-01

257

Application of numerical methods for diffusion-based modeling of skin permeation.

The application of numerical methods for mechanistic, diffusion-based modeling of skin permeation is reviewed. Methods considered here are finite difference, method of lines, finite element, finite volume, random walk, cellular automata, and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. First the methods are briefly explained with rudimentary mathematical underpinnings. Current state of the art numerical models are described, and then a chronological overview of published models is provided. Key findings and insights of reviewed models are highlighted. Model results support a primarily transcellular pathway with anisotropic lipid transport. Future endeavors would benefit from a fundamental analysis of drug/vehicle/skin interactions. PMID:22261307

Frasch, H Frederick; Barbero, Ana M

2013-02-01

258

A Monte Carlo synthetic-acceleration method for solving the thermal radiation diffusion equation

We present a novel synthetic-acceleration-based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diffusion equation in three spatial dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that our Monte Carlo method is an effective solver for sparse matrix systems. For solutions converged to the same tolerance, it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned conjugate gradient and GMRES. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

Evans, Thomas M., E-mail: evanstm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mosher, Scott W., E-mail: moshersw@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Slattery, Stuart R., E-mail: sslattery@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53716 (United States); Hamilton, Steven P., E-mail: hamiltonsp@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2014-02-01

259

GELRITE as an Agar Substitute in Bacteriological Media

GELRITE gellan gum (formerly known as PS-60 and S-60) is a new naturally derived, highly purified polysaccharide which displays several interesting properties, including selfgelling. The suitability of GELRITE as an agar substitute was tested by evaluating the performance of several media selected from among those most commonly used in the isolation, identification, and enumeration of microorganisms in clinical laboratories. Fifty different bacterial species previously implicated in human infections served as test strains. On the basis of the various parameters considered, namely, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, hemolytic patterns, and plating efficiency, media gelled by agar and by GELRITE compared quite favorably. Images PMID:16346398

Shungu, Daniel; Valiant, Mary; Tutlane, Vicki; Weinberg, Ellen; Weissberger, Barbara; Koupal, Larry; Gadebusch, Hans; Stapley, Edward

1983-01-01

260

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

261

The effect of different treatments on the quality of agar produced from Pterocladia has been studied, and the conditions for the production of material of good quality have been standardized. In the modified process, sun-bleached seaweed was washed well in water, soaked for 24 h, and then ground to a pulp and rinsed again in water. The pulp was then extracted with water (weed-to-water ratio, 1:30) under pressure for 2 h after adjusting the pH to 6 by the addition of acetic acid. The agar gel, after freeze thawing, was bleached with NaClO before drying in a current of hot air. Pretreatment of the seaweed with alkali at 80°C for 2 h prior to extraction was found to improve the quality of agar to a very great extent. PMID:16345175

Rao, A. V.; Bekheet, Inaam A.

1976-01-01

262

Highly stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in agar-agar (Ag/agar) as inorganic-organic hybrid were obtained as free-standing film by in situ reduction of silver nitrate by ethanol. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/agar film on Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Candida albicans (C. albicans) was evaluated in a nutrient broth and also in saline solution. In particular, films were repeatedly tested for antimicrobial activity after recycling. UV-vis absorption and TEM studies were carried out on films at different stages and morphological studies on microbes were carried out by SEM. Results showed spherical Ag NPs of size 15-25 nm, having sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/agar film was found to be in the order, C. albicans>E. coli>S. aureus, and antimicrobial activity against C. albicans was almost maintained even after the third cycle. Whereas, in case of E. coli and S. aureus there was a sharp decline in antimicrobial activity after the second cycle. Agglomeration of Ag NPs in Ag/agar film on exposure to microbes was observed by TEM studies. Cytotoxic experiments carried out on HeLa cells showed a threshold Ag NPs concentration of 60 ?g/mL, much higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of Ag NPs (25.8 ?g/mL) for E. coli. The mechanical strength of the film determined by nanoindentation technique showed almost retention of the strength even after repeated cycle. PMID:20800222

Ghosh, S; Kaushik, R; Nagalakshmi, K; Hoti, S L; Menezes, G A; Harish, B N; Vasan, H N

2010-10-13

263

Two-Dimensional Space-Time Dependent Multi-group Diffusion Equation with SLOR Method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research of two-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with SLOR (Successive-Line Over Relaxation) has been done. SLOR method is chosen because this method is one of iterative methods that does not required to defined whole element matrix. The research is divided in two cases, homogeneous case and heterogeneous case. Homogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity. Heterogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity and ramp reactivity. In general, the results of simulations are agreement, even in some points there are differences.

Yulianti, Y.; Su'ud, Z.; Waris, A.; Khotimah, S. N.

2010-06-01

264

A study on the comparison of median filter regularization methods in diffusion tensor MRI.

Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) is a method which makes it possible to study non-invasively the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system. Since eigenvectors obtained from DT-MRI usually contain noise, the calculated vector directions may be deviated from the real fiber orientation. Therefore, noise errors can be accumulated as fiber tract becomes longer in tractography of DT-MRI. We used three algorithms for computing matrix medians which are the Simple Median Method, the Gradient Descent Method, and the Successive Fermat Method, because matrix-valued median filters show excellent capabilities for structure-preserving denoising. The results of the Successive Fermat Method give better than those of the Simple Median Method and is faster and the performance is similar to those of the Gradient Descent Method. PMID:18002740

Kim, Sunghee; Kwon, Kiwoon; Park, Insung; Han, Bongsu; Kim, Dongyoun

2007-01-01

265

The early visible effects of pollination in orchids are likely due to pollinia-borne chemicals. In Dendrobium we tested whether such compounds were water soluble and would diffuse in solid-aqueous phase, and determined both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations and auxin activity. Following pollination, the flower peduncle showed epinastic movement, followed by yellowing of the flower lip, flower senescence and ovary growth. Placing pollinia on agar blocks for 3, 6, 9 or 12h, prior to transferring them to the stigma, increased the time to these early postpollination effects or prevented them. Placing agar blocks that had been used for contact with the pollinia on the stigma also induced the early postpollination effects. The concentrations of ACC, the direct precursor of ethylene, in pollinia was lower the longer the pollinia had been in contact with the agar blocks, whilst the ACC content in the agar blocks increased with the period of contact. The auxin activity of the agar blocks also increased with the time of contact with pollinia. It is concluded that chemicals in the pollinia are responsible for the early visible postpollination effects, and that these (a) rapidly diffuse in aqueous media, and (b) comprise at least ACC and compounds with auxin activity. The idea is discussed that ACC plus auxin is adequate for the production of the early postpollination effects. PMID:25240156

Promyou, Surassawadee; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

2014-11-15

266

Non-invasive measurements of tissue hemodynamics with hybrid diffuse optical methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse optical techniques were used to measure hemodynamics of tissues non-invasively. Spectroscopy and tomography of the brain, muscle and implanted tumors were carried out in animal models and humans. Two qualitatively different methods, diffuse optical tomography and diffuse correlation tomography, were hybridized permitting simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation and blood flow. This combination of information was processed further to derive estimates of oxygen metabolism (e.g. CMRO 2) in tissue. The diffuse correlation measurements of blood flow were demonstrated in human tissues, for the first time, demonstrating continous, non-invasive imaging of oxygen metabolism in large tissue volumes several centimeters below the tissue surface. The bulk of these investigations focussed on cerebral hemodynamics. Extensive validation of this methodology was carried out in in vivo rat brain models. Three dimensional images of deep tissue hemodynamics in middle cerebral artery occlusion and cortical spreading depression (CSD) were obtained. CSD hemodynamics were found to depend strongly on partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The technique was then adapted for measurement of human brain. All optical spectroscopic measurements of CMRO2 during functional activation were obtained through intact human skull non-invasively. Finally, a high spatio-temporal resolution measurement of cerebral blood flow due to somatosensory cortex activation following electrical forepaw stimulation in rats was carried out with laser speckle flowmetry. New analysis methods were introduced for laser speckle flowmetry. In other organs, deep tissue hemodynamics were measured on human calf muscle during exercise and cuff-ischemia and were shown to have some clinical utility for peripheral vascular disease. In mice tumor models, the measured hemodynamics were shown to be predictive of photodynamic therapy efficacy, again suggesting promise of clinical utility. In total, the research has pioneered the development of diffuse optical measurements of blood flow, oxygenation and oxygen metabolism in a large range of research and clinical applications.

Durduran, Turgut

267

Recent work in shape-based methods for diffusive inverse problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider geometric inversion methods designed to directly determine information concerning the size, shape, location, and perhaps number of anomalies in a region of interest [E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, and C. M. Rappaport, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 1682 (2000); O. Dorn, E. L. Miller, and C. Rappaport, Inverse Probl. 16, 1119 (2000)] for diffusive inverse problems arising in medical imaging and environmental remediation. First, a parametric approach to the problem is derived and validated using a diffuse optical tomography sensing example. A second technique to identify boundaries of an unknown number of objects is based on the idea of curve evolution. This approach mathematically "shrink wraps" a deformable surface in 3D or curve in 2D to the boundary of one or more objects. We demonstrate the utility of this method using an electrical resistance tomography sensing example in three dimensions.

Boverman, Gregory; Khames ben Hadj Miled, Mohamed; Miller, Eric L.

2003-04-01

268

We present a new convenient method for quantitative three-dimensionally resolved diffusion measurements based on the photobleaching (FRAP) or photoactivation (FRAPa) of a disk-shaped area by the scanning laser beam of a multiphoton microscope. Contrary to previously reported spot-photobleaching protocols, this method has the advantage of full scalability of the size of the photobleached area and thus the range of diffusion coefficients, which can be measured conveniently. The method is compatible with low as well as high numerical aperture objective lenses, allowing us to perform quantitative diffusion measurements in three-dimensional extended samples as well as in very small volumes, such as cell nuclei. Furthermore, by photobleaching/photoactivating a large area, diffusion along the optical axis can be measured separately, which is convenient when studying anisotropic diffusion. First, we show the rigorous mathematical derivation of the model, leading to a closed-form formula describing the fluorescence recovery/redistribution phase. Next, the ability of the multiphoton FRAP method to correctly measure absolute diffusion coefficients is tested thoroughly on many test solutions of FITC-dextrans covering a wide range of diffusion coefficients. The same is done for the FRAPa method on a series of photoactivatable green fluorescent protein solutions with different viscosities. Finally, we apply the method to photoactivatable green fluorescent protein diffusing freely in the nucleus of living NIH-3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts. PMID:18621824

Mazza, Davide; Braeckmans, Kevin; Cella, Francesca; Testa, Ilaria; Vercauteren, Dries; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan S.; Diaspro, Alberto

2008-01-01

269

Ceftriaxone sodium is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and belongs to the third generation of cephalosporins. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for the determination of ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution has not been reported yet. This paper reports the development and validation of a simple, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of ceftriaxone sodium on the strain of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9371 IAL 1027 used as test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance and were found to be linear (r = 0.999) in the selected range of 15.0–60.0 ?g/mL, precise with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability intraday = 1.40%, accurate (100.46%) and robust with a RSD lower than 1.28%. The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable ceftriaxone sodium quantitation in pharmaceutical samples and therefore can be used as a useful alternative methodology for the routine quality control of this medicine. PMID:24300294

Aléssio, Patrícia V.; Salgado, Hérida R. N.

2012-01-01

270

Calculation of the Effective Emissivities of Specular-Diffuse Cavities by the Monte Carlo Method

An algorithm of the Monte Carlo method is described which allows evaluation of the effective emissivities of isothermal and nonisothermal specular-diffuse black-body cavities for use in radiometry, photometry and optical pyrometry. The calculation provides estimates of normal spectral effective emissivity for black-body cavities, formed by cone surfaces and a cylinder. It does this for an isothermal cavity and for a

V. I. Sapritsky; A. V. Prokhorov

1992-01-01

271

A Study on the Comparison of Median Filter Regularization Methods in Diffusion Tensor MRI

Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method which makes it possible to study non-invasively the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system. Since eigenvectors obtained from DT-MRI usually contain noise, the calculated vector directions may be deviated from the real fiber orientation. Therefore, noise errors can be accumulated as fiber tract becomes longer in tractography of

Sunghee Kim; Kiwoon Kwon; Insung Park; Bongsu Han; Dongyoun Kim

2007-01-01

272

Discontinuous Hp-Finite Element Methods For Advection-Diffusion Problems

We consider the hp-version of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methodfor second-order partial differential equations with nonnegative characteristic form. This class ofequations includes second-order elliptic and parabolic equations, first)rder hyperbolic equations, aswell as problems of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic-parabolic type. Our main concern is the error analysisof the method in the absence of streamline-diffusion stabilization. In the hyperbolic case, an hpoptimalerror bound...

Paul Houston; Christoph Schwab; Endre Süli

2000-01-01

273

New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ? L ? r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

Pham Tu Quoc, S., E-mail: sang.phamtuquoc@cea.fr; Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)] [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

2014-05-15

274

Direct Cloning of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Agar1

We have recently developed an in vitro assay for human tumor stem cells that permits cloning of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar. Tumor colonies grew from both effusions and biopsies from 85% of 31 ovarian cancer patients. The cloning efficiency did not vary with the histology of the tumor. Growth was induced with medium conditioned by the adherent

Anne W. Hamburger; Sydney E. Salmon; Mary B. Kim; Jeff M. Trent; Barbara J. Soehnlen

275

Maintenance of Leptospira Species in Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun Agar

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.

2014-01-01

276

Maintenance of leptospira species in leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun agar.

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

2014-12-01

277

Plaque Formation in Agar by Single Antibody-Producing Cells

Distinct plaques, each of which is due to the release of hemolysin by a single antibody-forming cell, are revealed by complement after incubation, in an agar layer, of a mixture of sheep red cells and lymphoid cells from a rabbit immunized with sheep red cells.

Niels K. Jerne; Albert A. Nordin

1963-01-01

278

Transferring a Bacterial Culture to an Agar Slant

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to transfer a bacterial culture to an agar slant. The brief demonstration is described step by step and would be easy to replicate in a laboratory setting. Running time for the video is 0:34.

279

Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

280

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system has been developed to assist radiologist for early detection and analysis of lung nodules. For pulmonary nodule detection, image preprocessing is required to remove the anatomical structure of lung parenchyma and to enhance the visibility of pulmonary nodules. In this paper a hybrid preprocessing technique using geometry based diffusion and selective enhancement filtering have been proposed. This technique provides a unified preprocessing framework for solid nodule as well as ground glass opacity (GGO) nodules. Geometry based diffusion is applied to smooth the images by preserving the boundary. In order to improve the sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection, selective enhancement filter is used to highlight blob like structure. But selective enhancement filter sometimes enhances the structures like blood vessel and airways other than nodule and results in large number of false positive. In first step, geometry based diffusion (GBD) is applied for reduction of false positive and in second step, selective enhancement filtering is used for further reduction of false negative. Geometry based diffusion and selective enhancement filtering has been used as preprocessing step separately but their combined effect was not investigated earlier. This hybrid preprocessing approach is suitable for accurate calculation of voxel based features. The proposed method has been validated on one public database named Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) containing 50 nodules (30 solid and 20 GGO nodule) from 30 subjects and one private database containing 40 nodules (25 solid and 15 GGO nodule) from 30 subjects.

Dhara, Ashis K.; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

2012-03-01

281

A Proposal for a Novel Method to Measure the Diffusivity of Species in Slag

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of reactions involved in steel-refining operations largely depend on the transport of species through the slag or metal phase at steel refining temperatures; the intrinsic reaction rates are expected to be high. Therefore, the study of diffusivity of species in slag is of great importance. The present work proposes a new methodology, in which experiments can be designed to determine the diffusivity of species in liquid slag. In this article, a mathematical description for the methodology is formulated and subsequently solved using numerical methods. This exercise will help in identifying appropriate bounds for experimental parameters for a desired accuracy. The proposed methodology is generic for any species in the liquid slag phase. However, diffusion of sulfur through slag has been illustrated as a case study. The order of magnitude for the diffusion coefficient for sulfur was taken from the classic works of Saito and Kawai, the sulfide capacity and sulfur partition ratio were retrieved from the works of Taniguchi et al., and the slag density was retrieved from earlier experimental results of the present authors. The slag density was obtained from earlier experimental results from the present group. The Henrian activity coefficients were retrieved from literature. Subsequent to the present work, the design of experiments and measurements carried out using the proposed methodology and the results obtained are presented as the second article on this subject.

Muhmood, Luckman; Viswanathan, Nurni Neelakantan; Seetharaman, Seshadri

2011-04-01

282

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose accurate explicit numerical schemes based on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for multi-dimensional diffusion equations. In LB schemes, the velocity models D2Q9 and D2Q13 are used for two-dimensional equations and D3Q19 and D3Q25 for three-dimensional equations. We introduce free parameters that characterize the weight of the equilibrium distribution functions to reduce numerical errors. Consistency analysis through the fourth-order Chapman-Ensgok expansion of the distribution functions gives an approximate diffusion equation with error terms up to fourth-order. The relaxation parameter and weight parameters are determined so that second-order error terms are eliminated in the approximate equation. Stability analysis shows that we can find a relaxation parameter so that each of the presented schemes is stable for given diffusion coefficients and discretizing parameters. Numerical experiments for the isotropic and anisotropic benchmark problems show that the presented schemes derived from the velocity models D2Q13 and D3Q25 are useful for numerical simulations of practical problems governed by two- and three-dimensional diffusion equations, respectively. In particular, schemes in which the value of the relaxation parameter is set to be 1 demonstrate a fourth-order accuracy under the stability condition.

