Science.gov

Sample records for age 9-10 years

  1. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  2. Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for the assessment of calcium intake in schoolchildren aged 9-10 years.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, B; Bartolini, E; Barbieri, M; Piscitelli, P; Di Tanna, G L; Giolli, L; Brandi, M L

    2013-07-01

    Bone mass increases steadily until age 20-30 years, when peak bone mass (PBM) is acquired. Nutrition plays a critical role in achievement of the optimal genetically programmed PBM, with reduction in the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Intake of nutrients can be estimated through the use of various tools; typically, food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are used in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to validate a 21-item, semiquantitative FFQ to assess important nutrient intakes for bone health in Italian schoolchildren 9-10 years of age. Relative validation was accomplished through comparison of the 7-days weighed food record (7D records) with an FFQ developed ad hoc, completed by a group of 75 Italian schoolchildren (36 females, 39 males). Agreement between the two methods was evaluated by Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman analysis applied on the data on intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Particular attention was devoted to nutrients relevant for bone health. Good correlations between the two methods (FFQ and 7D records) were observed for all nutrients. In particular, mean dietary calcium intakes were 725.6 mg/day (95 % CI 683.2-768.1) from 7D records and 892.4 mg/day (95 % CI 844.6-940.2) from the FFQ. These results indicate that our FFQ for schoolchildren aged 9-10 years is highly acceptable as it is an accurate method that can be used in large-scale or epidemiological studies for the evaluation of nutrient intakes important for the prevention of osteoporosis in a similar population. PMID:23543130

  3. Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9–10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Kontos, Emily Zobel; Ryff, Carol D.; Ayanian, John Z.; Albert, Michelle A.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Year-to-year decreases in smoking in the US have been observed only sporadically in recent years, which suggest a need for intensified efforts to identify those at risk for persistent smoking. To address this need, we examined the association between a variety of psychosocial stressors and smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9–10 years among adults in the United States (N=4938, ages 25–74). Methods Using information provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Stressors related to relationships, finances, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, neighborhood, discrimination, and past-year family problems were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results High stress at both assessments was associated with greater odds of persistent smoking for stressors related to relationships, finances, work, perceived inequality, past-year family problems, and a summary score. Among respondents who were smokers at baseline, high stress at both time-points for relationship stress, perceived inequality, and past-year family problems was associated with nearly double the odds of failure to quit. Conclusions Interventions to address psychosocial stress may be important components within smoking cessation efforts. PMID:23860953

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Geometry Instruction and the Learning Environment in Years 9-10 ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Rinna K.; Malone, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument to assess teachers' views on their geometry instruction and their classroom learning environments in six government high schools in southwest Sydney. The sample consisted of 18 Years 9/10 ESL teachers from participating schools. The study involved completion of a survey form using a modified…

  5. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius

    E-print Network

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Siegel, Karen R.; Richards, Nigel; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-07-23

    : British South Asians aged 13–16 years have higher fasting glucose and insulin levels than Europeans. Diabet Med 2005, 22(9):1275–1277. 13. Hodge AM, Dowse GK, Gareeboo H, Tuomilehto J, Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ: Incidence, increasing prevalence, and predictors...

  6. The effect of a novel video game on stroke knowledge of 9–10 year old low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Hecht, Mindy F.; DeSorbo, Alexandra L.; Huq, Saima; Noble, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Improving actionable stroke knowledge of a witness or bystander, which in some cases are children, may improve response to an acute stroke event. Methods We used a quasi-experimental pretest (PT) post-test design to evaluate actionable stroke knowledge of 210 children aged 9–10 years in response to a single 15-minute exposure to a stroke education video game conducted in the school computer lab. Following immediate post-testing (IP) we provided remote password-protected online video game access, and encouraged children play at their leisure from home. An unannounced delayed post-test (DP) occurred seven weeks later. Results Two hundred ten children completed PT, 205 completed IP, while 198 completed DP. 156 (74%) children had home Internet access, and 41 (26%), mostly girls, played the video game remotely. There was significant improvement of stroke symptom composite scores, calling 911 and all individual stroke knowledge items, including a distractor across the testing sequence (p<0.05). Children who played the video game remotely demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of one symptom (sudden imbalance) compared to children who did not (p<0.05), although overall composite scores showed no difference. Conclusions Stroke education video games may represent novel means for improving and sustaining actionable stroke knowledge of children. PMID:24481976

  7. Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIage, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

  8. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  9. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  10. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  11. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  12. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9...

  13. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society.

  14. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A. K.; Hill, J. C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0–2 years), 2–5 years and 5–9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P<0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P?0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P<0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0–2, 2–5 and 5–9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9–10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  15. Further Maths Careers in Maths Talks Careers in Maths talks delivered in school to Year 9, 10, 11 or 12 students.

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Further Maths Careers in Maths Talks (ID: 375) Outline Careers in Maths talks delivered in school with information related to careers in Maths-rich subjects. These events are free for all state-funded schools. The talks are aimed at top sets Maths students in year 9/10/11/12 and can ideally be given in a lesson slot

  16. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the common childhood phenomenon of growing up with pets. PMID:23668544

  17. Prevention of internalizing disorders in 9–10 year old children: efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9–10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776

  18. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Perfit, M.R.; Batiza, R.; Fornari, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

  19. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK.

  20. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume III. Family/Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

  1. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

  2. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

  3. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume II. Volunteerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on volunteerism presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Volunteers in the 1990s"…

  4. A cross-sectional study of frequency and factors associated with dog walking in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Owning a pet dog could potentially improve child health through encouraging participation in physical activity, through dog walking. However, evidence to support this is limited and conflicting. In particular, little is known about children’s participation in dog walking and factors that may be associated with this. The objective of this study was to describe the participation of children in dog walking, including their own and those belonging to somebody else, and investigate factors associated with regular walking with their own pet dog. Methods Primary school children (n=1021, 9–10 years) from a deprived area of Liverpool were surveyed during a ‘fitness fun day’ as part of the SportsLinx project. The ‘Child Lifestyle and Pets’ survey included questions about pet ownership, pet attachment, and dog walking. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with walking any dog, or their own dog, several times a day or more, including level of attachment to the dog, dog type, and sociodemographic factors. Results Overall, 15.4% of children reported walking with any dog (their own or belonging to a friend or family member) ? once daily, 14.1% several times a week, 27.6% ? once a week, and 42.8% never. Dog owning children (37.1% of the population) more often reported dog walking ‘several times a week or more’ (OR=12.30, 95% CI=8.10-18.69, P<0.001) compared to those without a dog, but were less likely to report other walking without a dog. The majority (59.3%) of dog owning children indicated that they usually walked their dog, with 34.6% reporting that they walked their dog ? once daily. Attachment score was highly associated with the child reporting walking their dog (lower score=higher attachment; OR=0.93, 95% CI=0.89-0.96, P<0.001). There was no evidence that gender, ethnicity, sibling status or deprivation score was associated with dog walking. Children that reported owning Pit Bulls were more likely to report friends walking with their dog than those owning non-Pit bull types (OR=10.01, 95% CI=1.52-65.76, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Promotion of supervised walking of suitable pet dogs may be an opportunity for increasing physical activity in 9–10 year old children. The identification of stronger attachment to dogs regularly walked is similar to findings in adult studies. PMID:24015895

  5. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  6. Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

  7. Malnutrition at Age 3 Years and Externalizing Behavior Problems at Ages 8, 11, and 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Poor nutrition is thought to predispose to externalizing behavior problems, but to date there appear to have been no prospective longitudinal studies testing this hypothesis. This study assessed whether 1) poor nutrition at age 3 years predisposes to antisocial behavior at ages 8, 11, and 17 years, 2) such relationships are independent of psychosocial adversity, and 3) IQ mediates the relationship between nutrition and externalizing behavior problems. Method The participants were drawn from a birth cohort (N=1,795) in whom signs of malnutrition were assessed at age 3 years, cognitive measures were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years, and antisocial, aggressive, and hyperactive behavior was assessed at ages 8, 11, and 17 years. Results In relation to comparison subjects (N=1,206), the children with malnutrition signs at age 3 years (N=353) were more aggressive or hyperactive at age 8 years, had more externalizing problems at age 11, and had greater conduct disorder and excessive motor activity at age 17. The results were independent of psychosocial adversity and were not moderated by gender. There was a dose-response relationship between degree of malnutrition and degree of externalizing behavior at ages 8 and 17. Low IQ mediated the link between malnutrition and externalizing behavior at ages 8 and 11. Conclusions These results indicate that malnutrition predisposes to neurocognitive deficits, which in turn predispose to persistent externalizing behavior problems throughout childhood and adolescence. The findings suggest that reducing early malnutrition may help reduce later antisocial and aggressive behavior. PMID:15514400

  8. 9/10 Month Employee New Academic Year Charging Instructions Guidance For Those With Less than 75% Effort Charged to Grants and Designated Match Accounts

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    % Effort Charged to Grants and Designated Match Accounts Effective Academic Year 2014-2015 Academic Year 2015-2016Academic Year 2014-2015 Starting 8/22/14, charge grant(s) using new instructions (and SPS calculator) at the increased pay rate when the work is done. (EXAMPLE: Grant C) Go back to grant start date

  9. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  10. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  11. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 ?mol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  12. Name ___________________________________ Age_____ Years in cat project_______

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    . Cost #12;Feline Vaccines Explain how a vaccine works to protect your cat. How are they given to cats) Boarding, in-house care My Cats Health Record Include multi-year vaccinations that have been given last year or the year before which are still effective for this year. Date Vaccines, medicine, surgery, etc

  13. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  14. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other....

  15. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  16. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  17. Association of Birth Parameters with Refractive Status in a Sample of Caucasian Children Aged 4–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Akova-Budak, Berna; K?vanç, Sertaç Argun; Olcaysü, Osman Okan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the association of birth parameters with refractive status in different age groups of Caucasian children. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 564 eyes of 282 children aged 4 to 17 years. All children underwent complete ophthalmologic examination. The children were divided into three groups according to their refractive status (emmetropia,myopia, and hyperopia), ages (4–7, 8-9, 10–12, and 13–17), and appropriateness for gestational age, respectively. Results. The mean age of the children was 9.2 ± 2.8 (age range 4–17 years). The mean spheric equivalent was +0.3 ± 1.7 (range: (?10.0)–(+10.0) diopters). The mean birth weight and gestational age were 2681.1 ± 930.8 grams (750–5000 grams) and 37.2 ± 3.7 weeks (25–42 weeks). According to multinominal logistic regression analysis, children with myopia were more likely to have higher birth weights than emmetropic children (OR: 1.0, 95% CI: 1.000–1.001, and P = 0.028). The hypermetropes were found to be significantly small for gestational age between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusion. Birth weight and appropriateness for gestational age as birth parameters may have an impact on development of all types of refractive errors. The hypermetropic children tended to be small for gestational age. PMID:25949820

  18. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1,407–1,507 m, 1,479–1,597 m, 1,423–1,654 m, and 1,433–1,666 m in 9- to 12-year-old boys and 1,262–1,362 m, 1,329–1,434 m, 1,392–1,501 m, and 1,415–1,526 m in 9- to 12-year-old girls correspond to a “medium” fitness level (i.e., P40 to P60) in this population. Conclusions The observed differences in physical fitness development between boys and girls illustrate that age- and sex-specific maturational processes might have an impact on the fitness status of healthy children. Our statistical analyses revealed linear (e.g., lower-extremity muscular power) and curvilinear (e.g., agility) models of fitness improvement with age which is indicative of timed and capacity-specific fitness development pattern during childhood. Lastly, the provided age- and sex-specific percentile values can be used by coaches for talent identification and by teachers for rating/grading of children’s motor performance. PMID:26544848

  19. Excessive crying at 3?months of age and behavioural problems at 4?years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72?months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3?months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3?months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4?years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  20. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  1. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  2. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  3. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  4. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  5. Personality Stability and Change Over a 30-Year Period--Middle Age to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Leon, Gloria Rakita

    1979-01-01

    Evaluated physically healthy and emotionally stable men over a 30-year period from middle to old age. Increase in mean scores on the depression scale of the MMPI reflected realistic bodily concerns and physical illness. This group manifested personality strengths in middle age and functioned well in old age. (Author)

  6. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age

  7. Spartan Kids Day Camps Ages 6-12 years old

    E-print Network

    Baseball Spartan Kids Day Camps Ages 6-12 years old Spartan Comprehensive Camp Ages 13-18 years old-in: 8:30 a.m. @ Mclane Baseball Stadium Camp fees: $150.00 Check-in: 8:30 a.m. @ Mclane Baseball Stadium E S #12;Baseball Resident and Commuter Camps C A M P I N F O R M AT I O N Refund Policy Campers

  8. Asthma in Wisconsin Asthma is a chronic lung disease that affects an estimated 16.4 million adults (aged 18 years)1

    E-print Network

    -Hispanic whites, children aged 15-17 years, and boys). Asthma Prevalence In 2008, an estimated 400,500 adults.1 5.9 10.4 7.6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Boys Girls Percent WI 38 States Child current asthma prevalence was similar among boys and girls inWisconsin; however, the rate was higher among boys

  9. SPEAKERS Monday, April 26, 9-10

    E-print Network

    Levy, Doron

    KEYNOTE SPEAKERS #12;#12;Monday, April 26, 9-10 Genomics, in the settings of both normal growth and disease. #12;Monday, April 26, 1 regularization, interpretability is gaining attention and sparsity is being used as its

  10. Atmospheric reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Miet, Killian; Albinet, Alexandre; Budzinski, Hélène; Villenave, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The probably carcinogenic compound 9,10-anthraquinone is mainly existing in the atmosphere in the particulate phase and is often detected and measured among other oxygenated PAHs in atmospheric samples. Its fate, once released or formed in the atmosphere, still remains unknown. In this work, heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes of 9,10-anthraquinone were investigated with ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The study of 9,10-anthraquinone adsorbed on silica particles showed no reactivity with O3 and NO2. On the other hand, the reaction with OH radicals was observed and led to the formation of 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, another oxidation product recognized as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This study showed that reactions with ozone and nitrogen dioxide are unlikely to contribute to atmospheric degradation of 9,10-anthraquinone, whereas reactions with OH radicals could be involved in 9,10-anthraquinone degradation processes, even if such reaction is probably very slow under ambient conditions. PMID:24875864

  11. Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    LOULY, Fabiane; NOUER, Paulo Roberto Aranha; JANSON, Guilherme; PINZAN, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated dental arch dimensional changes of Brazilian children. Material and methods Dental casts were taken from 66 children (29 males; 37 females) with normal occlusion selected among 1,687 students from public and private schools aged 9, 10, 11 and 12 years, according to the following criteria: Class I canine and molar relationships; well-aligned upper and lower dental arches; mixed dentition; good facial symmetry; no previous orthodontic treatment. Dental arch dimensions were taken by one examiner using the Korkhaus’ compass and a digital pachymeter. ANOVA test was applied to compare the arch dimensions at the different ages and the t-test was used to compare the arch dimensions of male and female subjects. Arch forms were compared by means of chi-square tests. Results Only the maxillary anterior segment length showed a statistically significant increase from 10 to 12 years of age. Males had a significantly larger maxillary depth than females at the age range evaluated. The predominant dental arch form found was elliptical. Conclusion In the studied age range, anterior maxillary length increased from 10 to 12 years of age, males had larger maxillary depth than females and the predominant arch form was elliptical. PMID:21552719

  12. Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

    2009-03-01

    Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development. PMID:19209081

  13. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  14. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  15. Rejuvenating immunity: "anti-aging drug today" eight years later.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2015-08-14

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding "a turning point" in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  16. Under 18 Years of Age Human Resources, Safety

    E-print Network

    Ovchinnikov, Sergei

    Under 18 Years of Age 1 Human Resources, Safety & Risk Management 1600 Holloway Avenue, ADM 252 San(s) and Time(s): During San Francisco State University Campus Recreation Department hours of operation, August, including travel to, from and during the Activity. I am voluntarily participating in this Activity. I am

  17. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  18. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  19. NIA's intervention testing program at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Warner, Huber R

    2015-01-01

    The previous 20 years of basic research on aging has identified a large number of genes and gene products whose expression can be manipulated in a variety of ways to increase the healthy life span of animal models such as yeast, nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. In an overt attempt to capitalize on this information, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) began a program in 2003 to identify nutritional and pharmaceutical interventions that could be safely employed to extend the healthy life span of mice. This program is called the Intervention Testing Program (ITP), and this article briefly describes the development of this initiative and some of the early success achieved during its first 10 years (2004-2014) of operation. PMID:25726185

  20. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (RPACA) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either RPACA or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of RPACA were all negative; i.e., an increase in RPAC is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., ? -0.29 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial RPACA with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher RPACA from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., ? 4.37 %; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  1. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia in patients aged ? 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Jie; Tan, Yu-Yong; Wang, Xue-Hong; Liu, De-Liang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia in patients aged ? 65 years. METHODS: From November 2011 to August 2014, 15 consecutive patients (aged ? 65 years) diagnosed with achalasia were prospectively recruited and all underwent POEM at our institution. Eckardt score, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, esophageal diameter, SF-36 questionnaire, and procedure-related complications were used to evaluate the outcomes. RESULTS: All 15 patients were treated successfully by POEM, with a median operation time of 55 min. Median myotomy length was 10 cm. Three patients underwent circular myotomy and 12 full-thickness myotomies. Symptoms remitted in all cases during post-POEM follow-up of 6-39 mo. Eckardt score reduced significantly (pre-operation vs post-operation: 8.0 vs 1.0, P < 0.05). Median LES pressure decreased from 27.4 to 9.6 mmHg (P < 0.05). Median diameter of the esophagus was significantly decreased (pre-operation vs post-operation: 51.0 mm vs 30.0 mm, P < 0.05). Only one patient had reflux, which was resolved with oral proton pump inhibitors. No serious complications related to POEM were found. The quality of life of the 15 patients improved significantly after POEM. CONCLUSION: POEM is a safe and effective technique for treatment of achalasia in patients aged ? 65 years, with improvement in symptoms and quality of life. PMID:26290645

  2. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  3. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ?4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, ? = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  4. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  6. AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-17 years)

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-17 years) Clan Kids Freshman (4 1/2 -6 years) Football (5-14 years) Soccer for Girls (5-14 years) Tennis (5-14 years) Under the Sea (5-8 years) #12;AGE 6 Basketball-17 years) #12;AGE 7 Basketball for Boys (5-17 years) Basketball for Girls (7-17 years) Clan Kids Junior (6

  7. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  8. Dental trauma in schoolchildren six to twelve years of age.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, A A; Catalá, M; Colmena, M L; Valdemoro, C

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of dental injuries in Spanish children living in an urban area was studied in 4000 schoolchildren ages six to twelve years. A total of 227 children experienced dental injuries. Simple enamel fracture was the predominant injury (46.2 percent). Boys showed a higher prevalence than girls In the majority of cases (74.9 percent), the trauma affected one tooth only. The maxillary central incisor was the most frequently affected tooth (87.9 percent). The most common fracture site was the mesioincisal angle (40.6 percent) followed by distoincisal angle (27.3 percent). Twenty-four percent of the children with dental injuries had an overjet of more than 3 mm. PMID:9883326

  9. Age Differences in Children's Understanding of the Complexity of the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined differences in understanding the technical and social complexity of the Internet across four age groups, 5-8-year-olds, 9-10-year-olds, 11-12-year-olds, and adults. The major findings indicated overall age differences in understanding across the four groups, particularly between 9-10- and 11-12-year-olds, and fewer differences…

  10. The Synthesis of Azaperylene-9,10-dicarboximides

    E-print Network

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    The syntheses of two azaperylene 9,10-dicarboximides are presented. 1-Aza- and 1,6-diazaperylene 9,10-dicarboximides containing a 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituent at the N-imide position were synthesized in two steps ...

  11. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA?+?idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  12. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. ?-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area. PMID:24721269

  13. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  14. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  15. Holistic face processing is mature at 4 years of age: Evidence from the composite face effect

    E-print Network

    Rossion, Bruno

    Holistic face processing is mature at 4 years of age: Evidence from the composite face effect of a composite effect since 4-years of age, suggesting that holistic face processing is mature as early as 4 hypothesis) The composite face effect should emerge at a certain age, testifying the emergence of holistic

  16. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  17. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  18. Number (in Millions) of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Reporting Visual Impairment, United ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share Compartir Number (in Millions) of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Reporting Visual ... Hospitalization Causes of Hospitalization Adults Detailed Tables Age 18-44 Age 45-64 Age 65-74 Age ...

  19. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except...

  20. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except...

  1. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except...

  2. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  3. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  4. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  5. Consistent yearly appearance of age-O walleye pollock,

    E-print Network

    and Spring, 1992), sampling these Methods The 1,344 diving observations re- ported in this study took place, submerged (20-25 m depths) rocky ledges at a site within 200 m of the Auke Bay Laboratory. The diving effort presence of age-O pollock elsewhere in the area. Conventional scuba gear was used and no decompression

  6. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  7. The Aged Samaritan: Heroes of the Holocaust Forty Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Oliner, Samuel P.

    Recent research indicates that helping others is associated with competence, personal control, and a sense of well-being and that the elderly often express altruistic attitudes and help others. The current period, 40 years after the termination of World War II, presents a final opportunity to study those individuals who had engaged in extreme…

  8. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  9. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  10. A Brief Screening Battery for Predicting School Achievement at Ages Seven and Nine Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Beery-Butkenica Developmental Test and the Caldwell Test were the best predictors. Combining the academic performance with visual-motor integration results at age seven years yielded 89 percent accuracy of prediction at age nine years. The false-positive rate represents the problem of mislabeling children as school failures. (Author)

  11. [Male aged 31 years with polyneuropathy, prostration, and hypogonadism].

    PubMed

    Del Río Prado, Antonio F; Reza Albarrán, Alfredo A; Gómez Pérez, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 31 year-old male patient, who presented polyneuropathy, symmetrical, ascending, and progressive, that led to prostration of eight months duration, accompanied by hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, and the presence of multiple erythematous nodules on the skin. The MRI showed hypointense lesions in the vertebrae T-6 and L-4 with sclerotic appearance. The bone marrow biopsy reported the presence of 12% plasma cells with A. restriction, supporting monoclonal gammopathy (plasmocytoma). PMID:25946537

  12. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  13. 2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bollongino, Ruth; Nehlich, Olaf; Richards, Michael P; Orschiedt, Jörg; Thomas, Mark G; Sell, Christian; Fajkosová, Zuzana; Powell, Adam; Burger, Joachim

    2013-10-25

    Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies. PMID:24114781

  14. Speech Defects in Children Aged 7 Years: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Neville R.; Peckham, Catherine; Sheridan, Mary

    1973-01-01

    A series of screening procedures applied on a national scale by doctors, teachers, and health visitors showed that between 10% and 13% of British 7-year-old children born in one week in 1958 were reported as having an appreciable degree of speech impairment. Between 1% and 2% had a marked speech defect though hearing normally. This latter group of speech-defective children were more often male and of poor family background, and more were born towards the end of a long family. They were often at a disadvantage educationally and had more clumsiness and defects of vision and visuomotor co-ordination than the rest of the sample. The methods used for screening provided a reliable guide in the selection of children who require further investigation. PMID:4685316

  15. General Age Restrictions for the UCSB Recreation Center Children 13-17 years of age must have a parents or guardian on the premises.

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Stephen

    the facility. (Please see reverse side) Child Day Pass Categories Child of Rec Cen member, age 12 and underGeneral Age Restrictions for the UCSB Recreation Center Children 13-17 years of age must have a parents or guardian on the premises. Children under the age of 13 years must have direct parental

  16. Early Childhood: Where Learning Begins. Geography. With Activities for Children Ages 2 to 5 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromboluti, Carol Sue; Seefeldt, Carol

    This resource book is intended to aid parents of children aged 2 to 5 years in teaching geography. The book offers ideas about how to encourage and give direction to enable young children to develop the vocabulary, awareness, and curiosity necessary to lay the foundation for the study of geography. Suggested activities are included and are…

  17. Age-related differences in inhibitory control in the early school years.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Jacqui A; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Crigan, Judith A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The transition to school is associated with a greater requirement to inhibit irrelevant or inappropriate thought and behavior in order to concentrate on effective learning and to interact successfully with peers. Current knowledge of inhibitory control development in the early school years is limited due to a lack of normative data from age-appropriate, sensitive measures. In this study, three pictorial versions of the Stroop task were administered to investigate inhibitory control development in early school-aged children. Age-related trajectories of inhibition and effects of gender were examined in 80 children (42 boys) aged 5 to 8 years. All children were assessed with the Cognitive Assessment System Expressive Attention subtest (Big-Small Stroop), Fruit Stroop, and Boy-Girl Stroop. The Big-Small Stroop revealed substantial age-related improvement in inhibition from 5 to 7 years with a levelling of performance at 8 years of age, while the Fruit Stroop and Boy-Girl Stroop demonstrated clear but nonsignificant age trends. In particular, older children committed fewer errors and corrected their errors more frequently than younger children. Performance on all Stroop tasks correlated significantly, providing evidence that they tap similar cognitive abilities. Some gender differences were found. This study indicates that inhibitory skills develop rapidly in the early school years and suggests that error awareness may be a useful indicator of the development of cognitive inhibition for this age group. PMID:23909718

  18. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  19. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  20. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  1. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  2. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  3. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

  4. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    Number 13 n May 5, 2009 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over, ... examine the prevalence of individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ...

  6. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the following: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including...the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 570.33...years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations,...

  7. Three Years of the New Minimum Drinking Age Law: The Search for the "Spillover Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.; Watson, Zarus E. P.

    Raising the legal drinking age nationally was designed to decrease highway deaths, but it has not seemed to have affected the drinking behavior of 18-20 year old college students. In August of 1995, the Louisiana legislature raised the legal minimum drinking age to 21. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a change in legal…

  8. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  9. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  10. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  11. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and ?-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health. PMID:26286042

  12. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Robert T; Rahe, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a “user-friendly” aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on “breath control”, and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly Masters swimmers to compete remains strong, and their ranks should continue to increase. PMID:24198541

  13. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common. PMID:25545698

  14. Pneumonectomy for lung cancer over the age of 75 years: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Zuin, Andrea; Marulli, Giuseppe; Breda, Cristiano; Bulf, Renato; Schiavon, Marco; Rebusso, Alessandro; Di Chiara, Francesco; Rea, Federico

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the outcome in elderly patients (>75 years) submitted to pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Records of 40 elderly patients, who underwent pneumonectomy at our Institution from 1990 to 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. This group was compared with 289 younger patients submitted to pneumonectomy in the same period. In the older group median age was 77 years (range 75-84 years), 16 were right-side procedures. In the younger group median age was 62 years (range 24-74 years), 114 were right-sided procedures. The overall mortality rate was 7.5% and 6.2% in the older and younger groups, respectively (P=0.75); morbidity rate was 35.1% and 17.7% (P=0.01) and five-year survival rate was 32% and 30%, respectively (P=0.85). Right-sided procedures (P=0.0006) were associated with higher risk of mortality and age over 75 years (P=0.01) with increased risk of morbidity; pathological stage was the only predictor of five-year survival. Pneumonectomy appears to be justified even in patients older than 75 years, because short- and long-term outcomes can be acceptable and comparable with those of younger patients. Advanced age alone does not justify denying curative resection of lung cancer, but right-sided procedures require a careful pre- and postoperative approach. PMID:20308265

  15. Subdividing the Age Group of 85 Years and Older to Improve US Disease Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Boscoe, Francis P.

