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1

Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete

Y. P. Li; G. S. Ma; E. G. Schouten; X. Q. Hu; Z. H. Cui; D. Wang; F. J. Kok

2007-01-01

2

Prevention of internalizing disorders in 9–10 year old children: efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up  

PubMed Central

The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9–10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776

Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent

2013-01-01

3

Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK.

4

{sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perfit, M.R. [Univ., of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Batiza, R. [Univ., of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fornari, D.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1994-06-01

5

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

6

Exercise Capacity and Selected Physiological Factors by Ancestry and Residential Altitude: Cross-Sectional Studies of 9–10-Year-Old Children in Tibet  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bianba, Sveinung Bernsten, Lars Bo Andersen, Hein Stegum, Ouzhuluobu, Per Nafstad, Tianyi Wu, and Espen Bjertness. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude—Cross-sectional studies of 9–10-year-old children in Tibet. High Alt Med Biol. 15:162–169, 2014.—Aim: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300?m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700?m). Methods: A total of 430 9–10-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300?m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700?m) participated in two cross-sectional studies. The maximal power output (Wmax) was assessed using an ergometer cycle. Results: Lhasa Tibetan children had a 20% higher maximal power output (watts/kg) than Tingri Tibetan and 4% higher than Lhasa Han Chinese. Maximal heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. Conclusions: The superior exercise capacity in native Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700?m demonstrated a better exercise capacity than residents at a higher altitude of 4300?m when measured at their respective residential altitudes. Such altitude- or ancestry-related difference could not be fully attributed to the physiological factors measured. PMID:24836751

Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Nafstad, Per; Wu, Tianyi; Bjertness, Espen

2014-01-01

7

Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

2012-01-01

8

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

9

The Tommotian Age: 530 Million Years Ago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tommotian Age began about 530 million years ago and is a subdivision of the early Cambrian. Named for rock exposures in Siberia, the Tommotian saw the first major radiation of the animals, or metazoans, including the first appearance of a great many mineralized taxa such as brachiopods, trilobites, archaeocyathids, molluscs, and echinoderms. A few million years before the Tommotian, in the Vendian, the continents had been joined in a single supercontinent called Rodinia. As the Cambrian began, Rodinia began to fragment into smaller continents which did not always correspond to the ones we see today. This site contains a map with a reconstruction that shows the rifting of Rodinia. There is also information about the climate as well as the location of some present day land masses at that time.

10

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 04 Years of Age and 511 Years of Age August 28, 2007  

E-print Network

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 0­4 Years of Age and 5­11 Years of Age 281 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN CHILDREN 0­4 YEARS OF AGE AND 5­11 YEARS OF AGE Diagnosis and Prognosis of Asthma in Children Long-term management decisions begin with diagnosis

Levin, Judith G.

11

Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.  

PubMed

The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

2014-11-01

12

Onset of schizophrenia at 100 years of age  

PubMed Central

Although generally regarded as a disease of young adults, schizophrenia does occur in older ages. Doubts have been raised about the validity of diagnosing schizophrenia in very old age. We have described herein a rare and unique case of a woman who had onset of “schizophrenia” as per ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR criteria at the age of 100 years. We have discussed about the validity of diagnosing schizophrenia in older age. PMID:24574565

Gupta, Sumit Kumar; Jiloha, Ram Chander; Yadav, Abhilasha

2014-01-01

13

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01...2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2014-07-01

14

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01...2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2012-07-01

15

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2011-07-01

16

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2013-07-01

17

32 CFR 9.10 - Other.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This part is not intended to and does not create any right, benefit, or privilege,...

2013-07-01

18

32 CFR 9.10 - Other.  

...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This part is not intended to and does not create any right, benefit, or privilege,...

2014-07-01

19

Multiple sclerosis in children under 10 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the consistent amount of information accumulated in recent years on multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood, many clinicians still view this condition as an exclusively young adult-onset disease and do not consider that it may occur and manifest even during infancy and pre-school age, suggesting that the number of MS cases in the paediatric age group may have been underestimated.

M. Ruggieri; P. Iannetti; A. Polizzi; L. Pavone

2004-01-01

20

Ménière's disease in children aged 4-7 years.  

PubMed

This is a retrospective review of clinical data and audiovestibular test results from four children in whom symptoms suggesting Ménière's disease started at 4-7 years of age. The four patients all had spontaneous recurrent attacks of (spinning) vertigo and fluctuating low frequency sensorineural hearing loss from an early age, suggesting a diagnosis of definite Ménière's disease. Presumably, due to age-related inability to communicate auditory symptoms, the children did not initially meet requirements for a diagnosis of Ménière's disease. However, by 8 years of age, all four children reported tinnitus and/or fullness in the affected ear and, thus, met the AAO criteria for Ménière's disease. Even if information on subjective auditory symptoms is missing, it is reasonable to consider young children with idiopathic spontaneous recurrent attacks of vertigo in whom audiograms reveals fluctuating low frequency hearing loss to have Ménière's disease. This report is a reminder that Ménière's disease may also occur in young children. PMID:22217217

Brantberg, Krister; Duan, Maoli; Falahat, Babak

2012-05-01

21

500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

Snow, K. Mitchell

1994-01-01

22

Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

1988-01-01

23

8 9 10 11 12 13 9 10 11 12 13  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;8 9 10 11 12 13 VExp ( A 3 /Atom) 8 9 10 11 12 13 VCalc(A 3 /Atom) VC TiC NbC ZrC #12;9 10 11 12 13 V (A 3 /Atom) E(kJ/Atom) TiC ZrC V0 (TiC) V0 (ZrC) #12;0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 XZrC 5 15

Burton, Benjamin P.

24

Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years.  