Suga, Shinsuke

2014-11-01

283

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental approach to evaluate Fe-Mg interdiffusion along dry grain boundaries consists of two parts: synthesis experiments and diffusion experiments. In synthesis experiments powdered quartz along with components required to form a ‘sink’ mineral were hammered into oxidized Ni sleeves. Experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder apparatus at elevated P-T conditions to produce quartzites with an equilibrium microstructure containing ~5% of a minor ‘sink’ mineral dispersed throughout the rock. The diffusant, introduced during later diffusion experiments, is incompatible in the dominant mineral of the polycrystalline rock but is highly compatible in the dispersed sink minerals. The most successful efforts so far have focused on synthesizing quartzites that contain fayalite as the ‘sink’ minerals. After synthesis experiments, the rock analog was cut into disks and polished. The polished surfaces of the rock analog were juxtaposed against diffusant sources, and placed back into the piston-cylinder for diffusion experiments. Silicate minerals and MgF2 diffusant sources were use. The juxtaposition of the quartzite containing a dispersed fayalite against an Mg-rich diffusant source caused strong chemical potential gradients to develop. The only pathway for transport from the diffusant source to the sink mineral was along the grain boundaries. Assuming local partitioning and diffusive equilibrium between sink minerals and grain boundaries, the diffusant concentration in the sink minerals will be proportional to the concentration profile of the diffusant in the grain boundaries throughout the bulk sample. The MgO content of the fayalite grains decreases as a function of distance from the quartzite/ MgF2 source interface. The fayalite grains that were within ~10 ?m of the interface reacted to form enstatite and contain the highest MgO contents at ~15 wt.%. Traverses across fayalite grains that are >10 ?m from the source interface have constant MgO concentrations demonstrating that diffusive equilibrium was established between the grain boundary and the sink mineral. The longest experiments from a ‘time series’ do not show significantly greater transport distance, but at any given distance from the interface, the fayalite grains from the longer experiments have higher MgO concentrations. Numerical modeling revealed that the dispersed sink minerals closest to the diffusant source partition the majority of the diffusant from the grain boundary thereby significantly diminishing the concentration of diffusant in the grain boundary on the ‘backside’ of the sink mineral. Due to the strong partitioning and large volume of the sink mineral relative to the grain boundary volume, the sink minerals nearest the source interface effectively sequester the majority of the diffusant so that the longer duration experiments do not have longer transport distances. The numerical simulations produce transport and concentration systematics that are identical to those observed in experiments.

Thomas, J. B.; Gannon, R. S.; Watson, E. B.

2009-12-01

284

The transition density function of the Wright-Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright-Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation-selection balance. PMID:22209899

Song, Yun S; Steinrücken, Matthias

2012-03-01

285

A deterministic particle method for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We derive a deterministic particle method for the solution of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations in one spatial dimension. This deterministic method is an analog of a Monte Carlo method for the solution of these problems that has been previously investigated by the author. The deterministic method leads to the consideration of a system of ordinary differential equations for the positions of suitably defined particles. We then consider the time explicit and implicit methods for this system of ordinary differential equations and we study a Picard and Newton iteration for the solution of the implicit system. Next we solve numerically this system and study the discretization error both analytically and numerically. Numerical computation shows that this deterministic method is automatically adaptive to large gradients in the solution.

Mascagni, Michael

1995-01-01

286

Population analysis was performed for 42 Escherichia coli isolates to determine whether heterogeneity of resistance was a factor in piperacillin-tazobactam category differences between agar dilution and broth microdilution. Of 20 isolates discordant between methods, 80% were heterogeneous. Of 22 isolates in agreement, 59% were homogeneous. Heterogeneity and homogeneity rates for those in agreement were significantly different from those that were discordant (P value, 0.010). Heterogeneity of resistance expression appears to be an important factor in category differences observed between broth microdilution and agar dilution for piperacillin-tazobactam. PMID:24342642

Slaughter, Jen; Creely, David; van Belkum, Alex; Gayral, Jean Pierre; Dunne, William Michael; Zambardi, Gilles; Shortridge, Dee

2014-01-01

287

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250942

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

288

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250936

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

289

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image formation in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography is critically dependent on construction of the Jacobian matrix. For clinical and preclinical applications, because of the highly heterogeneous characteristics of the medium, Monte Carlo methods are frequently adopted to construct the Jacobian. Conventional adjoint Monte Carlo method typically compute the Jacobian by multiplying the photon density fields radiated from the source at the excitation wavelength and from the detector at the emission wavelength. Nonetheless, this approach assumes that the source and the detector in Green's function are reciprocal, which is invalid in general. This assumption is particularly questionable in small animal imaging, where the mean free path length of photons is typically only one order of magnitude smaller than the representative dimension of the medium. We propose a new method that does not rely on the reciprocity of the source and the detector by tracing photon propagation entirely from the source to the detector. This method relies on the perturbation Monte Carlo theory to account for the differences in optical properties of the medium at the excitation and the emission wavelengths. Compared to the adjoint methods, the proposed method is more valid in reflecting the physical process of photon transport in diffusive media and is more efficient in constructing the Jacobian matrix for densely sampled configurations.

Zhang, Xiaofeng

2012-03-01

290

Microbial xylanases, specially endo-?-1,4-xylanase catalyzes the hydrolysis of xylan, is considered one of the most significant hydrolases. It has numerous applications but most extensively is utilized in paper and pulp industry as a bio-bleaching agent. Immobilization technique is comprehensively studied with the expectation of modifying and improving enzyme stability and characteristics for commercial purposes. Currently, matrix entrapment technique is applied to immobilize endo-?-1,4-xylanase within agar-agar gel beads produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29. Maximal enzyme immobilization yield was achieved at 2.5% of agar-agar concentration. Optimized conditions demonstrated an increase in the optimal reaction time from 05min to 30min and incubation temperature from 50°C to 60°C with reference to free enzyme whereas; no effect was observed for optimum pH. Entrapment technique uniquely changed the kinetic parameters of immobilized endo-?-1,4-xylanase (Km: 0.5074mgmin(-1) to 0.5230mgmin(-1) and Vmax: 4773Umin(-1) to 968Umin(-1)) as compared to free enzyme. However, immobilized enzyme displayed broad thermal stability and retained 79.0% of its initial activity at 80°C up to 30min whereas; free enzyme completely lost its activity at this temperature. With respect to economic feasibility, the immobilized enzyme showed impressive recycling efficiency up to six reaction cycles. PMID:25603143

Bibi, Zainab; Shahid, Faiza; Ul Qader, Shah Ali; Aman, Afsheen

2015-04-01

291

Galerkin finite element method for two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a class of two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations is considered. Some fractional spaces are established and some equivalences between fractional derivative spaces and fractional Sobolev space are presented. By the Galerkin finite element method and backward difference method, a fully discrete scheme is obtained. According to Lax-Milgram theorem, the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the fully discrete scheme are investigated. The stability and convergence of the scheme are also derived. Finally, some numerical examples are given for verification of our theoretical analysis.

Bu, Weiping; Tang, Yifa; Yang, Jiye

2014-11-01

292

Diffusive Plasma Dechucking Method for Wafers to Reduce Falling Dust Particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma dechucking method capable of effectively eliminating dust particles created during the plasma process was developed. Referred to as diffusive plasma dechucking (DPD), the method reduces the plasma potential and includes an argon gas purge to remove dust particles floating on top of the sheath after the main process. Experimental results indicate that DPD reduces the amount of falling dust particles after the process by approximately 50-80%. To analyze these results quantitatively, the Coulomb force and the neutral drag force exerted on the dust particles were considered. In addition, dust particle exhaust conditions were proposed with respect to dust particle size, plasma potential, and spatial electric field.

Jun, Hyun-Su

2013-06-01

293

Numerical methods for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations arising in combustion theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of numerical methods for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations arising in combustion theory is presented. The methods reviewed include explicit, implicit, quasi-linearization, time linearization, operator-splitting, random walk and finite-element techniques and methods of lines. Adaptive and nonadaptive procedures are also reviewed. These techniques are applied first to solve two model problems which have exact traveling wave solutions with which the numerical results can be compared. This comparison is performed in terms of both the wave profile and computed wave speed. It is shown that the computed wave speed is not a good indicator of the accuracy of a particular method. A fourth-order time-linearized, Hermitian compact operator technique is found to be the most accurate method for a variety of time and space sizes.

Ramos, J. I.

1987-01-01

294

Spherical deconvolution is an elegant method by which the orientation of crossing fibers in the brain can be estimated from a diffusion-weighted MRI measurement. However, higher resolution of fiber directions comes at the cost of higher susceptibility to noise. In this study, we describe the use of linear regularization of the fiber orientation distribution function by Damped Singular Value Decomposition. Furthermore, the degree of regularization is optimized on a voxel-by-voxel basis with no user interaction using Generalized Cross Validation. We find, by simulations, that regularization can improve the reliability of fiber orientation determination when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Simulations and in vivo measurements indicate that spurious peaks of the fiber orientation distribution function in regions with low anisotropy largely disappear when regularization is introduced. The methods examined are fast enough to be used on a routine basis with diffusion MRI data sets and may improve estimation of water diffusion properties in heterogeneous white matter and boost reliability of fiber tracking through regions of brain with complex fiber geometry. PMID:17030125

Sakaie, Ken E; Lowe, Mark J

2007-01-01

295

Fixed and pulsed gradient diffusion methods in low-field core analysis.

We review diffusion-weighted relaxation protocols for two-dimensional diffusion/relaxation time (D, T(2)) distributions and their application to fluid-saturated sedimentary rocks at low fields typical of oil-well logging tools (< or = 2 MHz for 1H). Fixed field gradient (FFG) protocols may be implemented in logging tools and in the laboratory; there, pulsed field gradient (PFG) protocols are also available. In either category, direct or stimulated echoes may be used for the diffusion evolution periods. We compare the results of several variant FFG and PFG protocols obtained on liquids and two contrasting sedimentary rocks. For liquids and rocks of negligible internal gradients (g(int)), results are comparable, as expected, for all the studied protocols. For rocks of strong g(int), protocol-dependent artifacts are seen in the joint (D, T2) distributions, consistent with the effects of the internal fields. For laboratory petrophysics, the PFG methods offer several advantages: (a) significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition times for repetitions over many samples; (b) freedom from heteronuclear contamination when fluorinated liquids are used in core holders; and (c) a palette of variants--one comparable with the FFG--for the study of rocks of significant g(int). Given suitable hardware, both PFG and FFG methods can be implemented in the same bench-top apparatus, providing a versatile test bed for application in a petrophysical laboratory. PMID:15833632

Leu, Gabriela; Fordham, Edmund J; Hürlimann, Martin D; Frulla, Phil

2005-02-01

296

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous structures of shales are reconstructed using the markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) method based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analysis of the reconstructed shales is performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to simulate fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion within the reconstructed shales. Simulation results reveal that the tortuosity of the shales is much higher than that commonly employed in the Bruggeman equation, and such high tortuosity leads to extremely low intrinsic permeability. Correction of the intrinsic permeability is performed based on the dusty gas model (DGM) by considering the contribution of Knudsen diffusion to the total flow flux, resulting in apparent permeability. The correction factor over a range of Knudsen number and pressure is estimated and compared with empirical correlations in the literature. For the wide pressure range investigated, the correction factor is always greater than 1, indicating Knudsen diffusion always plays a role on shale gas transport mechanisms in the reconstructed shales. Specifically, we found that most of the values of correction factor fall in the slip and transition regime, with no Darcy flow regime observed.

Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Qinjun; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

2015-01-01

297

The fine tuning of porosity in sol gel based devices makes possible the design of novel applications in which the transport of molecules through the oxide gel plays a crucial role. In this work we develop a new method for the simultaneous analysis of diffusion and adsorption of small diffusing probes, as anionic and cationic dyes, through silica mesoporous hydrogels synthesized by sol-gel. The novelty of the work resides in the simplicity of acquisition of the experimental data (by means of a desk scanner) and further mathematical modeling, which is in line with high throughput screening procedures, enabling rapid and simultaneous determination of relevant diffusion and adsorption parameters. Net mass transport and adsorption properties of the silica based hydrogels were contrasted to dye adsorption isotherms and textural characterization of the wet gels by SAXS, as well as that of the corresponding aerogels determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption. Thus, the validation of the results with well-established characterization methods demonstrates that our approach is robust enough to give reliable physicochemical information on these systems. PMID:24776668

Perullini, Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Japas, María Laura; Bilmes, Sara A

2014-07-01

298

Porous structures of shales are reconstructed using the markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) method based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analysis of the reconstructed shales is performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to simulate fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion within the reconstructed shales. Simulation results reveal that the tortuosity of the shales is much higher than that commonly employed in the Bruggeman equation, and such high tortuosity leads to extremely low intrinsic permeability. Correction of the intrinsic permeability is performed based on the dusty gas model (DGM) by considering the contribution of Knudsen diffusion to the total flow flux, resulting in apparent permeability. The correction factor over a range of Knudsen number and pressure is estimated and compared with empirical correlations in the literature. For the wide pressure range investigated, the correction factor is always greater than 1, indicating Knudsen diffusion always plays a role on shale gas transport mechanisms in the reconstructed shales. Specifically, we found that most of the values of correction factor fall in the slip and transition regime, with no Darcy flow regime observed. PMID:25627247

Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Qinjun; Viswanathan, Hari S; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

2015-01-01

299

Porous structures of shales are reconstructed using the markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) method based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analysis of the reconstructed shales is performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to simulate fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion within the reconstructed shales. Simulation results reveal that the tortuosity of the shales is much higher than that commonly employed in the Bruggeman equation, and such high tortuosity leads to extremely low intrinsic permeability. Correction of the intrinsic permeability is performed based on the dusty gas model (DGM) by considering the contribution of Knudsen diffusion to the total flow flux, resulting in apparent permeability. The correction factor over a range of Knudsen number and pressure is estimated and compared with empirical correlations in the literature. For the wide pressure range investigated, the correction factor is always greater than 1, indicating Knudsen diffusion always plays a role on shale gas transport mechanisms in the reconstructed shales. Specifically, we found that most of the values of correction factor fall in the slip and transition regime, with no Darcy flow regime observed. PMID:25627247

Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Qinjun; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

2015-01-01

300

Data were taken and analyzed for a total of seven days at two widely separated sites (Tucson, AZ and Laramie, WY). Certain experimental and theoretical improvements on the diffuse-direct method and its implementation are discussed. Improved radiometer designs are discussed. A new approach to the reduction of diffuse-direct data, which eliminates any dependence on Mie theory for describing the optical

T. A. Cerni

1978-01-01

301

Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

302

A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems

The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.

Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing

2008-12-10

303

Calculating diffusion and permeability coefficients with the oscillating forward-reverse method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forward-reverse or FR method is an efficient bidirectional work method for determining the potential of mean force w(z) and also supposedly gives in principle the position-dependent diffusion coefficient D(z). Results from a variation called the OFR (oscillating FR) method suggest inconsistencies in the D(z) values when calculated as prescribed by the FR method. A new steering protocol has thus been developed and applied to the OFR method for the accurate determination of D(z) and also provides greater convergence for w(z) in molecular dynamics simulations. The bulk diffusion coefficient for water was found to be (6.03±0.16)×10-5 cm2/s at 350 K with system size dependence within the statistical error bars. Using this steering protocol, D(z) and w(z) for water permeating a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were determined. The potential of mean force is shown to have a barrier of peak height, wmax/(kBT)=8.4, with a width of about 10 Å on either side from the membrane center. The diffusion constant is shown to be highest in the core region of the membrane [peak value ˜(8.0±0.8)×10-5 cm2/s], lowest in the head-group region [minimum value ˜(2.0±0.3)×10-5 cm2/s], and to tend toward the bulk value as the water molecule leaves the membrane. The permeability coefficient P for H2O in DPPC was determined using the simulated D(z) and w(z) to give values of (0.129±0.075) cm/s at 323 K and (0.141±0.043) cm/s at 350 K. The results show more spatial detail than results presented in previous work while reducing the computational and user effort.

Holland, Bryan W.; Gray, Chris G.; Tomberli, Bruno

2012-09-01

304

Social diffusion of novel foraging methods in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

It has been reported that wild capuchin monkeys exhibit several group-specific behavioural traditions. By contrast, experiments have found little evidence for the social learning assumed necessary to support such traditions. The present study used a diffusion chain paradigm to investigate whether a novel foraging task could be observationally learned by capuchins (Cebus apella) and then transmitted along a chain of individuals. We used a two-action paradigm to control for independent learning. Either of two methods (lift or slide) could be used to open the door of a foraging apparatus to retrieve food. Two chains were tested (N1=4; N2=5), each beginning with an experimenter-trained model who demonstrated to a partner its group-specific method for opening the foraging apparatus. After the demonstration, if the observer was able to open the apparatus 20 times by either method, then it became the demonstrator for a new subject, thus simulating the spread of a foraging tradition among 'generations' of group members. Each method was transmitted along these respective chains with high fidelity, echoing similar results presently available only for chimpanzees and children. These results provide the first clear evidence for faithful diffusion of alternative foraging methods in monkeys, consistent with claims for capuchin traditions in the wild. PMID:17971322

Dindo, Marietta; Thierry, Bernard; Whiten, Andrew

2008-01-22

305

Fast non-overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation

Studying numerically the steady state of a nuclear core reactor is expensive, in terms of memory storage and computational time. In order to address both requirements, one can use a domain decomposition method, implemented on a parallel computer. We present here such a method for the mixed neutron diffusion equations, discretized with Raviart–Thomas–Nédélec finite elements. This method is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. We analyse this method from the continuous point of view to the discrete point of view, and we give some numerical results in a realistic highly heterogeneous 3D configuration. Computations are carried out with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® neutronics code.