    2008-01-01

    The standard terminal age category in disease reporting in the United States has been 85 years and older since the 1940s, but the dramatically increasing share of the US population reaching this age has rendered the single category inadequate for surveillance, research, and analysis. Important age-specific variations in mortality among the oldest old are masked by the continued use of this category. Greater specificity in age-specific data for the oldest old would aid in disease surveillance and etiologic research and broaden awareness and understanding of human longevity. PMID:18511712

  16. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  17. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  18. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  19. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  20. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  1. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  2. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  3. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940–1989

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people’s services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about ‘all age’ or ‘old age’ services and inform decision-making on future mental health services. PMID:26191440

  4. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial synangiosis as a safe, effective, and durable method for treatment of moyamoya for most children in this potentially high-risk population. PMID:24527861

  5. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

  6. Prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors and treatment among women aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J K; Spangler, J G; Celestino, F S

    2000-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective review to evaluate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of 389 women aged 50 years or older at risk for osteoporosis in a large primary care practice. Records randomly selected from a computerized database were reviewed for drug history, age, height, weight, and osteoporosis-related diagnoses, symptoms, and risk factors. Among the 389 women, 255 (65.5%) were receiving bone-preserving treatment (247 estrogen replacement exclusively). Most (70.4%) were white, with an average age of 61 years, and an average of 3.3 risk factors for osteoporosis. Risk factors were postmenopausal status 94%, age 65 years or older 53%, hysterectomy 39%, cigarette smoking 33%, and physical inactivity 30%. By logistic regression, the only positive predictor of antiresorptive therapy was hysterectomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-4.14). Negative predictors were physical inactivity (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.71), rheumatoid arthritis (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79), and age 65 years and older (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86). Controlling for age, women with four or more risk factors were 62% less likely to be receiving antiresorptive treatment (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64) than those with fewer risk factors. PMID:10772371

  7. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  8. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  9. CORRESPONDENCE CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 109, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 20151522

    E-print Network

    Dhingra, Narender K.

    CORRESPONDENCE CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 109, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 20151522 Environmental flow estimation for the water qual- ity and quantity issues and finally, the minimum flow is computed based on the current the river water quality standards. However, in their study, the terminologies `minimum flow' and `Eflow

  10. 36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1966 as implemented by 36 CFR part 800. (1) The operator shall not injure, alter, destroy, or collect....S.C. 431-433) (see 43 CFR part 3). (2) The operator shall immediately bring to the attention of the... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.10 Plan of operations approval. (a) The...

  11. 36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1966 as implemented by 36 CFR part 800. (1) The operator shall not injure, alter, destroy, or collect....S.C. 431-433) (see 43 CFR part 3). (2) The operator shall immediately bring to the attention of the... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.10 Plan of operations approval. (a) The...

  12. 36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1966 as implemented by 36 CFR part 800. (1) The operator shall not injure, alter, destroy, or collect....S.C. 431-433) (see 43 CFR part 3). (2) The operator shall immediately bring to the attention of the... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.10 Plan of operations approval. (a) The...

  13. 36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1966 as implemented by 36 CFR part 800. (1) The operator shall not injure, alter, destroy, or collect....S.C. 431-433) (see 43 CFR part 3). (2) The operator shall immediately bring to the attention of the... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.10 Plan of operations approval. (a) The...

  14. 36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1966 as implemented by 36 CFR part 800. (1) The operator shall not injure, alter, destroy, or collect....S.C. 431-433) (see 43 CFR part 3). (2) The operator shall immediately bring to the attention of the... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.10 Plan of operations approval. (a) The...

  15. Lecture 9-10 Introduction to energy & environment

    E-print Network

    ,where the pollutant never fills the whole region · the flux of pollutant or other trace substance (e.g.water 09:11 am ET Buzz up! · Water, air and soil pollution, along with other environmental factorsLecture 9-10 HAS222d-09 Introduction to energy & environment Air pollution #12;applying flux

  16. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  17. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  18. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  19. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  20. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  1. Ten Year Follow-Up of Gap Balanced, Rotating Platform Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients Under 60 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason H; Barnett, Steven L; Patel, Jay J; Nassif, Nader A; Cummings, Dennis J; Gorab, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    68 patients (91 primary total knee arthroplasties) were evaluated at a mean 10-year, minimum 5year follow up in patients younger than sixty years of age utilizing the gap balanced, rotating platform design. Follow up assessment included implant survivorship, adverse events, x-rays, Knee Society rating system and clinical evaluation. Three revisions were performed with only one for aseptic loosening at 45months. Two manipulations were performed in the early postoperative period. Survivorship of the rotating platform, gap balanced knee was 96.7% using surgical revision for any reason and 98.9% using aseptic loosening as endpoints. The rotating platform design using the gap balancing technique in young patients had excellent survivorship at 10-year mean follow up. PMID:26297690

  2. Molecular gears: Structures of (9,10-triptyceno) crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Sachleben, R.A.; Gakh, A.A.; Bunick, G.J.

    1999-05-01

    The incorporation of 9,10-triptycene unit in a crown ether is examined from a structural perspective. Insertion of a triptycene group into 18-crown-6 stretches the crown into an ellipse, as seen in structures presented here of 9,10-triptyceno-22-crown-6 and its thallium complex. Symmetric addition of two triptycene groups into 18-crown-6 results in the sterically congested bis(9,10-triptyceno)-26-crown-6, whose crown cavity is filled with the {pi}-clouds of two arene groups. The larger bis(9,10-triptyceno)-32-crown-8 is more sterically relaxed. The structures of these bis(triptyceno)crown ether molecules are the first with two triptycene groups simultaneously linked through their 9 and 10 positions, thereby forming a simple molecular gearing mechanism. The compound 9,10-triptyceno-22-crown-6 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 10.7962(7), b = 15.826(3), c = 31.147(5) {angstrom}, V = 5321.8(12) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 8; its complex with TlNO{sub 3} crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 8.1884(14), b = 19.552(2), c = 20,575(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 97.062(8){degree}, V = 3269.2(9) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4; bis(9,10-triptyceno)-26-crown-6 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P{bar 1} with a = 8.6488(11), b = 10,7718(12), c = 12.3324(12) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 111.58(1), {beta} = 100.55(1), {gamma} = 106.43(1){degree}, V = 970.3(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 1; and bis(9,10-triptyceno)-32-crown-8 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna2{sub 1} with a = 20.186(3), b = 8.558(2), c = 25.623(2) {angstrom}, V = 4426.2(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4.

  3. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially valuable tool for both constraining the age distribution in sampled waters and investigating recharge transients.

  4. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kehlet, Mette; Schroeder, Torben V.; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking cessation program, on continuous self-reported abstinence rates after six months, on participants over the age of 60 years in a real life setting. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study from the national Danish smoking cessation database. Results: The database registered 7369 participants over the age of 60 years (range 60–82) and 24,294 below 60 years (range 15–59). Continuous abstinence rate after six months was 37% for the elderly compared to 35% for the younger (p < 0.05). The significant variables for continuous abstinence were: living with another adult (OR 1.10), prior professional recommendation for smoking cessation (OR 1.12), being compliant with program (OR 1.35) and being abstinent at end of course (OR 13.3). Conclusions: Participants over the age of 60 years had significantly higher continuous abstinence rates after six months than the participants less than 60 years. It is never too late for health professionals to recommend and educate patients about smoking cessation programs even if they are over 60 years of age. PMID:25734789

  5. [10th anniversary of the Year of Old Person: towards the society for all ages].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lova, O N

    2009-01-01

    The paper highlights the milestones in the development of the UN idea of the Society for All Ages, originally announced as a motto of the International Year of Old Persons and later accepted as a central concept of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Aging (MIPA). In accord with MIPA building of the Society for All Ages will be a major issue in policies and programmes on aging in the XXI century. According to the UN experts opinion demographic tendencies may produce considerable impact on economy, social sphere and safety of Russia. The issues of aging are far from being completely and rapidly included into national development strategies on priority basis. PMID:20405719

  6. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (??40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ??40 years (n?=?405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ??40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ??40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (??32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ??40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  7. Infant Motor Development Predicts Sports Participation at Age 14 Years: Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Ong, Ken K.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Sharp, Stephen; Ekelund, Ulf; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Background Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. Methods Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE). Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. Principal Findings Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001) and standing unaided (p?=?<0.001). Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p?=?0.003) and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p?=?0.043). These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. Conclusions Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life. PMID:19718258

  8. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

  9. 6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

  10. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60 years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  11. Otitis media in early childhood and cognitive, academic, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J E; Burchinal, M R; Clarke-Klein, S M

    1995-10-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive and academic performance and behavioral outcomes at 12 years of age in 56 socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending a research childcare program. OME history was prospectively documented from birth through 3 years during well and illness periods. Standardized tests of intelligence and academic achievement and measures of behavior were administered when children were 12 years of age. OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, or attention. Results do not support a long-term relationship between a history of OME and later developmental outcomes. Generalizations of these findings to other populations should be done cautiously. PMID:7500236

  12. NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years)

    Cancer.gov

    The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives (100). Preschool children continue to expand their gross and fine motor capabilities and by age 4 years, a child can hop, jump on one foot, ride a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels, and throw a ball overhand.

  13. Bacteriology of peritonsillar abscess in patients over 40 years--a neglected age group.

    PubMed

    Gavriel, Haim; Golan, Yitzhak; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2015-04-01

    The clinical presentation of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) in patients over 40 years is scarcely reported. Since older patients present differently than younger patients, our aim was to investigate possible correlation between illness severity in the older age group and their bacteriologic studies. A retrospective study on all cases of PTA admitted between June 1996 and June 2003 was carried out. Details regarding sex and age were obtained. Bacteriologic studies were analyzed for gram stain, aerobic and anaerobic culture results. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (143 male and 139 female) had 311 hospitalizations due to PTA with known results of the microbiologic studies. Mean age was 29.6 (range 4-80 years). Sixty-five adults over 40 of age were found comprising 23 % of our cohort. Aerobic growth in the older group was found to be significantly lower (P < 0.05). Anaerobic growth was identified in 44.7 % of the positive pathogen growth. The older age group also showed a tendency to higher rates of anaerobic bacterial growth (57.1 % compared to 41 % in the young age group; P = 0.09, OR = 1.91). Older population with PTA presents with significant lower rates of aerobic bacteria and a tendency towards higher rates of anaerobic growth. The dangerous combination of the latter with the higher reported rates of comorbidities and less prominent symptoms and signs compared to the younger patients might clarify the need for prompt and aggressive surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:24710848

  14. Blood lead levels in children aged 1-5 years - United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children are well described and include intellectual and behavioral deficits, making lead exposure an important public health problem. No safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. To estimate the number of children aged 1-5 years in the United States at risk for adverse health effects from lead exposure and to assess the impact of prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the periods 1999-2002 to 2007-2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the percentage of children aged 1-5 years with BLLs at or above the upper reference interval value of 5 µg/dL calculated using the 2007-2010 NHANES cycle was 2.6%. Thus, an estimated 535,000 U.S. children aged 1-5 years had BLLs ?5 µg/dL based on the U.S. Census Bureau 2010 count of the number of children in this age group. Despite progress in reducing BLLs among children in this age group overall, differences between the mean BLLs of different racial/ethnic and income groups persist, and work remains to be done to reach the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing mean BLLs for all children in the United States (EH-8.2). PMID:23552225

  15. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  16. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  17. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  19. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  20. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  1. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  2. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Prevention of Dental Caries in Children From Birth Through Age Five Years. ... Children’ s Oral Health ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Tooth Decay — Early Childhood ( MedlinePlus) May 2014 Task Force FINAL ...

  3. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  4. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  5. Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch

    E-print Network

    Mensinger, Allen F.

    Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch H. E. RICHMOND feeding trials at varying light intensities. Perch were highly effective predators and captured Daphnia pulicaria with 94% overall foraging success at light levels ranging from 0 to 3400lx. Maximum average

  6. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  7. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  8. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 year age classes (so sex-ratios of offspring of

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 year age classes (so sex-ratios of offspring of `toy boys' and `sugar daddies' are identifi- able). For cells with standard errors of less than 0.01, the sex ratios varied within the range 0.51 to 0.53. The sex ratios of offspring of `toy boys' and `sugar daddies' do

  9. Nonfatal scald-related burns among adults aged >/=65 years--United States, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-09-18

    Scalds, which are burns attributed to hot liquids or steam, account for 33%-58% of all patients hospitalized for burns in the United States. Adults aged >/=65 years have a worse prognosis than younger patients after scald burns because of age-related factors and comorbid medical conditions, and they are subject to more extensive medical treatment than younger adults. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for nonfatal scald burns among U.S. adults aged >/=65 years and describe their characteristics, CDC analyzed ED visit data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for 2001-2006. This report summarizes the results, which indicated that adults aged =65 years made an estimated 51,700 initial visits to EDs for nonfatal scald burns during 2001-2006, for an average of 8,620 visits per year and an estimated average annual rate of 23.8 visits per 100,000 population. Two thirds of visits were made by women. Most (76%) of the nonfatal scald injuries occurred at home; 42% were associated with hot food and 30% with hot water or steam. The findings in this report highlight the need for effective scald-prevention programs targeted to older persons. PMID:19763074

  10. Gradual improvement in fine-grained sensitivity to triadic gaze after 6 years of age

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    Gradual improvement in fine-grained sensitivity to triadic gaze after 6 years of age Mark D. Vida Available online 6 October 2011 Keywords: Perceptual development Eye gaze Triadic gaze Gaze following Face to determine where another person is looking in shared visual space (triadic gaze). In Experiment 1, children

  11. THE YEAR IN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 2009 What Can Asexual Lineage Age Tell Us about

    E-print Network

    Neiman, Maurine

    points to major disadvantages of asexual reproduction, which is usually given as an explanation for whyTHE YEAR IN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 2009 What Can Asexual Lineage Age Tell Us about the Maintenance'Ecologie Alpine, Universit´e Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly

  12. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  13. Review of 125 Children 6 Years of Age and under Who Were Sexually Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mian, Marcellina; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a chart review of 125 children referred in 1981-1983 because of sexual abuse. Among findings were that 60 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. Of the preschoolers, 72.5 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. At school age there was a reversal with 73 percent of 6-year-olds being abused by extrafamilial offenders.…

  14. Screening Instruments: Review of Instruments for Screening Children Ages Birth to Five Years. Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikle, Linda, Comp.; Wittmer, Donna, Comp.

    This booklet compiles information on 16 screening instruments for young children. For each instrument, the following information is provided: (1) name; (2) publisher; (3) year published; (4) cost of kit; (5) cost per child/cost of forms; (6) age range; (7) domains tested (including cognitive, expressive language, receptive language, articulation,…

  15. The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age Mark D. Vida investigated developmental changes in fine-grained sensitivity to dyadic gaze. Eye contact plays an important Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Eye contact Dyadic gaze Cone of gaze Mutual gaze Eye gaze Face

  16. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45 years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45 years, females aged 27 to 45 years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners’ (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs’ and patients’ beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45 years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  17. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

  18. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21?years of age.

    PubMed

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21?years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the "High-DLS" group gained approximately 12?years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the "Low-DLS" group's daily living skills improved 3-4?years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2?years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20?h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:25922445

  19. Free Thyroxine Levels After Very Preterm Birth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scratch, Shannon E.; Hunt, Rodney W.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Ahmadzai, Zohra M.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants commonly have transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity after birth, which has been associated with deficits in general intellectual functioning, memory, attention, and academic achievement. However, research has predominantly focused on thyroxine levels in the first 2 weeks of life and outcomes are limited to the preschool period. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between free thyroxine (fT4) levels over the first 6 weeks after very preterm (VPT) birth with cognitive functioning and brain development at age 7 years. METHODS: A total of 83 infants born VPT (<30 weeks’ gestation) had fT4 concentrations measured postnatally and 2- and 6-week area under the curve (AUC) summary measures were calculated. Follow-up at age 7 years included a neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling was used where AUC for fT4 was the main predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at age 7 years. RESULTS: Multivariable modeling revealed that higher, not lower, postnatal fT4 levels (2-week AUC) were associated with poorer cognitive performances at age 7 years on tasks of verbal learning (P = .02), verbal memory (P = .03), and simple reaction time (P < .001). A similar pattern of results was found when the 6-week AUC was examined. No significant associations between postnatal fT4 levels and brain volumes at age 7 years were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results are contradictory to previous observations and suggest that after adjustment for confounders, higher postnatal fT4 levels in VPT infants, rather than lower levels, may be a marker of adverse neuropsychological development in childhood. PMID:24685955

  20. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  1. Self-perceptions of aging predict mortality and change with approaching death: 16-year longitudinal results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Anna; Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui

    2009-09-01

    Satisfaction with one's own aging and feeling young are indicators of positive well-being in late life. Using 16-year longitudinal data from participants of the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N = 439; 70- to 100-year-olds), the authors examined whether and how these self-perceptions of aging change with age and how such changes relate to distance from death. Extending previous studies, they found that it is not only higher aging satisfaction and younger subjective age but also more favorable change patterns (e.g., less decline in aging satisfaction) that are uniquely associated with lower mortality hazards. These effects are robust after controls for objective measures such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, diagnosis of dementia, or number of illnesses. As individuals approach death, they become less satisfied with their aging and report feeling older. For aging satisfaction, mortality-related decline is much steeper than age-related decline, whereas change in subjective age is best characterized as an age-related process. The authors discuss how self-perceptions of aging are embedded in mechanisms underlying pathways of dying late in life. PMID:19739922

  2. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (?Weight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ?Weight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  3. Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years--Sri Lanka, 1999-2007.

    PubMed

    2008-05-23

    Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes approximately 5 million deaths per year to tobacco use, a number expected to exceed 8 million per year by 2030. In 1999, the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was initiated by WHO, CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association to monitor tobacco use, attitudes about tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among students aged 13-15 years. Since 1999, the survey has been completed by approximately 2 million students in 151 countries. A key goal of GYTS is for countries to repeat the survey every 4 years. This report summarizes results from GYTS conducted in Sri Lanka in 1999, 2003, and 2007. The findings indicated that during 1999-2007, the percentage of students aged 13-15 years who reported current cigarette smoking decreased, from 4.0% in 1999 to 1.2% in 2007. During this period, the percentage of never smokers in this age group likely to initiate smoking also decreased, from 5.1% in 1999 to 3.7% in 2007. Future declines in tobacco use in Sri Lanka will be enhanced through development and implementation of new tobacco-control measures and strengthening of existing measures that encourage smokers to quit, eliminate exposure to SHS, and encourage persons not to initiate tobacco use. PMID:18496502

  4. Number Word Use in Toddlerhood Is Associated with Number Recall Performance at Seven Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20–26 months and started to produce the number words 1–10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  5. Inhibited and aggressive preschool children at 23 years of age: personality and social transitions into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Asendorpf, Jens B; Denissen, Jaap J A; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-07-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in establishing a first stable partnership and finding a first full-time job. However, only the upper 8% in terms of inhibition tended to show internalizing problems, including self-rated inhibition. Aggressive boys showed an externalizing personality profile in the parental and self-judgments, were educational and occupational underachievers, and showed a higher adult delinquency rate than the controls, even after sex and socioeconomic status were controlled. The results suggest delayed social transitions without internalizing problems for most male and female inhibited children and a significant long-term risk of an externalizing profile for aggressive children. PMID:18605830

  6. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37–43 years of age (mean 40.3 years, SD 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had experienced moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in the first year of life (n=77) with healthy controls, who were former classmates of the index cases and were matched for age, sex and handedness in childhood (n=57). The previously malnourished participants had been rehabilitated, with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, and study participants were followed longitudinally from childhood to 40 y. Group comparisons were adjusted for childhood and adolescent standard of living, with and without correcting for IQ. Results At the broad domain or factor level, previously malnourished participants had higher scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than did the healthy controls At the sub-domain or facet level, previously malnourished participants reported more anxiety, vulnerability, shyness and lowered sociability, less intellectual curiosity, greater suspiciousness of others, a more egocentric than altruistic orientation, and a lowered sense of efficacy or competence. Conclusions Malnutrition limited to the first year of life with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, is associated with a significant overrepresentation of adult personality trait scores outside of the average range. This outcome has important implications for a variety of important life and mental health outcomes. PMID:23488644

  7. Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ?65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476

  8. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ?45 years with a smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ?45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (?30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ?30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ?10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (P<0.001) and all three respiratory symptoms (P<0.001) after adjusting for smoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ?30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  9. Tetanus and pertussis vaccination coverage among adults aged ? 18 years --- United States, 1999 and 2008.

    PubMed

    2010-10-15

    In 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that the newly licensed tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine replace a single decennial dose of tetanus diphtheria (Td) vaccine for persons aged 10-64 years. According to these recommendations, Tdap may be used to protect against pertussis even when <10 years have passed since the most recent tetanus vaccination. For adults with infant contact and health-care personnel (HCP) with direct patient contact (two groups at increased risk for transmitting pertussis to those who are most susceptible), the single recommended Tdap dose is suggested to be administered as soon as 2 years after the last tetanus vaccination. To assess changes in tetanus vaccination coverage and the use of Tdap among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for 1999 and 2008. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that self-reported tetanus vaccination coverage (vaccination within the preceding 10 years) was 60.4% in 1999 and 61.6% in 2008. Among adults aged 18-64 years, Tdap coverage was estimated to be 5.9% in 2008. Of those who reported receiving a tetanus vaccination during 2005-2008, 52.0% reported receiving Tdap. Tdap vaccination coverage among adults with infant contact was 5.0% and among HCP was 15.9%. Of those adults with infant contact and HCP who had received a tetanus vaccination during 2005-2008, 60.0% and 60.3% reported receiving Tdap, respectively. Health-care providers should recommend Tdap vaccination to adults aged 18-64 years whose most recent tetanus vaccination was ?10 years prior; the interval for HCP and persons with infant contact can be as short as 2 years. PMID:20948508

  10. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Estimated Effect of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Examiner-Rated Behavior at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Mansoor, Elana; Johnson, Arnise L.; McCoy, Clyde B.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to increased child behavior difficulties in some studies but not others. Objective The primary aim was to estimate the relationship between in utero cocaine exposure and child behavioral functioning at age 7 years with ratings made by blinded examiners during a structured testing session. A second aim was to examine whether caregiver drug use and psychological problems might mediate suspected relationships between prenatal cocaine exposure and aspects of examiner-rated behavior. Methods 407 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 195 non-exposed) participating in the longitudinal Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study (MPCS) were rated with regard to their behavior during a neuropsychological assessment conducted at age 7 years. Raters were trained research psychometricians blinded to drug exposure. Individual behavioral items were summarized and the cocaine-behavior relationship was estimated within the context of latent variable modeling, using Mplus software. Results Two latent variables, Behavioral Regulation and Sociability, were derived via exploratory latent structure analysis with promax rotation. Prenatal cocaine exposure, statistically controlling for child sex, test age, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, was associated with Behavioral Regulation (estimated slope ß = -0.25; 95% CI = -0.48, -0.02; p = 0.04) but not Sociability (estimated slope ß = -0.03; 95% CI = -0.26, 0.20; p = 0.79). Neither postnatal drug use by caregivers nor the severity of their psychological problems at age 5 follow-up predicted levels of child Behavioral Regulation or Sociability at age 7 years (p>0.10). Conclusions Examiner ratings of child behavior at age 7 revealed less optimal behavioral regulation for prenatally cocaine-exposed compared to non-exposed children, in contrast with what had been previously found from parent-report data. This evidence highlights the potential value of trained observers in assessing behavioral outcomes of children exposed in utero to drugs and other toxicants. PMID:21640292

  12. Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Texas Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Malik-Bass, Noor; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Colacino, Justin A.; Gent, Tyra L.; Hynan, Linda S.; Harris, T. Robert; Malla, Sunitha; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Background: For > 50 years, polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) have been used worldwide, mainly as surfactants and emulsifiers, and human exposure to some PFCs is widespread. Objectives: Our goal was to report PFC serum concentrations from a convenience sample of Dallas, Texas, children from birth to < 13 years of age, and to examine age and sex differences in PFC concentrations. Methods: We analyzed 300 serum samples collected in 2009 for eight PFCs by online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in > 92% of participants; the other PFCs measured were detected less frequently. Overall median concentrations of PFOS (4.1 ng/mL) were higher than those for PFOA (2.85 ng/mL), PFNA (1.2 ng/mL), and PFHxS (1.2 ng/mL). For PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, we found no significant differences (p < 0.05) by sex, significantly increasing concentrations for all four chemicals by age, and significantly positive correlations between all four compounds. Conclusions: We found no significant differences in the serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS by sex, but increasing concentrations with age. Our results suggest that these 300 Texas children from birth through 12 years of age continued to be exposed to several PFCs in late 2009, years after changes in production of some PFCs in the United States. PMID:22182702

  13. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Anmol; Jain, Manish; Jain, Koushal; Samar, Mahima; Goutham, Balasubramanya; Swamy, Prabu Durai; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India). Materials and Methods: A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO) rules and standards were followed. Result: Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00) with respect to affected teeth. PMID:20376235

  14. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kap?on, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not. PMID:26683975

  15. Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index Scores at Age 18 Predict Alcohol Dependence Diagnoses Seven Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Aliev, Fazil; Viken, Richard; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) is widely used to assess adolescent drinking-related problems. We asked how well RAPI, administered in late adolescence, predicts alcohol diagnoses at age 25 in a 7-year follow-up. Methods At age 18, a population-based sample of Finnish twins completed RAPI by postal questionnaire; 597 (300 male) twins, from pairs discordant and concordant for age 18 RAPI scores, were interviewed at age 25 with the SSAGA, yielding DSM-IIIR diagnoses. Polychoric correlations between RAPI and alcohol diagnoses and symptoms, the area under the response operator characteristic (ROC) curve, and the odds ratio of outcome diagnosis per unit change in adolescent RAPI were analysed. Twin pairs discordant for both adolescent RAPI and adult diagnoses permitted within-family replications for the full sample and separately by sex. Results Nearly half the interviewed twins met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependency (46.2%) or abuse (1.5%). Age 18 RAPI scores significantly correlated with diagnoses (0.52) and symptom counts (0.55). ROC analysis found a 74% probability that adolescent RAPI scores will be higher among those with an alcohol diagnosis at age 25 than for those without. The odds ratio of outcome alcohol diagnosis per unit increase in adolescent 18 RAPI exceeded 10.0. Within-family comparisons of 117 twin pairs discordant for both age 18 RAPI and age 25 alcohol diagnoses replicated the between-family associations. In both between-family and within-family analyses, RAPI was more predictive of alcohol diagnoses among females. Conclusions Our results offer evidence, including that from informative comparisons of co-twins discordant for both predictor and outcome, that RAPI scores in late adolescence robustly predict alcohol diagnoses in early adulthood. Accordingly, our results also provide new evidence that one pathway to problem drinking in early adulthood is a direct one from problem drinking in adolescence. PMID:21323682

  16. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  17. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  18. Enterobius vermicularis infection among children aged 1-8 years in a rural area in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, G; Minudin, Y M

    1994-09-01

    The infection rate and relationship of enterobiasis with socio-economic status were determined in children aged 1-8 years, living in a rural area in Malaysia. Of the 178 subjects 40.4% were infected with Enterobius vermicularis. The distribution of enterobiasis among these children were analyzed in relation to age groups and sex. The rate of infection was significantly higher in older children (5-7 years). The association of enterobiasis with other factors studied such as number of persons per house, household income per months and mother's employment status were not significant. The sensitivity of three successive days anal swabs compared to a single swab was found to be statistically significant. PMID:7777914