PubMed

The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cut-off used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in non-selective groups of children and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six fundamental movement skills (FMS: sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys, 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± S.D. = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = .0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared to girls (p = .012) and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = .001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = .003) and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than children born in Q2 (p = .015), Q3 (p = .019) and Q4 (p = .01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared to girls (p = .013), and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than children born in Q4 (p = .038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children's skilled performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born relatively later in the selection year whereas children born earlier in the selection year will likely evidence greater skill mastery and subsequent advantage for selection purposes. PMID:24832979

Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel; Duncan, Michael J

2014-05-14

25

Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

2014-01-01

26

Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds  

PubMed Central

Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

?lkay Ko?ar, M; Ota?, ?lhan; Sabanc?o?ullar?, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Ota?, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

2012-01-01

27

Developing movement efficiency between 7 and 9 years of age.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined the movement efficiency of typically developing children between 7 and 9 years of age by scrutinizing their movement amplitudes and frequencies as they settled into a loop-writing task in which both parameters were prescribed. It was hypothesized that during the first three grades at primary school children would show increasing efficiency in exploiting the inverse relationship between movement amplitude and frequency when adjusting their movement errors. Whereas a clear developmental trend showed increasing efficiency with respect to the way in which the primary school children met the amplitude constraints, a more variable pattern was found for the age-dependent adjustments to the frequency requirements. At the level of parameter-error corrections from one cycle to the next, a marginal developmental trend was observed. Results are discussed in terms of contrasting effects between educational targets and movement-efficiency principles. PMID:24496875

Bosga-Stork, Ida Maria; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek R, G J

2014-01-01

28

Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2008-10-01

29

The First Report of a Homozygous Codons 9/10 (+T) ?-Thalassemia Mutation in a Turkish Patient.  

PubMed

Abstract For the first time in Turkey, we report a thalassemic patient with a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) genotype. Currently, the patient is 3 years and 2 months old and received an initial transfusion at the age of 18 months. After being alloimmunized following this transfusion, he required frequent transfusions, every week to every other week. Although alloimmunization was controlled after methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis and rituximab, the transfusion requirements continued related to hypersplenism. Subsequent to splenectomy, transfusion requirements disappeared with average hemoglobin (Hb) levels around 11.0?g/dL. The mother underwent prenatal diagnosis (PND) when she became pregnant for the third time; this revealed a heterozygous codons 9/10 fetus. PMID:25572182

Unal, Sule; Chui, David H K; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Okur, Hamza; Oymak, Yesim; Gumruk, Fatma

2015-01-01

30

Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

2012-01-01

31

Holistic face processing is mature at 4 years of age: Evidence from the composite face effect  

E-print Network

.07 years; 3 males) 6-year-old children (N = 15; mean age: 80 months; 11 males) 5-year-old children (N = 15; mean age: 65 months; 8 males) 4-year-old children (N = 15; mean age: 53 months; 4 males) Experiment 1 test condition & age, confirmed by a composite effect (MS-AS) on Accuracy, in adults and 6-years-old

Rossion, Bruno

32

Audit of thermally injured children under 5 years of age.  

PubMed

One-third of all admissions to the Wessex Regional Burns Unit (WRBU) are children under 5 years of age. These patients constitute a disproportionately large part of the workload in terms of nursing and medical care. A review of children admitted to the WRBU over a 5-year period was undertaken. Information was stored in a computer database (dBASE-IV) to simplify data analysis and to develop a system of data collection which can be used for audit. Eighty-one per cent of injuries were due to scalds. The mean burn surface area (BSA) was 8 per cent, and 78 per cent of injuries were smaller than 10 per cent BSA. Skin grafting was required in 44 per cent of patients. The mean time to operation was 13 days after injury. Significant hypertrophic scarring occurred in 60 per cent of patients and 12 per cent of patients were readmitted for further surgical procedures. There was one death. In an extension to the main database, associations between clinical and physiological observations and morbidity were sought. The data suggest that behavioural changes, 'shock', profound lymphocytopenia and pyrexia greater than 39.5 degrees C should be treated as strongly suggestive of the development of complications in the early stages after injury. PMID:1760112

Moir, G C; Shakespeare, V; Shakespeare, P G

1991-10-01

33

Growth and Fatness at Three to Six Years of Age of Children Born Small or Large-for-Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To compare young children 3 to 6 years of age who were born small-for-gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile for gestational age) or large-for- gestational age (LGA; >90th percentile) with those who were born appropriate-for-gestational age (10th- 89th percentile) to determine whether there are differences in growth and fatness in early childhood associated with birth weight status. Design and Methods.

Mary L. Hediger; Mary D. Overpeck; Andrea McGlynn; Robert J. Kuczmarski; Kurt R. Maurer; William W. Davis

2010-01-01

34

Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.  

PubMed

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA?+?idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

2015-02-01

35

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) The provisions regarding...operated for persons 55 years of age or older. Housing qualifies for this...

2014-04-01

36

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) The provisions regarding...operated for persons 55 years of age or older. Housing qualifies for this...

2011-04-01

37

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) The provisions regarding...operated for persons 55 years of age or older. Housing qualifies for this...

2010-04-01

38

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) The provisions regarding...operated for persons 55 years of age or older. Housing qualifies for this...

2013-04-01

39

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304...Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) The provisions regarding...operated for persons 55 years of age or older. Housing qualifies for this...

2012-04-01

40

Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

2012-01-01

41

Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 ?g\\/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic

Todd A. Jusko; Charles R. Henderson Jr.; Bruce P. Lanphear; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta; Patrick J. Parsons; Richard L. Canfield

2007-01-01

42

Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

Westermeyer, Jerry F.

2013-01-01

43

Sexual life of males over 50 years of age with spinal-cord lesions of at least 20 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:To assess over the past year the sexuality of male patients with spinal-cord injury (SCI) over 50 years of age with spinal lesions of at least 20 years.Methods:Subjects were stratified in two groups: 44 individuals under 60 years and 55 individuals over 60 years. A detailed sexual anamnesis was taken for all, and the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire was completed,

G Lombardi; A Macchiarella; F Cecconi; S Aito; G Del Popolo

2008-01-01

44

9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except...

2010-01-01

45

9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement...Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except...