Jamelot, Erell [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergie Alternatives, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergie Alternatives, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ciarlet, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.ciarlet@ensta.fr [POEMS Laboratory, CNRS-INRIA-ENSTA UMR 7231, ENSTA ParisTech 32, Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)] [POEMS Laboratory, CNRS-INRIA-ENSTA UMR 7231, ENSTA ParisTech 32, Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

2013-05-15

306

Finite difference methods for the time fractional diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since fractional derivatives are integrals with weakly singular kernel, the discretization on the uniform mesh may lead to poor accuracy. The finite difference approximation of Caputo derivative on non-uniform meshes is investigated in this paper. The method is applied to solve the fractional diffusion equation and a semi-discrete scheme is obtained. The unconditional stability and H1 norm convergence are proved. A fully discrete difference scheme is constructed with space discretization by compact difference method. The error estimates are established for two kinds of nonuniform meshes. Numerical tests are carried out to support the theoretical results and comparing with the method on uniform grid shows the efficiency of our methods. Moreover, a moving local refinement technique is introduced to improve the temporal accuracy of numerical solution.

Zhang, Ya-nan; Sun, Zhi-zhong; Liao, Hong-lin

2014-05-01

307

Self-feeding MUSE: a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging using interleaved EPI.

Single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) with parallel imaging techniques has been well established as the most popular method for clinical diffusion imaging, due to its fast acquisition and motion insensitivity. However, this approach is limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and image distortion. Interleaved EPI is able to break the limitations but the phase variations among different shots must be considered for artifact suppression. The introduction of multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) can address the phase issue using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for self-navigation of each interleave. However, MUSE has suboptimal results when the number of shots is high. To achieve higher spatial resolution and lower geometric distortion, we introduce two new schemes into the MUSE framework: 1) a self-feeding mechanism is adopted by using prior information regularized SENSE in order to obtain reliable phase estimation; and 2) retrospective motion detection and data rejection strategies are performed to exclude unusable data corrupted by severe pulsatile motions. The proposed method is named self-feeding MUSE (SF-MUSE). Experiments on healthy volunteers demonstrate that this new SF-MUSE approach provides more accurate motion-induced phase estimation and fewer artifacts caused by data corruption when compared with the original MUSE method. SF-MUSE is a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging and suitable for practical applications with reasonable scan time. PMID:25451470

Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Feng; Ma, Xiaodong; Xie, Sheng; Guo, Hua

2015-01-15

308

Real-time amplification and quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences plays a major role in medical and biotechnological applications. In the case of infectious diseases, such as HIV, quantification of the pathogen-load in patient specimens is critical to assess disease progression and effectiveness of drug therapy. Typically, nucleic acid quantification requires expensive instruments, such as real-time PCR machines, which are not appropriate for on-site use and for low-resource settings. This paper describes a simple, low-cost, reaction-diffusion based method for end-point quantification of target nucleic acids undergoing enzymatic amplification. The number of target molecules is inferred from the position of the reaction-diffusion front, analogous to reading temperature in a mercury thermometer. The method was tested for HIV viral load monitoring and performed on par with conventional benchtop methods. The proposed method is suitable for nucleic acid quantification at point of care, compatible with multiplexing and high-throughput processing, and can function instrument-free. PMID:25477046

Liu, Changchun; Sadik, Mohamed M.; Mauk, Michael G.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Gross, Robert; Bau, Haim H.

2014-01-01

309

Real-time amplification and quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences plays a major role in medical and biotechnological applications. In the case of infectious diseases, such as HIV, quantification of the pathogen-load in patient specimens is critical to assess disease progression and effectiveness of drug therapy. Typically, nucleic acid quantification requires expensive instruments, such as real-time PCR machines, which are not appropriate for on-site use and for low-resource settings. This paper describes a simple, low-cost, reaction-diffusion based method for end-point quantification of target nucleic acids undergoing enzymatic amplification. The number of target molecules is inferred from the position of the reaction-diffusion front, analogous to reading temperature in a mercury thermometer. The method was tested for HIV viral load monitoring and performed on par with conventional benchtop methods. The proposed method is suitable for nucleic acid quantification at point of care, compatible with multiplexing and high-throughput processing, and can function instrument-free. PMID:25477046

Liu, Changchun; Sadik, Mohamed M; Mauk, Michael G; Edelstein, Paul H; Bushman, Frederic D; Gross, Robert; Bau, Haim H

2014-01-01

310

Localized axial Green's function method for the convection-diffusion equations in arbitrary domains

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A localized axial Green's function method (LAGM) is proposed for the convection-diffusion equation. The axial Green's function method (AGM) enables us to calculate the numerical solution of a multi-dimensional problem using only one-dimensional Green's functions for the axially split differential operators. This AGM has been developed not only for the elliptic boundary value problems but also for the steady Stokes flows, however, this paper is concerned with the localization of the AGM. This localization of the method is needed for practical purpose when computing the axial Green's function, specifically for the convection-diffusion equation on a line segment that we call the local axial line. Although our focus is mainly on the convection-dominated cases in arbitrary domains, this method can solve other cases in a unified way. Numerical results show that, despite irregular types of discretization on an arbitrary domain, we can calculate the numerical solutions using the LAGM without loss of accuracy even in cases of large convection. In particular, it is also shown that randomly distributed axial lines are available in our LAGM and complicated domains are not a burden.

Lee, Wanho; Kim, Do Wan

2014-10-01

311

The measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been proposed as a surrogate for metal uptake by plants. A small-scale experiment was performed to test the predictive capacity of the DGT method with respect to uranium availability and uptake by ryegrass. Correlation analyses were performed to compare the results obtained with the DGT device with more conventional bioavailability indices - concentration of uranium in pore water or in selective extracts. Six soils with different uranium contamination history and with distinct soil characteristics were used for the availability tests and the uptake experiment. The four uranium bioavailability indices screened were highly correlated, indicating that at least partially comparable uranium pools were assessed. The uranium concentration in the pore water was a better predictor for uranium uptake by ryegrass than amounts of uranium recovered following extraction with 0.11 M CH3COOH or 0.4 M MgCl2, the fractions considered exchangeable according to, respectively, the BCR or NIST standardized sequential extraction methods. The DGT measured concentration, C(DGT), was also highly correlated with plant uptake but the significance level was sensitive to the value of the diffusion coefficient (pH depend or not) used to calculate C(DGT). From the results obtained it could not be concluded that the DGT method would have an additional value in assessing uranium bioavailability. PMID:17241652

Vandenhove, H; Antunes, K; Wannijn, J; Duquène, L; Van Hees, M

2007-02-15

312

A Numerical Method for Pricing Electricity Derivatives for Jump-Diffusion Processes Based.tompaidis@mccombs.utexas.edu Corresponding author. Tel. 512-4715252, Fax 512-4710587. #12;A Numerical Method for Pricing Electricity method for pricing derivatives on electricity prices. The method is based on approximating the generator

Albanese, Claudio

313

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental observation of the spatio-temporal pattern of supersaturation in counter-diffusion methods. These complex patterns were recorded by dynamical interferometric analysis using a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Tetragonal hen egg white lysozyme crystals were grown inside APCF (advanced protein crystallisation facility) reactors. Salt and protein diffusion profiles were obtained independently by performing duplicated experiments with and without protein in the protein chamber; salt gradients were observed directly while protein concentration profiles are computed from the differences in refractive index between the two experiments. As expected from computer simulations, the time evolution of supersaturation shows a maximum about 45 h after activation (although this value can change as a function of the starting conditions and the geometry of the reactor). Nucleation takes place before this maximum supersaturation is reached. This explains the trend of the growth rate versus time curves for experiments performed within APCF reactors (both on ground and in space) and in capillaries by the gel acupuncture technique. By using very low concentration agarose gel in the protein chamber, sedimentation and buoyancy effects are eliminated so that the effects of gravity on fluid dynamics and hence on the spatio-temporal evolution of supersaturation can be assessed. These results confirm experimentally the predicted behaviour of counter-diffusion systems and support their use in growing large high-quality protein single crystals.

García-Ruiz, J. M.; Novella, M. L.; Otálora, F.

1999-01-01

314

A method to analyze the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with its main instrument the LAT is the most sensitive {gamma}-ray telescope in the energy region between 30 MeV and 100 GeV. One of the prime scientific goals of this mission is the measurement and interpretation of the diffuse Galactic and extragalactic {gamma}-ray emission. While not limited by photon statistics, this analysis presents several challenges: Instrumental response functions, residual background from cosmic rays as well as resolved and unresolved foreground {gamma}-ray sources have to be taken carefully into account in the interpretation of the data. Detailed modeling of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission is being performed and will form the basis of the investigations. We present the analysis approach to be applied to the Fermi LAT data, namely the modeling of the diffuse emission components and the background contributions, followed by an all-sky maximum-likelihood fitting procedure. We also report on the performance of this method evaluated in tests on simulated Fermi LAT and real EGRET data.

Ackermann, Markus; Johannesson, Gueolaugur; Digel, Seth; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Reimer, Olaf [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Porter, Troy [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strong, Andrew [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-12-24

315

Lattice simulation method to model diffusion and NMR spectra in porous materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coarse-grained simulation method to predict nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of ions diffusing in porous carbons is proposed. The coarse-grained model uses input from molecular dynamics simulations such as the free-energy profile for ionic adsorption, and density-functional theory calculations are used to predict the NMR chemical shift of the diffusing ions. The approach is used to compute NMR spectra of ions in slit pores with pore widths ranging from 2 to 10 nm. As diffusion inside pores is fast, the NMR spectrum of an ion trapped in a single mesopore will be a sharp peak with a pore size dependent chemical shift. To account for the experimentally observed NMR line shapes, our simulations must model the relatively slow exchange between different pores. We show that the computed NMR line shapes depend on both the pore size distribution and the spatial arrangement of the pores. The technique presented in this work provides a tool to extract information about the spatial distribution of pore sizes from NMR spectra. Such information is difficult to obtain from other characterisation techniques.

Merlet, Céline; Forse, Alexander C.; Griffin, John M.; Frenkel, Daan; Grey, Clare P.

2015-03-01

316

Lattice simulation method to model diffusion and NMR spectra in porous materials.

A coarse-grained simulation method to predict nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of ions diffusing in porous carbons is proposed. The coarse-grained model uses input from molecular dynamics simulations such as the free-energy profile for ionic adsorption, and density-functional theory calculations are used to predict the NMR chemical shift of the diffusing ions. The approach is used to compute NMR spectra of ions in slit pores with pore widths ranging from 2 to 10 nm. As diffusion inside pores is fast, the NMR spectrum of an ion trapped in a single mesopore will be a sharp peak with a pore size dependent chemical shift. To account for the experimentally observed NMR line shapes, our simulations must model the relatively slow exchange between different pores. We show that the computed NMR line shapes depend on both the pore size distribution and the spatial arrangement of the pores. The technique presented in this work provides a tool to extract information about the spatial distribution of pore sizes from NMR spectra. Such information is difficult to obtain from other characterisation techniques. PMID:25747093

Merlet, Céline; Forse, Alexander C; Griffin, John M; Frenkel, Daan; Grey, Clare P

2015-03-01

317

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will propose and explore a method to enhance focal actors' abilities to enroll and control the many social and technical components interacting during the initiation, production, and diffusion of innovations. The reassembling and stabilizing of such components is the challenging goal of the focal actors involved in these processes. To address this possibility, a healthcare project involving the initiation, production, and diffusion of an IT-based innovation will be influenced by the researcher, using concepts from actor network theory (ANT), within an action research methodology (ARM). The experiences using this method, and the nature of enrolment and translation during its use, will highlight if and how ANT can provide a problem-solving method to help assemble the social and technical actants involved in the diffusion of an innovation. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges and benefits of implementing such methods to attain widespread diffusion.

Zendejas, Gerardo; Chiasson, Mike

318

Pulsed photothermal temperature profiling of agar tissue phantoms

We determine experimentally the accuracy of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature depth profiling in water-based\\u000a samples. We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by very thin absorbing layers. Two configurations\\u000a of the acquisition system are compared, one using the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (3.0–5.5 ?m)\\u000a and the other with a spectrally narrowed acquisition

Matija Milani?; Boris Majaron; J. Stuart Nelson

2007-01-01

319

CCMR: Method Development of Dynamic Mass Diffusion Monte Carlo using Lennard-Jones Clusters

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lennard-Jones clusters, clusters of inert particles have a long history of being studied. Many algorithms have been proposed and used with a varying level of success from "basin hopping" [1] to “greedy search” [2]. Despite these achievements, the Lennard-Jones potential continues to be a widely studied model. Not only is it a good test case for new particle structure algorithms, but it is still an interesting model that we can yet learn from. In this project we proposed to study these cluster using a method never before attempted: dynamic mass diffusion Monte Carlo.

Craig, Helen A.

2007-08-29

320

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) optics module will be assembled at ambient temperature but will operate at liquid helium temperature. The challenging task of ensuring that is possible to maintain alignment through cryogenic cooling and cryogenic vibration has been demonstrated in a DIRBE optics module breadboard program. This paper discusses the configuration of the DIRBE optics module breadboard, ambient temperature optical alignment methods used to assemble the breadboard, and cryogenic testing of the breadboard. The alignment of the optical assembly at ambient temperature, at 77 K, and after a 77 K vibration was within specification.

Magner, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

321

The Galerkin finite element method for a multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the initial/boundary value problem for a diffusion equation involving multiple time-fractional derivatives on a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyze a space semidiscrete scheme based on the standard Galerkin finite element method using continuous piecewise linear functions. Nearly optimal error estimates for both cases of initial data and inhomogeneous term are derived, which cover both smooth and nonsmooth data. Further we develop a fully discrete scheme based on a finite difference discretization of the time-fractional derivatives, and discuss its stability and error estimate. Extensive numerical experiments for one- and two-dimensional problems confirm the theoretical convergence rates.

Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Liu, Yikan; Zhou, Zhi

2015-01-01

322

An Ion Diffusion Method for Visualising a Solid-like Water Nanofilm

A nano-thick solid-like water film on solid surfaces plays an important role in various fields, including biology, materials science, atmospheric chemistry, catalysis and astrophysics. Visualising the water nanofilm has been a challenge due to its dynamic nature and nanoscale thickness. Here we report an ion diffusion method to address this problem using a membrane formed with a BSA-Na2CO3 (BSA, bovine serum albumin) mixture. After a solid-like water nanofilm deposits onto the membrane, Na+ and CO32? ions diffuse into the film to form a solid Na2CO3 phase in its place. Consequently, the morphology of the nanofilm can be visualised by the space filled by the Na2CO3. Using this method, we successfully observed polygon-like, ribbon-like and spot-like nanofilms at 193?K, 253?K and room temperature, respectively. Our method may provide a tool for characterising confined water films ranging from a few nanometres to hundreds of nanometres in thickness. PMID:24336341

Wang, Ya; Duan, Zhiguang; Fan, Daidi

2013-01-01

323

Objective(s): The aim of this study was to improve flowability and compressibility characteristics of starch to use as a suitable excipient in direct compression tabletting. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion was used as a crystal modification method. Materials and Methods: Corn starch was dissolved in hydrochloric acid at 80°C and then ethanol as a non-solvent was added with lowering temperature until the formation of a precipitate of modified starch. Flow parameters, particle size and thermal behavior of the treated powders were compared with the native starch. Finally, the 1:1 mixture of naproxen and each excipient was tabletted, and hardness and friability of different tablets were evaluated. Results: Larger and well shaped agglomerates were formed which showed different thermal behavior. Treated starch exhibited suitable flow properties and tablets made by the treated powder had relatively high hardness. Conclusion: It was found that recrystallization of corn starch by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method could improve its flowability and compressibility characteristics. PMID:25422746

Akhgari, Abbas; Sadeghi, Hasti; Dabbagh, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

324

3D modeling for solving forward model of no-contact fluorescence diffuse optical tomography method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents detailed computational aspects of a new 3D modeling for solving the direct problem in a no-contact time-resolved Fluorescent Diffuse Optical Tomography (FDOT) method that rely on near-infrared scattered and fluorescent photons to image the optical properties and distribution of fluorescent probes in small laboratory animals. An optical scanner allowing performing in-vivo measurements in no-contact scheme was built in our laboratory and is presented. We use the three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) to solve the coupled diffusion equations of excitation and fluorescence photons in highly scattering objects. The computed results allowed yielding photon density maps and the temporal profiles of photons on the surface of the small animal. Our 3D modeling of propagation of photons in the void space between the surface of the object and the detectors allows calculating the quantity of photons reaching the optodes. Simulations were carried-out on two test objects: a resin cylinder and a mouse phantom. The results demonstrate the potential applications of the method to pre-clinical imaging.

Nouizi, F.; Chabrier, R.; Torregrossa, M.; Poulet, P.

2009-07-01

325

Diffused bounce-back condition and refill algorithm for the lattice Boltzmann method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid-fluid boundary condition for the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, which retains the simplicity of the bounce-back method and leads to positive definite populations similar to the diffusive boundary condition, is presented. As a refill algorithm, it is proposed that quasi-equilibrium distributions be used to model distributions at fluid nodes uncovered due to solid movement. The method is tested for flow past an impulsively started cylinder and demonstrates considerable enhancement in the accuracy of the unsteady force calculation at moderate and high Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, via simulations, we show that momentum exchange procedure used in LB to compute forces is not Galilean invariant. A modified momentum exchange procedure is proposed to reduce the errors due to violation of Galilean invariance.