  19. Operative Laparoscopy for Adnexal Cystic Masses in Patients Under 40 Years of Age

    PubMed

    Marana; Vittori; Campo; Fanfani; Montanino; Casa

    1994-08-01

    From January 1990 through October 1993, 527 patients under 40 years were submitted to operative laparoscopy for the treatment of 544 adnexal cystic masses by stripping or vaporization/coagulation techniques in nine centers in Rome. The mean age of patients was 27.8 years, ranging from 13 to 39. The mean diameter of the cysts was 45.8 mm. ranging from 20 to 130. The procedure was completed by laparoscopy in 518 cases (95.2%) whereas 26 cases (4.8%) were converted to laparotomy. Conservative treatment was performed in all cases except 6 (1.1%), where ovariectomy or adnexectomy was performed. Histopathology revealed a borderline tumor in two; in all others the cyst was benign. It is concluded that operative laparoscopy is the procedure of choice for the treatment of carefully selected adnexal masses in patients of reproductive age. PMID:9073711

  20. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25922262

  1. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada-Del Cid, Nancy C; Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Ordoñez-Rivas, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric ocular trauma is common and the leading cause of non congenital unilateral blindness. The information in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this case series is to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age who visited Hospital Dr. Rodolfo Robles Valverde in Guatemala City in 2010. In this study 119 patients were included. School-aged (7-9 years) male gender was the most affected. Closed globe injury was the commonest. The most frequent objects causing the lesions were: wooden objects, toys and chemicals. Trauma occurred most frequently at home. Twenty one of the patients were surgically intervened. Education and prevention programs for pediatric ocular trauma are necessary. PMID:26294157

  2. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  3. Statin Use and the Five-year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) with the 5-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Population-based cohort study. Methods Setting Beaver Dam, Wisconsin Study population Participants included persons 53 to 96 years of age at examination in 1998 to 2000 (n=2962), of whom 2204 participated in a follow-up 5 years later. Observation procedures Standardized procedures were used for physical examinations, blood collection, and questionnaire administration. AMD was determined by grading images of the posterior pole using a standard protocol. Standard univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Main outcome measures Incident early and late AMD and progressed AMD Results There were 1347 and 1638 persons not using statins and 339 and 429 using statins at the 1998-2000 examination at risk of early and late AMD, respectively. The unadjusted 5-year incidence of early and late AMD, respectively, was 5.9% and 1.8% in those not using statins and 6.8% and 2.3% in those using statins. While controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and multivitamin use, a history of statin use was not associated with the 5-year incidence of early AMD (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71 to 1.91, p=0.55), progression of AMD (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.78, p=0.51) or incidence of late AMD (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.69. p=0.53). Conclusion These findings do not show an association between statin use and the incidence or progression of AMD over a 5-year period. PMID:17475196

  4. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Celina, Mathias C.; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  5. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  6. Risk factors of persistent diarrhoea in children below five years of age.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Billoo, A G; Murtaza, G

    1995-11-01

    Persistent diarrhoea has been identified as a major source of morbidity in the developing world. This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of persistent diarrhoea in children below five years of age. The data used is from a prospective analytical case control study carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital, Karachi, during 1993-94. A total of 50 cases of persistent diarrhoea and 50 acute diarrhoeal controls (matched for age and sex) under 5 comprised the study subjects in this analysis. The maximum incidence of persistent diarrhoeal episodes occurred in children below one year of age. Male to female ratio was 3:2. The seasonal variation showed a peak incidence in summer rainy season. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea recorded were young age, poor nutritional status, irrational use of antibiotics during acute diarrhoea, lack of exclusive breast feeding, incomplete vaccination, lack of tap water supply and sanitation facility at home and income < Rupees 2000/month of the earning members of the family. Thus, it is concluded that discouraging the irrational use of antibiotics and other drugs for the treatment of diarrhoea, promotion of breast feeding and Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), Standard Diarrhoea Case Management courses for doctors, medical students and paramedical staff and provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facility are important for the prevention of persistent diarrhoea. PMID:8920607

  7. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity. PMID:19913844

  8. A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball

    PubMed Central

    Schorer, Jörg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745

  9. Cytotoxicity of endodontic sealers after one year of aging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Martha Goël; Lewis, Jill B; Kious, Andrew R; Messer, Regina L W; Lockwood, Petra E; Brackett, William W; Wataha, John C

    2012-10-01

    The in vitro cytotoxic response to endodontic sealers was assessed for one year. AH-Plus (AHP), Epiphany (EPH), EndoRez (ER), Guttaflow (GF), InnoEndo (IN), and Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS) were exposed to mouse osteoblasts and human monocytes after curing, 52 weeks of aging, and after resurfacing post-aging; cellular response was estimated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. The effect of materials on TNF? secretion from activated (LPS) and inactivated monocytes also was measured. Cell responses were compared with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc analysis (? = 0.05). Initially, all materials except GF suppressed osteoblastic SDH activity compared with Teflon (Tf) controls. SDH activity in cells exposed to some aged sealers improved significantly; but IN and ER remained cytotoxic. When aged materials were resurfaced then tested, AHP, ER, GF, and IN did not change. EPH and PCS were more toxic. Monocytes responded similarly to the osteoblasts. No endodontic sealer activated monocytic TNF? secretion (p > 0.05 vs. -LPS Tf-controls). LPS-activated monocytes exposed to unresurfaced AHP and IN significantly suppressed TNF? secretion. When activated monocytes were exposed to the resurfaced sealers, differential suppression of TNF? secretion was observed for three of the four sealers tested (EPH, IN, and PCS). The results suggest that long-term aging may be a useful adjunct to in vitro assessment of these materials. PMID:22807227

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters—Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Tuma, Mazin; El-Hennawy, Hany; AbdulRahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Asim, Mohammad; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population. PMID:23983630

  11. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  12. Differential changes and interactions of autonomic functioning and sleep architecture before and after 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, C C H

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesize that the time when age-related changes in autonomic functioning and in sleep structure occur are different and that autonomic functioning modulates sleep architecture differently before and after 50 years of age. Sixty-eight healthy subjects (aged 20 to 79 years old, 49 of them women) were enrolled. Correlation analysis revealed that wake after sleep onset, the absolute and relative value of stage 1 (S1; S1%), and relative value of stage 2 (S2) were positively correlated with age; however, sleep efficiency, stage 3 (S3), S3%, and rapid-eye-movement latency (REML) were negatively correlated with age. Significant degenerations of sleep during normal aging were occurred after 50 years of age; however, significant declines of autonomic activity were showed before 50 years of age. Before 50 years of age, vagal function during sleep was negatively correlated with arousal index; however, after 50 years of age, it was positively correlated with S1 and S1%. In addition, sympathetic activity during wake stage was positively related to S2% only after 50 years of age. Our results imply that the age-related changes in autonomic functioning decline promptly as individuals leave the younger part of their adult life span and that age-related changes in sleep slowly develop as individuals enter the older part of their adult life span. Furthermore, while various aspects of sleep architecture are modulated by both the sympathetic and vagal nervous systems during adult life span, the sleep quality is mainly correlated with the sympathetic division after 50 years of age. PMID:26728397

  13. Infant Formula with Docosahexaenoic Acid, Maternal Smoking, and Body Mass Index of Children To Six Years of Age

    E-print Network

    Currie, Lindsey Marie

    2012-05-31

    supplementation on growth of term infants to age six. The study aim was to determine if DHA supplementation in formula consumed from birth to one year and maternal smoking affects growth of children through six years. Anthropometric measures and maternal...

  14. Suicide trends among persons aged 10-24 years--United States, 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Erin M; Annest, Joseph L; Simon, Thomas R; Luo, Feijun; Dahlberg, Linda L

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and accounted for 5,178 deaths in this age group in 2012. Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning (including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. Previous reports have noted that trends in suicide rates vary by mechanism and by age group in the United States, with increasing rates of suffocation suicides among young persons. To test whether this increase is continuing and to determine whether it varies by demographic subgroups among persons aged 10-24 years, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data for the period 1994-2012. Trends in suicide rates were examined by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and mechanism of suicide. Results of the analysis indicated that, during 1994-2012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic subgroups during this period. Clinicians, hotline staff and others who work with young persons need to be aware of current trends in suffocation suicides in this group so that they can accurately assess risk and educate families. Media coverage of suicide incidents and clusters should follow established guidelines to avoid exacerbating risk for "suicide contagion" among vulnerable young persons.* Suicide contagion is a process by which exposure to the suicide or suicidal behavior of one or more persons influences others who are already vulnerable and thinking about suicide to attempt or die by suicide. Early prevention strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of young persons developing suicidal thoughts and behavior. PMID:25742379

  15. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  16. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our ?ndings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

  17. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n?=?3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n?=?1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  18. Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

  19. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  20. Head injury from falls in children younger than 6?years of age

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, P; Trefan, L; Houston, R; Hughes, J; Pearson, G; Edwards, R J; Hyde, P; Maconochie, I; Parslow, R C; Kemp, A M

    2015-01-01

    The risk of serious head injury (HI) from a fall in a young child is ill defined. The relationship between the object fallen from and prevalence of intracranial injury (ICI) or skull fracture is described. Method Cross-sectional study of HIs from falls in children (<6?years) admitted to UK hospitals, analysed according to the object fallen from and associated Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or alert, voice, pain, unresponsive (AVPU) and CT scan results. Results Of 1775 cases ascertained (median age 18?months, 54.7% boys), 87% (1552) had a GCS=15/AVPU=alert. 19.3% (342) had a CT scan: 32% (110/342) were abnormal; equivalent to 5.9% of the overall population, 16.9% (58) had isolated skull fractures and 13.7% (47) had ICI (49% (23/47) had an associated skull fracture). The prevalence of ICI increased with neurological compromise; however, 12% of children with a GCS=15/AVPU=alert had ICI. When compared to falls from standing, falls from a person's arms (233 children (mean age 1?year)) had a significant relative OR for a skull fracture/ICI of 6.94 (95% CI 3.54 to 13.6), falls from a building (eg, window or attic) (mean age 3?years) OR 6.84 (95% CI 2.65 to 17.6) and from an infant or child product (mean age 21?months) OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.36 to 5.65). Conclusions Most HIs from a fall in these children admitted to hospital were minor. Infants, dropped from a carer's arms, those who fell from infant products, a window, wall or from an attic had the greatest chance of ICI or skull fracture. These data inform prevention and the assessment of the likelihood of serious injury when the object fallen from is known. PMID:26297697

  1. Cohort study of peanut and tree nut sensitisation by age of 4 years.

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, S. M.; Stevens, M.; Matthews, S.; Ridout, S.; Twiselton, R.; Hide, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to peanuts and tree nuts in all children born during one year in one geographical area. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with structured review at ages 1, 2, and 4 years. SETTING: All children born on the Isle of Wight between January 1989 and February 1990. SUBJECTS: Of 1456 children originally included, 1218 were reviewed at age 4 years. Of these, 1981 had skin prick tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive skin test results, clinical atopic disease, and risk factors for the development of atopy. RESULTS: 15 of 1218 (1.2%) children were sensitised to peanuts or tree nuts (13 to peanuts). Six had had allergic reactions to peanuts (0.5% of the population), one to hazelnuts, and one to cashew nuts; three had had anaphylactic reactions. Seven children had positive skin test results or detectable IgE to peanuts without clinical symptoms. Two children who reacted to peanut in infancy had lost their sensitivity by 4 years. Family history of atopy, allergy to egg (odds ratio 9.9, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 47.9, and eczema (7.3, 2.1 to 26.1) were important predictors for peanut allergy. CONCLUSIONS: IgE mediated allergy to peanuts is common in early childhood. In many the allergy persists but a minority may develop tolerance. PMID:8789974

  2. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  3. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

  4. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  5. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  6. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. PMID:26098169

  7. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001

  8. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  9. Fontan Completion for Younger than 3 Years of Age: Outcome in Patients with Functional Single Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Bezuska, Laurynas; Lebetkevicius, Virgilijus; Lankutis, Kestutis; Sudikiene, Rita; Sirvydis, Vytautas Jonas; Tarutis, Virgilijus

    2015-12-01

    Most single ventricle patients undergo Fontan procedure earlier in current era. However, optimal timing of Fontan completion after an intermediate staging surgery is controversial. We present children who had Fontan surgeries younger than 3 years of age comparing the data with older patients. Between 2000 and 2013, 45 patients with functional single ventricle underwent extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) using GORE-TEX(®) conduit at a single institution. Children were divided into group A (age < 36 months; n = 15) and group B (age ? 36 months; n = 30), and retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 2.9 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-4.4] years. There were two hospital deaths and one late death (all in group B, p = 0.286). One TCPC was taken down in group A. The median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 90 (IQR 46-140) h and 21 (IQR 16-33) days for group A versus 65 (IQR 45-115) h and 29 (IQR 20.8-38.5) days for group B, respectively (p = 0.322 and p = 0.057). Ventricular ejection fraction and GORE-TEX(®) conduit size were similar in both groups. The time of chest drain stay was significantly lower in group A (median 12 days, IQR 7-22) than in group B (22 days, IQR 16-32.5) (p = 0.014). Extracardiac TCPC can be performed earlier with good intermediate results. Earlier Fontan procedure might be advantageous for reducing chest drains stay. PMID:26104382

  10. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  11. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  12. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age

  13. Oxidative stress, telomere length and biomarkers of physical aging in a cohort aged 79 years from the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey.

    PubMed

    Starr, John M; Shiels, Paul G; Harris, Sarah E; Pattie, Alison; Pearce, Mark S; Relton, Caroline L; Deary, Ian J

    2008-12-01

    Telomere shortening is a biomarker of cellular senescence and is associated with a wide range of age-related disease. Oxidative stress is also associated with physiological aging and several age-related diseases. Non-human studies suggest that variants in oxidative stress genes may contribute to both telomere shortening and biological aging. We sought to test whether oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms contribute to variance in both telomere length and physical biomarkers of aging in humans. Telomere lengths were calculated for 190 (82 men, 108 women) participants aged 79 years and associations with 384 SNPs, from 141 oxidative stress genes, identified 9 significant SNPS, of which those from 5 genes (GSTZ1, MSRA, NDUFA3, NDUFA8, VIM) had robust associations with physical aging biomarkers, respiratory function or grip strength. Replication of associations in a sample of 318 (120 males, 198 females) participants aged 50 years confirmed significant associations for two of the five SNPs (MSRA rs4841322, p=0.008; NDUFA8 rs6822, p=0.048) on telomere length. These data indicate that oxidative stress genes may be involved in pathways that lead to both telomere shortening and physiological aging in humans. Oxidative stress may explain, at least in part, associations between telomere shortening and physiological aging. PMID:18977241

  14. Outcome of lens aspiration and intraocular lens implantation in children agedyears and under

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, L.; Rahi, J.; Nischal, K.; Russell-Eggitt, I.; Taylor, D.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the visual outcome and complications of lens aspiration with intraocular lens implantation in children agedyears and under.?METHODS—The hospital notes of all children agedyears and under, who had undergone lens aspiration with intraocular lens implantation between January 1994 and September 1998, and for whom follow up data of at least 1 year were available, were reviewed.?RESULTS—Of 50 children who underwent surgery, 45 were eligible based on the follow up criteria. 34 children had bilateral cataracts and, of these, 30 had surgery on both eyes. Cataract was unilateral in 11 cases; thus, 75 eyes of 45 children had surgery. Cataracts were congenital in 28 cases, juvenile in 16, and traumatic in one case. The median age at surgery was 39 months (range 11-70 months). Follow up ranged from 12-64 months (median 36 months). Of 34 children with bilateral disease, 25 (73.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better, while seven (20.5%) achieved 6/18 or less; in one child the vision improved from UCUSUM to CSM but another, who had only one eye operated on, was unable to fix or follow with this eye preoperatively or 2 years postoperatively. Of 11 children with unilateral cataract, five (45.5%) had a final best corrected visual of 6/12 or better, and six (54.5%) 6/18 or less. A mild fibrinous uveitis occurred in 20 (28.2%) eyes in the immediate postoperative period, but resolved with topical steroids. One child had a vitreous wick postoperatively requiring surgical division. Glaucoma, endophthalmitis, or retinal detachment have not been observed so far in any patient postoperatively.?CONCLUSION—From this series the authors suggest that, in children agedyears and under, lens aspiration with intraocular lens implantation is a safe procedure, with a good visual outcome in the short term. Further studies are needed to investigate these outcomes in the long term.?? PMID:11316711

  15. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A deficiency and anthropometric markers. Living in rural areas is a determining factor for the families health status. PMID:26398874

  16. Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Garman, Greg C.; Fine, Michael L.; Hager, Christian H.; McIninch, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a ‘mini-ice age’ with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times. PMID:20236963

  17. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  18. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  19. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  20. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY...

  1. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  2. Physical Activity and Mental Well-being in a Cohort Aged 60–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Black, Stephanie V.; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Kathryn R.; Brage, Soren; Kuh, Diana; Stafford, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although evidence suggests physical activity (PA) may be associated with mental well-being at older ages, it is unclear whether some types of PA are more important than others. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations of monitored total PA under free-living conditions, self-reported leisure-time PA (LTPA), and walking for pleasure with mental well-being at age 60–64 years. Methods Data on 930 (47%) men and 1,046 (53%) women from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development collected in 2006–2011 at age 60–64 were used in 2013–2014 to test the associations of PA (PA energy expenditure and time spent in different intensities of activity assessed using combined heart rate and acceleration monitors worn for 5 days, self-reported LTPA, and walking for pleasure) with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS; range, 14–70). Results In linear regression models adjusted for gender, long-term limiting illness, smoking, employment, socioeconomic position, personality, and prior PA, those who walked for >1 hour/week had mean WEMWBS scores 1.47 (95% CI=0.60, 2.34) points higher than those who reported no walking. Those who participated in LTPA at least five times/month had WEMWBS scores 1.25 (95% CI=0.34, 2.16) points higher than those who did not engage in LTPA. There were no statistically significant associations between free-living PA and WEMWBS scores. Conclusions In adults aged 60–64 years, participation in self-selected activities such as LTPA and walking are positively related to mental well-being, whereas total levels of free-living PA are not. PMID:26070782

  3. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

  4. Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ? 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

    2014-05-16

    In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ?29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ?29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

  5. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  6. Changes in visual acuity from 4 to 12 years of age in children operated for bilateral congenital cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, G; Abrahamsson, M; Sjöstrand, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the long term effects of age at surgery on the development of visual acuity (VA) by measuring VA from preschool age to puberty. Furthermore, to report the VA levels at 12 years of age in a geographically based cohort of operated congenital bilateral cataracts. Methods: All children born in four western counties of Sweden between January 1980 and December 1993 who were diagnosed with congenital cataracts were included in a longitudinal prospective study. The monocular VA of the better eye in 38 subjects was analysed at 4, 7, 10, and 12 years of age, with 20 total and 18 partial cataracts. The mean follow up time was 9.3 years after surgery. Results: The final value of VA was 0.4 or above for approximately 50% of the subjects at 12 years of age. Visual acuity improved to a considerable extent after school age, especially in children who underwent surgery between the ages of 7 weeks and 1 year. Results for partial cataracts were favourable compared to those for total cataracts, reaching a mean of approximately 0.5 at age 12. The mean VA in the group of total congenital cataracts operated on before 7 weeks of age achieved higher values of VA at 4 years of age compared to children with total cataracts operated on between 7 weeks and 1 year of age. However, no statistically significant difference in VA results among these groups could be proved. Conclusion: Visual acuity improves to a considerable extent after school age in children with delayed visual development caused by congenital cataracts. Surgery within 7 weeks results in a more rapid development of VA, initially. PMID:12446371

  7. Computer Skills and Internet Use in Adults Aged 50-74 Years: Influence of Hearing Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Daniel P A; Kang, Sujin; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of personal computers (PCs) and the Internet to provide health care information and interventions has increased substantially over the past decade. Yet the effectiveness of such an approach is highly dependent upon whether the target population has both access and the skill set required to use this technology. This is particularly relevant in the delivery of hearing health care because most people with hearing loss are over 50 years (average age for initial hearing aid fitting is 74 years). Although PC skill and Internet use by demographic factors have been examined previously, data do not currently exist that examine the effects of hearing difficulties on PC skill or Internet use in older adults. Objective To explore the effect that hearing difficulty has on PC skill and Internet use in an opportunistic sample of adults aged 50-74 years. Methods Postal questionnaires about hearing difficulty, PC skill, and Internet use (n=3629) were distributed to adults aged 50-74 years through three family physician practices in Nottingham, United Kingdom. A subsample of 84 respondents completed a second detailed questionnaire on confidence in using a keyboard, mouse, and track pad. Summed scores were termed the “PC confidence index.” The PC confidence index was used to verify the PC skill categories in the postal questionnaire (ie, never used a computer, beginner, and competent). Results The postal questionnaire response rate was 36.78% (1298/3529) and 95.15% (1235/1298) of these contained complete information. There was a significant between-category difference for PC skill by PC confidence index (P<.001), thus verifying the three-category PC skill scale. PC and Internet use was greater in the younger respondents (50-62 years) than in the older respondents (63-74 years). The younger group’s PC and Internet use was 81.0% and 60.9%, respectively; the older group’s PC and Internet use was 54.0% and 29.8%, respectively. Those with slight hearing difficulties in the older group had significantly greater odds of PC use compared to those with no hearing difficulties (odds ratio [OR]=1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.30, P=.02). Those with moderate+ hearing difficulties had lower odds of PC use compared with those with no hearing difficulties, both overall (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.87, P=.008) and in the younger group (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.86, P=.008). Similar results were demonstrated for Internet use by age group (older: OR=1.57, 95% CI 0.99-2.47, P=.05; younger: OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.62, P=.001). Conclusions Hearing health care is of particular relevance to older adults because of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss. Our data show that older adults experiencing slight hearing difficulty have increased odds of greater PC skill and Internet use than those reporting no difficulty. These findings suggest that PC and Internet delivery of hearing screening, information, and intervention is feasible for people between 50-74 years who have hearing loss, but who would not typically present to an audiologist. PMID:22954484

  8. [Oral hygiene habits in a group of Swiss soldiers age 28-32 years].

    PubMed

    Engelmayer, H; Lang, N P

    1979-10-01

    139 medical corps soldiers (aged 28-32 years) of the Swiss army were interviewed for their oral hygiene habits. The same questionnaire as that described by Saxer et al. (1972) was used in order to compare the results of the present study with those obtained by Saxer et al. (1972) in an army basic training school in Zurich. The attitude of the soldiers towards their dentist did not change when compared to that of the recruits. However, the soldiers tended to be more "tooth conscious" than the recruits. They also showed a better attitude for oral hygiene procedures and greater knowledge concerning periodontal disease. PMID:293900

  9. A Randomized Trial of Atropine versus Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the visual acuity outcome at 15 years of age for children younger than 7 years when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomly assigned to patching (a minimum of 6 hours a day) or atropine eye drops (1% - one drop daily) for 6 months. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator. Two years after enrollment, an unselected subgroup of 188 children were enrolled into long-term follow-up. Main outcome measure Visual acuity at age 15 years with the electronic ETDRS© test in amblyopic and fellow eyes. Results Mean amblyopic-eye acuity, measured in 147 subjects, at age 15 years was 0.14 logMAR (approximately 20/25); 60% of amblyopic eyes were 20/25 or better and 33% 20/20 or better. Mean interocular acuity difference (IOD) at age 15 years was 0.21 logMAR (2.1 lines); 48% of subjects had an IOD of (2 or more lines and 71% had an IOD of 1 or more lines). Treatment (other than spectacles) was prescribed for 9 subjects (6%) between age 10 and 15 years. Mean IOD was similar at 10 and 15 years of age (2.0 and 2.1 logMAR lines, P=0.39). Better visual acuity at age 15 years was achieved in those who were <5 years old at the time of entry into the randomized trial (mean logMAR=0.09) compared with those who were 5 to <7 years old (mean logMAR=0.18, P<0.001). Comparing subgroups based on original treatment with atropine or patching, there were no significant differences in amblyopic- and fellow-eye visual acuities at age 15 years (P= 0.44 and 0.43, respectively). Conclusion At age 15 years most children treated for moderate amblyopia when <7 years old have good visual acuity, although mild residual amblyopia is common. The outcome is similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. The results indicate that improvement occurring with amblyopia treatment is maintained until at least age 15 years. Application to Clinical Practice Most children treated with patching and atropine eye drops for amblyopia when <7 years old have good visual acuity at age 15 years. Trial Registry Name Amblyopia Treatment Study: Occlusion versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Registration Number NCT00000170 URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000170 PMID:24789375

  10. Non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients aged 80 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Facktor, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is routinely performed with general anesthesia and double-lumen endotracheal intubation, but this technique may stress an elderly patient’s functional reserve. We chose to study the safety and efficacy of non-intubated VATS, utilizing local anesthesia, sedation, and spontaneous ventilation in the elderly. Methods The medical records of all patients aged 80 years and older who underwent VATS under local anesthesia and sedation during the time period 6/1/2002 to 6/1/2010 at Geisinger Health System (Pennsylvania, USA) and 10/1/2011 to 12/31/2014 at Sinai Hospital (Maryland, USA) were retrospectively reviewed. Unsuccessful attempts at this technique were eligible for inclusion but there were none. No patient was excluded based on comorbidity. Results A total of 96 patients ranging in age from 80 to 104 years underwent 102 non-intubated VATS procedures: pleural biopsy/effusion drainage with or without talc 73, drainage of empyema 17, evacuate hemothorax 4, pericardial window 3, lung biopsy 2, treat chylothorax 2, treat pneumothorax 1. No patient required intubation or conversion to thoracotomy. No patient required a subsequent procedure or biopsy. Complications occurred in three patients (3.1% morbidity): cerebrovascular accident, pulmonary embolism, prolonged air leak. One 94-year-old patient died from overanticoagulation and two 84-year-old patients died of their advanced lung cancers (3.1% morbidity). Conclusions Non-intubated VATS utilizing local anesthesia and sedation in the elderly is well tolerated and safe for a number of indications. PMID:26046042

  11. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infection among hospitalized children aged less than 5 years in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Al Obeidani, Idris; Al Busaidy, Suleiman Salim; Al Mahrouqi, Salim

    2012-12-31

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Omani children. We retrospectively reviewed cases admitted in children <5 years of age who were admitted in one of 4 tertiary care facilities within the Muscat Governorate. These cases represented nearly 95% of all IPD admissions recorded throughout the country from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2006. Cases of IPD were identified using the ICD-10 discharge code. Case definition required microbiological confirmation (i.e., isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or any other normally sterile biological fluid) or clinical diagnosis in the absence of a specimen. A total of 41 cases of IPD were identified. The annual incidence of IPD was 26.1 per 100,000 in children <2 years old and 18.6 per 100,000 in children <5 years old. Among the reported IPD cases, 22 (54%) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 15 (37%) of patients had a known comorbid medical condition. These results demonstrate that the incidence of IPD in Oman during 2006 was high compared to many of the neighboring countries and provides baseline data on the incidence of IPD in an era before the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). In light of evidence for a significant incidence of IPD, we recommended that a nationwide surveillance system be put in place to monitor the incidence of IPD in children <5 years of age in Oman and to document the impact of PCV. PMID:23228359

  12. Telomere length and aging biomarkers in 70-year-olds: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sarah E; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-07-01

    Telomeres are nucleo-protein complexes at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. They shorten each time a somatic cell replicates and this shortening is modulated by the effects of oxidative stress. Previous studies have associated telomere length with a number of age-related outcomes and it is hypothesized to be a quantitative indicator of aging. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of ?1000 relatively healthy 70-year-old Scots (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936: LBC1936) on whom we have measures of cognition, physical health and associated traits, and social class. Telomeres were significantly longer in males than females (p < 0.0001). Longer telomeres were associated, in females only, with higher general cognitive ability scores (p = 0.022) and lower C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.014). Telomere length was not associated with any of the other measured cognitive, physical, or social traits. In conclusion we find little evidence that telomere length is a significant biomarker of normal aging in important cognitive and physical domains. PMID:21194798

  13. Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients over 80 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kihwan; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Chang Hyeun; Ban, Seung Pil; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kim, Beom Joon; Bang, Jae Seung; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Boram; Jeong, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke in patients over 80 years of age. Materials and Methods The records of 156 acute stroke patients aged over 80 years who were considered as candidates for EVT were analyzed. Fifty-six patients (35.9%, EVT group) underwent EVT and 100 patients (64.1%, non-EVT group) did not. Outcomes, in terms of functional outcomes and rates of symptomatic hemorrhage, in-hospital morbidity and mortality, were compared between groups. Each comparison was adjusted for age, time from onset, initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results More patients in the EVT group achieved good outcomes (mRS score of 0-2) at 3 months (35.7% vs. 11.0%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.779 [95% confidence interval 1.972-11.579], p = 0.001) and 12 months (35.7% vs. 14.0%, adjusted OR 3.705 [1.574-8.722], p = 0.003) after stroke. During admission, rates of hospital-acquired infection including pneumonia (12.5% vs. 29.0%, adjusted OR 0.262 [0.098-0.703], p = 0.008) and urinary tract infection (16.0% vs. 34.0%, adjusted OR 0.256 [0.099-0.657], p = 0.005) were significantly lower in the EVT group. More symptomatic hemorrhages (10.7% vs. 2.0%, adjusted OR 6.859 [1.139-41.317], p = 0.036) occurred in the EVT group, but no significant difference was observed in in-hospital mortality rate (12.5% vs. 8.0%, adjusted OR 1.380 [0.408-4.664], p = 0.604). Conclusion EVT improved functional outcome and reduced the risk of hospital-acquired infections in acute stroke patients over 80 years of age without increasing the risk of in-hospital mortality, although symptomatic hemorrhage occurred more frequently after EVT. PMID:26523252

  14. [Alcohol drinking and other risk behaviors among adolescents aged 11-15 years].