2011-01-01

46

PUBLICATION 406-120 REPRINTED 2004 NAME ________________________________AGE ____CLUB YEAR ______  

E-print Network

________________________________________________ NAME OF CLUB ________________________________ NAME OF LEADER ______________________________YEARS IN 4-H ____ DATE PROJECT BEGAN ______________ENDED ______________________ VIRGINIA 4-H HORSE PROJECT: HORSELESS, 4-H Horses & Horsemanship) 1. ________________ 2. ________________ 3. ________________ 4

Liskiewicz, Maciej

47

The stability of intelligence from age 11 to age 90 years: the Lothian birth cohort of 1921.  

PubMed

As a foundation for studies of human cognitive aging, it is important to know the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability across the life course. Few studies of cognitive ability have tested the same individuals in youth and old age. We examined the stability and concurrent and predictive validity of individual differences in the same intelligence test administered to the same individuals (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921, N = 106) at ages 11 and 90 years. The correlation of Moray House Test scores between age 11 and age 90 was .54 (.67 when corrected for range restriction). This is a valuable foundation for estimating the extent to which cognitive-ability differences in very old age are accounted for by the lifelong stable trait and by the causes of cognitive change across the life course. Moray House Test scores showed strong concurrent and predictive validity with "gold standard" cognitive tests at ages 11 and 90. PMID:24084038

Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

2013-12-01

48

Consistent yearly appearance of age-O walleye pollock,  

E-print Network

1981, age-O pollock were taken near the bottom at 30-60 m depths at vari- ous bays and inlets, submerged (20-25 m depths) rocky ledges at a site within 200 m of the Auke Bay Laboratory. The diving effort

49

702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

Winkelman, W.D.

1998-07-22

50

Insensible weight loss in children under one year of age.  

PubMed

A selected group of 12 breast-fed infants were studied for insensible weight loss over the first year life. The method used to determine the insensible weight loss was non-invasive and based on a computerized weighing system. Findings indicate that the insensible weight loss in a one-year-old child reaches 36% of the average insensible weight loss reached in adulthood (360 g/day). Furthermore, the insensible weight loss (g/h/kg) was constant at about 1.9 g per kilogram per hour over the first year of life. Insensible weight loss contains two components, insensible water loss (92%) and metabolic losses (8%). PMID:4050414

Hendrikson, E C; Seacat, J M; Neville, M C

1985-09-01

51

Automobile Traffic around the Home and Attained Body Mass Index: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Children aged 10–18 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between measured traffic density near the homes of children and attained body mass index (BMI) over an eight-year follow up. Methods Children aged 9–10 years were enrolled across multiple communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996 (n = 3318). Children were followed until age 18 or high school graduation to collect longitudinal information, including annual height and weight measurements. Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess the association between BMI levels at age 18 and traffic around the home. Results For traffic within 150 m around the child’s home, there were significant positive associations with attained BMI for both sexes at age 18. With the 300 m traffic buffer, associations for both male and female growth in BMI were positive, but significantly elevated only in females. These associations persisted even after controlling for numerous potential confounding variables. Conclusions This analysis yields the first evidence of significant effects from traffic density on BMI levels at age 18 in a large cohort of children. Traffic is a pervasive exposure in most cities, and our results identify traffic as a major risk factor for the development of obesity in children. PMID:19850068

Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Chang, C.C. Roger; Wolch, Jennifer; Reynolds, Kim; Lurmann, Frederick; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

2009-01-01

52

Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2010-01-01

53

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

54

Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL. PMID:24641829

McClune, Brian L; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Hai-Lin; Antin, Joseph H; Artz, Andrew S; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Deol, Abhinav; Freytes, César O; Hamadani, Mehdi; Holmberg, Leona A; Jagasia, Madan H; Jakubowski, Ann A; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Lazarus, Hillard M; Miller, Alan M; Olsson, Richard; Pedersen, Tanya L; Pidala, Joseph; Pulsipher, Michael A; Rowe, Jacob M; Saber, Wael; van Besien, Koen W; Waller, Edmund K; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgun; Bacher, Ulrike; Chao, Nelson J; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cooper, Brenda W; Dehn, Jason; de Lima, Marcos J; Hsu, Jack W; Lewis, Ian D; Marks, David I; McGuirk, Joseph; Cairo, Mitchell S; Schouten, Harry C; Szer, Jeffrey; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Savani, Bipin N; Seftel, Matthew; Socie, Gérard; Vij, Ravi; Warlick, Erica D; Weisdorf, Daniel J

2014-07-01

55

Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature

B M Laurance; A Brito; J Wilkinson

1981-01-01

56

Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11–17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11–13 and 15–17 years. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. Subjects: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11–13 or 15–17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. Measurements: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. Results: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15–17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15–17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15–17 years old. Conclusions: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11–13 and 15–17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11–13 and 15–17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength. PMID:14608433

Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

2003-01-01

57

Heritability of head size in dutch and Australian twin families at ages 0-50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the heritability of head circumference, an approximation of brain size, in twin-sib families of different ages. Data from the youngest participants were collected a few weeks after birth and from the oldest participants around age 50 years. In nearly all age groups the largest part of the variation in head circumference was explained by genetic differences. Heritability estimates

Dirk J. A. Smit; Michelle Luciano; Meike Bartels; Catharine E. M. van Beijsterveldt; Margaret J. Wright; Narelle K. Hansell; Han G. Brunner; G. Frederiek Estourgie-van Burk; Eco J. C de Geus; Nicholas G Martin; Dorret I Boomsma

2010-01-01

58

Sixteen years age limit for learner drivers in Sweden—an evaluation of safety effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a reform implemented in Sweden, September 1993, the age limit for practising car driving was lowered from 1712 to 16 years while the licensing age remained 18. The purpose of lowering the age limit was to give the learner drivers an opportunity to acquire more experience as drivers before being allowed to drive on their own. The primary aim

Nils P. Gregersen; Hans-Yngve Berg; Inger Engström; Sixten Nolén; Anders Nyberg; Per-Arne Rimmö

2000-01-01

59

Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

2011-01-01

60

9,10-Dihydrophenanthrene Glucosides from Juncus effusus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene glucosides have been isolated from Juncus effusus and their structures confirmed on spectroscopic grounds and by semisynthesis. The results of a cytotoxic assay are also reported.