Krithivasan, Siddharth; Wahal, Siddhant; Ansumali, Santosh

2014-03-01

326

A comparison between the fission matrix method, the diffusion model and the transport model

The fission matrix method may be used to solve the critical eigenvalue problem in a Monte Carlo simulation. This method gives us access to the different eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the transport or fission operator. We propose to compare the results obtained via the fission matrix method with those of the diffusion model, and an approximated transport model. To do so, we choose to analyse the mono-kinetic and continuous energy cases for a Godiva-inspired critical sphere. The first five eigenvalues are computed with TRIPOLI-4{sup R} and compared to the theoretical ones. An extension of the notion of the extrapolation distance is proposed for the modes other than the fundamental one. (authors)

Dehaye, B.; Hugot, F. X.; Diop, C. M. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Modelisation des Systemes et Structures, CEA DEN/DM2S, PC 57, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

2013-07-01

327

A model of cefoperazone tissue penetration: diffusion coefficient and protein binding.

The apparent diffusion coefficient of a bound drug, cefoperazone, was studied. The protein binding of cefoperazone was studied by voltammetry, a technique which permitted instant measurements. The apparent diffusion coefficients were similar in agar and fibrin and lower in rat brain tissue. The influence of protein on the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient was negligible. The hypothesis that only the free drug diffuses was supported. The percentage of binding determined by voltammetry corresponded to the true concentration of drug which diffuses and is much lower than the percentage of binding determined by the ultrafiltration centrifugation method. This discrepancy could be explained by the rate of dissociation of the protein-drug complex. PMID:1605594

Meulemans, A

1992-01-01

328

A sparse representation based method to classify pulmonary patterns of diffuse lung diseases.

We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs. PMID:25821509

Zhao, Wei; Xu, Rui; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

2015-01-01

329

A Sparse Representation Based Method to Classify Pulmonary Patterns of Diffuse Lung Diseases

We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs.

Xu, Rui; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

2015-01-01

330

Efficacy of chromocult coliform agar for coliform and Escherichia coil detection in foods.

Chromocult coliform agar (CCA) was compared with Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plate (PEC) for identifying coliforms and E. coli in a variety of meat products. Products examined included 45 raw beef samples, 12 sausage emulsion samples, 11 samples of meat-based ready-to-eat appetizers, and 8 pork trimming samples. Coliforms from CCA and PEC were confirmed by gassing in brilliant green lactose broth plus a positive reaction on purple broth agar plus lactose after incubation at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Lauryl sulfate tryptose plus methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucuronide and tryptophan broth were used to confirm E. coli from CCA and PEC with 48-h incubations at 35 and 42.5 degrees C, respectively. API 20E test strips were inoculated for final confirmation. The overall respective confirmation percentages (CFU/g) for the PEC and the CCA methods were 93.1 and 93.7% for coliforms and 99.8 and 98.1% for E. coli, although the CCA method yielded significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean CFU/g values for both coliforms and E. coli. Regression analyses of these data indicated a strong positive linear relationship existed between the two methods over a wide CFU/g range for both coliforms and E. coli. The respective correlation coefficients obtained for coliforms and E. coli of 0.89 and 0.86 indicate that the CCA method provides a reliable optional method for these determinations in meat products. PMID:10772222

Turner, K M; Restaino, L; Frampton, E W

2000-04-01

331

A new method for apportionnement of diffuse nutrient sources of surface water contamination

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface water quality has improved slightly in many regions of the Netherlands during the last decades, due to a reduction of the nutrient loads from point sources, but in most areas the concentrations do not meet the targets to comply with the objectives of the Water Framework Directive. Leaching from agricultural soils is currently the largest source. Quantitative insight into the contribution of the various land management related sources is necessary to discuss the responsibility of different authorities to further improve the quality. Such an understanding is also needed to assess the effects of mitigation measures. The STONE model was developed in 1998- 2000 aiming at the assessment of the effectiveness of Dutch policy measures to reduce nutrient loads to groundwater and surface waters from agricultural land. The process oriented model simulates the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in soil and is capable to calculate N and P fluxes to surface waters. Due to the nature of the interdependent soil transformation processes, straight forward model runs don't yield in the relative contribution of the use of fertilizers and other diffuse sources to the total diffuse loads to surface waters. A new method was developed to reveal the relative contribution to surface water contamination of resp. the actual fertilization practise, the historical fertilizer excesses, the atmospheric deposition rates, the inputs by upward seeping water flow, the inputs by infiltrated surface water during summer time in polders and the natural soil release. The method is based on a linear proxy model of the STONE model. The coefficients were derived from the results of a sensitivity analysis. At the national level, the diffuse nitrogen and phosphorus load on surface waters due to the actual fertilization practise amounts to resp. 64% and 48% of the total diffuse loads from agricultural land. Deposition, the input by upward seeping water and the input by infiltrated surface water in polders amounts to less than 5% each. The release from soils, including the effect of historical nutrient surpluses, amounts to resp. 27% and 45% of nitrogen and phosphorus load from agricultural land. The method allows for a further distinction in the relative source contributions per land use, soil type and groundwater regime class. Although agriculture is one of the main contributors to surface water contamination, diminishing manure and fertilizer inputs will not result to a short time contamination reduction due to the long memory of the soil.

Groenendijk, Piet; Mulder, Martin; Van Boekel, Erwin; Van der Bolt, Frank; Hendriks, Rob; Renaud, Leo

2014-05-01

332

A centrifugal method is used to measure 'vulnerability curves' which show the loss of hydraulic conductivity in xylem by cavitation. Until recently, conductivity was measured between bouts of centrifugation using a gravity-induced head. Now, conductivity can be measured during centrifugation. This 'spin' method is faster than the 'gravity' technique, but correspondence between the two has not been evaluated. The two methods were compared on the same stem segments for two conifer, four diffuse-porous, and four ring-porous species. Only 17 of 60 conductivity measurements differed, with differences in the order of 10%. When different, the spin method gave higher conductivities at the beginning of the curve and lower at the end. Pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, and mean cavitation pressure, were the same in 14 of 20 comparisons. When different, the spin method averaged 0.32 MPa less negative. Ring-porous species showed a precipitous initial drop in conductivity by both techniques. This striking pattern was confirmed by the air-injection method and native embolism measurements. Close correspondence inspires confidence in both methods, each of which has unique advantages. The observation that ring-porous species operate at only a fraction of their potential conductivity at midday demands further study. PMID:18028295

Li, Yangyang; Sperry, John S; Taneda, Haruhiko; Bush, Susan E; Hacke, Uwe G

2008-01-01

333

Summary. Fifty-two strains of Streptococcuspneumoniae were examined for production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) by a rapid technique based upon induction of enzyme activity and chemical assay. This method was compared with one measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution and a diffusion test with disks containing 10 pg, 30 pg and 50 pg of chloramphenicol. The MIC for

C. W. WALKER; D. F. J. BROWN

1990-01-01

334

We designed a new culture method for neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria using liquid medium (i) to study the formation and mineralogical characteristics of biogenic iron oxides (BIOS) and (ii) to apply BIOS to various scientific and engineering applications. An iron-oxidizing bacterium, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1(T) (ATCC, BAA-1020), was cultured using a set of diffusion chambers to prepare a broad anoxic-oxic interface, upon which BIOS formation is typically observed in natural environments. Iron oxide precipitates were generated in parallel with bacterial growth. A scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the morphological features of the iron oxide precipitates in the medium (in vitro BIOS) were similar to those of BIOS collected from natural deep-sea hydrothermal environments in the Northwest Eifuku Seamount field in the northern Mariana Arc (in situ BIOS). Further chemical speciation of both the in vitro and in situ BIOS was examined with X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). A bulk XAFS analysis showed that the minerals in both BIOS were mainly ferrihydrite and oligomeric stages of amorphous iron oxyhydroxides with edge-sharing octahedral linkages. The amount of in vitro BIOS produced with the diffusion-chamber method was greater than those produced previously with other culture methods, such as gel-stabilized gradient and batch liquid culture methods. The larger yields of BIOS produced with the new culture method will allow us to clarify in the future the mineralization mechanisms during bacterial growth and to examine the physicochemical properties of BIOS, such as their adsorption to and coprecipitation with various elements and substances. PMID:24382149

Kikuchi, S; Makita, H; Takai, K; Yamaguchi, N; Takahashi, Y

2014-03-01

335

A method to study interface diffusion of arsenic into a Nb-Ti microalloyed low carbon steel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel diffusion couple method was used to investigate the interface diffusion of arsenic into a Nb-Ti microalloyed low carbon steel and its effects on phase transformation at the interface. It is discovered that the content of arsenic has great effect on grain growth and phase transformation at high temperature. When the arsenic content is no more than 1wt%, there is no obvious grain growth and no obvious ferrite transitional region formed at the diffusion interface. However, when the arsenic content is no less than 5wt%, the grain grows very rapidly. In addition, the arsenic-enriched ferrite transitional layer forms at the diffusion interface in the hot-rolling process, which results from a slower diffusion rate of arsenic atoms than that of carbon in ferrite.

Zhu, Yuan-zhi; Xu, Jian-ping

2012-09-01

336

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon, which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPB for each wavelength. A probe electrode immersed in an electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. The Schottky barrier is contacted by merely placing the probe in the solution. The redox solution is placed over and in contact with the material to be tested and light is passed through the solution to generate the SPV. To compensate for colored redox solutions a portion of the redox solution not over the material is also illuminated for determining the color compensated light intensity. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

Moore, A.R.

1984-02-21

337

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A drop of a transparent electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The drop of redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. Illumination light is passed through a transparent rod supported over the surface and through the drop of transparent electrolyte. The drop is held in the gap between the rod and the surface. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

Moore, A.R.

1984-06-12

338

Flood routing based on diffusion wave equation using mixing cell method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional non-linear diffusion wave equation is derived from the Saint Venant equations with neglect of the inertia terms. This non-linear equation has no general analytical solution. Numerical schemes are therefore employed to discretize the space and time axes and convert the differential equation to difference form. In this study, the mixing cell method is used to convert the diffusion wave equation to difference form, in which the difference term can be eliminated by selecting an optimal space step size x when time step size t is given. When the time step size t0, the space step size x=Q/(2S0BC]k) where Q is discharge, S0 is bed slope, B is channel width and

Singh, V. P.; Wang, Guang-Te; Adrian, D. D.

1997-11-01

339

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the application of field-theoretic renormalization group (RG) methods to the study of fluctuations in reaction-diffusion problems. We first investigate the physical origin of universality in these systems, before comparing RG methods to other available analytic techniques, including exact solutions and Smoluchowski-type approximations. Starting from the microscopic reaction-diffusion master equation, we then pedagogically detail the mapping to a field theory for the single-species reaction kA ? ellA(ell < k). We employ this particularly simple but non-trivial system to introduce the field-theoretic RG tools, including the diagrammatic perturbation expansion, renormalization and Callan-Symanzik RG flow equation. We demonstrate how these techniques permit the calculation of universal quantities such as density decay exponents and amplitudes via perturbative epsi = dc - d expansions with respect to the upper critical dimension dc. With these basics established, we then provide an overview of more sophisticated applications to multiple species reactions, disorder effects, Lévy flights, persistence problems and the influence of spatial boundaries. We also analyse field-theoretic approaches to non-equilibrium phase transitions separating active from absorbing states. We focus particularly on the generic directed percolation universality class, as well as on the most prominent exception to this class: even-offspring branching and annihilating random walks. Finally, we summarize the state of the field and present our perspective on outstanding problems for the future.

Täuber, Uwe C.; Howard, Martin; Vollmayr-Lee, Benjamin P.

2005-04-01

340

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon, which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A probe electrode immersed in an electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. The Schottky barrier is contacted by merely placing the probe in the solution. The redox solution is placed over and in contact with the material to be tested and light is passed through the solution to generate the SPV. To compensate for colored redox solutions a portion of the redox solution not over the material is also illuminated for determining the color compensated light intensity. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

Moore, Arnold R. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-21

341

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A drop of a transparent electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The drop of redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. Illumination light is passed through a transparent rod supported over the surface and through the drop of transparent electrolyte. The drop is held in the gap between the rod and the surface. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

Moore, Arnold R. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-01-01

342

Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Convection: Advection and Diffusion Schemes for Marker Methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's deep mantle can be studied by modeling vigorous convection in a chemically heterogeneous fluid. Numerical modeling of such a system poses several computational challenges. Dominance of heat advection over the diffusive heat transport, and a negligible amount of chemical diffusion results in sharp gradients of thermal and chemical fields. The exponential dependence of the viscosity of mantle materials on temperature also leads to high gradients of the velocity field. The accuracy of many numerical advection schemes degrades quickly with increasing gradient of the solution, while the computational effort, in terms of the scheme complexity and required resolution, grows. Additional numerical challenges arise due to a large range of length-scales characteristic of a thermochemical convection system with highly variable viscosity. To examplify, the thickness of the stem of a rising thermal plume may be a few percent of the mantle thickness. An even thinner filament of an anomalous material that is entrained by that plume may consitute less than a tenth of a percent of the mantle thickness. We have developed a two-dimensional FEM code to model thermochemical convection in a hollow cylinder domain, with a depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity representative of the mantle (Steinberger and Calderwood, 2006). We use marker-in-cell method for advection of chemical and thermal fields. The main advantage of perfoming advection using markers is absence of numerical diffusion during the advection step, as opposed to the more diffusive field-methods. However, in the common implementation of the marker-methods, the solution of the momentum and energy equations takes place on a computational grid, and nodes do not generally coincide with the positions of the markers. Transferring velocity-, temperature-, and chemistry- information between nodes and markers introduces errors inherent to inter- and extrapolation. In the numerical scheme that we use for this study, the velocity field is discretised using second order triangular elements, which gives second order accuracy of interpolation from grid-nodes to markers. A fourth order Runge-Kutta solver is used to compute marker-trajectories. We reevaluate the velocity field for each of the intermediate steps of the ODE-solver, rendering our advection scheme to be fourth-order accurate in time. We compare two different approaches for performing the thermal diffusion step. In the first, more conventional approach, the energy equation is solved on a static grid. For this grid, we use first-order triangular elements and a higher resolution than for the velocity-grid, to compensate for the lower order elements. The temperature field is transferred between grid-nodes and markers, and a subgrid diffusion correction step (Gerya and Yuen, 2003) is included to account for the different spatial resolutions of the markers and the grid. In the second approach, the energy equation is solved directly on markers. To do this, we compute a constrained Delaunay triangulation, with markers as nodes, at every time step. We wish to resolve the large range of spatial scales of the solution at lowest possible computational cost. In several existing codes this is achieved with dynamically adaptive meshes, which use high resolution in regions with high solution gradients, and vice versa. The numerical scheme used in this study can be extended to include a similar feature, by regenerating the thermal and mechanical grids in the course of computation, adapting them to the temperature and chemistry fields carried by the markers. We present the results of thermochemical convection simulations obtained using the schemes outlined above, as well as the results of the numerical benchmarks commonly used in the geodynamics community. The quality of the solutions, as well as the computational cost of our schemes, are discussed.

Mulyukova, Elvira; Dabrowski, Marcin; Steinberger, Bernhard

2013-04-01

343

Application of a Particle Method to the Advection-Diffusion-Reaction Equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reaction between two chemical species can only happen if molecules collide and react. Thus, the mixing of a system can become a limiting factor in the onset of reaction. Solving for reaction rate in a well-mixed system is typically a straightforward task. However, when incomplete mixing kicks in, obtaining a solution becomes more challenging. Since reaction can only happen in regions where both reactants co-exist, the incomplete mixing may slow down the reaction rate, when compared to a well-mixed system. The effect of incomplete mixing upon reaction is a highly important aspect of various processes in natural and engineered systems, ranging from mineral precipitation in geological formations to groundwater remediation in aquifers. We study a relatively simple system with a bi-molecular irreversible kinetic reaction A+B ? Ø where the underlying transport of reactants is governed by an advection-diffusion equation, and the initial concentrations are given in terms of an average and a perturbation. Such a system does not have an analytical solution to date, even for the zero advection case. We model the system by a Monte Carlo particle tracking method, where particles represent some reactant mass. In this method, diffusion is modeled by a random walk of the particles, and reaction is modeled by annihilation of particles. The probability of the annihilation is proportional to the reaction rate constant and the probability density associated with particle co-location. We study the numerical method in depth, characterizing typical numerical errors and time step restrictions. In particular, we show that the numerical method converges to the advection-diffusion-reaction equation at the limit ?t ?0. We also rigorously derive the relationship between the initial number of particles in the system and the initial concentrations perturbations represented by that number. We then use the particle simulations of zero-advection system to demonstrate the well-known phenomena of incomplete mixing (Ovchinnikov-Zeldovich segregation). The numerical results of the particle-tracking simulations are compared to an approximate analytical solution and the late time discrepancy is explained. We also study, for a two dimensional system, how shear flow effects the reaction rate. We do so since shear flow is the simplest form of a spatially variable advection. For the shear flow system, we find that shear flow leads to better mixing of the system on one hand, and a surprising one dimensional segregation at late times, on the other hand. This is in contrast with zero-advection two-dimensional system, where the late time behavior is characterized by the formation of two-dimensional islands. References (Manuscripts in submission): Paster A., D. Bolster and D.A. Benson. Connecting the dots: application of a particle method to the diffusion-reaction equation. Submitted to Advances in Water Resources. Paster A., D. Bolster and D.A. Benson. Particle Tracking and the Diffusion-Reaction Equation. Submitted to Water Resources Research.

Paster, A.; Bolster, D.; Benson, D. A.