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joanna; Kowalewska, Anna; Woynarowska, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was: (1) to assess the prevalence and intensity of alcohol drinking among 11 to 15-year-old Polish adolescents in 2002, (2) to show trends of drinking between 1998-2002, (3) to identify three groups of alcohol-related risk (low, moderate and high intensity of drinking); (4) to test the relationship between belonging to those groups and other health compromising behaviours. The study is based on the fourth series of - Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) A WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study carried out in 2002. A sample was selected as representative of general school population at three age groups - mean age 11.7; 13.7 and 15.7 (N=6383). An international standard questionnaire was used. The results showed that 29% of students, including 51% of 15-years-olds, had been really drunk at least once in the lifetime. 11% of all adolescents, including 21% of 15-year-olds, were identified as the high risk group. In 1998-2002 an increase of adolescents drinking vodka and of girls being drunk was observed. The girls living in towns formed the main group of adolescents with increasing alcohol consumption. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted, if appropriate, for gender, place of residence and age, being in the group of high alcohol-related risk was associated with higher risk of smoking (odds ratio OR=23.3; 95% confidence interval CI=18.3-30.3), illicit drugs use (for marihuana or hashish OR=49.0; 95% CI=21.3-112.7), early sexual initiation (OR=9.9; 95% CI=7.1-14.1), participation in a physical fight or bullying (OR=5.1; 95% CI=4.2-6.3), and getting injured (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.6-2.3). Being in the group of moderate alcohol-related risk was also associated with other risk behaviours, with lower, but still significant odds ratios. Presented data can be used in school-based and community-based prevention and intervention activities. PMID:14704492

  15. 2013 NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION All Rights Reserved. April 9-10, 2013 at Sandia National Labs.April 9-10, 2013 at Sandia National Labs.

    E-print Network

    Siefert, Chris

    © 2013 NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION All Rights Reserved. April 9-10, 2013 at Sandia, Tomohiko OHMURA, and Masaharu HATANO(NSSC) Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation Advancing Materials Testing in Hydrogen Gas, April 9-10, 2013 at Sandia National Labs. #12;© 2013 NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO

  16. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N?-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3118...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N?-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3118...

  18. Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    ?elakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Van??ková, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen–associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:24891679

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  20. Children prenatally exposed to cocaine: developmental outcomes and environmental risks at seven years of age.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Robert E; Short, Elizabeth J; Singer, Lynn T; Minnes, Sonia; Hewitt, Julie; Flynn, Sarah; Carlson, Lisa; Min, Meeyoung O; Klein, Nancy; Flannery, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Data are equivocal regarding the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cocaine on school-aged children. We compared 101 children exposed prenatally to cocaine with 130 unexposed children on measures of intelligence, visual motor, and motor abilities at age 7 years. Bivariate analyses revealed that cocaine-exposed children scored significantly lower than comparison children on the abbreviated Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores, the Visual Motor Integration and Motor Coordination standardized scores, and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Fine Motor Composite score. Regression analyses indicated that the biological mother's vocabulary and home environment assessed at the same 7-year visit were stronger predictors of developmental outcome than prenatal drug exposure. Level of cocaine exposure, however, predicted visual motor and motor skills. The results indicate that although prenatal cocaine exposure may confer some degree of developmental disadvantage in the visual motor domain, it frequently occurs in the context of an inadequate rearing environment, which may be a stronger determinant than prenatal cocaine exposure of children's outcome. PMID:15083129

  1. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  2. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years. Study Design and Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Results We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD) change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7) mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1) %/yr). Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years. Conclusion The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time. PMID:25875773

  3. Longitudinal Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Girls and Boys Between Ages 9½ and 15½ Years

    PubMed Central

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; Houts, Renate M.; Steinberg, Laurence; Belsky, Jay; Cauffman, Elizabeth; DeHart, Ganie; Friedman, Sarah L.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify ages when adolescents were in sexual maturity stages 2 through 5; to explain the relations between breast (girls), genital (boys), and pubic hair (girls and boys) development between ages 9½ and 15½ years; and to evaluate synchrony of pubertal development across characteristics. Design Annual pubertal assessments. Setting Ten locations in the United States. Participants A total of 859 adolescents (427 boys [49.7%] and 432 girls [50.3%]; 737 white [85.8%] and 122 black [14.2%]). Main Outcome Measures Changes in the 5 stages of breast, genital, and pubic hair development. Results Girls were in breast maturity stages 2 and 3 earlier than comparable pubic hair stages. Although breast development in girls started earlier than pubic hair development, girls completed breast and pubic hair development at approximately the same age. Black girls were in all stages of breast and pubic hair development earlier than white girls. Boys were in stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 of genital development before the comparable pubic hair stage. In boys, genital development started earlier than pubic hair development, but pubic hair development was completed in less time. Black boys were in genital and pubic hair development about 7 months earlier than white boys. Black and white boys completed genital development in approximately 4½ years, but black boys took approximately 6 months longer than white boys to complete pubic hair development. At stage 2, for 66.2% of girls, breast development preceded their pubic hair development; for 91.1% of boys, genital development preceded their pubic hair development. Conclusions The results of this study are useful in understanding normative variation in the timing and change in the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. They will help identify adolescents with atypical changes in sexual maturation and unusual progression of sexual maturation and growth disorders. PMID:20124146

  4. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-l-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-l-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-l-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-l-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. PMID:26257031

  5. Operative Management of Elbow UCL Insufficiency in Adolescent Athletes Age 18 Years and Younger

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kristofer J.; Rebolledo, Brian J.; Weeks, Kenneth; Dines, David M.; Dines, Joshua S.; Altchek, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) insufficiency of the elbow has drastically increased in the adolescent population over the last decade due to widespread participation in overhead athletics. Previous reports suggest clinical outcomes in teenage athletes are inferior to results in higher-level adult athletes. We hypothesized that UCL reconstruction using the docking technique would result in improved outcomes in this age group. Methods: 46 adolescent athletes (mean age 17 years, range 12-18 years) underwent UCL reconstruction using the docking technique. The majority of patients were baseball players; there were three gymnasts and three javelin throwers. Retrospective review revealed each patient had a history and physical exam consistent with UCL injury along with advanced imaging demonstrating corresponding UCL pathology (24 distal tears, 22 proximal tears). Patients were evaluated at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively based on their ability to return to athletic activity. Clinical outcomes were classified using the Conway Scale, the Andrews-Timmerman Score, and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Score. Results: At most recent follow-up, 89% (41/46) of patients had excellent results using the Conway Scale. There was one good, two fair and two poor results. One fair result was noted in a revision case and the two poor results occurred in patients who had concomitant capitellar OCD lesions. UCL tear location did not affect clinical outcome. There were four postoperative complications in four patients (two gymnasts and two javelin throwers) who developed ulnar neuritis following reconstruction. The average Andrews-Timmerman Score was 86.7 and the mean KJOC score was 88. Conclusion: The docking technique results in favorable clinical outcomes in adolescent athletes with UCL insufficiency at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Overall, results were better than previously published reports in this age group and this may be attributed to technique specific factors. Patients with concomitant intraarticular pathology should be counseled preopreratively that they may experience inferior clinical outcomes. Additionally, gymnasts and javelin throwers may be at increased risk for postoperative complications due to increased stress on the medial elbow.

  6. Tolerability of Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years and Older

    SciTech Connect

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Clark, Jeffrey; Willett, Christopher G.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of treatment deviations during combined modality therapy for rectal cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of consecutively treated patients with rectal cancer aged 75 years and older treated with combined modality therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2002 to 2007. The primary endpoint was the rate of treatment deviation, defined as a treatment break, dose reduction, early discontinuation of therapy, or hospitalization during combined modality therapy. Patient comorbidity was rated using the validated Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 Test (ACE-27) comorbidity index. Fisher's exact test and the Mantel-Haenszel trend test were used to identify predictors of treatment tolerability. Results: Thirty-six eligible patients had a median age of 79.0 years (range, 75-87 years); 53% (19/36) had no or mild comorbidity and 47% (17/36) had moderate or severe comorbidity. In all, 58% of patients (21/36) were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and 33% (12/36) with postoperative CRT. Although 92% patients (33/36) completed the planned radiotherapy (RT) dose, 25% (9/36) required an RT-treatment break, 11% (4/36) were hospitalized, and 33% (12/36) had a dose reduction, break, or discontinuation of concurrent chemotherapy. In all, 39% of patients (14/36) completed {>=}4 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, and 17% (6/36) completed therapy without a treatment deviation. More patients with no to mild comorbidity completed treatment than did patients with moderate to severe comorbidity (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.66). The rate of deviation did not differ between patients who had preoperative or postoperative CRT (19% vs. 17%, p = 1.0). Conclusions: The majority of elderly patients with rectal cancer in this series required early termination of treatment, treatment interruptions, or dose reductions. These data suggest that further intensification of combined modality therapy for rectal cancer should be performed with caution in elderly patients, who require aggressive supportive care to complete treatment.

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of Patterns in Girls’ Weight Concerns and Body Dissatisfaction from Ages 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Markey, Charlotte N.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of girls’ weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls’ eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls’ weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls’ weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls’ who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls’ reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. PMID:12655629

  8. Table HIST002R_1. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979-98

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David

    Table HIST002R_1. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United_1. Death rates for 113 selected causes, by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979-1998 Cause of death, race, sex and year All ages Under 1 year 1-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years 15-19 years 20

  9. Table HIST002R_2. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979-98

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David

    Table HIST002R_2. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United_2. Death rates for 113 selected causes, by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979-1998 Cause of death, race, sex and year All ages 45-49 years 50-54 years 55-59 years 60-64 years 65-69 years

  10. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  11. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  12. Correlation between tea consumption and prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents aged ?40 years.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Yang, J; Zhu, X S; Li, S-C; Ho, P C

    2016-01-01

    By a cross-sectional epidemiology study, we attempted to correlate the consumption of tea and/or health supplements, living habits and socio-demographic factors to the prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents. Singaporean Chinese residents aged ?40 years were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face by clinical research assistants. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure at least 140?mm?Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at least 90?mmHg or self-reported history/treatment for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among the whole investigated population (N=1184, 58.27% females) was 49.73% and the prevalence increased to 66.47% in the sub-population aged ?60 years. High risk of hypertension was associated with age ?60 years (odds ratio (OR): 4.15-4.19, P<0.01), obesity (body mass index >25?kg?m(-2), OR: 2.10-2.11, P<0.01), family history of hypertension (OR: 2.69-2.76, P<0.01), diabetes history (OR: 2.29-2.33, P<0.01), hyperlipidemia history (OR: 1.79-1.80, P<0.01), male (OR: 1.56-1.59, P<0.01) and coffee intake (OR: 1.44-1.46, P<0.05). In contrast, drinking green tea at least 150 ml per week was associated with lower hypertension risk (OR: 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.91, P<0.05). Drinking combination of green tea and British tea was associated with higher reduction in the risk of hypertension (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39-0.85, P<0.05). This cross-sectional study suggests that consumption of tea, especially green tea and British tea, was associated with lowering the risk of hypertension. On the other hand, consumption of coffee could be a risk factor of hypertension. These findings may provide useful information for health promotion to reduce risk of hypertension and warrant further study to confirm and elucidate such association. PMID:26016594

  13. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  14. What distinguishes autism spectrum disorders from other developmental disorders before the age of four years?

    PubMed

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Ulsted Sørensen, Ester; Nemec, Gerda; Jørgensen, Meta

    2005-03-01

    The increasing recognition of the benefits of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) stresses the importance of early identification of children who might benefit from those programs. However, in the early years of life it may be difficult to distinguish children with ASD from children with other developmental disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify behavioural patterns that could facilitate this differentiation. Prior to diagnostic assessment, 2- and 3-year-old children (n=30), all referred to a clinic for "possible autism", were observed in a semi-structured play interaction, and their parents were interviewed about the children's early development from 0 to 24 months. Following diagnostic assessment, the 17 children fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria for ASD were compared to the 13 children diagnosed with other developmental disorders (outside the autism spectrum). On the basis of parent reports only a few distinguishing signs of ASD were found before 24 months of age. On the basis of professional observations in a semi-structured play interaction several distinguishing signs were found for the 2- and 3-year-olds; smiles in response, responds to name, follows pointing, looks to "read" faces, initiates requesting verbal and nonverbal behaviours, and functional play. PMID:15793685

  15. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

  16. Poisonings with Suicidal Intent Aged 0–21 Years Reported to Poison Centers 2003–12

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Sophia; Hendry, Phyllis; Lynch, Sean; Kalynych, Colleen J.; Aldridge, Petra; Kraemer, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies explore the clinical features of youth suicide by poisoning. The use of both social and clinical features of self-poisoning with suicidal intent could be helpful in enhancing existing and creating new prevention strategies. We sought to characterize self-poisonings with suicide intent in ages 0 to 21 years reported to three regional poison control centers from 2003–2012. Methods This study was a blinded retrospective review of intentional self-poisonings by those age 21 or younger captured by the Poison Information Control Network. Age, sex, substance(s) used, medical outcome, management site, clinical effects, and therapies were described using counts and percentages and analyzed using chi-square tests. We analyzed the medical outcome ranging from no effect to death using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Serious medical outcome was defined as death or major outcome. Results We analyzed a total of 29,737 cases. The majority were females (20,945;70.5%), of whom 274 (1.3%) were pregnant. Most cases were 15–18 year olds (15,520;52.2%). Many experienced no effects (9,068;30.5%) or minor medical outcomes (8,612;29%). Males had more serious medical outcomes (p<0.0001), but females were more likely to be admitted to a critical care unit (p<0.0001). There were 17 deaths (0.06%), most in males (10;p=0.008). Of the 52 substances reported in the death cases, 12 (23.1%) were analgesics. In eight (47.1%) of the deaths, over two substances were used. Overall, drowsiness/lethargy (7,097;19.3%) and single-dose charcoal (8,815;16.3%) were frequently reported. Nearly 20% were admitted to critical care units (5,727;19.3%) and 28.7% went to psychiatric facilities (8,523). Of those admitted to hospitals (8,203), nearly 70% (5,727) required critical care units. Almost half <10 years old were evaluated and released (43;47.2%). Of the 114 reported substances for this population, 22.8% involved psychotropic medications, 15.8% analgesics, and 14% Attention Deficit-Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) medications. Analgesics (13,539;33.6%) were the most common medication category used by all age groups. Typically only one substance (20,549;69.1%) was used. Conclusion Undiagnosed ADHD may be a potential underlying cause for self-harming behaviors in the very young. Gender-specific suicide prevention strategies may be more effective at identifying those at risk than traditional measures alone. Further study into admitting practices by emergency physicians is needed to understand the difference in critical care admission rates based on gender. Once identified to be at-risk for suicidal behavior, access to analgesics and psychotropics should be monitored by care-givers especially in those between the ages of 15–18. PMID:26265960

  17. 7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media_hat_june_2010/en/index.html

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases and projects Neglected tropical diseases Diseases Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control Innovative and intensified disease management Vector ecology and management Neglected zoonotic diseases Neglected tropical

  18. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AT 5 YEARS OF AGE IN RELATION TO FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE OVER TIME

    E-print Network

    Cody, Claire McCaslin

    2012-12-31

    : To determine if a relationship exists between childhood overweight and obesity and fruit and vegetable intake. Design: A total of 70 children were followed through 5 years of age in a prospective cohort study. Demographic data, anthropometric measures, and 24...

  19. Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Six Potential Screening Instruments for Bipolar Disorder in Youths Aged 5 to 17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Demeter, Christine; DelPorto Bedoya, Denise; Price, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficiency of six index tests as predictors of juvenile bipolar disorder in two large outpatient samples, aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, gathered from 1997 to 2002. Method: DSM-IV diagnosis was based on a semistructured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age

  20. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  1. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of sexual partner concurrency among Australian gay men aged 18-39 years.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical models predict higher rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in populations with higher rates of concurrent sexual partnerships. Although gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high rates of HIV/STIs, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sexual concurrency in these populations. This paper reports findings from a national community-based survey of 1,034 Australian gay-identified men aged 18-39 years, who gave detailed information about their sexual partners over the past 12 months. In all, 237 (23 %) reported two or more concurrent sexual partners. For their most recent period of concurrency, 44 % reported three or more partners and 66 % reported unprotected sex with one or more of their partners. A multivariate logistic regression found sexual concurrency was significantly more likely among men on higher incomes (P = 0.02), who first had anal sex at a relatively young age (P = 0.03), and who reported a large number of partners in the past 12 months (P < 0.001). Age, education, HIV status, and other sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables were not significant correlates. However, men who reported sexual concurrency were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an STI in the past 12 months (P = 0.04). Findings from this study suggest sexual concurrency is common among younger Australian gay men. With many of these men not always using condoms, health agencies should consider the potential impact of concurrency on HIV/STI epidemics among gay men and other MSM. PMID:24057932

  3. Performance as a function of shooting style in basketball players under 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L

    2012-04-01

    Shooting style in basketball refers to the height adopted by a player in holding the ball, specifically the height of the hand and the ball with regard to the line of sight before the final extension of the elbow during a shot. The literature differentiates between a high and a low style. This study analyzed shooting frequency in young boys as a function of style and which shooting style had the highest accuracy and success in real games. Participants were 81 boys from eight basketball teams, aged 9-11 years. The sample consisted of 5,740 standard shots in 56 games. The design was nomotethic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The results indicated that low style predominated over the high style, although overall accuracy and efficacy were better using the high style. Various strategies and practical considerations are suggested for teachers and coaches to focus on teaching the high style. PMID:22755449

  4. A study of anthropometric characteristics between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Taha, Zahari; Jomoah, Ibrahim M; Zadry, Hilma Raimona

    2009-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the anthropometric characteristics of 241 Malaysian and 646 Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years. The mean values, standard deviation (SD), and 5th and 95th percentile values of 26 measurements and 22 proportions of each group were given. The results showed that there were significant differences in a number of body dimensions between these populations, except for eye height and elbow height (standing) and height, eye height, shoulder height, and elbow height (sitting). These results are important for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems and furniture: The presented data may be useful for providing a safer, more productive and user-friendly workplace for Malaysian and Saudi Arabian populations. PMID:20034316

  5. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Osi?ski, Wies?aw; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (p<.05). The results of the three-way hierarchical regression revealed that body image was a statistically significant positive predictor of MVPA for adolescents, regardless of BMI. Additionally, body image was a stronger predictor of MVPA in boys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity. PMID:26047066

  6. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujevi?, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers. PMID:24611320

  7. Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

  8. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  9. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5?years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0?cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n?=?56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0?cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV. PMID:26141024

  10. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  11. Asymptomatic Shigella infections in a cohort of Mexican children younger than two years of age.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, L; Calva, J J; Morrow, A L; Velazquez, F R; Tuz-Dzib, F; Lopez-Vidal, Y; Ortega, H; Arroyo, H; Cleary, T G; Pickering, L K

    1994-07-01

    The proportion of Shigella infections that occur asymptomatically in young children has not been established. A community-based cohort study of 367 infants was followed prospectively by weekly home visits from January, 1990, through December, 1991. Stool samples were collected weekly and when diarrhea occurred and were tested for Shigella and other enteropathogens. There were 2925 child months of observation and 65 episodes of Shigella infection. There were 3.1 episodes/100 child months during the warm season (May through September) and 0.97 episode/100 child months during the cold season. Shigella infections were rare during the first 6 months of life but increased with age (P < 0.0001). Overall 55% of detected infections were asymptomatic. The proportion of infections that were asymptomatic increased as age increased (P < 0.01). Symptom status was not significantly associated with Shigella species or season. All isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic children had the 120- to 140-megadalton virulence plasmid. We conclude that infections with virulent strains of Shigella are commonly asymptomatic in Mexican children during the first 2 years of life. PMID:7970946

  12. Changes in naming and semantic abilities with aging from 50 to 90 years.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether naming difficulties arise in individuals as young as their 50s. Participants of 25-35, 50-59, 60-69, and above 70 years of age were given a picture naming task. To uncover subtle naming difficulties, latencies were analyzed in addition to accuracy. To control whether the expected slower naming latencies could be due to a general slowing affecting all cognitive tasks, participants were also given an odd/even judgment task to assess cognitive processing speed. The results confirmed that participants in their 50s presented decline in naming performance, reflected by an increase in naming latencies, whereas adults in their 60s and their 70s showed both a decrease in accuracy and an increase in latency. Moreover, the increase in naming latencies remained significant even after controlling for odd/even judgment latencies, suggesting a degradation specific to the picture naming task. We assumed that these slower latencies may result from a language-specific impairment. As a further test for language-specific degradation, participants' semantic capacities were also assessed with a synonym judgment task and the Pyramids and Palm Trees test. The above-70 group showed semantic degradation. The contributions of multiple factors to naming difficulties in aging are discussed. PMID:23237304

  13. Evaluation of Serum Lipid Profiles in Turkish Children Aged Two to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, D; Bukulmez, A; Dogan, N; Oztekin, O; Koken, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dyslipidaemia in children according to age, gender, percentiles, mother's education level, breastfeeding duration and areas of residence. Methods: A total of 285 children (137 girls; 148 boys), aged between two and 18 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional, epidemiologic study. Lipid profiles were assessed and its relation with socio-demographic features was evaluated. Results: Dyslipidaemia prevalence was 37.4% (n = 107). High very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are related with percentiles of the children (p = 0.006, p = 0.03, respectively). Gender was a significant factor for VLDL-C, which was higher in girls than boys (p = 0.04). Total cholesterol levels were high in 14 children (4.9%); 72 of the study group (25.3%) had high triglyceride levels; HDL-C levels were low in 52 children (18.2%). Conclusion: All the parameters of dyslipidaemia are not so high in our region. However, as early detection of dyslipidaemia should begin in childhood, we should perform periodic checks to prevent cardiovascular risks. PMID:25803372

  14. Parametric body shape model of standing children aged 3-11 years.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Keon; Reed, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    A statistical body shape model (SBSM) for children was developed for generating a child body shape with desired anthropometric parameters. A standardised template mesh was fit to whole-body laser scan data from 137 children aged 3-11 years. The mesh coordinates along with a set of surface landmarks and 27 manually measured anthropometric variables were analysed using principal component (PC) analysis. PC scores were associated with anthropometric predictors such as stature, body mass index (BMI) and ratio of erect sitting height to stature (SHS) using a regression model. When the original scan data were compared with the predictions of the SBSM using each subject's stature, BMI and SHS, the mean absolute error was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm, and 95th percentile error was 24.0 ± 18.5 mm. The model, publicly available online, will have utility for a wide range of applications. Practitioner Summary: A statistical body shape model for children helps to account for inter-individual variability in body shapes as well as anthropometric dimensions. This parametric modelling approach is useful for reliable prediction of the body shape of a specific child with a few given predictors such as stature, body mass index and age. PMID:25933223

  15. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children agedyears 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  16. Associations between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hinkle, SN.; Schieve, LA.; Stein, AD.; Swan, DW.; Ramakrishnan, U.; Sharma, AJ.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both underweight and obese mothers have an increased risk for adverse offspring outcomes. Few studies have examined the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and children’s neurodevelopment. SUBJECTS We used data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n =6850). Children were classified according to their mother’s prepregnancy BMI (kg m?2) status: underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), obese class I (BMI 30.0–34.9), and obese class II and III (BMI ?35.0). Children’s age-adjusted mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) T-scores (mean 50, s.d. 10) were obtained using a validated shortened version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at approximately 2 years of age. While adjusting for sociodemographics, we estimated the average MDI and PDI scores or the risk of delayed (< ?1 s.d. vs >1 s.d.) mental or motor development, relative to children of normal weight mothers. RESULTS Compared with children of normal weight mothers, MDI scores were lower among children of mothers of all other prepregnancy BMI categories, with the greatest adjusted difference among children of class II and III obese mothers (?2.13 (95% CI ?3.32, ?0.93)). The adjusted risk of delayed mental development was increased among children of underweight (risk ratio (RR) 1.36 (95% CI 1.04, 1.78)) and class II and III obese (RR 1.38 (95% CI 1.03, 1.84)) mothers. Children’s PDI scores or motor delay did not differ by maternal prepregnancy BMI. CONCLUSION In this nationally representative sample of 2-year-old US children, low and very-high maternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with increased risk of delayed mental development but not motor development. PMID:22964791

  17. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  18. Conotoxin Interactions with ?9?10-nAChRs: Is the ?9?10-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor an Important Therapeutic Target for Pain Management?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Sarasa A.; Christie, MacDonald J.