Marina Della Greca; Antonio Fiorentino; Antonio Molinaro; Pietro Monaco; Lucio Previtera

1995-01-01

61

Agenda for the October 9-10, 2002 NSB Meeting  

NSF Publications Database

... September 26, 2002 AGENDA NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD 370th MEETING October 9, 10, 2002 National Science ... a Biological Mystery 5. Minutes, August, 2002 meeting NSB-02-143 6. Closed Session Items for October ...

62

44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

2012-10-01

63

44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.  

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

2014-10-01

64

44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

2010-10-01

65

44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

2013-10-01

66

44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

2011-10-01

67

Characteristics of Hearing Impaired Students Under Six Years of Age, United States: 1969-70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth are given on the characteristics of approximately 6,400 students under 6 years of age enrolled in special education programs for the hearing impaired during the 1969-70 school year. Statistical tables describe the age, sex, and hearing threshold levels (better ear averages) of the…

Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Office of Demographic Studies.

68

Clinical Characteristics of Aged Becker Muscular Dystrophy Patients with Onset after 30 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the clinical characteristics of aged patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), 4 patients with this disease who were over 50 years were examined. The ages at onset in all patients were later than 30 years. All were proven to have a deletion around exons 45–55 of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene. Two patients became wheelchair bound in

Masahide Yazaki; Kunihiro Yoshida; Akinori Nakamura; Jun Koyama; Takashi Nanba; Nobuhira Ohori; Shu-ichi Ikeda

1999-01-01

69

Investigation of Gait in Elderly Subjects Over 88 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate senile gait patterns in octagenarians and nonagenarians, we provided a standardized questionnaire on gait disabilities to 153 elderly subjects over 88 years of age. Subjects represented a relatively healthy subgroup of noninstitu-tionalized residents who participated in a gerontological survey of all inhabitants of the city of Leiden who were 85 years of age or older. Of the 142

Bastiaan R. Bloem; Joost Haan; Anne M. Lagaay; Wim van Beek; Axel R. Wintzen; Raymund A. C. Roos

1992-01-01

70

Determinants of hip axis length in women aged 10–89 years: A twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip axis length (HAL), a measure of femoral geometry, has been shown to predict hip fracture in white women over the age of 67 years, independently of bone mineral density at the femoral neck. A cross-sectional study of 304 pairs of female twins [176 monozygous (MZ) and 128 dizygous (DZ)], aged between 10 and 89 years, was performed to examine

L. Flicker; K. G. Faulkner; J. L. Hopper; R. M. Green; B. Kaymakci; C. A. Nowson; D. Young; J. D. Wark

1996-01-01

71

Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

2009-01-01

72

The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

2001-01-01

73

Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years?  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 years of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods. This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results. In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 years of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions. Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during pre-school age, independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long-term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children's first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel. PMID:25385683

Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

2014-11-11

74

The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.  

PubMed

When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40?years. PMID:25516923

Campbell, Alastair V

2015-01-01

75

7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media_hat_june_2010/en/index.html  

E-print Network

7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low tropical diseases > Integrated media related to NTD printable version Human African trypanosomiasis: number of human African trypanosomiasis (also known as sleeping sickness) reported to WHO has dropped below 10 000

Cross, George

76

Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

77

Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

2013-01-01

78

Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

2008-01-01

79

Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.  

PubMed

Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age. PMID:22367579

Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

2013-06-01

80

Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

2014-01-01

81

Etiology of voiding dysfunction in men less than 50 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesChronic lower urinary tract symptoms in young men are often attributed to misdiagnosed chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. The purpose of this study was to analyze etiology of chronic voiding dysfunction in men less than 50 years of age.

Steven A. Kaplan; Edward F. Ikeguchi; Richard P. Santarosa; Patricia Meade D'alisera; James Hendricks; Alexis E. Te; Mark I. Miller

1996-01-01

82

High Incidence of Severe Influenza among Individuals over 50 Years of Age ?  

PubMed Central

Age-specific epidemiological data on asymptomatic, symptomatic, and severe infections are essential for public health policies on combating influenza. In this study, we incorporated data on microbiologically confirmed infections and seroprevalence to comprehensively describe the epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza. Seroprevalence was determined from 1,795 random serum samples collected in our hospital in January 2007 (before the first wave of the pandemic) and March 2010 (after the second wave). Data on microbiologically confirmed infection and severe cases were obtained from the Centre for Health Protection in Hong Kong. Severe cases were most common in the 51- to 60-year-old age group. The microbiologically confirmed incidence rate was highest for children aged ?10 years and dropped sharply for the adult population (? = ?1.0; P < 0.01), but the incidence rate for severe disease was highest for the 51- to 60-year-old age group. For the 51- to 60-year-old age group, the seroprevalence was similar to that for the younger age groups, but the proportion of severe cases relative to seroprevalence was significantly higher than that for 11- to 50-year-old age groups. As judged from the percentage of specimens positive for other respiratory viruses compared with that for pandemic H1N1 virus, the impact of symptomatic disease due to pandemic H1N1 virus was higher than that for other respiratory viruses in people aged ?50 years. In conclusion, the 51- to 60-year-old age group, which had the highest overall incidence and the highest rate of severe disease but is currently not considered by the World Health Organization to be an at-risk group, should be prioritized for influenza vaccination in areas where universal influenza vaccination is not practiced. PMID:21900532

Zhang, Anna J. X.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Guo, Kun-Yuan; Li, Can; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Chen, Honglin; Tam, Sidney; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2011-01-01

83

The Use of Psychological State Words by Late Talkers at Ages 3, 4, and 5 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of four types of psychological state words (physiological, emotional, desire, and cognitive) during mother-child play sessions at ages 3, 4, and 5 years was examined in 30 children diagnosed with delayed expressive language at 24-31 months and 15 age-matched comparison children with typical development. The children's mean length of…