2012-12-01

344

In the present paper, we test the suitability of ChCl/urea (DES-U) and ChCl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures, each one prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, for the production of agar films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and subsequent drying. The mechanical properties, water resistance and microstructure of the films were evaluated at different polymer concentrations (i.e. 2-6%, w/w). DES-U showed by far, the best film forming ability. Agreeing with the diffusion and SEM data, films with the best mechanical properties were found at the lowest and highest agar concentrations (tensile strengths of 24.2-42 MPa and elongations of 15.4-38.9%). The water sorption and contact angle studies suggested increased hydrophilicity for the film containing the lowest concentration of agar. The use of choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as solvent and plasticizer might be a promising tool for the development of new non-aqueous materials based on seaweed polysaccharides. PMID:25037344

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Latona, Nicholas; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2014-10-13

345

Measurement of the thermal diffusivity of thin films on substrate by the photoacoustic method

Measurements of the thermal diffusivity of thin films on substrate have been performed by the photoacoustic method. In order to examine the method the authors have built a new apparatus and proposed (1) a system calibration procedure using optically and thermally thick reference samples and (2) a data analysis procedure based on the RG (Rosencwaig and Gersho) theory. As a result of using a transparent photoacoustic cell, the systematic errors which are caused by stray light have been reduced. With this apparatus, measurements have been performed on platinum, titanium, and stainless steel (SUS304) thin foils (thickness form 50 to 100 [mu]m) with three different liquid backing materials (water, glycerol, and ethyl alcohol). The reproducibility was within [+-]7% regardless of film thickness and substrate materials. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Akabori, M.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagashima, A. (Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan))

1992-05-01

346

Reprint of Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.

Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.

2015-04-01

347

Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results

In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.

Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Levermore, C.D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

1990-01-01

348

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fully biodegradable green composites were prepared using natural sisal fiber and soy flour (SF) resin modified with sorbitol, agar, and NB416 microfiber. The SF resin modified with agar and NB416 microfibers had a higher Tensile Stress and Young’s Modulus, 8.73 + 0.60 MPa, 232.61 + 25.44 MPa, and 12.15 + 1.53 MPa, 327.87 + 27.62 respectively, compared to the Tensile Stress and Young’s Modulus of the sorbitol modified SF resin. The composites fabricated with sorbitol modified SF resin showed the highest Tensile Stress of 141.45 + 16.72 MPa which was significantly greater than the Tensile Stress of the pure SF resin. Problems arose in preparing the composites with the resins modified with agar and NB416. The method for coating the fibers with the more viscous resin solutions was not an adequate way to prepare the composite. The mechanical properties of the SF resins modified with agar and NB416 microfibers suggests that if the resin was equally dispersed in the composites then the composite properties would be very high. These composites are very useful in replacing some of the petroleum based composites in use today and reducing the amount of plastics in the landfills.

Khalsa, Amrit

2009-08-15

349

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

2009-04-01

350

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A normalized photoacoustic method, especially suitable for thermal diffusivity measurements of highly optically opaque materials, is described. The photoacoustic signal for normalization in this case, unlike other normalized photoacoustic methodologies, corresponds to a semi-infinite reference material in the front photoacoustic configuration. The amplitude and phase of the sample's photoacoustic signal, in transmission, are normalized with the corresponding ones of the reference. The normalization methodology yields, in this way, two independent thermal diffusivity values. This thermal property was measured for two polymers (black paint and black plastic tape); good agreement between the two thermal diffusivities measured for each material was obtained.

Balderas-López, J. A.

2006-06-01

351

A texture classification method for diffused liver diseases using Gabor wavelets.

We proposed an efficient method for classification of diffused liver diseases based on Gabor wavelet. It is well known that Gabor wavelets attain maximum joint space-frequency resolution which is highly significant in the process of texture extraction and presentation. This property has been explored here as the proposed method outperforms the classification rate obtained by using dyadic wavelets and methods based on statistical properties of textures. The feature vector is relatively small compared to other methods. This has a significant impact on the speed of retrieval process. In addition, the proposed algorithm is not sensitive to shift of the image contents. Since shifting the contents of an image will cause a circular shift of the Gabor filter coefficients in each sub-band. The proposed algorithm applied to discriminate ultrasonic liver images into three disease states that are normal liver, liver hepatitis and cirrhosis. In our experiment 45 liver sample images from each three disease states which already proven by needle biopsy were used. We achieved the sensitivity 85% in the distinction between normal and hepatitis liver images and 86% in the distinction between normal and cirrhosis liver images. Based on our experiments, the Gabor wavelet is more appropriate than dyadic wavelets and statistical based methods for texture classification as it leads to higher classification accuracy. PMID:17282503

Ahmadian, A; Mostafa, A; Abolhassani, M; Salimpour, Y

2005-01-01

352

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop sprayer, cultivator and tyre manufacturers, and the associated development and evaluation of novel tools for sustainable land management. Preliminary results from the first winter of monitoring focus on soil physics assessments (such as surface roughness, near-surface compaction, bulk density) and event-based losses associated with surface runoff. Research is initially investigating the relative importance of soil compaction, rather than the lack of vegetation cover, in accounting for the much greater losses of surface runoff, sediment and P loss identified down tramline wheelings compared to the uncompacted, cropped area. Treatments being investigated on three sites with contrasting soil textures and climatic regimes include: • The effect of correctly inflated, "Xeobib" low ground pressure tractor and sprayer tyres compared to conventional tyres and "common practice" tyre pressures • The effect of drilling the wheeling areas and using new GPS technology to guide spraying operations, compared to conventional practice of using undrilled tramline areas for that purpose. Subsequent monitoring periods will explore the cost-effectiveness of techniques to lift the soil compaction in the autumn using novel tools attached to the sprayer unit. Results from such applied, field scale cost-effectiveness studies provide evidence to help identify source areas of diffuse pollution, improve our process understanding of the response of soil systems to land management practices, and thereby support the targeting of practical pollution control measures across a range of soil types and climatic regimes. This project will provide practical recommendations to the farming industry, help inform farm scale evaluations of diffuse pollution risk such as the new Soil Protection Review recently introduced by the UK Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and yield data to help parameterise and refine diffuse pollution models used for policy support at a range of scales.

Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

2010-05-01

353

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part, an accurate and fast computational method is presented as an alternative to the Monte Carlo or deterministic transport theory codes currently used to determine the subcriticality of spent fuel storage lattices. The method is capable of analyzing storage configurations with simple or complex lattice cell geometry. It is developed based on two-group nodal diffusion theory, with the nodal cross sections and discontinuity factors determined from continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations of each unique node (spent fuel assembly type). Three different approaches are developed to estimate the node-averaged diffusion coefficient. The applicability and the accuracy of the nodal method are assessed in two-dimensional geometry through several benchmark configurations typical at Savannah River Site. It is shown that the multiplication constant of the analyzed configurations is within 1% of the MCNP results. In the second part, the high-order cross section homogenization method, recently developed by McKinley and Rahnema, is implemented in the context of two-group nodal diffusion theory. The method corrects the generalized equivalence theory homogenization parameters for the effect of the core environment. The reconstructed fine-mesh (fuel pin) flux and power distributions are a natural byproduct of this method. The method was not tested for multigroup problems, where it was assumed that the multigroup flux expansion in terms of the perturbation parameter is a convergent series. Here the applicability of the method to two-group problems is studied, and it is shown that the perturbation expansion series converges for the multigroup case. A two-group nodal diffusion code with a bilinear intra-nodal flux shape is developed for the implementation of the high-order homogenization method in the context of the generalized equivalence theory. The method is tested by using as a benchmark a core configuration typical of a BWR in slab geometry, which has large variations in the flux distribution across the core. There is a very good agreement between the nodal calculation and the fine-mesh reference calculation: the node-integrated group flux is within 0.5% of the reference solution in all nodes. The reconstructed fine-mesh flux (or equivalently the power distribution) in the core approximates the reference value very well.

Ilas, Germina

354

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional diffusion equations have been the focus of modeling problems in hydrology, biology, viscoelasticity, physics, engineering, and other areas of applications. In this paper, a meshfree method based on the moving Kriging interpolation is developed for a two-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation. The shape function and its derivatives are obtained by the moving Kriging interpolation technique. For possessing the Kronecker delta property, this technique is very efficient in imposing the essential boundary conditions. The governing time-fractional diffusion equations are transformed into a standard weak formulation by the Galerkin method. It is then discretized into a meshfree system of time-dependent equations, which are solved by the standard central difference method. Numerical examples illustrating the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method are presented and discussed in detail.

Ge, Hong-Xia; Cheng, Rong-Jun

2014-04-01

355

In this study we evaluated the performance of colorimetric nitrate reductase assay (NRA) on Middlebrook 7H11 agar instead of Lowenstein-Jensen medium for detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance directly on 114 smear positive sputum specimens and compared the results with direct proportion method on LJ medium. The results of both methods were in 100% agreement for detection of RIF resistance while agreement for INH was 96.4%. The average turnaround time for NRA was 18.6 days and majority of the specimens gave positive results within 21 days. Thus direct NRA testing on smear positive sputum specimens by using 7H11 agar could be used as a fast, reliable and inexpensive method in resource starved settings. PMID:23507185

Satti, Luqman; Ikram, Aamer; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Khan, Farooq Ahmad

2013-05-01

356

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method to study positron diffusion in metals. In this method, we observe positronium negative ions emitted from the sample surfaces after coating with alkali-metals to evaluate the yields of the positrons which return to the surfaces. ?-rays from the ions accelerated using an electric field are clearly distinguished from those emitted from pair-annihilation of positrons in the bulk or on the surface and self-annihilation of emitted positronium atoms. Reliable studies on positron diffusion in metals have been enabled by this method.

Suzuki, Takuji; Terabe, Hiroki; Iida, Shimpei; Yamashita, Takashi; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

2014-09-01

357

Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

2012-04-01

358

The elemental composition of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes of Physarum compressum sporocarps, cultivated on rabbit dung as a natural growing environment for the slime mold and on artificial agar medium, was compared to evaluate differences that may be dependent on substrates. Whole fruiting bodies and samples of both experimental media were extracted with nitric acid or Parr digest bomb, respectively, and analyzed by means of total X-ray reflection fluorescence (TXRF). Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes structure was carried out with the scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because of minute sizes and roughness of investigated structures, Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish analytical conditions of EPMA. Biological and geological standards were used in the quantification of element concentrations. According to TXRF, the fruiting bodies from agar medium revealed lower concentrations of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, and Fe in relation to fruiting bodies from the dung, reflecting elemental relationships in the experimental media. According to EPMA, the highest Ca concentration was found in the lime nodes followed by the peridium and the spores. Culturing of the slime molds on the rabbit dung indicated higher concentration of Ca in the lime nodes and peridium walls when compared with those obtained from the sporocarps grown on agar media. The opposite relation was found for the spores. The concentration of Na, Mg, P, S, and Cl was generally lower in all structures of the sporocarps harvested from the dung than from the agar medium. K was in higher concentration in analyzed structures from dung than from agar. Different element uptake (except for Ca and K) was revealed by the two methods: TXRF and EPMA. PMID:20981759

Janik, Paulina; Tylko, Grzegorz; Ostachowicz, Beata; Turnau, Katarzyna

2010-12-01

359

Background The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of human and sheep plasma with tube coagulase tests was also evaluated. Methods One hundred and eighty Gram positive, Catalase positive cocci occurring in pairs, short chains or clusters were subjected to growth on Mannitol salt agar, deoxyribonuclease and tube coagulase tests. Of these, isolates that were positive for at least two of the three tests (n = 60) were used to evaluate the performance of the tube coagulase test for identification of S. aureus, using PCR-amplification of the nuc gene as a gold standard. Results Human plasma was more sensitive than sheep plasma for the tube coagulase test (sensitivity of 91% vs. 81% respectively), but both plasmas had very low specificity (11% and 7% respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the tube coagulase test (human plasma) was markedly improved when Mannitol salt agar and DNase were introduced as a tri-combination test for routine identification of Staphylococcus aureus (100% specificity and 75% sensitivity). The specificity and sensitivity of Mannitol salt agar/DNase/tube coagulase (sheep plasma) combination was 100% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion The efficiency of the tube coagulase test can be markedly improved by sequel testing of the isolates with Mannitol salt agar, DNase and Tube coagulase. There is no single phenotypic test (including tube coagulase) that can guarantee reliable results in the identification of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20707914

2010-01-01

360

An anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filtering method for 3D SPECT reconstruction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we aim to reconstruct single-photon emission computed tomography images using anatomical information from magnetic resonance imaging as a priori knowledge about the activity distribution. The trade-off between anatomical and emission data is one of the main concerns for such studies. In this work, we propose an anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filter (ADADF) as a penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization optimization framework. The ADADF method has improved edge-preserving denoising characteristics compared to other smoothing penalty terms based on quadratic and non-quadratic functions. The proposed method has an important ability to retain information which is absent in the anatomy. To make our approach more stable to the noise-edge classification problem, robust statistics have been employed. Comparison of the ADADF method is performed with a successful anatomically driven technique, namely, the Bowsher prior (BP). Quantitative assessment using simulated and clinical neuroreceptor volumetric data show the advantage of the ADADF over the BP. For the modelled data, the overall image resolution, the contrast, the signal-to-noise ratio and the ability to preserve important features in the data are all improved by using the proposed method. For clinical data, the contrast in the region of interest is significantly improved using the ADADF compared to the BP, while successfully eliminating noise.

Kazantsev, Daniil; Arridge, Simon R.; Pedemonte, Stefano; Bousse, Alexandre; Erlandsson, Kjell; Hutton, Brian F.; Ourselin, Sébastien

2012-06-01

361

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously introduced method for monitoring environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was further validated. The method is based on diffusive sampling of a vapour-phase marker, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), with 3 M passive monitors (type 3500). Experiments were done in a dynamic chamber to assess diffusive sampling in comparison with active sampling in charcoal tubes or XAD-4 tubes. The sampling rate for 3-EP collected on the diffusive sampler was 23.1±0.6 mL min -1. The relative standard deviation for parallel samples ( n=6) ranged from 4% to 14% among experiments ( n=9). No marked reverse diffusion of 3-EP was detected nor any significant effect of relative humidity at 20%, 50% or 80%. The diffusive sampling of 3-EP was validated in field measurements in 15 restaurants in comparison with 3-EP and nicotine measurements using active sampling. The 3-EP concentration in restaurants ranged from 0.01 to 9.8 ?g m -3, and the uptake rate for 3-EP based on 92 parallel samples was 24.0±0.4 mL min -1. A linear correlation ( r=0.98) was observed between 3-EP and nicotine concentrations, the average ratio of 3-EP to nicotine being 1:8. Active sampling of 3-EP and nicotine in charcoal tubes provided more reliable results than sampling in XAD-4 tubes. All samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after elution with a 15% solution of pyridine in toluene. For nicotine, the limit of quantification of the charcoal tube method was 4 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04 ?g m -3 for an air sample of 96 L. For 3-EP, the limit of quantification of the diffusive method was 0.5-1.0 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04-0.09 ?g m -3 for 8 h sampling. The diffusive method proved suitable for ETS monitoring, even at low levels of ETS.

Kuusimäki, Leea; Peltonen, Kimmo; Vainiotalo, Sinikka

362

InP synthesis by the synthesis, solute diffusion (SSD) method using glassy-carbon crucibles

An Indium Phosphide (InP) Synthesis system by the Synthesis, Solute Diffusion (SSD) method has been built. It provides high purity InP charges with low carrier densities (3 {times} 10{sup 14} to 2 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}) to be used as starting material for InP single-crystal Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth. Glassy-carbon is a refractory material with low vapor pressure that can be moulded in various forms and sizes. Indeed the glassy-carbon crucible is reusable after the synthesis because InP does not stick to its walls. Preliminary electrical characteristics measurements showed residual carrier concentration below 3 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}. These results are comparable with those achieved utilizing quartz crucibles. The features denoted makes glassy-carbon an interesting alternative in comparison with quartz and PBN crucibles.

Miskys, C.R.; Oliveira, C.E.M. de; Carvalho, M.M.G. de [UNICAMP-IFGW-DFA-LPD, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1996-12-31

363

The Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo Method for Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Astrophysics

In this thesis, I discuss the use of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo method to compute the ground state of nuclear Hamiltonians, and I show several applications to interesting problems both in nuclear physics and in nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the AFDMC algorithm is applied to the study of several nuclear systems, finite, and infinite matter. Results about the ground state of nuclei ($^4$He, $^8$He, $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca), neutron drops (with 8 and 20 neutrons) and neutron rich-nuclei (isotopes of oxygen and calcium) are discussed, and the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter are calculated and compared with other many-body calculations. The $^1S_0$ superfluid phase of neutron matter in the low-density regime was also studied.