    2015-01-01

    The ?9?10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in pain and has been proposed to be a novel target for analgesics. However, the evidence to support the involvement of the ?9?10-nAChR in pain is conflicted. This receptor was first implicated in pain with the characterisation of conotoxin Vc1.1, which is highly selective for ?9?10-nAChRs and is an efficacious analgesic in chronic pain models with restorative capacities and no reported side effects. Numerous other analgesic conotoxin and non-conotoxin molecules have been subsequently characterised that also inhibit ?9?10-nAChRs. However, there is evidence that ?9?10-nAChR inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for analgesia. ?9?10-nAChR-inhibiting analogues of Vc1.1 have no analgesic effects. Genetically-modified ?9-nAChR knockout mice have a phenotype that is markedly different from the analgesic profile of Vc1.1 and similar conotoxins, suggesting that the conotoxin effects are largely independent of ?9?10-nAChRs. Furthermore, an alternative mechanism of analgesia by Vc1.1 and other similar conotoxins involving non-canonical coupling of GABAB receptors to voltage-gated calcium channels is known. Additional incongruities regarding ?9?10-nAChRs in analgesia are discussed. A more comprehensive characterisation of the role of ?9?10-nAChRs in pain is crucial for understanding the analgesic action of conotoxins and for improved drug design. PMID:26426047

  19. Longitudinal volumetric brain changes in autism spectrum disorder ages 6-35 years.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Prigge, Molly B D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cariello, Annahir N; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an 8-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans, and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. PMID:25381736

  20. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  1. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  2. Search for Varicella Zoster Virus DNA in Saliva of Healthy Individuals Aged 20 to 59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Birlea, Marius; Cohrs, Randall J.; Bos, Nathan; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    All neurological and ocular complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation can occur without rash. Virological verification requires detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue in patients with neurological disease without rash and found to correlate with tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. Saliva is a potential source of VZV DNA. To study the potential diagnostic value of detecting VZV DNA in saliva from patients with neurological disease, saliva of healthy adults searched for VZV DNA. A single saliva sample obtained by passive drool was centrifuged at 16,000 × g for 20 mins. DNA was extracted from the supernatant and cell pellet and examined in triplicate for VZV DNA by real time PCR. A single random saliva sample from 80 healthy men and women aged 20–59 years revealed no VZV DNA (Table 1), but was uniformly positive for cell (GAPdH) DNA. Because VZV DNA was not found in a random saliva sample from 80 individuals 20–59 years-old, a VZV-positive sample during neurologic disease may have potential significance. Further studies will determine whether VZV DNA in saliva correlates with VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF in patients with neurological disease. PMID:24338812

  3. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  4. [Exercised-induced asthma in soccer players ages from 8 to 13 years].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, M; Tsimaras, V; Fotiadou, E; Aggelopoulou-Sakadami, N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the detection of exercise induced asthma in soccer players aged 8-13 years. Thirty boys, 8-13 years old participated in the study. They were coming from an athletic team of north of Thessaloniki. The study included clinical examination, administration of a respiratory health questionnaire and the exercise -- free running -- test with spirometric measurements. Spirometric measurements were performed by using a microspirometer, before exercise and 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after a 6 min free running exercise (80 - 90 % max heart rate). The highest forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)) value before exercise was compared with the lowest of post exercise values. The results showed a decline in FEV (1) > 15 % in 12 out of 30 children. Particularly, decline in FEV (1) was present in 1 (11 %) out of 9 children with free personal medical history but positive family history for asthma, in 3 (25 %) out of 12 children with allergies, and in 8 (89 %) out of 9 children with asthma. Symptoms were reported by 9 of 12 children with fall in FEV (1) > 15 %, during the 6 min exercise test, who had no symptoms during the soccer games. Identification of EIA by exercise challenge test in young athletes is a useful component for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Similar studies should be performed on older and younger athletes who participate in different sports and games. PMID:15944897

  5. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ? 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ? 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ? 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  6. Allergen avoidance in infancy and allergy at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hide, D W; Matthews, S; Tariq, S; Arshad, S H

    1996-02-01

    In an attempt to prevent or reduce the manifestations of atopic disease, a group of infants considered to be genetically at high risk of atopy was entered in a prenatally randomized, controlled study. A prophylactic group (n = 58) was either breast-fed with their mothers excluding foods regarded as highly antigenic from their diets, or given an extensively hydrolysed formula. In addition, strenuous efforts were made to reduce exposure to the house-dust mite by application of acaricide to the bedroom and living room carpets and upholstered furniture. A control group (n = 62) was fed conventionally by breast or on formula, and no specific environmental measures were taken. The results (previously reported) after 1 year showed significantly less total allergy, asthma, and eczema in the prophylactic group. Similar results were obtained at 2 years although the reduction in asthma no longer achieved statistical significance. However, there was significantly less sensitization, as shown by a battery of skin prick tests (SPTs), to both dietary allergens and aeroallergens in the prophylactic group. All the children have now been reviewed at the age of 4 years, and SPTs to a wide range of dietary allergens and aeroallergens have been performed. The control group continues to show more total allergy (odds ratio [OR] 2.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-6.13, P < 0.02), definite allergy (allergic symptoms plus positive SPT) (OR 5.6, CI 1.8-17.9, P < 0.005), and eczema (OR 3.4, CI 1.2-10.1, P < 0.05). More control children have positive SPTs (OR 3.7, CI 1.3-10.0, P < 0.02). A dual approach to the prevention of allergic disease, avoiding as far as possible sensitization to food and aeroallergens, significantly reduces the risk of atopic disease. This should be reserved for infants considered at very high risk of atopy, and close medical and dietetic supervision must be available. PMID:8738513

  7. Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Lauren E.; Glover, Vivette; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Evans, Jonathan; O’Connor, Thomas G.; Stein, Alan; Murphy, Susannah E.; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of childhood behavioural and emotional problems in offspring; it remains unclear to what extent this is due to a maternal biological impact on foetal development. Here, we compare associations between maternal and paternal antenatal depression and anxiety with offspring anxiety disorders, thus controlling for some genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We used data from the ALSPAC population cohort including measures of antenatal parental depression and anxiety. At 18 years, offspring completed the CIS-R interview, yielding diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including parental postnatal depression and anxiety. Results Children of women with antenatal depression (18 weeks gestation), had an increased risk of anxiety disorders at 18 years of age (11.1% vs. 6.2%; adj. OR 1.75 (1.19, 2.58); p=0.01). Children of women with antenatal anxiety had increased risk of co-morbid anxiety and depression (adj. OR 1.39 (1.06, 1.82); p=0.02). No such associations were found with paternal antenatal depression or anxiety. Limitations There was a high attrition rate from the original cohort to the CIS-R completion at 18 years postpartum. Parental mood was only assessed together at one time point during the antenatal period. Conclusions The differences in the association between maternal and paternal mood during pregnancy and child outcomes supports the hypothesis that foetal programming may account, at least in part, for this association. We highlight the potential opportunity for preventative intervention by optimising antenatal mental health. PMID:26301478

  8. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p?year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p?age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. PMID:25136967

  9. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.34 Section 570.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years...

  10. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.34 Section 570.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years...

  11. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.34 Section 570.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years...

  12. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.34 Section 570.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years...

  13. Assessing Young Children with Dual Sensory and Multiple Impairments (Ages Birth to Five Years). Assessment Guidelines, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Causey, Ellin

    This volume is a guide for assessing children with dual sensory or severe impairments between birth and age 5. It begins by discussing a functional-ecological three-step assessment process for children birth to three years, and the steps for assessing preschoolers from three to five years old. It then describes six steps to guide the use of the…

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome among children aged 7-9 years - Arizona, Colorado, and New York, 2010.

    PubMed

    Fox, Deborah J; Pettygrove, Sydney; Cunniff, Christopher; O'Leary, Leslie A; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Druschel, Charlotte M; Breen, April; Robinson, Luther; Ortiz, Linnette; Frías, Jaime L; Ruttenber, Margaret; Klumb, Donald; Meaney, F John

    2015-01-30

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious birth defect and developmental disorder caused by in utero exposure to alcohol. Assessment of the public health burden of FAS through surveillance has proven difficult; there is wide variation in reported prevalence depending on the study population and surveillance method. Generally, records-based birth prevalence studies report estimates of 0.2-1.5 per 1,000 live births, whereas studies that use in-person, expert assessment of school-aged children in a community report estimates of 6-9 per 1,000 population. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II addressed some of the challenges in records-based ascertainment by assessing a period prevalence of FAS among children aged 7?9 years in Arizona, Colorado, and New York. The prevalence across sites ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 per 1,000 children. Prevalence of FAS was highest among American Indian/Alaska Native children and lowest among Hispanic children. These estimates continue to be much lower than those obtained from studies using in-person, expert assessment. Factors that might contribute to this discrepancy include 1) inadequate recognition of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS by clinical care providers; 2) insufficient documentation of those characteristics in the medical record; and 3) failure to consider prenatal alcohol exposure with diagnoses of behavioral and learning problems. Addressing these factors through training of medical and allied health providers can lead to practice changes, ultimately increasing recognition and documentation of the characteristics of FAS. PMID:25632951

  15. Active Screen Time Among U.S. Youth Aged 9–18 Years, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Holly; Sherry, Bettylou; Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study documented the prevalence of active screen time (i.e., screen time that includes active games, exercise or dance videos, or TV exercise programs) and identified characteristics associated with it among youth 9–18 years of age. Subjects and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 1,165 youth using the 2009 Styles Surveys; data were weighted to approximate the Current Population Survey. We calculated descriptive statistics and conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with active screen time by estimating adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs). Results The sample comprised 51.4 percent boys, and almost 60 percent were non-Hispanic white. The prevalence of active screen time ?1 hour/day was 31.2 percent on a typical school day and 41.6 percent on a typical weekend day. Logistic regression revealed youth with physical activity of 3–5 days/week had higher odds of active screen time ?1 hour/day compared with youth with no physical activity (aOR school day = 2.8, 95 percent CI 1.5–5.2; aOR weekend day = 2.3, 95 percent CI 1.4–3.9). Certain characteristics (i.e., sex, age group, race/ethnicity, income, and sedentary screen time) were significantly associated with active screen time ?1 hour/day, but associations were inconsistent for school and weekend days. Conclusions Three in 10 youth are engaging in at least 1 hour of active screen time on school days, and about 4 in 10 youth are engaging in at least one hour on weekend days. Understanding the use of active screen time and associated characteristics are important for developing interventions addressing screen time and physical activity. PMID:26197078

  16. Nebivolol in preventing atrial fibrillation following coronary surgery in patients over 60 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Nevzat; Kaynak, Murat; Dönmez, Köksal; Disli, Olcay Murat; Battaloglu, Bektas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a common complication after cardiac surgery, with an incidence as high as 20-50%. Increased age is associated with a significant increase in postoperative atrial fibrillation risk. This common complication is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of nebivolol in preventing atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass surgery in patients over 60 years of age. Methods In this prospective randomized study, 200 patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery bypass surgery were divided into two groups. The first group was administered with nebivolol and the second group was administered with metoprolol. Treatment was initiated four days prior to surgery, and patients were monitored for atrial fibrillation until discharge. Forty-one patients recieved 50 mg metoprolol succinate daily, which was initiated minimum 4 days before surgery. Results Demographic data were similar in both groups. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in both groups was similar, with no significant difference being identified [n=20 (20%); n=18 (18%), P=0.718; respectively]. There were not any mortality at both groups during study. Inotropic agent requirement at ICU was similar for both groups [n=12 (12%), n=18 (18%), P=0.32]. Conclusion We compared the effectiveness of nebivolol and metoprolol in decreasing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, and determined that nebivolol was as effective as metoprolol in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation at patients. Nebivolol may be the drug of choice due to its effects, especially after elective coronary artery bypass surgery. PMID:25714213

  17. Single prediction equation for bioelectrical impedance analysis in adults aged 22-59 years.

    PubMed

    Patil, B R; Patkar, D P; Mandlik, S A; Kuswarkar, M M; Jindal, G D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a single bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation in healthy Indian subjects aged 22-59 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 16.8 and 47.3 kg m?². Healthy subjects (34 men and 30 women) were measured by two methods: bone mineral content (BMC) was measured by a commercial body composition analyser and bioelectrical impedance at various frequencies was measured by a newly developed bioelectrical impedance measurement system. As correlations were high and prediction error was low, a single equation was developed using all subjects as follows: BMC?=?-3.5268?+?(0.0279? x ?h)?+?(0.0145? x ?w)?+?(184? x ?(h²/Z(body50)))-(1.08? x ?(w x ?h²/Z(body6.25)))-(0.0032? x ?(age))-(0.103? x ?(sex); men?=?1, women?=?0). BMC measured from commercial instrument InBody720 was 2.552?±?0.457 kg. BMC predicted by equation was 2.554?±?0.447 kg (R?=?0.976, adjusted R²?=?0.948, standard error of estimate?=?0.104 kg, total error?=?0.09987 kg). The results of this study show that the newly developed multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance measurement system with the single prediction BIA equation can be used in screening the subjects suspected with osteoporosis and for follow-up study of the patient under the therapy for osteoporosis. For validation of commercial instrument InBody720, BMC of 22 healthy subjects was measured by InBody720 and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. High correlation (R?=?0.9531) and low error (total error?=?0.0913 kg) was found between these two methods. PMID:21231827

  18. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  19. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n = 94 dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45 min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age. PMID:25800150

  20. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2010, MEDLINE (1950 to 2010 April week 4), EMBASE (1947 to 2010 week 18), CINAHL (up to 12 May 2010), PsycINFO (up to 12 May 2010) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (up to February 2011) were searched to identify eligible trials, as well as electronic trial registers (also up to February 2011). The reference lists of included trials were reviewed and handsearches of three international nutrition journals were also performed. Authors of all included trials were contacted in order to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials, of any intervention primarily targeting fruit and/or vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under and incorporating a biochemical or dietary assessment of fruit and/or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified papers. A third review author with expertise in review methodology resolved any disagreements regarding study eligibility. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements between review authors. Fixed-effect models were used to perform meta-analysis for the primary review outcomes where a sufficient number of trials with suitable data and homogeneity were identified. Main results Five trials, with 13 trial arms and 3967 participants were included in the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI ?0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  1. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ?50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ?50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public policy and highlight the need for effective interventions to promote equality. PMID:25327975

  2. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3?19 Years With and Without Asthma in the United States, 1999?2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 126, August 2013 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3?19 Years With and Without Asthma ... Nutrition Examination Survey, childhood asthma The percentage of children aged 3?19 years without asthma exposed to ...

  3. Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Margaret

    Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

  4. Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

  5. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ?500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = ?4.69, CI: ?7.31, ?2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  6. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  7. Behavioural factors associated with diarrhea among adults over 18 years of age in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, a large proportion of people still suffer from diarrhea diseases. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there are substantial social and economic costs caused by the high incidence of diarrheal diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors of diarrhea among adults in Beijing, China. Methods A multistage, stratified study based on cross-sectional data was performed using randomized and systematic sampling, recruiting 12,936 adults over 18 years of age in Beijing. All adults were requested to complete a questionnaire, including information such as demographic characteristics, incidence of diarrhea, and behaviors related to the diarrhea. Results The self-reported prevalence of diarrhea was 17.5% during the last year prior to the survey. Six behavioral factors were significantly associated with diarrhea in our study including: (1) washing hands before meals and after defecation (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.707, 95% CI 0.597?~?0.837), (2) washing hands with soap and running water (AOR 0.872, 95% CI 0.786?~?0.967), (3) consuming raw seafood (AOR 1.285, 95% CI 1.138?~?1.450), (4) using the same chopping block and knife when processing raw and cooked food (AOR 1.375, 95% CI 1.225?~?1.542), (5) using the same chopsticks to handle raw and cooked food (AOR1.149, 95% CI 1.041?~?1.268), and (6) regularly participating in physical exercise (AOR 0.719, 95% CI 0.651?~?0.793). Conclusion Good health habits, good eating habits, and regular exercise can prevent the episodes of diarrhea, and thus decrease the potential for disease occurrence. PMID:24885464

  8. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Van Hoang, Luong; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function. PMID:26247686

  9. Premature Pubarche before One Year of Age: Distinguishing between Mini-Puberty Variants and Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Bourayou, Rafik; Giabicani, Eloïse; Pouillot, Monique; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Brauner, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to facilitate the distinction between the benign “mini-puberty of early infancy” and precocious puberty (PP). Material/Methods We compared 59 patients (21 boys and 38 girls) seen for pubic hair development before one year of age diagnosed as mini-puberty to 13 patients (2 boys) in whom pubertal development before one year revealed a PP. Results The boys with mini-puberty presented with pubic hair development and prepubertal testicular volume, with low plasma testosterone concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test showed predominant luteinising hormone increase in 9/13. The girls presented with pubic hair development that was accompanied by breast development in 47% of cases, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses showed predominant follicle-stimulating hormone increase in the 17 evaluated. The patients with PP had organic central PP (5 hypothalamic hamartoma) or idiopathic central PP (n=6), or peripheral PP (one ovarian tumor and one congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The diagnosis was challenging only in 3 girls with idiopathic central PP presenting with prepubertal plasma estradiol concentrations and responses to GnRH test. Conclusions The diagnosis of PP was easily determined based on the clinical presentation and the pubertal concentrations of testosterone in boys or of estradiol in girls, as was the diagnosis of central or peripheral origin of PP based on gonadotropin response to the GnRH test. Once PP is excluded, these patients need careful follow–up and physician consultation is needed if clinical pubertal signs progress. PMID:25832117

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among persons aged 14-39 years--United States, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Torrone, Elizabeth; Papp, John; Weinstock, Hillard

    2014-09-26

    Infection with the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis (often termed "chlamydia") is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The urethra is the most common site of infection in males, and the urethra and cervix are most commonly infected in females. Ascending infection in females can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Genital chlamydial infections are usually asymptomatic, and screening is necessary to identify most infections. Currently, chlamydia screening for sexually active women aged <25 years is recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (grade B recommendation). Chlamydia is nationally notifiable; however, if females do not access care or clinicians do not screen, many infections go undiagnosed, unreported, and untreated. CDC monitors population prevalence of genital chlamydial infection through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which tests a sample of the U.S. population aged 14-39 years for genital C. trachomatis and found that the overall chlamydia burden in the United States decreased during 1999-2008. Using data from the most recent cycles of NHANES (2007-2012), CDC estimated chlamydia prevalence among persons aged 14-39 years overall and by demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. The prevalence of chlamydia among persons aged 14-39 years was 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4%-2.0%). Chlamydia prevalence varied by age and race/ethnicity, with prevalence highest among non-Hispanic blacks (5.2%). Among sexually active females aged 14-24 years, the population targeted for routine screening, chlamydia prevalence was 4.7% overall and 13.5% among non-Hispanic black females. As chlamydia is common and infections are usually asymptomatic, health care providers should routinely screen sexually active young women aged <25 years for chlamydial infection, provide prompt treatment for infected persons, and ensure that infected patients' sex partners receive timely treatment to prevent reinfection. PMID:25254560

  11. Assessment of food habits in children aged 6–12 years and the risk of caries

    PubMed Central

    Doichinova, Liliya; Bakardjiev, Peter; Peneva, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Food is necessary for the proper growth and development of children. The excessive intake of low-molecular carbohydrates constitutes a serious health issue, which has an unfavourable impact on the dental health status. The aim of this study was to assess the food habits in healthy children aged 6–12 years and the effect on their oral risk profile. The study included 100 children. The assessment of their nutrition was done with the help of a seven-day reproduction of the food intake and a survey used to determine their underlying food habits and preferences. The results revealed unbalanced nutrition of the children and increased intake of simple sugar, which will increase the risk of development of dental caries. The observed high levels of DMFT (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) in 54% of the children is a logical result of the frequent intake of sugary foods and beverages for a long period of time, as this will increase the acid production by microorganisms in dental plaque, which is one of the leading etiologic factors for the development of caries. It is necessary for dentists to administer control over the carbohydrate intake and the food habits of children, as well as to encourage non-cariogenic diet in order to keep their good oral health. PMID:26019634

  12. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective. PMID:25875697

  13. The medico-legal aspects of road traffic deaths in children under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The family tragedy that results from a child who dies in a road traffic accident may be exacerbated by judicial consequences for the adult/parent driving the vehicle, carrying the child, or responsible for properly immobilising the child in the safety device that was used. The author presents two court cases of the road traffic accident deaths of two children under the age of five years. The two cases are presented using a methodological approach, which integrates competencies in other fields into the medico-legal aspects. An analysis of the two cases provides the opportunity to discuss the driver's responsibility to properly use child safety seat and to analyse and evaluate the efficacy and limits of child restraint systems. In the two cases, the responsibility for the application of a child safety device was excluded. It was confirmed that child protective devices are not always sufficient to avoid lesions or death in road accidents that occur with significant speed or other specific dynamics. PMID:26462201

  14. Aging well: methanotrophic potential and community structure along a paddy soil chronosequence of 2000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Frenzel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Given that rice paddies are anthropogenic methane sources and the inevitable need to increase rice production to sustain human population growth, it is pertinent to identify the effects of long term agriculture on the selection of methanotrophs. Methanotrophs play a crucial role in mitigating methane emission from rice paddies. Therefore, we analyzed the methanotroph community along a chronosequence of paddy soils from China covering recently reclaimed sites to paddies under permanent agriculture since 2000 years (Cheng et al., 2009; doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.016). Maximum potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) increased monotonically with age. Our results also showed that long-term agriculture imposes a selection pressure on different groups of methanotrophs. In contrast to younger soils, type Ib methanotrophs were observed to multiply in correspondence with increasing PMOR in ancient soils, while other groups showed a relatively stable community composition as revealed by pmoA-based fingerprints (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cloning and sequencing the pmoA (a key gene in methane oxidation), the soils were found to harbour known and putative methanotrophs, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and interestingly, sequences affiliated to Crenothrix, a methane oxidizer with an unusual pmoA (Stoecker et al., 2006; doi:10.1073/pnas.0506361103). In summary, long-term agriculture shapes the community and allows for an elevated level of potential methane oxidation.

  15. Exposure to secondhand smoke among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-05-25

    Breathing secondhand smoke (SHS) causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults and increased risks for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle-ear disease, worsened asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children. No risk-free level of exposure to SHS exists. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Canadian Public Health Association, and CDC includes questions related to tobacco use, including exposure to SHS. This report examines data collected from 137 jurisdictions (i.e., countries and territories) during 2000-2007, presents estimates of exposure to SHS at home and in places other than the home among students aged 13-15 years who had never smoked, and examines the association between exposure to SHS and susceptibility to initiating smoking. GYTS data indicated that nearly half of never smokers were exposed to SHS at home (46.8%), and a similar percentage were exposed in places other than the home (47.8%). Never smokers exposed to SHS at home were 1.4-2.1 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. Students exposed to SHS in places other than the home were 1.3-1.8 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. As part of their comprehensive tobacco-control programs, countries should take measures to create smoke-free environments in all indoor public places and workplaces. PMID:17522587

  16. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Main results We included 33 trials, involving 13,114 children (~49% females) from 20 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia. The methodological quality of the trials was mixed. Nineteen trials evaluated intermittent iron supplementation versus no intervention or a placebo and 21 studies evaluated intermittent versus daily iron supplementation. Some of these trials contributed data to both comparisons. Iron alone was provided in most of the trials. Fifteen studies included children younger than 60 months; 11 trials included children 60 months and older, and seven studies included children in both age categories. One trial included exclusively females. Seven trials included only anaemic children; three studies assessed only non-anaemic children, and in the rest the baseline prevalence of anaemia ranged from 15% to 90%. In comparison with receiving no intervention or a placebo, children receiving iron supplements intermittently have a lower risk of anaemia (average risk ratio (RR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.72, ten studies) and iron deficiency (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.91, three studies) and have higher haemoglobin (mean difference (MD) 5.20 g/L, 95% CI 2.51 to 7.88, 19 studies) and ferritin concentrations (MD 14.17 ?g/L, 95% CI 3.53 to 24.81, five studies). Intermittent supplementation was as effective as daily supplementation in improving haemoglobin (MD ?0.60 g/L, 95% CI ?1.54 to 0.35, 19 studies) and ferritin concentrations (MD ?4.19 ?g/L, 95% CI ?9.42 to 1.05, 10 studies), but increased the risk of anaemia in comparison with daily iron supplementation (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04 to1.47, six studies). Data on adherence were scarce and it tended to be higher among those children receiving intermittent supplementation, although this result was not statistically significant. We did not identify any differential effect of the type of intermittent supplementation regimen (one, two or t

  17. Laboratory strength measures of talented and less talented Greek children ages 9 to 10 years.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Christos; Kalapotharakos, Vasilios I; Gantiraga, Evaggelia; Noussios, George; Gissis, Ioannis

    2006-02-01

    The purpose was twofold: (1) to assess whether laboratory tests can distinguish talented groups and less talented groups of children identified by their total scores in a battery of field tests and (2) to evaluate whether scores in field and laboratory tests are correlated. 36 children (ages 9 to 10 years) were divided into groups of higher and lower total scores on standing long jump, medicine ball throw, and sprint. Both groups were tested for maximum isometric force, force produced at the initial 100 msec., reactive force index, drop jump height, squat jump height, and maximum pedaling rate. Analysis showed the talented group had significantly (p < or = .05) higher scores on maximum isometric force, force produced in the initial 100 msec., and drop jump height than less talented children. Moderate to high correlations were found among scores for field performance tests with maximum pedaling rate. In conclusion, the laboratory tests distinguished the talented and less talented children in maximal isometric force, the force produced at the initial 100 msec., the reactive force index, and the drop jump height. PMID:16671624

  18. Safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children under 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    van den Nieuwboer, M; Brummer, R J; Guarner, F; Morelli, L; Cabana, M; Claassen, E

    2015-10-15

    This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children ageing 0-18 years. This study is the third and final part in a safety trilogy and an update is provided using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013) by means of the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification. Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 74 clinical studies indicated that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in children is safe with regard to the specific evaluated strains, dosages and duration. The population of children include healthy, immune compromised and obese subjects, as well as subjects with intestinal disorders, infections and inflammatory disorders. This study revealed no major safety concerns, as the adverse events (AEs) were unrelated, or not suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product. In general the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred more frequent in the control arm compared to children receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics. Furthermore, the results indicate inadequate reporting and classification of AEs in the majority of the studies. In addition, generalizability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes. PMID:25809217

  19. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100?%) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  20. Parental Characteristics Associated With Bullying Perpetration in US Children Aged 10 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Rosa M.; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We identified factors associated with child bullying in the United States. Methods. We used the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health to examine associations among child, parent, and community factors and bullying perpetration among children aged 10 to 17 years, using bivariate and stepwise multivariable analyses. Results. African American and Latino children and children living in poverty and who had emotional, developmental, or behavioral (EDB) problems had higher odds of bullying, as did children of parents who felt angry with their child or who felt their child bothered them a lot or was hard to care for; suboptimal maternal mental health was associated with higher bullying odds. Children who always or usually completed homework and had parents who talked with them and met all or most of their friends had lower bullying odds. Conclusions. Assessing children’s EDB problems, maternal mental health, and parental perceptions may identify children at risk for bullying. Parent–child communication, meeting children’s friends, and encouraging children academically were associated with lower bullying odds; these protective factors may be useful in designing preventive interventions. PMID:23078471

  1. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L) r = -0.186 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.194 (p < 0.05), waist girth (FPI (L) r = -0.213 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.228 (p < 0.01) and BMI (FPI (L) r = -0.243 (p < 0.01), FPI(R) r = -0.263 (p < 0.01) was identified, but was both weak and inverse. Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction. PMID:21513507

  2. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48?%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22?%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8?%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4?%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2?%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11?%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5?%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100?%) and Salmonella (17, 100?%), and 30 (83?%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100?%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94?%) isolates of E. coli and (78?%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47?%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44?%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  3. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Scheckel, K; Sekine, R; Popelka-Filcoff, R S; Bennett, J W; Brunetti, G; Naidu, R; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E

    2015-10-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with (110 m)Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 ?g/kg (0.002-3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. PMID:26021819

  4. Types of body posture and their characteristics in boys 10 to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pausi?, Jelena; Dizdar, Drazen

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the types of body posture of boys (n = 273), 10 to 13 years of age, by means of the body posture assessment method based on the software Posture Image Analyzer. The results should enable better understanding of postural issues, as well as timely and more precise selection of kinesitherapeutic procedures. Values of 5 front view and 4 sagittal view indicators of standing body posture were measured by means of subjects' photographs and software Image Posture Analyzer Cluster analysis (K-means method) revealed three types of body posture in both the anterior and sagittal plane. Their characteristics were determined with discriminant analysis. In sagittal indicators three posture types are recognizable: (a) correct sagittal body posture (29.3%), (b) mild impaired sagittal body posture (41.8%), (c) marked impaired sagittal body posture (28.9%). In anterior indicators also three posture types are recognizable: (a) correct anterior body posture (19.4%), (b) mild scoliotic body posture in the lumbar region (47.6%), (c) mild scoliotic body posture with double curvature (33%). PMID:22053551

  5. Ontogenetic diet shift of age-0 year Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Shimose, T; Watanabe, H; Tanabe, T; Kubodera, T

    2013-01-01

    Stomach contents of 437 age-0 year Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (20·3-59·4 cm fork length, L(F)) caught in the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio regions around Japan were examined to investigate their ontogenetic diet shift. Prey compositions were diverse and different between regions. Although the seasonal growth patterns were different between regions, ontogenetic diet shifts shared a common pattern. In the Tsushima Current region (Sea of Japan), small T. orientalis (20-25 cm L(F)) preyed upon small squid (juvenile Enoploteuthis chunii), and larger ones (25-35 cm L(F)) gradually shifted their diet to mesopelagic fish (Maurolicus japonicus). In the Kuroshio region (Pacific Ocean), small T. orientalis (20-25 cm L(F)) preyed upon small zooplankton (mostly crustacean larvae), and larger ones (25-40 cm L(F)) shifted to epipelagic fishes (Etrumeus teres, Sardinops melanostictus and Engraulis japonicus). The observed data suggest that T. orientalis switch to a diet more based on fish prey items, which have more body mass and greater swimming ability than small squid and zooplankton, after they reach a L(F) of 25 cm. PMID:23331149

  6. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  7. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  8. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  9. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  10. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an...