Lee, Eliza Carlson; Rescorla, Leslie

2008-01-01

84

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

85

The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive Transitions in School-Age

Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

86

Success of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children less than 2 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current literature reveals different opinions about the effectiveness of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the treatment of hydrocephalus in children less than 2 years of age. Performing a retrospective evaluation of our own experience in this age group, we aimed to contribute to the growing data on the controversial issues related to this procedure in children. In a series of 97

Volkan Etus; Savas Ceylan

2005-01-01

87

Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

2013-01-01

88

Musical Preferences for Compositions by Selected Students Aged 9-15 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the factors that may influence the decisions made by students aged 9-15 years old as they chose musical sounds and constructed compositions. Indicates that age, formal music training, and aesthetic response to musical sounds are the primary factors affecting specific choices made in the compositional process. (CMK)

Carlin, Joi

1997-01-01

89

Three Years of the New Minimum Drinking Age Law: The Search for the "Spillover Effect."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raising the legal drinking age nationally was designed to decrease highway deaths, but it has not seemed to have affected the drinking behavior of 18-20 year old college students. In August of 1995, the Louisiana legislature raised the legal minimum drinking age to 21. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a change in legal…

Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.; Watson, Zarus E. P.

90

The Malignant Potential of Small Cystic Ovarian Tumors in Women over 50 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy in cystic ovarian tumors <10 cm in diameter in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age.Methods.All cystic ovarian tumors detected by transvaginal sonography screening in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age were evaluated with respect to size and morphology. Histology was recorded on

C. L. Bailey; F. R. Ueland; G. L. Land; P. D. DePriest; H. H. Gallion; R. J. Kryscio; J. R. van Nagell

1998-01-01

91

Influence of age on Medicare expenditures and medical care in the last year of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Expenditures for Medicare beneficiaries in the last year of life decrease with increasing age. The cause of this phenomenon is uncertain.\\u000aOBJECTIVES: To examine this pattern in detail and evaluate whether decreases in aggressiveness of medical care explain the phenomenon.\\u000aDESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Analysis of sample Medicare data for beneficiaries aged 65 years or older from Massachusetts (n

Norman G. Levinsky; Wei Yu; Arlene S. Ash; Mark A. Moskowitz; Gail Gazelle; Oolga Saynina; Ezekiel J. Emanuel

2001-01-01

92

Maximal voluntary isometric strength in Danish adolescents 16–19 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The force in maximal voluntary isometric contraction of elbow flexors, knee extensors, trunk flexors, and trunk extensors was measured in a representative sample of Danish school children 16–19 years of age (128 boys and 165 girls). The 16 year old boys were 177.8 cm in height, with a mean increase of 1.4 cm per year up to 19 years, and

Lars Bo Andersen; Poul Henckel

1987-01-01

93

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.?? PMID:9828850

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

94

Structure and properties of 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexahydro-9,10[1?,4?]-benzenoanthracene and 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-octahydro-9,10[1?,4?]-benzenoanthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title compounds were prepared by 4?s + 4?s photochemical cycloaddition between anthracene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The results confirm the structure of the initial cycloadduct, 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexahydro-9,10[1?,4?]-benzenoanthracene (1), which in the crystal exhibits positional disorder about the cyclohexadiene-derived fragment that is only partially resolved. The origin of the disorder is considered in light of the crystallographic packing interactions and compared with intermolecular contacts in the hydrogenated derivative, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-octahydro-9,10[1?,4?]-benzenoanthracene (2), which is not disordered. The asymmetric unit of 2 contains one-half of a molecule situated about a two-fold symmetry axis. Both structures contain relatively long interannular bonds between the bridgehead carbons of the anthracene- and cyclohexadiene-derived fragments, in agreement with ab initio calculations and considered in terms of bond strain in the carbon framework of these compounds.

Masnovi, Michelle E.; Schildcrout, Steven M.; Masnovi, John

2015-01-01

95

9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes and phenanthrenes from Juncus setchuensis.  

PubMed

Four new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, juncuenins A-D (1-4), three new phenanthrenes, dehydrojuncuenins A-C (5-7), and three known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Juncus setchuensis. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of detailed 1D and 2D NMR studies. PMID:19514742

Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Tang, Chun-Ping; Yuan, Dan; Ye, Yang

2009-06-01

96

CONCENTRATION PLAN for NEUROSCIENCE [Eff. 9/10  

E-print Network

CONCENTRATION PLAN for NEUROSCIENCE [Eff. 9/10] Name Uniqname UMID Exp. Date of Graduation to satisfy two requirements. Group A: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (Elect at least two courses.) BIO of Neurodegeneration MCDB 456 (3) Genes, Circuits, and Behavior Group B: Behavioral Neuroscience (Elect at least two

Michigan, University of

97

Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

2013-01-01

98

Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

2007-03-01

99

Aortic valve replacement in patients over 80 years of age: a comparative standard for balloon valvuloplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly patients who develop symptomatic aortic valvular malfunction have a grave prognosis. Until recently they have not been seriously considered for active treatment, such as valvular surgery or balloon valvuloplasty. Between January 1972 and July 1989,88 patients over the age of 80 years underwent aortic valve replacement and have been prospectively followed for a total of 185 patient-years. The majority

M. Azariades; C. L. Fessler; A. Ahmad; A. Starr

1991-01-01

100

A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

2011-01-01

101

Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

2007-01-01

102

Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine whether duration of breast feeding has any effect on a child's cognitive or motor development in a population with favourable environmental conditions and a high prevalence of breast feeding.METHODSIn 345 Scandinavian children, data on breast feeding were prospectively recorded during the first year of life, and neuromotor development was assessed at 1 and 5 years of age. Main