Stefano Gandolfi

2007-12-09

364

We conducted a systematic investigation of the reflectance diffuse optical tomography using continuous wave (CW) measurements and nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. We illustrated and suggested how to fine-tune the nonlinear reconstruction methods in order to optimize target localization with depth-adaptive regularizations, reduce boundary noises in the reconstructed images using a logarithm based objective function, improve reconstruction quantification using transport models, and resolve crosstalk problems between absorption and scattering contrasts with the CW reflectance measurements. The upgraded nonlinear reconstruction algorithms were evaluated with a series of numerical and experimental tests, which show the potentials of the proposed approaches for imaging both absorption and scattering contrasts in the deep targets with enhanced image quality. PMID:25401014

Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Jiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Changqing

2014-09-01

365

We conducted a systematic investigation of the reflectance diffuse optical tomography using continuous wave (CW) measurements and nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. We illustrated and suggested how to fine-tune the nonlinear reconstruction methods in order to optimize target localization with depth-adaptive regularizations, reduce boundary noises in the reconstructed images using a logarithm based objective function, improve reconstruction quantification using transport models, and resolve crosstalk problems between absorption and scattering contrasts with the CW reflectance measurements. The upgraded nonlinear reconstruction algorithms were evaluated with a series of numerical and experimental tests, which show the potentials of the proposed approaches for imaging both absorption and scattering contrasts in the deep targets with enhanced image quality. PMID:25401014

Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Jiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Changqing

2014-01-01

366

To classify cancer specimens by their gene expression profiles, we created a statistical method based on Bayes' rule that estimates the probability of membership in one of two cancer subgroups. We used this method to classify diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) biopsy samples into two gene expression subgroups based on data obtained from spotted cDNA microarrays. The germinal center

George Wright; Bruce Tan; Andreas Rosenwald; Elaine H. Hurt; Adrian Wiestner; Louis M. Staudt

2003-01-01

367

This article describes a simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method for the monitoring of glyphosate using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The proposed method is based on reflectance measurements of the colored compound produced from the spot test reaction between glyphosate and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, using a filter paper as solid support. Experimental designs were used to optimize the analytical

Aline Santana da Silva; Flávio Cesar Bedatty Fernandes; João Olímpio Tognolli; Leonardo Pezza; Helena Redigolo Pezza

2011-01-01

368

Theory of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for nonstationary convection with several aspects of the numerical solution of convection- diffusion problems by the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM) and applications to compressible flow. The DGFEM is based on a piecewise

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

369

Due to the fact the incubation conditions may influence the microbiological evaluation of water for dialysis, the objective of the present study was the comparison of the efficiency of R2A and PCA media in the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in 193 samples of water collected in dialysis clinics from 12 cities in São Paulo, between October and December 2007. Results showed counts significantly greater in R2A, suggesting that enumeration should be carried out in R2A, suggesting that enumeration should be carried out in R2A agar associated with longer incubation times, because of the greater sensitivity. PMID:24031456

Bugno, Adriana; Almodóvar, Adriana Aparecida Buzzo; Pereira, Tatiana Caldas

2010-01-01

370

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convex hilltops formed by diffusive sediment transport are a fundamental feature of soil-mantled landscapes worldwide. Additionally, the competition and interaction between hillslopes and valleys control basic topographic metrics, such as relief, drainage density, and breaks in slope-area scaling. Despite recent progress in erosive landscape experiments, no published work has explored the competition of hillslope diffusion and channel advection experimentally. Here, we present preliminary findings on the plausibility of needle ice driven frost creep as a mechanism for laboratory hillslope transport of wet sediment. In nature, needle ice is a diurnal form of ice segregation, whereby liquid water held in sediment pore space is driven upward toward a near-surface freezing front by a temperature-controlled liquid pressure gradient. As needles grow perpendicular to the surface, sediment is incorporated in the growing needle ice by temperature perturbations and associated downward shifts in the freezing front. Sediment then moves downslope due to melting or sublimation of the ice needles. We constructed a slope of saturated sediment in a freezer to constrain the temperature, grain size, and soil moisture limits on laboratory needle ice growth and sediment transport. Surficial sediment transport is measured during experimentation by tracking the movement of colored grains. Additionally, at the end of each run we measure depth-dependent sediment transport by taking slices of the experimental slope and observing the displacement of buried columns of colored grains. In agreement with past work, we find that with temperatures just below freezing, soil moisture above 35%, and silt-sized sediment, the moisture migration induced by freezing releases enough latent heat to maintain the location of the freezing front and encourage needle ice growth. Our experiments demonstrate that the amount of sediment incorporated during needle growth, i.e., the transport efficiency, can be controlled by systematically varying the frequency and/or duration of temperature perturbations. The rate of sediment transport on soil mantled hillslopes depends on topographic slope and transport occurs in an "active layer", i.e., the soil mantle. We show that needle ice transports sediment diffusively and has great potential as a method for laboratory simulation of a soil-mantled hillslope since transport is confined to a layer only a few millimeters from the surface. Furthermore, while past experiments are limited to modeling landscape response to precipitation or uplift, our method to systematically control the vigor of hillslope processes will enable us to model potential climate-driven changes in hillslope transport efficiency.

Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.

2012-12-01

371

Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?

To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie's method for Markov Chains (MC) simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of a high number of channels. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA). Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties—such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Goldwyn et al., 2011; Linaro et al., 2011; Dangerfield et al., 2012; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Güler, 2013; Huang et al., 2013a), comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that assess numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: (1) the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, (2) a model with faster sodium channels, and (3) a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for a low number of channels (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment) one should use MC—which is the fastest and most accurate method. For a high number of channels, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012), possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012) for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modeling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models—in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels. PMID:25404914

Pezo, Danilo; Soudry, Daniel; Orio, Patricio

2014-01-01

372

Diffusion approximation-based simulation of stochastic ion channels: which method to use?

To study the effects of stochastic ion channel fluctuations on neural dynamics, several numerical implementation methods have been proposed. Gillespie's method for Markov Chains (MC) simulation is highly accurate, yet it becomes computationally intensive in the regime of a high number of channels. Many recent works aim to speed simulation time using the Langevin-based Diffusion Approximation (DA). Under this common theoretical approach, each implementation differs in how it handles various numerical difficulties-such as bounding of state variables to [0,1]. Here we review and test a set of the most recently published DA implementations (Goldwyn et al., 2011; Linaro et al., 2011; Dangerfield et al., 2012; Orio and Soudry, 2012; Schmandt and Galán, 2012; Güler, 2013; Huang et al., 2013a), comparing all of them in a set of numerical simulations that assess numerical accuracy and computational efficiency on three different models: (1) the original Hodgkin and Huxley model, (2) a model with faster sodium channels, and (3) a multi-compartmental model inspired in granular cells. We conclude that for a low number of channels (usually below 1000 per simulated compartment) one should use MC-which is the fastest and most accurate method. For a high number of channels, we recommend using the method by Orio and Soudry (2012), possibly combined with the method by Schmandt and Galán (2012) for increased speed and slightly reduced accuracy. Consequently, MC modeling may be the best method for detailed multicompartment neuron models-in which a model neuron with many thousands of channels is segmented into many compartments with a few hundred channels. PMID:25404914

Pezo, Danilo; Soudry, Daniel; Orio, Patricio

2014-01-01

373

Electrode polarization analysis is frequently used to determine free-ion diffusivity and number density in ionic conductors. In the present study, this approach is critically examined in a wide variety of electrolytes, including aqueous and nonaqueous solutions, polymer electrolytes, and ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrode polarization analysis based on theMacdonald-Trukhan model [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 144903 (2006); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 3064 (2011)] progressively fails to give reasonable values of free-ion diffusivity and number density with increasing salt concentration. This should be expected because the original model of electrode polarization is designed for dilute electrolytes. An empirical correction method which yields ion diffusivities in reasonable agreement with pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements is proposed. However, the analysis of free-ion diffusivity and number density from electrode polarization should still be exercised with great caution because there is no solid theoretical justification for the proposed corrections.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL; Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Berman, Marc [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Greenbaum, Steve [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2013-01-01

374

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Axonal Injury: Analysis of Three Analytic Methods

Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a common mechanism of traumatic brain injury not readily identified using conventional neuroimaging modalities. Novel imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect microstructural compromise in white matter (WM) in various clinical populations including TAI. DTI-derived data can be analyzed using global methods (i.e., WM histogram or voxel based approaches) or a regional approach (i.e., tractography). While each of these methods produce qualitatively comparable results, it is not clear which is most useful in clinical research and ultimately in clinical practice. This study compared three methods of analyzing DTI-derived data with regard to detection of WM injury and their association with clinical outcomes. Thirty patients with TAI and 19 demographically similar normal controls were scanned using a 3T magnet. Patients were scanned approximately eight months post-injury, and underwent an outcomes assessment at that time. Histogram analysis of FA and MD showed global WM integrity differences between patients and controls. Voxel-based and tractography analyses showed significant decreases in FA within centroaxial structures involved in TAI. All three techniques were associated with functional and cognitive outcomes. DTI measures of microstructural integrity appear robust, as the three analysis techniques studied showed adequate utility for detecting WM injury. PMID:21070694

Marquez de la Plata, Carlos D.; Yang, Fanpei Gloria; Paliotta, Chris; Wang, Jun Yi; Krishnan, Kamini; Bakhadirov, Khamid; Aslan, Sina; Devous, Michael D.; Moore, Carol; Harper, Caryn; McColl, Roderick; Cullum, C. Munro; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

2011-01-01

375

The evaluation of a population based diffusion tensor image atlas using a ground truth method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is increasingly being used to detect diffusion tensor (DT) image abnormalities in patients for different pathologies. An important requisite for these VBM studies is the use of a high-dimensional, non-rigid coregistration technique, which is able to align both the spatial and the orientational information. Recent studies furthermore indicate that high-dimensional DT information should be included during coregistration for an optimal alignment. In this context, a population based DTI atlas is created that preserves the orientational DT information robustly and contains a minimal bias towards any specific individual data set. Methods: A ground truth evaluation method is developed using a single subject DT image that is deformed with 20 deformation fields. Thereafter, an atlas is constructed based on these 20 resulting images. Thereby, the non-rigid coregistration algorithm is based on a viscous fluid model and on mutual information. The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as the DT elements are used as DT image information during the coregistration algorithm, in order to minimize the orientational alignment inaccuracies. Results: The population based DT atlas is compared with the ground truth image using accuracy and precision measures of spatial and orientational dependent metrics. Results indicate that the population based atlas preserves the orientational information in a robust way. Conclusion: A subject independent population based DT atlas is constructed and evaluated with a ground truth method. This atlas contains all available orientational information and can be used in future VBM studies as a reference system.

Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; D'Agostino, Emiliano; De Backer, Steve; Vandervliet, Evert; Parizel, Paul M.; Sijbers, Jan

2008-03-01

376

Inverse Monte Carlo method in a multilayered tissue model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

Model based data analysis of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy data enables the estimation of optical and structural tissue parameters. The aim of this study was to present an inverse Monte Carlo method based on spectra from two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm), using a multilayered tissue model. The tissue model variables include geometrical properties, light scattering properties, tissue chromophores such as melanin and hemoglobin, oxygen saturation and average vessel diameter. The method utilizes a small set of presimulated Monte Carlo data for combinations of different levels of epidermal thickness and tissue scattering. The path length distributions in the different layers are stored and the effect of the other parameters is added in the post-processing. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations of tissue-like models containing discrete blood vessels, evaluating blood tissue fraction and oxygenation. It was also compared to a homogeneous model. The multilayer model performed better than the homogeneous model and all tissue parameters significantly improved spectral fitting. Recorded in vivo spectra were fitted well at both distances, which we previously found was not possible with a homogeneous model. No absolute intensity calibration is needed and the algorithm is fast enough for real-time processing. PMID:22559695

Fredriksson, Ingemar; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

2012-04-01

377

Method qualification and application of diffusion interaction parameter and virial coefficient.

This research focused on evaluation and application of two methods in studying weak protein-protein interactions, i.e. diffusion interaction parameter (KD) and second virial coefficient (B22), both of which are first-order coefficients of protein interactions. Although the plate-based KD method successfully distinguished KD values with relatively large difference in a pH ranging study, it failed to make a consistent statistical decision to determine close interactions as shown by the comprehensive ANOVA analysis. We also validated the DLS-based B22 method by using a model protein lysozyme. The dramatic change of solution appearance for lysozyme as a function of NaCl concentration highlighted the importance of B22 in understanding protein interactions. Moreover, B22 measurement for a MAb fragment suggested a more repulsive protein interaction in histidine buffer than in citrate buffer. The coefficient of variation was <10% when B22 was on an order of magnitude of 10(-4) L mmol/g(2) in contrast to >30% when it approached 10(-5) L mmol/g(2). In this research, we also made an attempt to study protein-protein interactions in concentrated MAb fragment solutions (e.g. >50 mg/mL). Our data suggested that such interactions could be empirically modeled by high-order virial expansions. PMID:24095715

Shi, Shuai; Uchida, Makiko; Cheung, Jason; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Shameem, Mohammed

2013-11-01

378

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of how to map the 3D indoor temperature by infrared thermography is solved by a hybrid method which is a combination of infrared thermography and the well known heat diffusion equation. The idea is to use infrared thermography to get the surface temperature of each frontier of the 3D domain of interest. A suitable procedure is devoted to this, allowing an automatic scanning of the whole frontier, the registration of data and computation. These surface temperatures constitute the boundary conditions of the heat equation solved in the domain of interest. The solution of the heat equation allows analyzing and controlling the temperature of every point belonging to the considered domain. This temperature distribution is controlled over the time with a period of the same order than the necessary time to obtain the frontier temperatures and at the end to contribute to the analysis of the thermal comfort. The study is done for the steady-state conditions under various weather situations. In this case the temperature depends only on space coordinates. With such procedure, we can have an idea about the time necessary to reach thermal equilibrium; time which has a great impact on the thermal comfort sensation. The results yielded by this method are compared with those given by others techniques used for temperature measurement. Finally, the method is used to access 3D temperature distribution for various geometric shapes.

Djupkep Dizeu, F. B.; Maldague, X.; Bendada, A.; Grinzato, E.; Bison, P.

2011-05-01

379

Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Downwelling Irradiance: An Evaluation of Remote Sensing Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength lambda from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda). There are two standard methods for the derivation of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using K(sup -)(sub d)(490) and K(sup -)(sub d)(443) as examples, we compare the K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with K(sup -)(sub d)(490) ranging from approximately 0.04 to 4.0 per meter. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived K(sup -)(sub d) is approximately 14% for lambda = 490 nm and approximately 11% for lambda = 443 nm.

Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph

2005-01-01

380

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion methods permit investigation of timescales of short-lived processes occurring in magmatic systems before, and in some cases during, eruption. We here present three case studies from the 25.4 ka Oruanui super-eruption looking at diffusion in a variety of minerals that reflects a spectrum of timescales. At one end of the spectrum, the diffusion of Li is exceedingly rapid. Diffusion distances of >100 microns in quartz and plagioclase can be attained in minutes at magmatic conditions. Strong diffusion appears to be induced in the very latest stages of magmatic ascent across most quartz and plagioclase crystals and is interpreted to be due to changes in the melt structure and fluid-melt equilibrium during decompression. With corrections for adiabatic expansion and post-eruptive cooling, the magma ascent rate from depths corresponding to the critical pressure is constrained to be up to 21 m/s. Determining timescales here requires corrections of raw data for local anorthite contents, although Li diffusion itself appears to be largely independent of composition. Fe-Ti oxides can retain significant zonation of Fe and Ti abundance for only a matter of days at magmatic conditions, making them ideal for thermometry to establish pre-eruptive conditions. However, observation of zonation in magnetite grains can be used to infer timescales of processes occurring over days before eruption. Magnetites from the phase 7 Oruanui eruption deposits show zoning, reflecting events which occurred in the hours before quenching of the host pumice. In combination with field and textural evidence, we interpret these events to result from syn-eruptive infiltration of hot mafic magma into Oruanui rhyolite. Diffusion in this scenario is straightforward to model in one dimension but requires consideration of ambient fO2. Structural ions in silicate minerals typically diffuse much more slowly, and so yield information on long-lived and persistent processes. Fe-Mg interdiffusion in orthopyroxene is more complex than either Fe-Ti in magnetite or Li in feldspars and quartz. The diffusion coefficient is both composition- and oxygen fugacity-dependent and so a finite difference model would typically be used to model the diffusion behaviour. Here, we show how a specially-constructed spreadsheet can accurately fit and model diffusion profiles based on certain diffusion laws. Results obtained for Oruanui orthopyroxenes suggest residence times in the range of 300 to 1000 years, reflecting the timescale over which the eruptible portion of the Oruanui magma body was assembled (see also ASR Allan et al. in session V046).

Morgan, D. J.; Allan, A. S.; Charlier, B. L.; Wilson, C. J.

2012-12-01

381

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse flow velocimetry (DFV) is introduced as a new, noninvasive, optical technique for measuring the velocity of diffuse hydrothermal flow. The technique uses images of a motionless, random medium (e.g., rocks) obtained through the lens of a moving refraction index anomaly (e.g., a hot upwelling). The method works in two stages. First, the changes in apparent background deformation are calculated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The deformation vectors are determined by a cross correlation of pixel intensities across consecutive images. Second, the 2-D velocity field is calculated by cross correlating the deformation vectors between consecutive PIV calculations. The accuracy of the method is tested with laboratory and numerical experiments of a laminar, axisymmetric plume in fluids with both constant and temperature-dependent viscosity. Results show that average RMS errors are ˜5%-7% and are most accurate in regions of pervasive apparent background deformation which is commonly encountered in regions of diffuse hydrothermal flow. The method is applied to a 25 s video sequence of diffuse flow from a small fracture captured during the Bathyluck'09 cruise to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (September 2009). The velocities of the ˜10°C-15°C effluent reach ˜5.5 cm/s, in strong agreement with previous measurements of diffuse flow. DFV is found to be most accurate for approximately 2-D flows where background objects have a small spatial scale, such as sand or gravel.

Mittelstaedt, Eric; Davaille, Anne; van Keken, Peter E.; Gracias, Nuno; Escartin, Javier

2010-10-01

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and sensitive technique based on a solid scintillator in place of the commonly used liquid scintillation (LS) cocktail has been developed to measure the low-energy surface radioactivity with the LS counter. As a test case, the method was applied to the successful determination of the nickel-63 self-diffusion profile in commercial purity nickel by means of the Gruzin?s residual activity method. On the same sample, the additional three methods of diffusion profile determination were used to compare with the proposed new method: (i) proportional counter activity detection, (ii) serial sectioning method and (iii) an integral sample measurement in LS cocktail. In conclusion, the strong and weak points are discussed for each method.