  11. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  12. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  13. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from...of minors 14 and 15 years of age who are employed to perform sports-attending...etc., during play; providing ice, drinks, towels,...

  14. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...minors 14 and 15 years of age who are employed to perform...during play; providing ice, drinks, towels...minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...minors 14 and 15 years of age who are employed to perform...during play; providing ice, drinks,...

  15. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from...of minors 14 and 15 years of age who are employed to perform sports-attending...etc., during play; providing ice, drinks, towels,...

  16. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from...of minors 14 and 15 years of age who are employed to perform sports-attending...etc., during play; providing ice, drinks, towels,...

  17. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from...of minors 14 and 15 years of age who are employed to perform sports-attending...etc., during play; providing ice, drinks, towels,...

  18. Impact of age on improvement in health-related quality of life 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, J; Wiklund, I; Sjöland, H; Karlson, B W; Karlsson, T; Haglid, M; Hartford, M; Caidahl, K

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relief of symptoms and improvement in other aspects of health-related quality of life 5 years after coronary artery by-pass grafting in relation to age. Patients in western Sweden were approached with an inquiry prior to surgery and 5 years after the operation. Health-related quality of life was estimated with 3 different instruments: Physical Activity Score (PAS), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). Prior to surgery patients were approached either in the ward or by post and 5 years after surgery they were approached by post. A total of 1719 patients were available for the survey, of whom 876 (51%) responded to the survey both prior to and after 5 years. Among the 876 respondents 287 were <60 years, 331 were 60-67 years and 258 were >67 years. In terms of physical activity, chest pain and dyspnoea, a similar improvement was observed regardless of age. In terms of health-related quality of life questionnaires, there was an inverse association between age and improvement when using PAS and a similar trend was observed with NHP and PGWB. In conclusion, 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting relief of symptoms and improvement in physical activity was not associated with age, whereas improvement in other aspects of health-related quality of life tended to be less marked in elderly people. Overall age seemed to have a small impact on the improved well-being 5 years after coronary surgery. However, due to the limited response rate the results may not be applicable to a non-selected coronary artery bypass grafting population. PMID:10782941

  19. Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123

    PubMed Central

    Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  20. Dairy intakes at age 10 years do not adversely affect risk of excess adiposity at 13 years.

    PubMed

    Bigornia, Sherman J; LaValley, Michael P; Moore, Lynn L; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R; Newby, P K

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  1. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  2. Normative voice range profiles in vocally trained and untrained children aged between 7 and 10 years.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Berit; Zumtobel, Michaela; Prettenhofer, Walter; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Only limited data on normal vocal constitution and vocal capabilities in school-aged children are available. To take better care of children's voices, it might be helpful to know voice ranges and limits of not only vocally trained but also vocally untrained children. Goal of this study was the evaluation of singing voice capabilities of vocally healthy children with different social and vocal/musical backgrounds using voice range profile measurements (VRP). VRP percentiles that reflect constitutional aspects were suggested. In this cross-sectional study, 186 children (aged between seven and 10 years), attending five schools, were included. VRP measurements were performed under field conditions. Interviews and questionnaires regarding vocal strain and vocal training were applied; the answers were used for classification of singing activity and vocal training (KLASAK). All children reached a mean singing voice range of at least two octaves. By using the answers of interviews and questionnaires, the children could be classified according to vocal strain and vocal training. The groups showed no significant differences regarding VRP measurements. In the following step, percentiles were calculated. Twenty-five percent of all children (P25) reached a minimum voice range of almost two octaves, namely, 22 semitones (ST) from 220 to 784 Hz with soft and loud singing. Half of the children (P50) had a voice range of 24 ST (2 octaves), while soft singing and a larger voice range of 26 ST while loud singing. The measurements of third quartile (P75) revealed that 25% of children have even a larger voice range than 29 dB (from 196 Hz/g to 1047 Hz/c3) and can sing at most frequencies louder than 90 dB. P90 demonstrated that 10% of the children can sing even lower or higher than the frequency range between 196 Hz/g and 1319 Hz/e3 analyzed. The voice range seems not to be constrained by social but by voice/musical background: children of vocally/musically encouraged schools had wider voice ranges. This underlines the necessity of regular singing lessons already in primary schools. The percentile VRP introduced might help to evaluate the vocal constitution and vocal capabilities of a child. PMID:19303739

  3. [Efficacy of mirabegron, a ?3-adrenergic agonist, switched from an anticholinergic agent for female patients aged over 70 years].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Shinichi

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of mirabegron, a ?3-adrenergic agonist, in patients aged ?70 years who did not respond to treatment with an anticholinergic agent. From February 2012 to May 2012, we examined 37 patients who did not respond to treatment with an anticholinergic agent. We assessed the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), thirst, and constipation at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months from the start of drug administration. Theme an age of the female patients was 79.9±6.08 years. The OABSS indicated significant improvement in nocturia and urge incontinence at 3 and 6 months. Furthermore, mirabegron significantly relieved thirst (in 95.2% of cases) and constipation (in 87.5% of cases). Thus, mirabegron is considered useful for female patients aged ?70 years who did not respond to treatment with an anticholinergic agent. PMID:24113752

  4. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1999-09-27

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

  5. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.L.; Chang, M.N.; Chabala, J.C.; Chiu, S.H.; Eline, D.; Hucker, H.B.; Sweeney, B.M.; White, S.D.; Arison, B.H.; Smith, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone.

  6. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  7. Aging, Fitness, and Marathon Times in a 91 Year-old Man Who Competed in 627 Marathons

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Odessa; Steinbrenner, Gregory; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Katzel, Leslie I.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) that may be attenuated by chronic endurance exercise. This case study chronicles the changes in marathon times in a 91 year old man who completed 627 marathons and 117 ultramarathons over 42 years. He began running marathons at age 48. His yearly best times remained fairly constant at ~240 minutes from age 50 – 64 years and then gradually rose to about 260 minutes in his early seventies followed by a curvilinear deterioration as he approached his ninth decade. His times plateaued at ~ 600 minutes in his late eighties. Between ages 68 and 89 his VO2max declined from 43 to 20 ml/kg/min. His marathon times were highly correlated with his VO2max (r2=0.87). The decline in marathons times and VO2max may reflect the contributions of biological aging, changes in exercise training volume and intensity, injuries, and comorbid disease. PMID:26290832

  8. Towards a Complete Census of Bright z~9-10 Galaxies from the CANDELS Program: The Volume Density and Physical Properties of Ultra-Bright Galaxies at z~9-10 and Possible Evidence for a Steepening of the UV LF to z>8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard John

    2015-08-01

    Over the last few years, enormous progress has been made in the study of galaxies at very high redshifts, thanks to the extraordinary capabilities of the HST WFC3/IR camera, the Spitzer/IRAC instrument, and both ultra-deep and wide areas programs. Already, more than 800 probable galaxies are known at z>~6, and now the current frontier is clearly at z>~9-10. While a good fraction of the interest over the last few years has been on ultra-faint galaxies at z~9-10, the discovery of a small number of ultra-bright galaxies at z~9-10 in late 2013 was initially surprising and has been equally noteworthy. In this presentation, I summarize what we have learned about the physical properties of these rare z~9-10 objects, from a search + HST follow-up program over the full CANDELS program, a measurement of their UV colors using deep Spitzer/IRAC data, and a quantification of their physical sizes. I also remark on some possible evidence for a steeper UV LF at z~9-10 by comparing the volume density of this bright population with the volume density of fainter z~9-10 galaxies.

  9. Blood carbon monoxide levels in persons 3 to 74 years of age: United States, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, E.P.; Drizd, T.A.

    1982-03-17

    This report presents national estimates of the distribution of carbon monoxide levels in the blood of persons ages 3 to 74 years in the United States by age, smoking status, race, urbanization status of residence, annual family income, and season of the year. These findings will be described and analyzed further in a report in the Vital and Health Statistics series (in preparation). In this report the relative contributions of the four principal sources of carbon monoxide (smoking, ambient or outdoor exposures, occupational exposures, and indoor exposures) to COHb levels are examined. Of these, smoking is the most significant and widespread, although in special circumstances each of the other contributors assumes some importance.

  10. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  11. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  12. Changes in tobacco use among youths aged 13-15 years - Panama, 2002 and 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today, and the majority of smokers begin using tobacco products before age 18 years. However, before the late 1990s, few countries had reliable data on youth tobacco use. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association developed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to help countries monitor youth tobacco use. At the same time, WHO initiated the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the first international public health treaty on tobacco control. Panama ratified WHO FCTC in 2004 and enacted two key antitobacco regulations in 2005 and 2008. To evaluate progress toward attaining tobacco control goals in Panama, Panama's Ministry of Health, CDC, and WHO compared results from GYTS surveys conducted in Panama in 2002 and 2008. This report summarizes the results of that comparison, which revealed substantial decreases from 2002 to 2008 in youth current cigarette smoking (13.2% versus 4.3%), current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes (9.8% versus 5.8%), and likely initiation of smoking by never smokers (13.8% versus 10.0%). In addition, factors influencing tobacco use showed substantial decreases, including 1) exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home and in public places, 2) best friends smoking, 3) protobacco advertising in newspapers and magazines, and 4) having an object with a tobacco company logo on it. These results suggest that comprehensive regulations in Panama helped reduce tobacco use among adolescents and further gains are possible. PMID:19129746

  13. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-02-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:21224309

  14. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  15. Nutrition interventions for children aged less than 5?years following natural disasters: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition among children is a serious public health problem in the aftermath of any natural disaster. We will review the various nutrition interventions for children aged <5?years in countries where natural disasters occurred and analyse the effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review on nutrition intervention studies following natural disasters that were published between January 2000 and December 2015. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool will be used for randomised controlled trials and Risk of Bias Assessment for Non-Randomized Studies (RoBANS) will be used for non-randomised studies. The quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. If sufficient data are available, we will conduct meta-analyses to establish the relationship between nutrition interventions and nutrition outcome indicators. All statistical analyses will be performed using Review Manager (Rev Man) V.5.3 for Windows. Heterogeneity of the data will be tested using the standard ?2 test. A fixed-effect model will be used for the studies with high heterogeneity (p value>0.10, I2?50%). For dichotomous and continuous data, relative risk (RR) and mean difference with 95% CI will be used respectively. Subgroup analysis will be performed for studies with low heterogeneity (p value ?0.10). We will use Z score with the level of significance set at p value <0.05 to test the total effect. Funnel plots will be used to detect publication bias. Ethics and dissemination As primary data will not be collected, formal ethical approval will not be required. The results will be disseminated by publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the media. Registration details International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42015023243 was registered on 1 June 2015. PMID:26621520

  16. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at ageyears.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  17. Parasitism in Children Aged Three Years and Under: Relationship between Infection and Growth in Rural Coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Maxim; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M.; McKibben, Elisabeth; Gildengorin, Ginny; Sutherland, Laura J.; King, Charles H.; King, Christopher L.; Malhotra, Indu

    2015-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections, which are among the most common infections worldwide, disproportionately affect children; however, little is known about the impact of parasitic disease on growth in very early childhood. Our objective was to document the prevalence of parasitic infections and examine their association with growth during the first three years of life among children in coastal Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings Children enrolled in a maternal-child cohort were tested for soil transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm, Strongyloides), protozoa (malaria, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia), filaria, and Schistosoma infection every six months from birth until age three years. Anthropometrics were measured at each visit. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to examine the relationship between parasitic infections experienced in the first three years of life and growth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference). Of 545 children, STHs were the most common infection with 106 infections (19%) by age three years. Malaria followed in period prevalence with 68 infections (12%) by three years of age. Filaria and Schistosoma infection occurred in 26 (4.8%) and 16 (2.9%) children, respectively. Seven percent were infected with multiple parasites by three years of age. Each infection type (when all STHs were combined) was documented by six months of age. Decreases in growth of weight, length and head circumference during the first 36 months of life were associated with hookworm, Ascaris, E. histolytica, malaria and Schistosoma infection. In a subset analysis of 180 children who followed up at every visit through 24 months, infection with any parasite was associated with decelerations in weight, length and head circumference growth velocity. Multiple infections were associated with greater impairment of linear growth. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate an under-recognized burden of parasitism in the first three years of childhood in rural Kenya. Parasitic infection and polyparasitism were common, and were associated with a range of significant growth impairment in terms of weight, length and/or head circumference. PMID:25996157

  18. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. )

    1992-10-29

    Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

  19. Associations of birth weight and postnatal weight gain with cardiometabolic risk parameters at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Garcia-Vicent, Consuelo; Torro, Maria Isabel; Aguilar, Francisco; Redon, Josep

    2014-06-01

    The present prospective study assessed the impact of birth weight (BW) and postnatal weight gain on blood pressure and metabolic profile during the first 5 years of life. One hundred thirty-nine newborns (63 women) born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies and in the absence of perinatal illness were included. Subjects were divided according to size at birth in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. After the initial evaluation on the second day of life, infants were followed up at 6 months and 2 and 5 years. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured at each visit and metabolic assessment was performed at 5 years of age. Among the BW groups, mothers did not differ in terms of age, smoking, and weight gain during pregnancy. BW was a positive determinant of systolic blood pressure at birth. Afterward, current weight was the strongest determinant, becoming significant at 2 years of age and progressively increasing in influence. At 5 years insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index and triglycerides were dependent on BW, current weight, and postnatal weight gain. In addition, BW was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and inversely so to uric acid. A positive relationship among insulin, blood pressure values, and uric acid was observed even early in life. In conclusion, the acceleration of early infant weight gain may aggravate the effects of low BW. Multiple interactions between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters foreshadow the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors later in life. PMID:24688125

  20. Burden and trend analysis of injury mortality in China among children aged 0–14?years from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Wu, Jing; Luo, Jiesi; Pak, Anita WP; Choi, Bernard CK; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To track changes of the burden and trends of childhood injury mortality among children aged 0–14?years in China from 2004 to 2011. Design National representative data from the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points system and Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system from 2004 to 2011 were used. Rates and 95% CIs of aged-standardised mortality, as well as the proportions of injury death, were estimated. Setting Urban and rural China. Participants Children aged 0–14?years from 2004 to 2011. Results The proportion of injury among all deaths in children increased from 18.69% in 2004 to 21.26% in 2011. A ‘V’ shape change was found in the age-standardised injury mortality rate during the study period among the children aged 0–14?years, with the age-standardised injury mortality rate decreasing from 29.71 per 100?000 per year in 2004 to 24.12 in 2007, and then increasing to 28.12 in 2011. A similar change was observed in the rural area. But the age-standardised mortality rate decreased consistently in the urban area. The rate was higher among boys than among girls. Drowning, road traffic accidents and falls were consistently the top three causes of death among children. Conclusions Childhood injury is an increasingly serious public health problem in China. The increasing trend of childhood injury mortality is driven by the rural areas rather than urban areas. More effective strategies and measures for injury prevention and control are needed for rural areas, boys, drowning, road traffic accidents and falls. PMID:26137882

  1. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A. M.; Peterson, K. E.; de Souza, A. C.; Orav, E. J.; Hughes, M.; Chen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The association between infection and growth delay is not well documented in school-age children in developing countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between infectious disease and weight and height gains among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: A one-year follow-up study was performed to elucidate the determinants and consequences of physical growth of children under five years of age. The study included 135 households randomly selected from four villages in the Matlab area. RESULTS: The most frequent infections were upper respiratory infections (mean = 4 episodes or 27 days per year) followed by non-dysenteric diarrhoea (mean = 2.3 episodes or 15 days per year) and dysentery (mean = 0.2 episodes or 2 days per year). The number of episodes and their duration decreased significantly with age. Over a 12-month period the mean weight gain was 1.3 kg and the mean increase in height was 2.9 cm. The total number of days when diarrhoea occurred was negatively associated with annual weight gain (regression coefficient beta = -7 g per day, P = 0.02), with adjustment for age, sex, energy and protein intake, and household land ownership. The incidence of diarrhoeal disease was significantly associated with weight gain in intermediate models but only marginally associated with it in the final multivariate model (P = 0.08). Neither the incidence nor the duration of upper respiratory infections was associated with weight gain. Height gain was not significantly associated with the duration or incidence of either category of illness. Diarrhoea was a significant correlate of retarded weight gain among children above preschool age, whereas upper respiratory infections were not. DISCUSSION: Diarrhoeal morbidity slowed growth in children well beyond the weaning age, suggesting that increased attention should be given to the study of the continuous impact of diarrhoea in children aged over 5 years. An understanding of the determinants of growth in school-age children in developing countries would maximize the health and developmental outcomes that are the target of international child survival strategies at younger ages. PMID:11143191

  2. Now That the Law Has Changed: Assessing the Impact of the 21 Year Old Drinking Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Terry; And Others

    To determine the effects of raising the legal drinking age on the drinking patterns of college students, especially those whose status changed from legal to illegal, a survey was designed and administered to college students before and after the legal drinking age was changed from 19 to 21. College students (N=799) completed surveys in April of…

  3. Early and Continuous Stimulation of Children 3-9 Years of Age. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lacy D.

    The major objective of the project was to: assess the long-term impact of continuous educational stimulation on achievement of children entering the early education program at age 3 and continuing until age 9. A secondary objective was to: assess the long-term impact of continuous educational stimulation on behavior of children entering the…

  4. A longitudinal study of Cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 mo of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence mic...

  5. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  6. Longitudinal Study of Performance on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a cognitive test to measure executive function. Longitudinal studies have shown that repeated testing improves performance on the RFFT. Such a practice effect may hinder the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal performance on the RFFT in persons aged 35–82 years. Performance on the RFFT was measured three times over an average follow-up period of six years in 2,515 participants of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) study in Groningen, the Netherlands: 53% men; mean age (SD), 53 (10) years. The effect of consecutive measurements on performance on the RFFT was investigated with linear multilevel regression models that also included age, gender, educational level and the interaction term consecutive measurement number x age as independent variables. It was found that the mean (SD) number of unique designs on the RFFT increased from 73 (26) at the first measurement to 79 (27) at the second measurement and to 83 (26) at the third measurement (p<0.001). However, the increase per consecutive measurement number was negatively associated with age and decreased with 0.23 per one-year increment of age (p<0.001). The increase per consecutive measurement number was not dependent on educational level. Similar results were found for the median (IQR) number of perseverative errors which showed a small but statistically significant increase with repeating testing: 7 (3–13) at the first measurement, 7 (4–14) at the second measurement and 8 (4–15) at the third measurement (ptrend = 0.002). In conclusion, the performance on the RFFT improved by repeating the test over an average follow-up period of three to six years. This practice effect was the largest in young adults and not dependent on educational level. PMID:25799403

  7. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 ?g/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 ?g/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 ?g/L) than in girls (61.9 ?g/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs?100 ?g/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (?100 ?g/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  8. Midline crossing: developmental trend from 3 to 10 years of age in a preferential card-reaching task.

    PubMed

    Carlier, M; Doyen, A-L; Lamard, C

    2006-08-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age explained 4.9% of the variance. Significant differences appeared between 3-4 years old children and 8-10 years old children. The effect of the spatial position of the cards was also significant: the contralateral hand was used less often to reach cards at the most extreme positions. These findings in this task demonstrate that the development of the degree of handedness follows a long developmental trend. PMID:16513237

  9. Antibody Persistence at 1 and 4 Years Following a Single Dose of MenAfriVac or Quadrivalent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Healthy Subjects Aged 2–29 Years

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Aldiouma; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Findlow, Helen; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Elie, Cheryl; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Parulekar, Varsha; Diarra, Bou; Cheick Haidara, Fadima; Diallo, Fatoumata; Tapia, Milagritos; Akinsola, Adebayo K.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Bavdekar, Ashish; Juvekar, Sanjay; Chaumont, Julie; Martellet, Lionel; Marchetti, Elisa; LaForce, Marc F.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Tang, Yuxiao; Borrow, Ray; Carlone, George; Viviani, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Mass vaccination campaigns of the population aged 1–29 years with 1 dose of group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) in African meningitis belt countries has resulted in the near-disappearance of MenA. The vaccine was tested in clinical trials in Africa and in India and found to be safe and highly immunogenic compared with the group A component of the licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY). Antibody persistence in Africa and in India was investigated. Methods.?A total of 900 subjects aged 2–29 years were followed up for 4 years in Senegal, Mali, and The Gambia (study A). A total of 340 subjects aged 2–10 years were followed up for 1 year in India (study B). In study A, subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, and in study B a 1:1 ratio to receive either PsA-TT or PsACWY. Immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring MenA serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) with rabbit complement and by a group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results.?In both studies, substantial SBA decay was observed at 6 months postvaccination in both vaccine groups, although more marked in the PsACWY group. At 1 year and 4 years (only for study A) postvaccination, SBA titers were relatively sustained in the PsA-TT group, whereas a slight increasing trend, more pronounced among the youngest, was observed in the participants aged <18 years in the PsACWY groups. The SBA titers were significantly higher in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group at any time point, and the majority of subjects in the PsA-TT group had SBA titers ?128 and group A–specific IgG concentrations ?2 µg/mL at any point in time in both the African and Indian study populations. Conclusions.?Four years after vaccination with a single dose of PsA-TT vaccine in Africa, most subjects are considered protected from MenA disease. Clinical Trials Registration.?PsA-TT-003 (ISRCTN87739946); PsA-TT-003a (ISRCTN46335400). PMID:26553684

  10. The construction of MRI brain/head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wanze; Richards, John E; Lei, Du; Zhu, Hongyan; Lee, Kang; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-10-01

    Population-specific brain templates that provide detailed brain information are beneficial to both structural and functional neuroimaging research. However, age-specific MRI templates have not been constructed for Chinese or any Asian developmental populations. This study developed novel T1-weighted average brain and head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age in two-year increments using high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and well-validated image analysis techniques. A total of 138 Chinese children (51 F/87 M) were included in this study. The internally and externally validated registrations show that these Chinese age-specific templates fit Chinese children's MR images significantly better than age-specific templates created from U.S. children, or adult templates based on either Chinese or North American adults. It implies that age-inappropriate (e.g., the Chinese56 template, the US20-24 template) and nationality-inappropriate brain templates (e.g., U.S. children's templates, the US20-24 template) do not provide optimal reference MRIs for processing MR brain images of Chinese pediatric populations. Thus, our age-specific MRI templates are the first of the kind and should be useful in neuroimaging studies with children from Chinese or other Asian populations. These templates can also serve as the foundations for the construction of more comprehensive sets of nationality-specific templates for Asian developmental populations. These templates are available for use in our database. PMID:26343862

  11. A longitudinal study on emotional dysregulation and obesity risk: From pregnancy to 3 years of age of the baby.

    PubMed

    de Campora, Gaia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Delogu, Anna Maria; Meldolesi, Cristina; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Some recent findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and emotional regulation may play a key role in predicting the risk for obesity of the child in early ages. The current article describes a longitudinal study encompassing more than 50 women, across a time-span that currently goes from pregnancy (n = 65) to three years of age of the baby (n = 53). In a previous report on our ongoing research project, we showed that emotional regulation during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted the quality of the early, dyadic feeding interactions, at 7 months of age of the baby. The current study confirmed and extended those findings, by showing that maternal emotional dysregulation (r = .355, p = .009) and pre-pregnancy BMI (r = .389, p = .004) predicted the BMI of the child at three years of age too, with a medium to large effect size. However, neither maternal emotional regulation nor pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted infant attachment at one year of age. PMID:26375359

  12. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ?26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ?26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors. PMID:26585526

  13. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  14. Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 85 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Grundstrom, Anna C; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. No previous studies on risk factors for falls have focused on adults 85 years and older, the most rapidly growing segment of adults. We examined demographic, health, and behavioral risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 65 years and older, with a particular focus on adults 85 years and older. We analyzed self-reported information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008. Data was available for 120,923 people aged 65 or older and 12,684 people aged 85 or older. Of those aged 85 or older, 21.3% reported at least one fall in the past 3 months and 7.2% reported at least one fall related injury requiring medical care or limiting activity for a day or longer. Below average general health, male sex, perceived insufficient sleep, health problems requiring assistive devices, alcohol consumption, increasing body mass index and history of stroke were all independently associated with a greater risk of falls or fall related injuries. The greater risk of falling in those 85 years and older appeared to be due to the deterioration of overall health status with age; among those with excellent overall health status, there was no greater risk of falling in adults 85 years and older compared to those 65-84 years of age. Our results suggest that those with risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries may be appropriate targets for evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:21862143

  15. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  16. The Essential Mechanisms of Aging: What Have We Learnt in Ten Years?