N K Angelsen; T Vik; G Jacobsen; L S Bakketeig

2001-01-01

103

Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

2013-01-01

104

Comorbidities among the HIV-Infected Patients Aged 40 Years or Older in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART. Methods We reviewed medical records of all HIV-infected patients aged 40 years or older who had been followed at a university hospital for HIV care in Taiwan between January and December 2013. A standardized case record form was used to collect information on demographics and clinical characteristics, comorbidity, cART, and concurrent medications. Results During the study period, 610 patients aged 40 to 49 years (mean, 44.1) and 310 aged 50 years or older (mean, 58.8) sought HIV care at this hospital. Compared with patients aged 40 to 49 years, those aged 50 years or older were significantly more likely to be female (15.9% vs 3.8%); to have received cART (97.7% vs 94.8%) and a lower plasma HIV RNA load (1.6 vs 1.7 log10 copies/ml); and to have diabetes mellitus (18.4% vs 4.6%), hypertension (31.0% vs 10.8%), hyperlipidemia (29.4% vs 11.6%), coronary artery disease (6.8% vs 0.5%), and an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (11.5% vs 2.7%); and were significantly less likely to have syphilis. Other than HIV infection, patients aged 50 years or older were more likely to have been receiving two or more concurrent medications than those aged 40 to 49 years (22.9% vs 6.4%). Conclusions Our findings show a significant proportion of the HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older have multiple comorbidities that may increase the risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. Issues of poly-pharmacy among the HIV-infected patients who are aging should be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions. PMID:25119532

Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Liu, Wen-Chun; Yang, Shan-Ping; Luo, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-01-01

105

Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words.  

PubMed

Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

2015-01-01

106

Trends in induced abortion among Nordic women aged 40-44 years  

PubMed Central

Objectives Women aged 40-44 years in 2005 ought to have been subjected to much more influence on attitudes and knowledge on contraceptive methods during their fertile period than women who were in the same age span in 1975 when the abortion laws were introduced. Material From official statistics, the rates of induced abortion and birth rates in women aged 40-44 years were collected for Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland for each five-year during the period 1975-2005. Results With the exception of Sweden all other studied Scandinavian countries have lowered their abortion rates since 1975 (p < 0.001) and reduced the proportion of induced abortions in relation to birth rate (p < 0.001). In 2005 these countries also had lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden in the age group 40-44 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is a significant change in rates of induced abortion in women aged 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. This indicates that family planning programs works well in the Nordic countries. The differences found may be assumed to possible diverging focus on attitudes or ethical considerations. PMID:21846348

2011-01-01

107

The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

2015-01-01

108

Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial synangiosis as a safe, effective, and durable method for treatment of moyamoya for most children in this potentially high-risk population. PMID:24527861

Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

2014-04-01

109

Lifetime Dog and Cat Exposure and Dog and Cat Specific Sensitization at Age 18 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research about whether keeping a dog or cat in the home causes allergies to that pet has been limited to outcomes in early childhood. Objective Evaluate the association between lifetime dog and cat exposure and allergic sensitization to the specific animal at age 18 years. Methods Participants enrolled in the Detroit Childhood Allergy Study birth cohort in 1987–1989 were contacted at age 18 years. Sensitization to dog or cat was defined as animal-specific IgE ?0.35 kU/L. Annual interview data from childhood and follow-up interviews at age 18 years were used to determine lifetime indoor dog and cat exposure (indoor defined as the animal spent >50% of their time in the home). Exposure was considered in various ways: first year, age groups and cumulative lifetime. Analyses were conducted separately for dogs and cats. Results Among males, those with an indoor dog in the first year of life had half the risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence Interval=CI 0.27, 0.92) of being sensitized to dogs at age 18 compared to those who did not have an indoor dog in the first year. This was also true for males and females born via c-section (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.07, 0.97). Overall, teens with an indoor cat in the first year of life had decreased risk (RR=0.52, 95% CI 0.31, 0.90) of being sensitized to cats. Neither cumulative exposure nor exposure at any other particular age was associated with either outcome. Conclusions and clinical relevance The first year of life is the critical period during childhood when indoor exposure to dogs or cats influences sensitization to these animals. PMID:21668818

Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Nicholas, Charlotte; Zoratti, Edward M.

2013-01-01

110

Predictors of maternal control of feeding at 1 and 2 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To establish the best predictors of maternal use of controlling feeding practices at 1 and 2 years of age.Design:A longitudinal study from birth to 2 years.Participants:Sixty-two mothers of 2-year-old children.Measures:Infant weight at birth, 6, 12 and 24 months, breastfeeding history, infant temperament and feeding difficulties at 6 and 12 months, maternal demographics at 12 and 24 months, maternal mental health

J Blissett; C Farrow

2007-01-01

111

Aerobic fitness norms for males and females aged 6 to 75 years: a review.  

PubMed

An extensive literature review was performed of studies where VO2max was measured directly in healthy, untrained subjects in the USA, Canada and 7 European countries to establish absolute (L/min) and relative (ml.kg-1.min-1) VO2max norms in males and females aged 6-75 years. Mean norms (L/min) in males show an increase from 1.0 L/min at age 6 years, to 2.0 and 3.4 L/min at ages 12 and 18 years, respectively, after which they decline with age to 3.2, 2.7, and 1.6 L/min for ages 30, 50, and 75 years, respectively. The corresponding values for females aged 6, 12, 18, 30, 50, and 75 years are 0.9, 1.8, 2.2, 1.8, and 1.1 L/min, respectively. Sex differences in relative VO2max are smaller than the above. Mean values for males for the above age groups are 47.5, 50, 48, 35, and 25 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, with corresponding values for females of 42.5, 44, 41, 28, and 17.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. These norms (L/min) are slightly lower than Robinson's 1938 data on males; they are only 1.5% lower compared with Astrand's adult males norms; but 2.5 to 10% lower than Astrand's norms for adult females. Present norms (ml.kg-1.min-1) for middle aged and older women are 25% lower than the corresponding Astrand's norms. PMID:2405832

Shvartz, E; Reibold, R C

1990-01-01

112

Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women.  

PubMed

Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959-1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I-III (1971-1994), and NHANES 1999-2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?-0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005-2008 it had reversed and was -0.33 years lower (95% CI?=?-0.54, -0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend?age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

Krieger, Nancy; Kiang, Mathew V; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Beckfield, Jason

2015-02-01

113

Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

2014-01-01

114

Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially valuable tool for both constraining the age distribution in sampled waters and investigating recharge transients.

Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

2012-08-01

115

Blood Pressure Reference Tables for Hungarian Adolescents Aged 11–16 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Blood pressure (BP) during childhood is an established predictor of adult BP, which in turn predicts mortality in the event of cardiovascular disease. Reference data for systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP are not available for Hungarian children (aged 11–14 years). The aim was to make up for this deficit. Methods: Analyses were performed on 14,504 Hungarian children aged

Sándor Túri; Ákos Baráth; Krisztina Boda; Mariett Tichy; Éva Károly

2008-01-01

116

Normative values of agonist-antagonist shoulder strength ratios of adults aged 20 to 78 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine normative values for isometric flexion\\/extension, abduction\\/adduction, and external\\/internal rotation strength ratios about the shoulder and to determine if these ratios are affected by age or gender.Study Design: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy volunteers (60 men, 60 women) aged 20 to 78 years.Setting: Orthopedic research laboratory.Methods: Flexion and extension strengths were measured isometrically using a Cybex II

Richard E. Hughes; Marjorie E. Johnson; Shawn W. O'Driscoll; Kai-Nan An

1999-01-01

117

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in patients over the age of 40 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension of allogeneic transplants to older patients has been limited by a high risk of transplant-related death and graft-versus-host disease. To evaluate the feasibility in older patients, a retrospective analysis of the procedure was performed for first remission acute leukemia in 192 patients aged over 40 years and compared with a group of 1119 recipients aged from 16 to 40

J-Y Cahn; M Labopin; A Schattenberg; J Reiffers; R Willemze; R Zittoun; A Bacigalupo; G Prentice; E Gluckman; P Hervé; A Gratwohl; N-C Gorin

1997-01-01

118

Obesity before Age 30 Years and Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult obesity has shown little association with prostate cancer risk, but obesity at younger ages may be asso- ciated with reduced risk. In 1997-2000, the relation between obesity before age 30 years and incident advanced prostate cancer was investigated in a population-based case-control study of African-American and White men (568 cases, 544 controls) in California. Unconditional logistic regression was used

Whitney R. Robinson; June Stevens; Marilie D. Gammon; Esther M. John

2005-01-01

119

Clinical crown length changes from age 12–19 years: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age, gender and clinical crown length using a longitudinal study design.Method: Four hundred and fifty-six sets of study models initially obtained for a large prospective longitudinal cohort study of orthodontic needs were examined. Each set of models corresponded to subjects at three different ages: 11–12, 14–15 and 18–19years

L. A Morrow; J. W Robbins; D. L Jones; N. H. F Wilson

2000-01-01

120

Cementless total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis in patients aged 55 years and older  

PubMed Central

Background Cemented total hip arthroplasty has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with osteoarthritis. We analyzed survival rates of the most common cementless designs used in this age group in Finland. Patients and methods Inclusion criteria permitted 10,310 replacements (8 designs) performed in patients aged 55 years or older to be selected for evaluation. The risk of revision of each of the 8 implants was compared with that of a group comprising 3 cemented designs as the reference (9,549 replacements). Survival analyses were performed overall and separately for 3 age cohorts: 55–64 years (6,781 replacements), 65–74 years (8,821 replacements), and 75 years or older (4,257 replacements). Results In all patients aged 55 years or more, the Bi-Metric stem had a higher survival rate for aseptic loosening at 15 years than the cemented reference group: 96% (95% CI: 94–98) vs. 91% (CI: 90–92). However, the 15-year survival rates of the Bi-Metric/Press-Fit Universal (71% (CI: 67–75)) and the Anatomic Mesh/Harris-Galante II (72% (CI: 67–78)) total hip replacements were lower than that of the reference group (86% (CI: 84–87)). Information was scarce for patients aged 75 years or more. Interpretation Cementless proximal porous-coated stems are a good option for elderly patients. Even though biological fixation is a reliable fixation method in THA, polyethylene wear and osteolysis remain a serious problem for cementless cup designs with unplugged screw holes and low-quality liners. PMID:20180718

Eskelinen, Antti; Paavolainen, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Pekka

2010-01-01

121

Effects of Age and Life Transitions on Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcome Over Nine Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, common life transitions, treatment, and social support on outcomes 5–9 years after alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment intake. Method: Participants were patients from a large outpatient AOD treatment program in an integrated health plan. There were 1,951 participants interviewed at intake, of whom 1,646 (84%) completed one or more telephone follow-up interviews at 5, 7, and 9 years. Measures included AOD use based on the Addiction Severity Index; treatment; and changes in marital, employment, and health status in the years between each follow-up. We compared participants by age group (18–39, 40–54, and >55 years old at intake) and examined factors (time invariant and time varying) associated with outcomes at 5, 7, and 9 years by fitting mixed-effects logistic random intercept models. Results: Changes in marital, employment, and health status varied significantly by age. Factors associated with remission across Years 5–9 included being in the middle-aged versus younger group (p < .001); female gender (p < .001); not losing a partner to separation, divorce, or death (p < .001); not experiencing a decline in health (p = .021); having any close friends supportive of recovery (p < .001); and not having any close friends who encourage AOD use (p < .001). Additional predictors, including employment changes, varied by drug versus alcohol abstinence outcome measures. Conclusions: Negative life transitions vary by age and are associated with worse outcomes. Older age and social support are associated with long-term AOD remission and abstinence. Findings inform treatment strategies to enhance recovery across the life span. PMID:22456251

Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Weisner, Constance M.

2012-01-01

122

Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. Results Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11) if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised). Conclusions These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen. PMID:25251831

Thompson, John M. D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A.