Rothová, V?ra

2013-11-01

383

An agar subcutaneous infection model (agar model), which simulates the rat subcutaneous infection model (rat model), was developed to assess the ability of antimicrobial catheters to resist microbial colonization. The catheters were implanted in the agar and rat models and the insertion sites were infected immediately or on day 7, 14 or 21 post-implantation. The catheters implanted in the agar

Trupti A. Gaonkar; Shanta M. Modak

384

Quantification of Al-goethite from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the most abundant iron oxides in soils, the presence and nature of goethite is controlled by the soil conditions and burial history. The visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a useful tool for quantifying goethite. However, aluminium (Al) substitution for goethite is very common in soils and the effects of Al content on the DRS properties of goethite have not been fully resolved. In this study, two series of Al substituted goethites (Al-goethite) and 20 Chinese loess/palaeosol samples were investigated using both DRS and magnetic methods to test the feasibility of quantifying Al-goethite with the DRS method. Results show that the peak positions and amplitudes of the goethite DRS band are significantly influenced by Al substitution. Specifically, the goethite concentration proxy, the amplitude of the DRS band, is relatively stable only when Al substitution ranged between about 4 and 16 mol per cent. Practically, in order to resolve the difficulty in measuring Al content in natural samples, the unblocking temperature (Tb) is proposed as the proxy for Al substitution of goethite. When Tb of Al-goethite was above 250 K, the amplitude of DRS can be used to reliably trace the goethite concentration variation in natural samples. For example, the DRS spectra for the Chinese loess-palaeosol samples support the idea that only haematite is enhanced via pedogenesis. In contrast, the origin of goethite seems to be mostly related to the aeolian inputs.

Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Colombo, Claudio; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Hu, Pengxiang

2014-01-01

385

Bifurcation analysis of brown tide by reaction-diffusion equation using finite element method

In this paper, we analyze the bifurcation of a biodynamics system in a two-dimensional domain by virtue of reaction-diffusion equations. The discretization method in space is the finite element method. The computational algorithm for an eigenspectrum is described in detail. On the basis of an analysis of eigenspectra according to Helmholtz`s equation, the discrete spectra in regards to the physical variables are numerically obtained in two-dimensional space. In order to investigate this mathematical model in regards to its practical use, we analyzed the stability of two cases, i.e., hydranth regeneration in the marine hydroid Tubularia and a brown tide in a harbor in Japan. By evaluating the stability according to the linearized stability definition, the critical parameters for outbreaks of brown tide can be theoretically determined. In addition, results for the linear combination of eigenspectrum coincide with the distribution of the observed brown tide. Its periodic characteristic was also verified. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Kawahara, Mutsuto; Ding, Yan [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-01

386

The inclusion of anatomical prior information in reconstruction algorithms can improve the quality of reconstructed images in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Prior literature on possible locations of human prostate cancer from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), however, is limited and has led to biased reconstructed DOT images. In this work, we propose a hierarchical clustering method (HCM) to improve the accuracy of image reconstruction with limited prior information. HCM reconstructs DOT images in three steps: 1) to reconstruct the human prostate, 2) to divide the prostate region into geometric clusters to search for anomalies in finer clusters, 3) to continue the geometric clustering within anomalies for improved reconstruction. We demonstrated this hierarchical clustering method using computer simulations and laboratory phantom experiments. Computer simulations were performed using combined TRUS/DOT probe geometry with a multilayered model; experimental demonstration was performed with a single-layer tissue simulating phantom. In computer simulations, two hidden absorbers without prior location information were reconstructed with a recovery rate of 100% in their locations and 95% in their optical properties. In experiments, a hidden absorber without prior location information was reconstructed with a recovery rate of 100% in its location and 83% in its optical property. PMID:24439338

Kavuri, Venkaiah C; Liu, Hanli

2014-02-01

387

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

388

Adaptive meshless local maximum-entropy finite element method for convection-diffusion problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a meshless local maximum-entropy finite element method (LME-FEM) is proposed to solve 1D Poisson equation and steady state convection-diffusion problems at various Peclet numbers in both 1D and 2D. By using local maximum-entropy (LME) approximation scheme to construct the element shape functions in the formulation of finite element method (FEM), additional nodes can be introduced within element without any mesh refinement to increase the accuracy of numerical approximation of unknown function, which procedure is similar to conventional p-refinement but without increasing the element connectivity to avoid the high conditioning matrix. The resulted LME-FEM preserves several significant characteristics of conventional FEM such as Kronecker-delta property on element vertices, partition of unity of shape function and exact reproduction of constant and linear functions. Furthermore, according to the essential properties of LME approximation scheme, nodes can be introduced in an arbitrary way and the continuity of the shape function along element edge is kept at the same time. No transition element is needed to connect elements of different orders. The property of arbitrary local refinement makes LME-FEM be a numerical method that can adaptively solve the numerical solutions of various problems where troublesome local mesh refinement is in general necessary to obtain reasonable solutions. Several numerical examples with dramatically varying solutions are presented to test the capability of the current method. The numerical results show that LME-FEM can obtain much better and stable solutions than conventional FEM with linear element.

Wu, C. T.; Young, D. L.; Hong, H. K.

2014-01-01

389

This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A "Ponseti Virtual Forum" (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries. PMID:22096417

Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

2011-01-01

390

The ability to detect and isolate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major challenge for food microbiologists. Although methods based on nucleic acids and antibodies have improved detection of STECs in foods, isolation of these bacteria remains arduous. STEC isolation is necessary for matching food, environmental, and clinical isolates during outbreak investigations and for distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C (SHIBAM) is a modification of washed sheep blood agar prepared by adding mitomycin-C and optimizing both the washed blood and base agar to better isolate STECs. Most STEC isolates produce a zone of hemolysis on SHIBAM plates and are easily distinguishable from background microbiota. Here, we present data supporting the use of SHIBAM to isolate STECs from fresh produce. SHIBAM was tested for accuracy in identifying STECs (365 of 410 STEC strains were hemolytic, and 63 of 73 E. coli strains that did not produce Shiga toxin were not hemolytic) and for recovery from artificially inoculated fresh produce (11 of 24 romaine lettuce samples and 6 of 24 tomato samples). STEC recovery with SHIBAM agar was greatly improved when compared with recovery on Levine's eosin-methylene blue agar as a reference method. PMID:23127712

Lin, Andrew; Nguyen, Lam; Clotilde, Laurie M; Kase, Julie A; Son, Insook; Lauzon, Carol R

2012-11-01

391

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging techniques based on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) rank with the most advanced methods for studying chemical and biological properties of substances. Their universality makes them particularly suitable for use in a wide range of scientific branches. NMR has found significant application in medicine. The diffusion effects of water molecules in tissues reduce the magnitude of spin echo in NMR measuring methods. Based on the amplitude change in the image, the diffusion coefficients and their distribution in the specimen being measured can be calculated. MR images of an object weighted by diffusion coefficients require a defined sequence of gradient pulses and accurate knowledge of their time behaviour. Methods for measuring the diffusion coefficients require knowledge of the minimum length of leading and trailing edges, the defined magnitude of the magnetic field gradient being excited and also the symmetry of positive and negative gradient pulses (the zero integral of pulses of the same magnitude with opposite polarity). To determine the above characteristics of the time behaviour of gradient pulses of both polarities a simple measuring method was developed and experimentally tested on a tomograph with 4.7 T induction of the basic magnetic field. This method is based on the principle of measuring the instantaneous frequency of the MR signal in the presence of a gradient pulse subsequent to exciting a thin defined layer of the specimen under examination outside the gradient field centre.

Bartusek, Karel; Gescheidtova, Eva

2006-08-01

392

The complex transverse water proton magnetization subject to diffusion-encoding magnetic field gradient pulses in a heterogeneous medium can be modeled by the multiple compartment Bloch–Torrey partial differential equation (PDE). In addition, steady-state Laplace PDEs can be formulated to produce the homogenized diffusion tensor that describes the diffusion characteristics of the medium in the long time limit. In spatial domains that model biological tissues at the cellular level, these two types of PDEs have to be completed with permeability conditions on the cellular interfaces. To solve these PDEs, we implemented a finite elements method that allows jumps in the solution at the cell interfaces by using double nodes. Using a transformation of the Bloch–Torrey PDE we reduced oscillations in the searched-for solution and simplified the implementation of the boundary conditions. The spatial discretization was then coupled to the adaptive explicit Runge–Kutta–Chebyshev time-stepping method. Our proposed method is second order accurate in space and second order accurate in time. We implemented this method on the FEniCS C++ platform and show time and spatial convergence results. Finally, this method is applied to study some relevant questions in diffusion MRI.

Nguyen, Dang Van [INRIA Saclay, Equipe DEFI, CMAP, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); NeuroSpin, Bat145, Point Courrier 156, CEA Saclay Center, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Li, Jing-Rebecca, E-mail: jingrebecca.li@inria.fr [INRIA Saclay, Equipe DEFI, CMAP, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); NeuroSpin, Bat145, Point Courrier 156, CEA Saclay Center, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Grebenkov, Denis [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Le Bihan, Denis [NeuroSpin, Bat145, Point Courrier 156, CEA Saclay Center, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2014-04-15

393

A new method of determination of the minority carrier diffusion length (L) in the base region of an n[sup +]-p-p[sup +] silicon solar cell using the spectral response of the cell in a middle wavelength ([lambda]) range is presented. The minority carrier diffusion length (L) in the base region of an n[sup +]-p or n[sup +]-p-p[sup +] silicon solar cell has a profound effect on the solar cell performance. In this paper the authors report a new method of determination of diffusion length using the middle wavelength spectral response (MWSR) of the cell. It has been developed using a model of n[sup +]-p-p[sub +] silicon solar cells given by Singh and Jain and making some simplifying assumptions. It is equally applicable to cells with d/L > 2.5 and d/L < 2.5. In the following they give the theoretical basis of the method and present the result of the measurement of diffusion length of a few N[sup +]-p-p[sup +] silicon solar cells with d/L in the range 1.3--4.1 by using this method and the LWSR method.

Basu, P.K.; Singh, S.N.; Arora, N.K.; Chakravarty, B.C. (National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India))

1994-03-01

394

Improved Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from Seawater and Sediment with Cellobiose-Colistin Agar

An improved selective medium, cellobiose-colistin (CC) agar, gave a significantly higher (P < 0.05) isolation rate of Vibrio vulnificus from water and sediment samples than did modified cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin (mCPC) agar. In a total of 446 alkaline peptone water preenrichments amended with polymyxin B, V. vulnificus was isolated from 154 preenrichments (35%) with mCPC agar and from 179 preenrichments (40%)

LISE HØI; INGER DALSGAARD; ANDERS DALSGAARD

395

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is equipped with two lasers of different wavelengths was used to conduct high resolution measurements of concentration profiles of a ternary mixture inside a diffusion cell. Windowed Fourier transform along with an advanced unwrapping procedure was employed to extract the phase image from fringe images. Then the phase difference was obtained for a spatial resolution of 1920×1240. According to the measured refractive index profile, concentration contours of two components (out of three) were measured. Consequently, the concentration profile of the third components was calculated. Previously, the analytical solution for binary mixtures was used to estimate only the pure diffusion coefficients. In this study, for the first time, the refractive indices measured by two lasers along with the analytical solution for the ternary system, based on Fick's law, and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) known as a genetic algorithm (GA) were employed to measure the pure and cross diffusion coefficients of a transparent ternary mixture simultaneously. The optimization method to estimate diffusion coefficients was tested against various objective functions, and the best approach was that which was proposed herein. In order to validate the proposed measurement method, the experimental results of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures (SODI-DCMIX1 project) on board the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed using this technique and the obtained results were compared with previous techniques.

Ahadi, Amirhossein; Saghir, M. Ziad

2014-08-01

396

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting…

Artun, Huseyin; Costu, Bayram

2013-01-01

397

With the many different types of spacecraft missions, insulation techniques are required to advance spacecraft thermal design. In order to create a reliable thermal design system, it is essential to characterize materials and basic properties accurately. In this paper, the cyclic heating method is used to measure the thermal diffusivity for a high-temperature porous material as an insulation material for

Gi-Won Nam; Cheol-Won Kong; Yeong-Moo Yi; Akira Ohnishi

2009-01-01

398

The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the well-accepted value of soil hydraulic properties for describing and modeling matter and energy fluxes in the unsaturated zone, their accurate measurement across scales is still a daunting task. The increasing availability of continuous soil water content measurements at discrete points in space, as provided by sensor networks, offers still unexplored possibilities for evaluating soil physical properties across landscapes. In this study, we propose a new method, based on the Bruce and Klute equation, to estimate effective soil water diffusivity from soil water profile data observed during continuous desiccation periods. An analytical expression is proposed for the diffusion-soil water relationship, assuming an exponential relationship between soil water content and the Boltzmann variable. The method has been evaluated using soil water profile data observed at inter-row and under canopy locations across a rainfed olive orchard in SW Spain. The spatial variability of the effective soil water diffusivity across the orchard was estimated. Different soil conditions under the tree canopies as compared to inter-row areas resulted in significantly different effective diffusivity relationships, reflecting the effect of trees on soil physical properties and water dynamics across olive orchards. The proposed method offers a suitable alternative to traditional laboratory methods and can be easily extended to estimate soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention curves.

Espejo, A.; Giráldez, J. V.; Vanderlinden, K.; Taguas, E. V.; Pedrera, A.

2014-08-01

400

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

401

The effect of potential chemical constraints on the performance of two relatively new soil P testing methods, anion exchange membrane (AEM) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), were evaluated. Exposures to ranges of anion (Cl?, NO3?, SO42? and HCO3?) concentrations relevant to agricultural soils had minimal effect on P recoveries using DGT. It has also been shown previously that

Sean Mason; Rebecca Hamon; Hao Zhang; Jenny Anderson

2008-01-01

402

Thermal conductivity (K) and thermal diffusivity (?) are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure K and ? in a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of using this

Lihan Huang; Lin-Shu Liu

2009-01-01

403

Sinusoidally structured illumination is used in concert with a phantom-based lookup-table (LUT) to map wide-field optical properties in turbid media with reduced albedos as low as 0.44. A key advantage of the lookup-table approach is the ability to measure the absorption (?a) and reduced scattering coefficients (?s?) over a much broader range of values than permitted by current diffusion theory methods. Through calibration with a single reflectance standard, the LUT can extract ?s? from 0.8 to 2.4 mm?1 with an average root-mean-square (rms) error of 7% and extract ?a from 0 to 1.0 mm?1 with an average rms error of 6%. The LUT is based solely on measurements of two parameters, reflectance R and modulation M at an illumination period of 10 mm. A single set of three phase-shifted images is sufficient to measure both M and R, which are then used to generate maps of absorption and scattering by referencing the LUT. We establish empirically that each pair (M,R) maps uniquely to only one pair of (?s?,?a) and report that the phase function (i.e., size) of the scatterers can influence the accuracy of optical property extraction. PMID:20615015

Erickson, Tim A.; Mazhar, Amaan; Cuccia, David; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tunnell, James W.

2010-01-01

404

Spatial stochastic simulation is a valuable technique for studying reactions in biological systems. With the availability of high-performance computing, the method is poised to allow integration of data from structural, single-molecule, and biochemical studies into coherent computational models of cells. Here we introduce the Lattice Microbes software package for simulating such cell models on high-performance computing systems. The software performs either well-stirred or spatially resolved stochastic simulations with approximated cytoplasmic crowding in a fast and efficient manner. Our new algorithm efficiently samples the reaction-diffusion master equation using NVIDIA GPUs and is shown to be two orders of magnitude faster than exact sampling for large systems while maintaining an accuracy of ?0.1%. Display of cell models and animation of reaction trajectories involving millions of molecules is facilitated using a plug-in to the popular VMD visualization platform. The Lattice Microbes software is open source and available for download at http://www.scs.illinois.edu/schulten/lm. PMID:23007888

Roberts, Elijah; Stone, John E.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

2013-01-01

405

Comparison of dialysis membrane diffusion samplers and two purging methods in bedrock wells

Collection of ground-water samples from bedrock wells using low-flow purging techniques is problematic because of the random spacing, variable hydraulic conductivity, and variable contamination of contributing fractures in each well's open interval. To test alternatives to this purging method, a field comparison of three ground-water-sampling techniques was conducted on wells in fractured bedrock at a site contaminated primarily with volatile organic compounds. Constituent concentrations in samples collected with a diffusion sampler constructed from dialysis membrane material were compared to those in samples collected from the same wells with a standard low-flow purging technique and a hybrid (high-flow/low-flow) purging technique. Concentrations of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, calcium, chloride, and alkalinity agreed well among samples collected with all three techniques in 9 of the 10 wells tested. Iron concentrations varied more than those of the other parameters, but their pattern of variation was not consistent. Overall, the results of nonparametric analysis of variance testing on the nine wells sampled twice showed no statistically significant difference at the 95-percent confidence level among the concentrations of volatile organic compounds or inorganic constituents recovered by use of any of the three sampling techniques.

Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Ehlke, T.A.; Lacombe, P.J.; Dale, J.M.

2002-01-01

406

Method of coating the interior surface of hollow objects with a diffusion coating

A method for forming a diffusion coating on the interior of surface of a hollow object wherein a filament, extending through a hollow object and adjacent to the interior surface of the object, is provided, with a coating material, in a vacuum. An electrical current is then applied to the filament to resistively heat the filament to a temperature sufficient to transfer the coating material from the filament to the interior surface of the object. The filament is electrically isolated from the object while the filament is being resistively heated. Preferably, the filament is provided as a tungsten filament or molybdenum filament. Preferably, the coating materials are selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni P, Pb, Pd, Pr, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Tl, Y, Yb, Zn, and combinations thereof. The invention additionally allows for the formation of nitrides, hydrides, or carbides of all the possible coating materials, where such compounds exist, by providing a partial pressure of nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or combination thereof, within the vacuum.