    PubMed

    Yin, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    Carbonylation due to oxidation and glycation is an important biochemical cause of degenerative diseases and aging. While the enigma of aging is understood as a result of molecular dysfunction due to the failure of maintenance systems, a brief history of the interpretation of aging mechanisms and the exact biochemistry connecting entropy and biological aging is addressed. Lipofuscin formation mechanisms resulting in irreparable accumulative changes represent the most important aging- related alterations of entropy increase in biological kingdom, which is very different from the damage-based "aging" process of inorganic materials. A fifth level of aging mechanism investigations that highlights the importance of functional groups of biochemistry, the "missing codes" of life science, is put forward in this review. Significance and validities of such 'life codes' in biology beyond genomic and proteomic concepts has also been clarified. An open-minded consideration of functional groups of biomolecules, such as carbonyl groups, may help to explain the mechanisms of fatigue and sleep in terms of neurobiochemistry and biological pharmaco-medicine. PMID:26268334

  17. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  18. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan. PMID:26440642

  19. Health Behaviors and Protective Factors of School Students Aged 13-15 Years Old in Four Cities of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Benchun; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ling; Lv, Shuhong; Tian, Xiangyang; Xiong, Guanglian; Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Xinwei; Kann, Laura K.; Riley, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data on health behaviors and protective factors among junior middle school students aged 13-15 years old in China for the purpose of developing priorities, establishing programs and policies for school health and youth health and also establishing trends in the prevalence of these behaviors. The 2003 CHINA GSHS…

  20. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  1. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  2. Support for Families: Working with Parents and Caregivers to Support Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue of Coordinators' Notebook focuses on how early childhood care and development (ECCD) programs world-wide can work with parents and caregivers to support children from birth to 3 years of age. Section 1 of the journal describes the needs of parents and families and the development of parent programs around the world. Section 2…

  3. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  4. Space or Physics? Children Use Physical Reasoning to Solve the Trap Problem from 2.5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Amanda M.; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the…

  5. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...between 16 and 18 years of age or detrimental to their health or well-being. (c) Occupations that involve operating, tending, setting...employer exterior facilities, whether temporary or permanent, as garden centers, sidewalk sales, and parking lot sales, when...

  6. What Helps Middle-Aged Widows with Their Psychological and Social Adaptation Several Years after Their Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Lea; Florian, Victor

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to middle-aged widows' adaptation to their husbands' death due to physical illness, 1 to 5 years after the initial loss. Ninety-three widows and 93 married women, who served as controls, filled out questionnaires assessing their experience of stress and strain, their Sense of Coherence level, the social…

  7. Energy intake from foods and beverages consumed between meals by adolescents ages 12–18 years: NHANES, 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to describe meal patterns of adolescents ages 12–18 years (n = 5,811), and energy intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals. NHANES, 1999–2004, Day 1, 24-h recall data were classified by food group, meal type, and time of day. Snacks/drinks were consumed by 90% of ad...

  8. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  9. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  10. Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

  11. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  12. Volunteering and Giving among American Teenagers 14 to 17 Years of Age. Findings from a National Survey. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.; Weitzman, Murray S.

    This survey was conducted by the Gallup organization on the volunteering and giving behavior of U.S. teenagers as a supplement to a national survey on giving and volunteering among U.S. adults. Information was obtained from in-home personal interviews with 301 teenagers from 14 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that 58 percent of teenagers…

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME IN ONE SECOND IN CHILDREN 6 TO 11 YEARS OF AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors analyzed 44,664 annual measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in 12,258 white children and 1,041 black children between 6 and 11 years of age in 6 communities. Sex and race-specific lung function development is de...

  14. American Indian Substance Use: The Hazards for Substance Use Initiation and Progression for Adolescents Aged 14 to 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novins, Douglas K.; Baron, Anna E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the risks and risk factors for substance use initiation and progression among a large sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Method: Data came from surveys completed by 2,356 AI adolescents aged 14 to 20 years who participated in two or more consecutive waves of a longitudinal study between 1993 and 1996 (response rate…

  15. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  16. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  17. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  18. A FreeSurfer-compliant consistent manual segmentation of infant brains spanning the 0–2 year age range

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Ben-Avi, Emma; Sliva, Danielle D.; Choe, Myong-sun; Drottar, Marie; Wang, Ruopeng; Fischl, Bruce; Grant, Patricia E.; Zöllei, Lilla

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of a set of FreeSurfer compatible segmentation guidelines tailored to infant MRI scans, and a unique data set of manually segmented acquisitions, with subjects nearly evenly distributed between 0 and 2 years of age. We believe that these segmentation guidelines and this dataset will have a wide range of potential uses in medicine and neuroscience. PMID:25741260

  19. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  20. The Relationship between Psychological Health and Attitude toward Christianity among Pupils Aged 11 to 15 Years in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a…

  1. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  2. Gender Differences in Physical Aggression: A Prospective Population-Based Survey of Children before and after 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Raymond H.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Cote, Sylvana; Perusse, Daniel; Wu, Hong-Xing; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much controversy over the past decades on the origins of gender differences in children's aggressive behavior. A widely held view is that gender differences emerge sometime after 2 years of age and increase in magnitude thereafter because of gender-differentiated socialization practices. The objective of this study was to test…

  3. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... performance of any duties on trains, motor vehicles, aircraft, vessels, or other media of transportation or...

  4. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... performance of any duties on trains, motor vehicles, aircraft, vessels, or other media of transportation or...

  5. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... performance of any duties on trains, motor vehicles, aircraft, vessels, or other media of transportation or...

  6. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... performance of any duties on trains, motor vehicles, aircraft, vessels, or other media of transportation or...

  7. A new performance based system was developed to involve 9-10 year old school

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    visiting dentists. The project aimed to engage with the local community using child-led research to . . . .. more than 100 friends. Do I Have to Go? Child-led Research into a Children's attitudes to Dentists more pleasant. They then performed the results in their school assembly, which was captured on video

  8. Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children

    E-print Network

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

    2014-06-12

    -reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. Purpose: To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health...

  9. Social and demographic factors predictive of change over seven years in CHD-related behaviours in men aged 18-49 years.

    PubMed

    Boniface, D R; Cottee, M J; Neal, D; Skinner, A

    2001-07-01

    It is possible that the relationship of social status to coronary heart disease is partly mediated through health-related behaviours that have been found to relate to both social status and CHD. Changes in certain health-related behaviours are known to lead to changes in CHD incidence. What are the characteristics of men who change or do not change these behaviours and their subsequent chances of CHD? This study aims to relate changes in men's CHD-related behaviours over a seven-year period to their social and demographic characteristics.A survey was carried out on a random sample of adults in Great Britain in 1984-85 and the equivalent information was obtained again on those participants who were re-interviewed seven years later in 1991-92. Results are presented for the 582 men aged 18-34 and the 584 men aged 35-49 at the first interview who were re-interviewed seven years later. Changes over the seven years in smoking, saturated fat intake, alcohol consumption and exercise were related to social and demographic factors. The two age groups showed broadly similar patterns of behaviour. In both age groups, those who continued with or took up a low fat diet and/or exercise were more likely to be in a higher social class, in employment, to live in private housing and to have more educational qualifications. For the younger men only, those in private housing were more likely to reduce the amount they smoked. Other findings are also reported. The findings suggest that those people who are in less advantageous social and economic situations are less likely to change to a more healthy lifestyle and so should be a focus for health education. PMID:11464295

  10. Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorisdottir, Birna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed. PMID:24747694

  11. SIRT6 Minor Allele Genotype Is Associated with >5-Year Decrease in Lifespan in an Aged Cohort

    PubMed Central

    TenNapel, Mindi J.; Lynch, Charles F.; Burns, Trudy L.; Wallace, Robert; Smith, Brian J.; Button, Anna; Domann, Frederick E.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a natural process involving complex interplay between environment, metabolism, and genes. Sirtuin genes and their downstream targets have been associated with lifespan in numerous organisms from nematodes to humans. Several target proteins of the sirtuin genes are key sensors and/or effectors of oxidative stress pathways including FOXO3, SOD3, and AKT1. To examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at candidate genes in these pathways and human lifespan, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study of an elderly cohort (?65 years old.). Using age at death as a continuous outcome variable and assuming a co-dominant genetic model within the framework of multi-variable linear regression analysis, the genotype-specific adjusted mean age at death was estimated for individual SNP genotypes while controlling for age-related risk factors including smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and co-morbidity. Significant associations were detected between human lifespan and SNPs in genes SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, FOXO3 and SOD3. Individuals with either the CC or CT genotype at rs107251 within SIRT6 displayed >5-year mean survival advantages compared to the TT genotype (5.5 and 5.9 years, respectively; q-value ?=?0.012). Other SNPs revealed genotype-specific mean survival advantages ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 years. Gender also modified the effect of SNPs in SIRT3, SIRT5 and AKT1 on lifespan. Our novel findings highlight the impact of sirtuins and sirtuin-related genotypes on lifespan, the importance of evaluating gender and the advantage of using age as a continuous variable in analyses to report mean age at death. PMID:25541994

  12. Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Management Continuum – 2010 Consensus Summary for children six years of age and over, and adults

    PubMed Central

    Lougheed, M Diane; Lemière, Catherine; Dell, Sharon D; Ducharme, Francine M; FitzGerald, J Mark; Leigh, Richard; Licskai, Chris; Rowe, Brian H; Bowie, Dennis; Becker, Allan; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To integrate new evidence into the Canadian Asthma Management Continuum diagram, encompassing both pediatric and adult asthma. METHODS: The Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Committee members, comprised of experts in pediatric and adult respirology, allergy and immunology, emergency medicine, general pediatrics, family medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and evidence-based medicine, updated the continuum diagram, based primarily on the 2008 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, and performed a focused review of literature pertaining to key aspects of asthma diagnosis and management in children six years of age and over, and adults. RESULTS: In patients six years of age and over, management of asthma begins with establishing an accurate diagnosis, typically by supplementing medical history with objective measures of lung function. All patients and caregivers should receive self-management education, including a written action plan. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) remain the first-line controller therapy for all ages. When asthma is not controlled with a low dose of ICS, the literature supports the addition of long-acting beta2-agonists in adults, while the preferred approach in children is to increase the dose of ICS. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are acceptable as second-line monotherapy and as an alternative add-on therapy in both age groups. Anti-immunoglobulin E therapy may be of benefit in adults, and in children 12 years of age and over with difficult to control allergic asthma, despite high-dose ICS and at least one other controller. CONCLUSIONS: The foundation of asthma management is establishing an accurate diagnosis based on objective measures (eg, spirometry) in individuals six years of age and over. Emphasis is placed on the similarities and differences between pediatric and adult asthma management approaches to achieve asthma control. PMID:20186367

  13. Learning opportunities in a residential aged care facility: the role of supported placements for first-year nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Marlow, Annette; Bramble, Marguerite; Andrews, Sharon; Crisp, Elaine; Eccleston, Claire; Mason, Ron; Robinson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    The residential aged care sector is reportedly a less attractive career choice for nursing students than other sectors. Research shows that students are often fearful of working with residents with dementia when they are inadequately supported on clinical placements by aged care staff. Thirty first-year nursing students attended a 2-week placement in one of two Tasmanian aged care facilities as part of the Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre Teaching Aged Care Facilities Program, which aims to provide students with a quality aged care placement focusing on dementia palliation. Placement experience and dementia knowledge were evaluated through preplacement and postplacement questionnaires and weekly feedback meetings with mentors and students. Students had more positive attitudes related to aged care and higher dementia knowledge at the end of placement. Students described their interactions with residents with dementia and thought that the placement had increased their capacity to provide quality care to these residents. The findings indicate that residential aged care placements can be productive learning environments for novice nursing students. PMID:24972402

  14. Efficacy and safety of the thrombopoietin receptor agonist romiplostim in patients aged ?65 years with immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Michel, Marc; Wasser, Jeffrey; Godeau, Bertrand; Aledort, Louis; Cooper, Nichola; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Khellaf, Mehdi; Wang, Xuena

    2015-12-01

    Thrombopoietin receptor agonists increase platelet counts and reduce bleeding risk in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Studies have reported that these agents may represent a risk factor for thromboembolic events, especially in the elderly, who are at increased risk for such complications relative to younger patients. In this retrospective analysis, efficacy and safety data for romiplostim in patients with ITP aged ?65 years versus those aged <65 years are described. Data from 3 studies (N?=?159; 24.5% ?65 years of age) were analyzed for efficacy. Data from 13 studies (N?=?1037; 28.4% ?65 years of age) were analyzed for adverse events (AEs). Relative risk (RR) ratios with 95% CIs were calculated for duration-adjusted incidences of AEs for romiplostim versus placebo/standard of care (SOC) in patients ?65 and <65 years. Slightly higher platelet response rates were seen among romiplostim-treated patients ?65 versus <65 years. In the safety analyses, 65 (6.3%) received placebo/SOC, 69 (6.7%) received placebo/SOC and then romiplostim, and 903 (87.1%) received romiplostim only. Duration-adjusted AE rates were similar for romiplostim versus placebo/SOC in older and younger patients. The risks for grade ?3 bleeding (RR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.47-7.95) and thromboembolic events (RR 3.85; 95% CI, 0.53-27.96) were numerically but not significantly higher for romiplostim versus placebo/SOC in patients ?65 years. Romiplostim is effective and, with the exception of nonsignificant trends showing increased risks of grade ?3 bleeding and thromboembolic events (a trend observed in other studies), generally well tolerated in older patients with ITP. PMID:26341755

  15. Durable recovery of the macular architecture and functionality of a diagnosed age-related macular degeneration 1?year after a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, P; Outeiriño, L A; Azanza, C; Giménez-Gallego, G

    2013-01-01

    Among the age-related diseases that affect vision, age-related macular degeneration is the most frequent cause of blindness in patients older than 60?years. In this communication, we report the full anatomical and functional recovery of a patient diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration 1?year after a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate. PMID:24225910

  16. Archean rocks in antarctica: 2.5-billion-year uranium-lead ages of pegmatites in enderby land.

    PubMed

    Grew, E S; Manton, W I

    1979-10-26

    Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-bil-lion-years lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may be a continuation of the Archean granulitic terrain of southern India. PMID:17809366

  17. The panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. V. Ages and masses of the year 1 stellar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, L. Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Larsen, Søren S.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2014-05-10

    We present ages and masses for 601 star clusters in M31 from the analysis of the six filter integrated light measurements from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, made as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We derive the ages and masses using a probabilistic technique, which accounts for the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function. Tests on synthetic data show that this method, in conjunction with the exquisite sensitivity of the PHAT observations and their broad wavelength baseline, provides robust age and mass recovery for clusters ranging from ?10{sup 2} to 2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}. We find that the cluster age distribution is consistent with being uniform over the past 100 Myr, which suggests a weak effect of cluster disruption within M31. The age distribution of older (>100 Myr) clusters falls toward old ages, consistent with a power-law decline of index –1, likely from a combination of fading and disruption of the clusters. We find that the mass distribution of the whole sample can be well described by a single power law with a spectral index of –1.9 ± 0.1 over the range of 10{sup 3}-3 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ?}. However, if we subdivide the sample by galactocentric radius, we find that the age distributions remain unchanged. However, the mass spectral index varies significantly, showing best-fit values between –2.2 and –1.8, with the shallower slope in the highest star formation intensity regions. We explore the robustness of our study to potential systematics and conclude that the cluster mass function may vary with respect to environment.

  18. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  19. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M.; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  20. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score ?adjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score ?adjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score ?adjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:636–642;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408417 PMID:25738596

  1. Genetic Contributions to Age-Related Decline in Executive Function: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of COMT and BDNF Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Kim, Jennifer S.; Suever, Barbara L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Francis, B. Magnus; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT (Val158/108Met) gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met) affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age. PMID:18958211

  2. Five years of interdisciplinary research on ageing and technology: Outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL)--an introduction to this Special Issue on Ageing and Technology.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Kolb, Gerald; Künemund, Harald; Eichelberg, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Informatics for Health and Social Care is presenting outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (abbreviated as GAL), probably one of the largest inter- and multidisciplinary research projects on aging and technology. In order to investigate and provide answers on whether new information and communication technologies can contribute to keeping, or even improving quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies through new ways of living and new forms of care, GAL had been established as a five-year research project, running from 2008 to 2013. Ambient-assisted living technologies in personal and home environments were especially important. During the five years of research in GAL, more than seventy researchers from computer science, economics, engineering, geriatrics, gerontology, informatics, medicine, nursing science and rehabilitation pedagogy intensively collaborated in finding answers. PMID:25148555

  3. Risk Correlates of Diarrhea in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Slums of Bankura, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Avisek; Sarker, Gautam; Rout, Arup Jyoti; Mondal, Tanushree; Pal, Ranabir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrheal diseases are an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally in children under 5 years of age. Objective: To find the prevalence and risk factors of diarrhea among children under 5 years. Materials and Methods: A population-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban slums of Bankura, West Bengal on the prevalence of diarrhea and feeding practices, nutrition, and immunization among 152 children under 5 years (69 males and 83 females). Results: Overall prevalence of diarrhea was 22.36%; 21.73% males and 22.89% females were affected with diarrhea. There were 57.69% diarrhea cases in children of 7-12 months age group, followed by 25.71% in those of 13-24 months age group; with increasing age, the prevalence of diarrhea gradually decreased. Diarrhea was noted to be 20.33% in exclusively breastfed children and 31.57% in children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. In bottle-fed children, the frequency of diarrhea was 26.08%. The prevalence of diarrhea was 21.83% in completely immunized children and 30% in partially immunized children. Risk of diarrhea was 19.80% in normal participants and 27.45% in undernourished children. Conclusion: The present study identified a high prevalence of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years. Findings of the study also revealed the demographic features, feeding practices, immunization practices, and nutritional status as risk factors of diarrhea, which can be tackled by effective education of the community. PMID:25722616

  4. Sexual intercourse, contraception, and risk-taking behavior among unselected French adolescents aged 11-20 years.

    PubMed

    Choquet, M; Manfredi, R

    1992-11-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out among 4,255 adolescents, aged 11-19 years, randomly selected from secondary schools in a northern urban area of France. The questionnaire concerned sexual activity, contraception, health status, licit and illicit drug consumption, and other risk-taking behavior. A total of 31% of the adolescents had had sexual relations (43% of the boys, 20% of the girls). Sexual activity increased with age. A large majority (70%) of the sexually active adolescents used some form of contraception. The study confirms the relationship between smoking, drinking, illicit drug consumption, and sexual activity, but shows that contraceptive behavior is not related to problem behavior. PMID:1420218

  5. High-spin states in {sup 9,10,11}Be isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Descouvemont, Pierre

    1999-11-16

    The {sup 9,10,11}Be isotopes are studied in a microscopic multicluster model involving two {alpha} particles with surrounding neutrons. Spectra and E2 transition probabilities are calculated, and a band structure is suggested.

  6. [Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in indian villages of the Parakaña tribe in Brazil's eastern Amazonia].

    PubMed

    Martins, S J; Menezes, R C

    1994-02-01

    The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southeast of Pará State (Brazil), with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE), undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará). Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91) for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The evolution of nutritional status was evaluated in the light of the rate of growth and accepting weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as a goal. Seventy children (87.5% of all the 0-5 years-olds living there) were followed through throughout the studies. Prevalence of malnutrition was greater in Paranatinga than in Maroxewara, possibly because the former was more populous and had had longer inter-racial contact. Paranatinga's anthropometric indices (wt/age, ht/age and wt/ht) were the lower. Most of the severe forms of malnutrition were found there too. Children between six months and 2 years old were the most affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7997819

  7. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (? 2 drinks/day or ? 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID:22897691

  8. Accident and emergency attendances by children under the age of 1 year as a result of injury

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine all accident and emergency (A&E) department attendances by children under the age of 1 year over a period of 12 months. Also to try to identify the prevalence and severity of accident types in small children and to suggest ways to reduce such accidents. Methods: The A&E department of the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital (RACH) serves a population of over half a million. All children under 1 year of age attending this department in the year 2000 had their case notes reviewed by the author and the cause, type, and severity of the illness or injury noted. Results: During the 12 month audit period 1416 new cases under the age of 1 year presented to RACH, 790 of which presented directly to A&E. Six hundred and eighteen (78%) were self referred and 116 children attended A&E on more than one occasion during the year. Four hundred and thirty four (55%) of the A&E attendances were classed as "accidents", the remainder were mainly for medical conditions such as respiratory distress. Two hundred and sixty four (61%) were caused by falls and 38% were admitted for inpatient management. Two hundred and twenty nine (29%) required radiographs, which revealed 30 fractures. Thirty seven children sustained scalds/burns and there were 33 accidental ingestions. Six cases were judged to be non-accidental. Conclusions: There is a surprisingly high rate of "accidental" injury in this age group, bringing into question the effectiveness of current accident prevention strategies. Perhaps specific prevention advice should be targeted at parents and carers of young children. There should always be a high index of suspicion for non-accidental injury. PMID:12533361

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  10. The Development of Luminance- and Texture-Defined Form Perception during the School-Aged Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertone, Armando; Hanck, Julie; Guy, Jacalyn; Cornish, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the development of luminance- and texture-defined static form perception in school-aged children. This was done using an adapted Landolt-C technique where C-optotypes were defined by either luminance or texture information, the latter necessitating extra-striate neural processing to be perceived.…

  11. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  12. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 

    E-print Network

    Shenkin, S D; Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Rush, M A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    .6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution...

  13. Multiple Chronic Conditions among Adults Aged 45 and Over: Trends Over the Past 10 Years

    MedlinePLUS

    ... quality of life and expenditures for an aging population. Definition Multiple chronic conditions : Based on respondent's reports to ... variable and considered as one chronic condition. Other definitions of MCC are used in ... noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Questions about all nine ...

  14. Infant Formula Docosahexaenoic Acid and Body Mass Index to Four Years of Age

    E-print Network

    Kreber, Nicole Lynn

    2009-12-11

    3. Methods Overview??????????????????????.24 Ethics???????????????????????...24 Subject Selection???????????????????.25 Randomization to Infant Formulas????????????..25 Data Collection Anthropometric Data??????????????..26 Formula Intake Data.../Height-Age Percentiles and Maternal Smoking Status????...43 Appendices A. Subjects Demographic Data Collection Form B. Anthropometric Data Collection Form C. 24 Hour Dietary Recall Collection Form D. List of Omitted 24-Hour Dietary Recalls E. Parent Study Consent...

  15. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  16. Analysis and Replication of Mother-Child Relations at Two Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Replicated the Clarke-Stewart (1973) cross-dimensional study of mother-child interaction using different children at different ages and in a series of four different samples. Variables included measures of children's cognitive, language, and social development and mothers' attitudes, ability, and behavior, assessed in standardized tests,…

  17. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall apply to all occupations other than the following: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing... age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including occupations requiring the... apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with the maintenance...

  18. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  19. Does High Quality Childcare Narrow the Achievement Gap at Two Years of Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Dang, Tran; Lee, Weilin

    2011-01-01

    The authors use the ECLS-B, a nationally-representative study of children born in 2001 to report the child care arrangements and quality characteristics for 2-year olds in the United States and to estimate the effects of differing levels of child care quality on two-year old children's cognitive development. Their goal is to test whether high…

  20. Child of the World: Essential Montessori Age 3-12+ Years. Sixteenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Susan Mayclin

    This book provides information on the basic principles of Montessori education for 3- to 12-year-olds and contains a catalog of equipment, materials, and books for use by adults living or working with children. Information and relevant materials for 3- to 6-year-olds are organized into the following areas: (1) organizing the environment; (2)…

  1. Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

  2. Filling a 30 Million Year Gap: Radioisotopic Age Constraints for the Late Triassic Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmis, R. B.; Mundil, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Triassic Period records a critical interval of Phanerozoic Earth history, including major paleoenvironmental changes in a greenhouse world, recovery from one mass extinction and the onset of another, and the origin of modern terrestrial ecosystems. Recent efforts have been instrumental in calibrating the timing of these events by producing numerous high resolution radioisotopic ages from Early and Middle Triassic marine strata that facilitate building of a robust 20 Ma chronostratigraphic framework. This contrasts starkly with the Late Triassic (Carnian, Norian, and Rhaetian stages), where ~30 Ma of the timescale is virtually uncalibrated by high-resolution radioisotopic data. This is the only interval of such long duration in the Mesozoic or Cenozoic that remains so poorly constrained by reliable absolute ages, despite the occurrence of major events such as the origin and early diversification of dinosaurs, major reef building episodes in marine ecosystems, key paleoenvironmental changes (e.g., Carnian Pluvial Event), and large extraterrestrial bolide impacts (e.g., Manicouagan). An additional challenge is that the biostratigraphically-defined marine timescale cannot be applied globally, so that other areas (e.g., New Zealand) have independent timescales that cannot be confidently correlated to classic Laurasian sections. All of these problems preclude formulating robust first-order hypotheses about the Late Triassic world. We present new CA-TIMS U-Pb zircon data from volcaniclastic units within both marine and terrestrial strata that aim at calibrating the timescale itself and as a result constrain the timing of some of these major events in Earth history. Several preliminary ages support the hypothesis that the Norian Stage was very long, ~20 Ma. Our new data from marine sequences in New Zealand demonstrate that the timescale divisions there do not correlate directly with biostratigraphic boundaries in the Tethys; specifically, the Ladinian-Carnian boundary is somewhere within the Kaihikuan biozone, and the lower Otamitan biozone is correlative with the mid-Norian. Our new data from the terrestrial Chinle Formation in the southwestern US demonstrate that all of this formation is Norian in age or later, younger than South American sequences it had previously been correlated with. This supports the hypothesis that the rise of dinosaurs was diachronous, occurring later in North America than in Argentina and Brazil. These new ages also constrain a major faunal turnover event in the middle Chinle Fm to the mid-Norian, close in age to the Manicouagan impact event. Correlation and calibration of these major events will be further strengthened by the unambiguous superposition provided by core samples, such as the forthcoming Colorado Plateau Coring Project.