Knowles, Shawn D.; Senor, David J.; Forbes, Steven V.; Johnson, Roger N.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

2005-03-15

407

Because of its extremely high thermal conductivity, measuring the thermal conductivity or diffusivity of optical-grade diamond can be challenging. Various methods have been used to measure the thermal conductivity of thick diamond films. For the purposes of commercial quality control, the AC laser calorimetry method is appealing because it enables fairly rapid and convenient sample preparation and measurement. In this paper, the method is used to measure the thermal diffusivity of optical diamond. It is found that sample dimensions and measurement parameters are critical, and data analysis must be performed with great care. The results suggest that the method as it is applied to optical-grade diamond could be enhanced by a more powerful laser, higher frequency beam modulation, and post-processing based on 2D thermal simulation.

Rule, Toby D. [II-VI Incorporated; Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01

408

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a great majority of educational cases, testing of materials in the laboratory implies destructive techniques consisting of using universal testing machines (UTMs), where materials are brought to a failure condition under tension, compression, shear, bending or torsion. Common objectives associated with these types of tests are: the evaluation of materials moduli of elasticity and rigidity, yield strength, strain, ultimate strength, etc. In engineering practice, however, in-situ nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials are highly preferable, in order to evaluate rapidly the condition, failure potential, usefulness and serviceability of engineering materials. Thus, nondestructive testing of materials ought to be an essential ingredient of engineering education and training, since it plays a significant role in design, manufacturing and evaluation of engineering equipment. This paper presents an inexpensive, simple and effective method to convey to engineering students the underlying principles of NDT, based on an innovative technique referred to as Capillary Diffusion Method (CDM), which is classified within the category of non-destructive Penetrant Testing (PT). CDM is relatively unknown in the United States, but, it has been used for several years in the former Soviet Union, and more recently, in the Russian Federation. CDM proves to be quite versatile and considerably faster than conventional PT techniques used in the U.S. In this paper, the underlying science behind the CDM technique is discussed in detail, as well as, the academic benefits and educational potential derived from the inclusion of CDM in engineering academic curriculum. Mathematical, graphical and numerical documentation are presented in order to substantiate the suitability of CDM as an educational tool to teach Nondestructive Testing in engineering programs such as: Mechanical engineering, Chemical engineering, Civil engineering, Aeronautical, Aerospace engineering, Power Plant Engineering, and Nuclear engineering.

Berezkina, Nadezda

409

The concept of water activity (a(w)) does not differentiate between water status resulting from the interaction of water with solutes, and that from interaction of water with matrices, which is termed matric potential (psi(m)). This study reports the effect of agar concentration (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5%, w/w) on matric potential of glycerol agar media (GA) and the germination and growth of xerophilic fungi (Eurotium herbariorum and E. rubrum) and non-xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, and Penicillium roqueforti) on GA with or without sorbic acid (0.1-0.4%, w/w) at 0.90 a(w) and 0.95 a(w). The matric potential of GA decreased when the agar concentration increased from 1.5 to 7.5%. When the agar concentration increased at each a(w), the radial growth rate of the xerophilic fungi generally increased but the biomass density (biomass per unit area) decreased, whereas the radial growth rate of the non-xerophilic fungi generally decreased but the biomass density was unchanged. In the absence of sorbic acid, the time to germination of each species was similar for all agar concentrations. In the presence of sorbic acid, the time to germination of some species was significantly longer at higher agar concentrations (4.5%-7.5%) than 1.5% agar. This study demonstrated the inhibition effect on germination and growth of non-xerophilic fungi and xerophilic fungi by decreased matric potential resulting from increased agar concentrations, and the different responses of non-xerophilic fungi and xerophilic fungi to water stress from solutes and matrices. The concept of matric potential may be useful in food microbiology to provide a better understanding of fungal growth in complex food matrices. PMID:19520449

Huang, Yang; Chapman, Belinda; Wilson, Mark; Hocking, Ailsa D

2009-07-31

410

To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to pumped-sampling methods in a long-term monitoring program, such as at the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2005-01-01

411

Investigation to develop a method to apply diffusion barrier to high strength fibers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radio frequency powered ion plating process was used to apply the diffusion barriers of aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide and titanium carbide to a substrate tungsten fiber. Each of the coatings was examined as to its effect on both room temperature strength and tensile strength of the base tungsten fiber. The coated fibers were then overcoated with a nickel alloy to become single cell diffusion couples. These diffusion couples were exposed to 1093 C for 24 hours, cycled between room temperature and 1093 C, and given a thermal anneal for 100 hours at 1200 C. Tensile testing and metallographic examinations determined that the hafnium oxide coating produced the best high temperature diffusion barrier for tungsten of the four coatings.

Veltri, R. D.; Paradis, R. D.; Douglas, F. C.

1975-01-01

412

A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATIONS ON SURFACES

is sufficiently fine. The paper introduces a stabilized finite element formulation based on the SUPG technique, advection-diffusion equation, SUPG stabilization AMS subject classifications. 58J32, 65N12, 65N30, 76D45, 76

Olshanskii, Maxim A.

413

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved parallel-wire technique for simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity is presented. The deviation between experimental results and recommended (or another author's) values is less than 5% for fused quartz and refractory brick.

Zhang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. X.; Lee, J. A.; Ge, X. S.

1991-05-01

414

DEVELOPMENT OF SPLIT-OPERATOR, PETROV-GALERKIN METHODS TO SIMULATE TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

The rate at which contaminants in groundwater undergo sorption and desorption is routinely described using diffusion models. Such approaches, when incorporated into transport models, lead to large systems of coupled equations, often nonlinear. This has restricted applications of ...

415

DEVELOPMENT OF SPLIT-OPERATOR, PETROV-GALERKIN METHODS TO STIMULATE TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

The rate at which contaminants in groundwater undergo sorption and desorption is routinely described using diffusion models. uch approaches, when incorporated into transport models, lead to large systems of coupled equations, often nonlinear. his has restricted applications of co...

416

This paper begins by giving the results obtained by the Crank-Gupta method and Gupta-Banik method for the oxygen diffusion problem in absorbing tissue, and then we propose a new resolution method for this problem by the Adomian decomposition method. An approximate analytical solution is obtained, which is demonstrated to be quite accurate by comparison with the numerical and approximate solutions obtained by Crank and Gupta. The study confirms the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm for analytic approximate solutions of this problem. PMID:25165743

Bougoffa, Lazhar

2014-01-01

417

To examine whether selection of tumour cell subpopulations occurs during cultivation in soft agar, we compared in 23 human tumours of different histological types the DNA content of cells from colonies formed in soft agar (method of Courtenay and Mills, 1978) with that of the original tumour cells. The ploidy as well as the fraction of cells in S phase were determined from DNA histograms after staining of the nuclei with a propidium-iodide procedure and flow cytometric recordings. In 8 of 17 aneuploid tumours analysed, specific aneuploid subpopulations disappeared during cultivation or new aneuploid populations, not demonstrable in the original cell suspensions, appeared in the colonies. In 9 cases identical aneuploid populations were found in the colonies and the tumours. In one of 6 diploid tumours examined, aneuploid cell populations not revealed in the original cell suspension, were found in addition to diploid cells, whereas 5 tumours gave rise to colonies containing a purely diploid population. The results show that in a variety of human malignant tumours cultivation in soft agar may select specific aneuploid tumour cell populations. PMID:4063145

Tveit, K. M.; Pettersen, E. O.; Fosså, S. D.; Pihl, A.

1985-01-01

418

An improved design method and experimental performance of two dimensional curved wall diffusers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer design program was developed to incorporate the suction slots in solving the potential flow equations with prescribed boundary conditions. Using the contour generated from this program two Griffith diffusers were tested having area ratios AR = 3 and 4. The inlet Reynolds number ranged from 600,000 to 7 million. It was found that the slot suction required for metastable operation depends on the sidewall suction applied. Values of slot suction of 8% of the inlet flow rate was required for AR = 4 with metastable condition, provided that enough sidewall suction was applied. For AR = 3, the values of slot suction was about 25% lower than those required for AR = 4. For nearly all unseparated test runs, the effectiveness was 100% and the exit flow was uniform. In addition to the Griffith diffusers, dump and cusp diffusers of comparable area ratios were built and tested. The results obtained from these diffusers were compared with those of the Griffith diffusers. Flow separation occurred in all test runs with the dump and cusp diffusers.

Yang, T.; Hudson, W. G.; El-Nashar, A. M.

1972-01-01

419

Jc enhancement of high density MgB 2 bulk made by Premix-PICT-Diffusion method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high Jc of 1.05 MA/cm 2 at 20 K in self-field was achieved by a MgB 2 bulk synthesized by newly developed “Premix-Powder-In-Closed-Tube-Diffusion” (Premix-PICT-Diffusion) method starting from Mg and powder mixture of B and MgB 2, which were separately packed into Nb tubes. MgB 2 bulks prepared by this method are highly dense without voids and cracks, resulting in two or three times larger effective grain connecting area contributing dramatically high Jc compared with the conventional PICT-processed porous bulks. This method will be easily extended for development of superconducting current leads with large capacities.

Iwayama, I.; Ueda, S.; Yamamoto, A.; Katsura, Y.; Shimoyama, J.; Horii, S.; Kishio, K.

2007-09-01

420

Cryptococcus neofomans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus that causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunosuppresive patients. C.neoformans infection is believed to be acquired via inhalation of aerosolized particles from the environment. Avian guano, decaying tree hollows and soil are the related known environmental niches. Brown pigmented yeast growth from the precursors in growth media is an important step for the identification and isolation of C.neoformans. Seeds of plants in nature are preferred owing to easy accessibility and low costs for the preparation of such media. Guizotia abysinicca (Niger seed) as Staib agar, Helianthus annus (Sunflower) as Pal's medium, Brassica nigra (Mustard) agar, tobacco agar, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) seed agar, Perilla frutescens (Beefsteak plant) seed agar, Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry) agar and ground red hot pepper agar are pigment-based selective media for the differentiation of C.neoformans. The aim of this study was to observe the pigment production of C.neoformans in a new medium based on eggplant (Solanum melongena) and also to compare its performance with the simplified Staib, Pal's and tobacco agar for isolation from the environment. Three different eggplant-based medium (S.melongena Melanzaza viserba, S.melongena Pinstripe F1 and S.ovigerum Ivory F1) were included in the study. Pigment-forming eggplant medium, simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and tobacco agar were used for the cultivation of the environmental swabbed samples from 19 Eucalyptus camaldulensis trunk hollows in continuous colonization region. While pigment formation were observed with S.melongena Melanzaza viserba and S.melongena Pinstripe F1 containing media, S.ovigerum Ivory F1 medium was found to be non-reactive. In colonization area (Gökova-Akyaka, Turkey), 11 (57.9%) out of 19 E.camaldulensis samples were positive with simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar while 10 (52.6%) of them are positive with tobacco agar. C.neoformans colony forming unit (cfu) per plate were found as 51, 57 and 48 (median values) on simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar, respectively, while tobacco agar has lower performance with 33 cfu/petri. No statistically significant difference were found between simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar's performances for C.neoformans isolations from the nature (p=0.71). In conclusion, easily prepared eggplant agar is as functional as widely used media such as simplified Staib agar and Pal's agar for the isolation of C.neoformans from the natural environment. PMID:24819266

Sengul, Mustafa; Ergin, Ca?r?; Kartal, Tu?ba

2014-04-01

421

A defined agar medium (hereinafter designated caprylate-thallous [CT5 agar) containing 0.01% yeast extract, 0.1% caprylic (n-octanoic) acid, and 0.025% thallous sulfate is highly selective for all Serratia species and effectively discriminates against most non-Serratia strains likely to be in the same habitats. The selectivity of CT agar is demonstrated by the very high efficiency of colony formation (mean, 80.7% of that on a nonselective complex medium) on CT agar by known Serratia strains and the very low efficiency of colony formation (close to zero) on CT agar by bacterial strains known not to be Serratia. The utility of this medium in actual clinical laboratory practice is demonstrated by the more rapid and higher recovery of Serratia on this selective medium as compared to conventional procedures of in-tandem runs of 513 consecutive urine, feces, and sputum specimens. Pigmented and nonpigmented Serratia strains deliberately added to fecal specimens can be selectively and quantitatively recovered on CT agar. CT agar compares favorably with, or in some cases is an improvement over, other selective media which have been recommended for isolating Serratia. This selective CT agar medium could be quite useful in ecological surveys, especially those related to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:972193

Starr, M P; Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Starr, P B

1976-01-01

422

Agar gel electrophoresis of proteolytic enzymes in gastric juice of patients with chronic gastritis

Agar gel electrophoresis with proteolytic digestion of albumin substrate and subsequent Chromoscan analysis of the agar slide, were used to study the proteolytic enzymes of gastric juice in 28 patients with atrophic gastritis with or without intestinal metaplasia, 7 patients with chronic superficial gastritis and 6 with a normal gastric mucosa. Five proteolytic enzyme spots, designated I through V in

Mona Agunod; George B. Jerzy Glass

1972-01-01

423

Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties.

In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by electrospinning technique, using water as solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operating at 50°C, to avoid agar gelation. Agar pure solution (1 wt%) showed inadequate spinnability regardless of the used electrospinning conditions. The addition of a co-blending polymer such as PVA (10 wt% starting solution) improved the solutions viscoelasticity and hence, the solutions spinnability. Agar/PVA solutions were prepared with different mass ratios (100/0, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80 and 0/100) and electrospun at various sets of electrospinning conditions. Best nanofibers were obtained with 30/70 and 20/80 agar/PVA blends while samples with higher agar contents (50/50 and 40/60 agar/PVA) were harder to process and led to discontinuous fibrous mats. This first set of encouraging results can open a new window of opportunities for agar-based biomaterials in the form of nanofibers. PMID:25439904

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2015-01-22

424

Seasonal biomass variation and agar yield of G. salicornia (C. Ag.) Dawson from Oyster Bay, Dar es Salaam, and Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, were determined, and some properties of the agar examined. Mean biomass and canopy cover values ranged from 21-60 g\\/m 2 and 7- 20 %, respectively. The highest mean biomass and cover values were obtained during the SE monsoon.

A. S. Buriyo; A. K. Kivaisi

425

Agar medium for use in susceptibility testing of bacteria from human periodontal pockets.

An agar medium (medium V) was formulated to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents for bacteria encountered in human periodontal pockets. The medium contained (per liter) Trypticase, 15 g; yeast extract, 5 g; sodium chloride, 5 g; glucose, 2 g; sodium pyruvate, 2 g; sodium formate, 1 g; sodium fumarate, 1.5 g; sodium succinate, 0.1 g; Tween 80, 0.25 ml; agar, 15 g; hemin, 5 mg; and menadione, 0.5 mg. The growth of 50 oral strains was compared on this and six other media which included: Wilkins-Chalgren agar, Schaedler agar, Brucella agar, Trypticase-soy blood agar, and Schaedler and Brucella agars supplemented with whole blood. Growth, for most strains, was greatest on medium V. Medium V was also compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar, using the same oral strains, to determine the MICs of the following antibiotics: penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and erythromycin. The MICs of these antibiotics were essentially the same on both media when growth was quantitatively similar. PMID:518074

Walker, C B; Niebloom, T A; Socransky, S S

1979-10-01

426

Biosorption of copper ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material).The effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength (IS) and temperature on the biosorption process

Vítor J. P. Vilar; Cidália M. S. Botelho; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2008-01-01

427

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because they improve absorption and bioavailability. The aim of the study was to prepare lipidic nanoparticles containing cyclosporine (CyA) by the emulsification-diffusion method and to study their physicochemical stability. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol® ATO 888) and lauroyl macrogolglycerides (Gelucire® 44/14) were used as carrier materials. Nanoparticles with good stability were obtained with Gelucire®, while it was difficult to obtain stable systems with Compritol®. Systems with Gelucire® were characterized by particle size, Z-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Particle size and Z-potential were evaluated for at least three months. With a high CyA content (?60 mg) in Gelucire® SLNs, variations in size were greater and particle size also increased over time in all batches; this effect may have been caused by a probable expulsion of the drug due to the lipid’s partial rearrangement. While the Z-potential decreased 10 mV after three months, this effect may be explained by the superficial properties of the drug that make the molecules to be preferably oriented at the solid-liquid interface, causing a change in the net charge of the particle. SEM confirmed size and shape of the nanoparticles. DSC studies evidenced that CyA affects the lipid structure by a mechanism still unknown. The entrapment efficiency was higher than 92%, and CyA release from SLNs was relatively fast (99.60% in 45 min). PMID:20856836

Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Ganem-Rondero, Adriana; Melgoza-Contreras, Luz María; Escobar-Chávez, José Juan; Nava-Arzaluz, María Guadalupe; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2010-01-01

428

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are usually observed in spectra of hot stars, where interstellar lines are rarely blended with stellar ones. The need for hot stars is a strong limitation in the number of sightlines we can observe and their distribution in the Galaxy, as hot stars are rare and concentrated in the Galactic plane. We are introducing a new method, where interstellar lines can be observed in spectra of cool stars in large spectroscopic surveys. The method is completely automated and does not require prior knowledge of the stellar parameters. The main step is a construction of the stellar spectrum, which is done by finding oth