  3. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  4. Epigenetic Analysis of Neurocognitive Development at 1 year of Age in a Community-Based Pregnancy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Laura E.; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Sutter, Thomas R.; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Hovinga, Collin A.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Park, Vicki; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Adkins, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies show that molecular genetic changes and epigenetic modifications affect the risk of cognitive disability or impairment. However, the role of epigenetic variation in cognitive development of neurotypical young children remains largely unknown. Using data from a prospective, community-based study of mother-infant pairs, we investigated the association of DNA methylation patterns in neonatal umbilical cord blood with cognitive and language development at 1 year of age. No CpG loci achieved genome-wide significance, although a small number of weakly suggestive associations with Bayley-III Receptive Communication scales were noted. While umbilical cord blood is a convenient resource for genetic analyses of birth outcomes, our results do not provide conclusive evidence that its use for DNA methylation profiling yields epigenetic markers that are directly related to postnatal neurocognitive outcomes at 1 year of age. PMID:24452678

  5. Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bauman, Margaret L; Choueiri, Roula; Kasari, Connie; Carter, Alice; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mailloux, Zoe; Smith Roley, Susanne; Wagner, Sheldon; Fein, Deborah; Pierce, Karen; Buie, Timothy; Davis, Patricia A; Newschaffer, Craig; Robins, Diana; Wetherby, Amy; Stone, Wendy L; Yirmiya, Nurit; Estes, Annette; Hansen, Robin L; McPartland, James C; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews current evidence for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions for children aged <3 years, based on peer-reviewed articles published up to December 2013. Several groups have adapted treatments initially designed for older, preschool-aged children with ASD, integrating best practice in behavioral teaching methods into a developmental framework based on current scientific understanding of how infants and toddlers learn. The central role of parents has been emphasized, and interventions are designed to incorporate learning opportunities into everyday activities, capitalize on "teachable moments," and facilitate the generalization of skills beyond the familiar home setting. Our review identified several comprehensive and targeted treatment models with evidence of clear benefits. Although some trials were limited to 8- to 12-week outcome data, enhanced outcomes associated with some interventions were evaluated over periods as long as 2 years. Based on this review, recommendations are proposed for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26430170

  6. Long Term Effects on Cognitive Function of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Prescribed to Women Aged 50–55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Leng, Iris; Manson, JoAnn E.; Brown, Candice M.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Vaughan, Leslie; Robinson, Jennifer; Rapp, Stephen R.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Lane, Dorothy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Li, Wenjun; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) may adversely affect older women’s cognitive function. It is not known whether this extends to younger women. Methods 1,326 postmenopausal women, who had begun treatment in two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hormone therapy when aged 50–55 years, were assessed with an annual telephone-administered cognitive battery that included measures of global (primary outcome) and domain-specific cognitive functions (verbal memory, attention, executive function, verbal fluency, and working memory). The clinical trials in which they participated had compared 0.625 mg CEE with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over an average of 7.0 years. Cognitive testing was conducted an average of 7.2 years following the end of the trials, when women had mean age 67.2 years, and repeated one year later. Results Global cognitive function scores from women who had been assigned to CEE-based therapies were similar to those from women assigned to placebo: mean [95% confidence interval] intervention effect of 0.02 [?0.08,0.12]standard deviation units (p=0.66). Similarly, no overall differences were found for any individual cognitive domain (all p>0.15). Pre-specified subgroup analyses found some evidence that CEE-based therapies may have adversely affected verbal fluency among women who had prior hysterectomy or prior use of hormone therapy: mean treatment effects of ?0.17 [?0.33, ?0.02] and ?0.25 [?0.42, ?0.08], respectively, however this may be a chance finding. We are not able to address whether initiating hormone therapy during the menopause and maintaining therapy until any symptoms are passed affects cognitive function, either in the short or longer term. Conclusions CEE-based therapies produced no overall sustained benefit or risk to cognitive function when administered to postmenopausal women aged 50–55 years. PMID:23797469

  7. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  8. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic transsphenoidal route to pituitary tumours in paediatric patients >10?years of age: 5?years of experience at a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Xu, Guangming; Wiebe, Timothy M; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for the management of pituitary adenomas in paediatric patients >10?years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify 56 paediatric patients between 10 and 18?years of age who underwent an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the resection of a pituitary adenoma during the last 5?years. The age, sex, symptoms, tumour size, extent of tumour resection, clinical outcome and surgical complications of patients were reviewed. Results Total resection was achieved in 49 (87.5%) cases, subtotal resection was achieved in 7 (12.5%) cases and no patient had a partial or insufficient resection. Of the 35 patients who experienced preoperative deterioration of vision, 33 (94.2%) achieved visual remission with rates of 34.2% and 60% for normalisation and improvement, respectively. Endocrinological normalisation was achieved in 13 (31.7%) of 41 patients who had preoperative hyperhormonal levels; hormone levels decreased in 25 (61.0%) patients, and 3 (7.3%) patients had no change in hormone level. Two (3.5%) patients incurred postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which was resolved after lumbar drainage. Four (7.1%) patients developed hypopituitarism, which required hormone therapy. Post-surgery, five (8.9%) patients incurred transient diabetes insipidus (DI), of which one (1.7%) patient developed persistent DI and was administered Minirin. Meningitis occurred in one (1.7%) patient who was cured by the administration of a third-generation antibiotic. There were no cases of intracranial haematoma, reoperation or death. Conclusions EETA allows neurosurgeons to safely and effectively remove paediatric pituitary adenomas with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:26006173

  9. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome. PMID:25121973

  10. A Million Years Young: Determining the Ages of 11 Suspected Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Ellie; DiTomasso, Victoria; Riedel, Adric R.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs continuously cool and fade with time, so knowing an object's age is necessary in order to estimate its mass. One of the most reliable ways to constrain the age is to identify objects as members of coeval moving groups with reliable ages based on higher mass members. Confirming membership requires knowledge of an object's parallax distance, proper motion, and radial velocity (RV), which requires a high-resolution spectrum. We obtained high-resolution NIRSPEC J-band data and measured radial velocities for a sample of 11 suspected young, nearby M and L dwarfs. We combined these RV values with previously calculated parallax distances and proper motions to determine the likelihood of young moving group membership using the LACeWING code (Riedel et al. 2015). We confirmed memberships in the Argus Association (~40 Myr) and Tucana-Horologium (~30 Myr) with a probability of >66.7% for two of the 11 brown dwarfs. Another one of the dwarfs had a >79.5% probability of membership in both the AB Doradus (110 Myr) and Hercules-Lyra (257 Myr) groups, which will require further inquiry to resolve. We also compare spectra of our 11 brown dwarfs to spectra of established young and field brown dwarfs in order to further understand spectral indicators of youth at high spectral resolution.

  11. Work Content and Serious Mental Illness among Middle-Aged Men: Results from a 6-Year Longitudinal Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Smith, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to determine prospective associations between work content after a working life of more than 20 years and serious mental illness among Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years, using a nationwide population-based survey. Methods Data were extracted from a national longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly persons previously conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. We analyzed data across 10 work content categories for Japanese men who had been working in the same job type or industry for over 20 years. As part pf the survey, participants completed the Kessler (K)6 scale each year to determine their level of psychological distress (with scores ?13 indicating serious mental illness). Cox discrete time proposal hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between work content and serious mental illness from 2005 to 2010. Further adjustments were made for other sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results The current study involved a total of 11,942 participants with a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of follow-up was 3.4 (± 2.0) years, during which time 892 participants (7.5%) had been classified as having a new-onset serious mental illness. Men who had worked in service jobs and in manufacturing jobs at baseline were more likely to develop serious mental illness than those in managerial jobs (hazard ratio 1.37, 1.30, 95% confidence intervals 1.04–1.80, 1.02–1.65) after adjustment for confounding variables. Conclusion These findings suggest that Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years who have worked in service and manufacturing jobs after a working life of over 20 years have an increased risk of serious mental illness during follow-up. Identifying the most at-risk work content category after a working life of over 20 years would be an essential part of providing more effective interventions for psychological distress among Japanese men in this age group. PMID:26121355

  12. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  13. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Neurodevelopment in U.S. Children through 5 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Rauch, Stephen A.; Webster, Glenys M.; Hornung, Richard; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero exposure to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at ages 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at age 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at ages 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at age 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562 PMID:24870060

  14. A 35-Year Longitudinal Assessment of Cognition and Midlife Depression Symptoms: The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; O’Brien, Robert; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Kim, Kathleen; Bhat, Reshma; Grant, Michael D.; Toomey, Rosemary; Eisen, Seth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether early adult cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms in midlife and how genetic and environmental influences explain the association; to examine cross-sectional relationships between depressive symptoms and specific cognitive abilities at midlife. Methods Design 35-year longitudinal and cross-sectional twin study of cognitive aging. Setting Large multicenter study in the United States. Participants 1237 male twins ages 51 to 60. Measurements At age 20 and midlife, participants completed the same version of a general cognitive ability test (Armed Forces Qualification Test [AFQT]). Midlife testing included an extensive neurocognitive protocol assessing processing speed, verbal memory, visual-spatial memory, working memory, executive function, and visual-spatial ability. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale prior to cognitive testing and provided health and lifestyle information during a medical history interview. Results Lower age 20 AFQT scores predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms at age 55 (r=?.16, p<.001). In bivariate twin modeling, 77% of the correlation between early cognitive ability and midlife depressive symptoms was due to shared genetic influences. Controlling for current age, age 20 AFQT, and non-independence of observations, depressive symptoms were associated with worse midlife AFQT scores and poorer performance in all cognitive domains except verbal memory Conclusion Results suggest that low cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms; this association is partly due to shared genetic influences. Cross-sectional analyses indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and performance is not linked to specific cognitive domains. PMID:21606899

  15. No associations of prenatal maternal psychosocial stress with fasting glucose metabolism in offspring at 5-6 years of age.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A E; van Eijsden, M; Stronks, K; Gemke, R J B J; Vrijkotte, T G M

    2014-06-20

    Highly prevalent maternal psychosocial complaints are accompanied by increases in glucocorticoid stress hormones, which may predispose the offspring for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. The aim of the current research is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with parameters of blood glucose metabolism in their children aged 5-6 years. The study design was a prospective birth cohort (the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, the Netherlands). Depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain were recorded by questionnaire (gestational week 16). A cumulative score was also calculated. Possible sex differences in the associations were considered. The subjects were 1952 mother-child pairs. Outcome measures were fasting glucose (n=1952), C-peptide and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) (n=1478) in the children at the age of 5-6 years. The stress scales, single and cumulative, were not associated with glucose/C-peptide/insulin resistance (all P>0.05). We did not find evidence for sex differences. In conclusion, we did not find evidence for an association between psychosocial stress during early pregnancy and parameters of glucose metabolism in offspring at the age of 5-6 years. Differences emerging later in life or in response to a metabolic challenge should not be ruled out. PMID:25081574

  16. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12.5-13 months. The same relationship was revealed when only variables containing prospective data were included in the multivariable model. The study highlights the importance of a cat's early environment in the risk of obesity developing in early adulthood. The amount of food fed, opportunities for exercise and BCS of cats with no or restricted outdoor access and cats fed a dry diet should be monitored, especially whilst cats are aged below one year, to reduce the risk of overweight/obesity developing. PMID:26265631

  17. ?S-conotoxin GVIIIB potently and selectively blocks ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sean B; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Olivera, Baldomero M; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-08-15

    Although acetylcholine is widely utilized in vertebrate nervous systems, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), including the ?9?10 subtype, also are expressed in a wide variety of non-neuronal cells. These cell types include cochlear hair cells, adrenal chromaffin cells and immune cells. ?9?10 nAChRs present in these cells may respectively play roles in protection from noise-induced hearing loss, response to stress and neuroprotection. Despite these critical functions, there are few available selective ligands to confirm mechanistic hypothesis regarding the role of ?9?10 nAChRs. Conus, has been a rich source of ligands for receptors and ion channels. Here, we identified Conus geographus venom as a lead source for a novel ?9?10 antagonist. The active component was isolated and the encoding gene cloned. The peptide signal sequence and cysteine arrangement had the signature of the ?-conotoxin superfamily. Previously isolated ?-conotoxin GVIIIA, also from Conus geographus, targets the 5-HT3 receptor. In contrast, ?S-GVIIIB blocked the ?9?10 nAChR with an IC50 of 9.8 nM, yet was inactive at the 5-HT3 receptor. Pharmacological characterization of ?S-GVIIIB shows that it is over 100-fold selective for the ?9?10 nAChR compared to other nAChR subtypes. Thus, the S-superfamily represents a novel conotoxin scaffold for flexibly targeting a variety of receptor subtypes. Functional competition studies utilized distinct off-rate kinetics of conotoxins to identify the ?10/?9 nAChR interface as the site of ?S-GVIIIB binding; this adds to the importance of the (+) face of the ?10 rather than the (+) face of the ?9 nAChR subunit as critical to binding of ?9?10-targeted conotoxins. PMID:26074268

  18. Molecular interaction of ?-conotoxin RgIA with the rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Azam, Layla; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zouridakis, Marios; Giastas, Petros; Tzartos, Socrates J; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-05-01

    The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was first identified in the auditory system, where it mediates synaptic transmission between efferent olivocochlear cholinergic fibers and cochlea hair cells. This receptor gained further attention due to its potential role in chronic pain and breast and lung cancers. We previously showed that ?-conotoxin (?-CTx) RgIA, one of the few ?9?10 selective ligands identified to date, is 300-fold less potent on human versus rat ?9?10 nAChR. This species difference was conferred by only one residue in the (-), rather than (+), binding region of the ?9 subunit. In light of this unexpected discovery, we sought to determine other interacting residues with ?-CTx RgIA. A previous molecular modeling study, based on the structure of the homologous molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein, predicted that RgIA interacts with three residues on the ?9(+) face and two residues on the ?10(-) face of the ?9?10 nAChR. However, mutations of these residues had little or no effect on toxin block of the ?9?10 nAChR. In contrast, mutations of homologous residues in the opposing nAChR subunits (?10 ?197, P200 and ?9 T61, D121) resulted in 19- to 1700-fold loss of toxin activity. Based on the crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human ?9 nAChR, we modeled the rat ?9?10 ECD and its complexes with ?-CTx RgIA and acetylcholine. Our data support the interaction of ?-CTx RgIA at the ?10/?9 rather than the ?9/?10 nAChR subunit interface, and may facilitate the development of selective ligands with therapeutic potential. PMID:25740413

  19. Risk factors for pertussis hospitalizations in Australians aged 45 years and over: A population based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surendra; McIntyre, Peter; Newall, Anthony T; MacIntyre, C Raina; Banks, Emily; Liu, Bette

    2015-10-13

    Although studies have described factors associated with pertussis hospitalization in children, data on adult hospitalization are sparse. We examined the association between patient characteristics and hospitalization among older adults with pertussis. We conducted a nested case-control study of participants in the 45 and Up prospective cohort in New South Wales, Australia, with an incident pertussis diagnosis during 2006-2012. Cases were defined as those with a hospitalization coded as 'whooping cough' or 'non-specific respiratory disease/cough' between a week prior and 6 weeks after the diagnosis of pertussis based on laboratory tests. Controls were participants diagnosed with pertussis but not hospitalized. Among 265,287 participants, the incidence of pertussis and pertussis hospitalization was 83.9 (95% [confidence interval] CI, 78.7-89.6) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.1-4.1)/100,000 person-years, respectively. Among 33 cases and 882 controls, factors associated with hospitalization were increasing age (compared to those 45-54 years, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.4 (95% CI, 1.6-18.2) and 8.9 (95% CI, 2.3-34.7) in those aged 65-74 years and 75+ years, respectively) and smoking (ever versus never, aOR 2.37 (95% CI, 1.11-5.06)). The risk of pertussis hospitalization is substantially higher in ?65 years old. A booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine could be readily integrated into routine vaccination for this age group. PMID:26335770

  20. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  1. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior and growth at 10 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gale A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical growth and behavioral outcomes in 226 10-year-old children who were participants in a longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), while controlling for other factors that affect development. During the first trimester, 42% of the women used cocaine, with use declining across pregnancy. At the 10-year follow-up, the caregivers were 37 years old, had 12.8 years of education, and 50% were African American. First trimester cocaine exposure predicted decreased weight, height, and head circumference at 10 years. First trimester cocaine use also predicted maternal ratings of less sociability on the EAS Temperament Survey and more withdrawn behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist, more anxious/depressed behaviors on the Teacher Report Form, and more self-reported depressive symptoms on the Children’s Depression Inventory. In addition, exposure to violence mediated the effect of PCE on child and teacher reports of depressive symptoms, but not of maternal reports of sociability and withdrawn behaviors. These behaviors may be precursors of later psychiatric problems. PMID:23981277

  2. Infant feeding and childhood cognition at ages 3 and 7 years: effects of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Mandy B.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Guthrie, Lauren B.; Bellinger, David C.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Importance Breastfeeding may benefit child cognitive development, but few studies have quantified breastfeeding exclusivity or duration, nor has any study examined the role of maternal diet during lactation on child cognition. Objectives (1) To examine associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity with child cognition at 3 and 7 years; and (2) to examine the extent to which maternal fish intake during lactation modifies associations of infant feeding with later cognition Design Prospective cohort study Setting Project Viva, a U.S. pre-birth cohort that enrolled mothers from 1999-2002 and followed children to age 7 years Participants 1312 Project Viva mothers and children Main exposure Duration of any breastfeeding to 12 months Main outcome measures Child receptive language assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) age 3 years; Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at 3 and 7 years; and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) at 7 years. Results Adjusting for sociodemographics, maternal intelligence, and home environment in linear regression, longer breastfeeding duration was associated with higher age 3 PPVT-III scores (0.21 points/month, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.38) and greater age 7 intelligence (0.35 verbal KBIT points/month, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.53; 0.29 non-verbal KBIT points/month, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.54). Breastfeeding duration was not associated with WRAML scores. Beneficial effects of breastfeeding on the WRAVMA at age 3 appeared greater for women who consumed ?2 fish servings/week (0.24 points, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.47) vs. <2 servings/week (-0.01 points, 95% CI: -0.22, 0.20); interaction p-value 0.16. Conclusions and relevance Our results support a causal relationship of breastfeeding duration with receptive language and verbal and non-verbal intelligence later in life. PMID:23896931

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of recombinant tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in individuals aged 2–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Sin Leo, Yee; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Archuleta, Sophia; Shek, Lynette P.; Chong, Chia Yin; Nam Leong, Hoe; Yong Low, Chian; Oh, May-Lin Helen; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Wartel, T. Anh; Crevat, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This was a multicenter, blinded, Phase II study (NCT00880893) conducted in Singapore. The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) comprising four recombinant, live, attenuated viruses (CYD-TDV) and the dengue virus serotype-specific antibody responses before and 28 d after each vaccination. Participants were randomized 3:1 to receive three doses of CYD-TDV or a control vaccine at 0, 6 and 12 mo. Control vaccine was placebo for the first dose (all ages) and for subsequent doses, licensed hepatitis-A for children (aged 2–11 years) or influenza vaccine for adolescents (12–17 years) and adults (18–45 years). Between April and October 2009, 317 children, 187 adolescents and 696 adults were enrolled. In all age groups, reactogenicity was higher after the first injection of CYD-TDV than after placebo control. Reactogenicity after subsequent CYD-TDV doses was no higher than after the first dose, and tended to be lower or similar to that seen after active control vaccination. Seropositivity rates and geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers (GMTs; 1/dil) against all four dengue virus serotypes increased in all age groups after each of the three CYD-TDV doses. Post-dose 3, 66.5% of all participants were seropositive to all four serotypes, and 87.2% were seropositive to ? 3 serotypes; GMTs for all participants ranged from 43.0 against dengue virus serotype 1 to 100 against dengue virus serotype 4. GMTs were higher in children than in adolescents. These results support the continued development of CYD-TDV for the prevention of dengue disease. PMID:22894958

  4. Wake Up Time, Light, and Mood in a Population Sample Age 40-64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takuro; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Concern that disturbances of sleep and light exposures at night might increase cancer risks have been expressed, but little actual exposure data has been collected. Measurements from a representative population sample were examined to understand the magnitude of in-bed light exposure at night and possible correlates. Methods From 1990 to 1994, a home survey of sleep disorders among adults ages 40-64 was conducted in the City of San Diego California, using stratified representative sampling techniques. Along with questionnaires, sleep logs, and 3-night wrist activity and pulse oximetry measures, bedside illumination was measured with a computer recording system. Questionnaires included the CESD depression scale and a scale of symptoms typical of winter depression. Results Complete data were available from 286 men and women, whose mean in-bed intervals averaged 7 hours and 42 minutes. The mean room illumination during the first part of the night was mean 12.7 lux (median 3.2 lux) and during the last 2 hours in bed averaged 28.7 lux (median 18.9 lux). Nocturnal light exposure was positively correlated with age, male gender, summer season, time in bed, wake-up time, and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Complex bi-directional interactions may take place between sleep disturbances, depression, time in bed, wake-up-time, and in-bed illumination. The most crucial light exposures appear to occur in the last 2 hours in bed, largely after dawn, so daylight exposure may be an important factor. PMID:25866517

  5. The effect of small class sizes on mortality through age 29 years: evidence from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Johnson, Gretchen; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2011-06-15

    Limiting the number of students per classroom in the early years has been shown to improve educational outcomes. Improved education is, in turn, hypothesized to improve health. The authors examined whether smaller class sizes affect mortality through age 29 years and whether cognitive factors play a role. They used data from the Project Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, a 4-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students between 1985 and 1989. Children randomized to small classes (13-17 students) experienced improved measures of cognition and academic performance relative to those assigned to regular classes (22-25 students). As expected, these cognitive measures were significantly inversely associated with mortality rates (P < 0.05). However, through age 29 years, students randomized to small class size nevertheless experienced higher mortality rates than those randomized to regular size classes (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.32). The groups at risk included males (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), whites/Asians (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.72), and higher income students (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.57). The authors speculate that small classes might produce behavior changes that increase mortality through young adulthood that are stronger than the protective effects of enhanced cognition. PMID:21540326

  6. Wear of '100 Mrad' cross-linked polyethylene: effects of packaging after 30 years real-time shelf-aging.

    PubMed

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Ueno, Masaru; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Oonishi, Hironobu

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that gamma-irradiation of polyethylene (PE) generally results in degradation by surface oxidation. However, from 1970 to 1978 Oonishi et al. used ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cross-linked and sterilized by 100 Mrad of gamma-irradiation in air (100 Mrad PE) for total hip prostheses, and obtained excellent clinical results extending for 30 years. In the present study, we used a hip joint simulator to investigate the wear characteristics of 100 Mrad PE cups which had been shelf-aged for an extremely long period (30 years). The PE cups, aged in an air-containing triple polyethylene package for 30 years (packaged 100 Mrad PE), showed low wear with 3.4 mg of weight loss, even after 5 x 10(6) cycles. In contrast, non-packaged 100 Mrad PE showed considerable wear: 47.0 mg at run-in ((0-0.25) x 10(6) cycles) and 114.1 mg at the end of 5 x 10(6) cycles. The substantially, lower wear even in the presence of an oxidized surface layer for the packaged 100 Mrad PE, was comparable to the low wear seen on retrieved 100 Mrad PE after 30 years of clinical use. The long-term shelf-storage conditions, which affect the surface oxidative degradation of PE, are assumed to be the key factor in the wear-resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE. PMID:17274451

  7. The development of multisensory body representation and awareness continues to 10years of age: Evidence from the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Dorothy; Sterling, Samantha; Bremner, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research using the "rubber hand illusion" shows that the multisensory processes underlying body representations are markedly different in children of 4 to 9years and adults. In representing the position of their own hand in external space, children of this age rely more on the sight of the hand, and less on its proprioceptively felt position, than adults do. The current study investigated when during later childhood the balance between visual and proprioceptive inputs reaches an adult-like weighting. After inducing the rubber hand illusion in 10- to 13-year-olds, we asked participants to point, with eyes closed, to the perceived position of their hand. We found that pointing responses reached adult levels at 10 to 11years, showing that at this age children perceive hand location using an adult-like balance of sensory cues. We conclude that the multisensory foundations of the bodily self undergo a protracted period of development through early and mid-childhood, reaching an adult state by 10 to 11years. PMID:26601752

  8. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  9. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, T E; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, R M; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children's exposure to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare problem. In the first prospective-longitudinal study with repeated telomere measurements in children while they experienced stress, we tested the hypothesis that childhood violence exposure would accelerate telomere erosion from age 5 to age 10 years. Violence was assessed as exposure to maternal domestic violence, frequent bullying victimization and physical maltreatment by an adult. Participants were 236 children (49% females; 42% with one or more violence exposures) recruited from the Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort. Each child's mean relative telomere length was measured simultaneously in baseline and follow-up DNA samples, using the quantitative PCR method for T/S ratio (the ratio of telomere repeat copy numbers to single-copy gene numbers). Compared with their counterparts, the children who experienced two or more kinds of violence exposure showed significantly more telomere erosion between age-5 baseline and age-10 follow-up measurements, even after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (B=-0.052, s.e.=0.021, P=0.015). This finding provides support for a mechanism linking cumulative childhood stress to telomere maintenance, observed already at a young age, with potential impact for life-long health. PMID:22525489

  10. Trends in trabecular architecture and bone mineral density distribution in 152 individuals aged 30-90 years.

    PubMed

    Koehne, Till; Vettorazzi, Eik; Küsters, Natalie; Lüneburg, Rike; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Busse, Björn

    2014-09-01

    The strength of trabecular bone depends on its microarchitecture and its tissue level properties. However, the interrelation between these two determinants of bone quality and their relation to age remain to be clarified. Iliac crest bone cores (n=152) from individuals aged 30-90 years were analyzed by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine whether epidemiological parameters (age, sex or BMI), structural histomorphometrical variables (BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp) and osteoid-related indices (OV/BV, OS/BS or O.Th) predict the degree of bone mineralization. While sex and BMI were not associated with bone mineralization, age was positively correlated with the most frequently occurring calcium concentrations (Ca peak), the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ca high) and, in the case of adjusted covariates, also the mean calcium content (Ca mean). Bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness were both negatively correlated with Ca mean. However, trabecular thickness was additionally associated with Ca peak, Ca high as well as the amount of low mineralized bone (Ca low) and was the only structural parameter predicting bone mineralization independent of age. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrated that osteoid variables - within a normal range (<2% OV/BV) - were significantly associated with all mineralization parameters and represent the only predictor for the mineralization heterogeneity (Ca width). Taken together, we showed that elevated trabecular bone mineralization correlates with aging and bone loss. However, these associations are attributable to trabecular thinning that comes along with high bone mineralization due to the loss of low mineralized bone surfaces. Therefore, we demonstrated that the degree of areally resolved bone mineral is primarily associated with the amount of physiological osteoid present and the thickness of mineralized bone in trabeculae. PMID:24859568

  11. Overweight among Low-Income Texas Preschoolers Aged 2 to 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kayan L.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger; Mirchandani, Gita; Sayegh, M. Aaron; Moehlman, Clint; Van Eck, Mary; Petrilli, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine child/maternal factors associated with overweight among 2- to 4-year-olds enrolled in the Texas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Matched child and maternal data collected by self-report of the mother during WIC certification. These data were extracted from existing…

  12. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    The mammography prevalence question was asked in BRFSS in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and the even years after 2000 as part of the core questionnaire for all states, and in NHIS in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2008. The question was worded in similar ways on the two surveys.

  13. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    The Pap smear test prevalence question was asked in BRFSS in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and the even years after 2000 as part of the core questionnaire for all states, and in NHIS in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2008. The question was worded in similar ways on the two surveys.

  14. Is 30 Years of Age Over-the-Hill for Outdoor Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The author is now 30 years old. For more than a decade, she has been paid to facilitate an array of outdoor-based programming with varying groups of participants. With such breadth of experience, she frequently feels like she is a valuable asset to the organizations for which she works. However, at recent staff training and trip preparation days,…

  15. Relative Reliability and Validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among Youth Aged 10 to 17 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This cross-sectional study tested the reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire to assess diet during the past 7 days. Within a 7-day period, 10- to 17-year-old children and adolescents completed two 24-hour dietary recalls by telephone, followed by the Block Kids Questionnaire at the...

  16. Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Turkish Children at Ages 2 to 3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Within the framework of the Mental Health Surveys of Turkey, the authors investigated the distribution and prevalence of parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a nationally representative sample of 2- to 3-year-old children. Method: A cross-sectional population-based survey from October 1996 through March 1997 using a…

  17. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  18. EFFECTS OF LEAF AGE ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF SWEETGUM AFTER 5 YEARS CO2 ENRICHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been monitoring the effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees for the past 5 years. Previously, (1997-1999), we found no effect of CO2 on photosynthetic capacity of sun or shade leaves. In this study, ...

  19. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  20. Structural Priming of the Dative Form in Children aged 3 and 4 Years Old 

    E-print Network

    Richoux, Charlotte

    . This study uses a method which has yielded significant results in the study of noun-phrase priming in children, and directly compares the results of 3 and 4 year olds to those of adults. The results showed that both children and adults were primed by dative...