2014-01-01

123

Screening for refractive errors at age 1 year: a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

Cycloplegic refraction of 1-year-old children is technically possible and is acceptable to mothers as a method for screening children for visual defects. The range of refractions found in a sample of 186 1-year-old children is reported. Prediction of which children are significantly at risk for squint and/or amblyopia is possible on the basis of refractions at age 1 year according to the criteria selected for an 'abnormal' refraction. Bilateral hypermetropia and/or astigmatism or anisometropia at age 1 year was significantly (P less than 1 in 10 000) associated with a child eventually being found to have squint or amblyopia. Both the age of screening and criteria of abnormality will probably need modification. +2.50 or more D hypermetropia in any one meridian of either eye at age 1 year was even more significantly (P = 0.000 000 05%) associated with squint and/or amblyopia. The possibility that meridional hypermetropia could be the basic defect in squint and amblyopia is discussed. PMID:435441

Ingram, R M; Traynar, M J; Walker, C; Wilson, J M

1979-01-01

124

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

125

Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

2012-01-01

126

Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

2014-01-01

127

Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

2015-01-01

128

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years)  

Cancer.gov

The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives (100). Preschool children continue to expand their gross and fine motor capabilities and by age 4 years, a child can hop, jump on one foot, ride a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels, and throw a ball overhand.

129

[Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in persons aged more than 75 years].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a progressive skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone strength and an increase in the number of fractures. This disease is considered by the World Health Organization to be the second most important health problem in the world after cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis is increasing due to population aging. With age, the loss of bone mass in the spine and hip, which starts at menopause in women and around the age of 60 years in men, continues. Old age is when most fragility fractures occur and the incidence of these fractures is increasing exponentially in persons aged more than 75 years. Several treatments with demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing fracture risk and increasing bone mineral density are currently available for osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the scientific evidence on the safety and efficacy of these treatments is much more scarce in older people than in young populations. There are few reports on the efficacy of these treatments in non-vertebral--specifically hip--fractures in the elderly. Consequently, the present review aims to analyze the scientific evidence on the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, and particularly the evidence on the antifracture efficacy of distinct antiresorptive agents and anabolic drugs in people older than 75 years. PMID:20116136

Moro-Alvarez, María Jesús; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel

2010-01-01

130

Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.  

PubMed

Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

2012-01-01

131

Changes in body mass index, leptin and adiponectin in Japanese children during a three-year follow-up period: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The study examined changes in and relationship between body mass index (BMI), leptin and adiponectin levels over a 3-year period in a pediatric population-based cohort. STUDY DESIGN: A 3-year prospective cohort study of 268 boys and 251 girls aged 9–10 in Ina, Saitama, Japan. RESULTS: Median body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from baseline (age 9–10) to follow up

Rimei Nishimura; Hironari Sano; Toru Matsudaira; Aya Morimoto; Yumi Miyashita; Takako Shirasawa; Akatsuki Kokaze; Naoko Tajima

2009-01-01

132

Risk Factors for Serious Suicide Attempts among Youths Aged 13 through 24 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine associations between a series of sociodemographic factors, childhood experiences, and mental disorders and risk of serious suicide attempt in young people aged 13 through 24 years and to explore the joint relationship between these factors and vulnerability to serious suicide attempt.

ANNETTE L. BEAUTRAIS; PETER R. JOYCE; ROGER T. MULDER

1996-01-01

133

Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

Henderson, Davetta A.

2011-01-01

134

25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.  

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against the restricted lands of...

2014-04-01

135

25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against the restricted lands of...

2012-04-01

136

25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against the restricted lands of...

2011-04-01

137

25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against the restricted lands of...

2013-04-01

138

The mobility of the sacroiliac joints in healthy volunteers between 20 and 50 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and amplitude of movement in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is still open to controversy. Whereas some authors using modern measuring techniques have reported on the range of motion in the SIJ of patients and in embalmed elderly humans, the following is a presentation of our observations related to healthy individuals between 20 and 50 years of age. Using

HAC Jacob; RO Kissling

1995-01-01

139

Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

2012-01-01

140

The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age  

E-print Network

The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age Mark D. Vida that eye contact triggers theory-of-mind computations, which support inferences about others' interests, threat, or dominance, whereas deviations from eye contact can signal avoidance, deception, or attention

Maurer, Daphne M.

141

Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

Dorfman, Lorraine T.

2009-01-01

142

Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

2012-01-01

143

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

144

Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

2013-01-01

145

Factors associated with sunburn in white children aged 6 months to 11 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the sunburn experience and factors associated with sunburn among white children aged 6 months to 11 years.Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted with parents and primary caretakers of children, selected by random, stratified sampling, in the contiguous United States in the summer of 1998. Information was gathered on demographic characteristics of parents and children, and children’s sunburn experience

H. Irene Hall; Kathleen McDavid; Cynthia M Jorgensen; Joan M Kraft

2001-01-01

146

FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

147

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

148

Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

2007-01-01

149

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children under 1 year of age: indications, complications, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 9-year period from June 1979 to July 1988, 197 percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomies (PEG) were performed by us in infants and children; 69 (35%) were placed in 68 infants 12 months of age or younger. Indications for the PEG in this latter group were: (1) inability to swallow: 48 (CNS lesions — 40; maxillofacial malformations — 4; oropharyngeal dysmotility

John P. Coughlin; Michael W. L. Gauderere; Thomas A. Stellato

1991-01-01

150

[Analysis of the course of pregnancies and labor in girls under 18 years of age].  

PubMed

Authors analysed the course of pregnancy and labor at 141 under 18 aged girls, between 1981-1990. The rise of number of labors at teen-agers was observed in the last 5 years. This tendency should pay our attention on this group of patients. PMID:8375722

Dabrowska-Jakubiak, A; Jakubiak, T; Cendrowski, K; Stelmachów, J

1993-08-01

151

Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

152

Stroke Incidence in Women under 60 Years of Age Related to Alcohol Intake and Smoking Habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: The association between alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of stroke amongst women remains unclear, especially in young women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 45,449 Swedish women aged 30–50 years free of stroke and heart diseases at enrolment in 1991 and 1992. Information on drinking and smoking habits at enrolment was collected using a questionnaire. Incident

Ming Lu; Weimin Ye; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2008-01-01

153

Impact of prenatal methylmercury exposure on neurobehavioral function at age 14 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1987–1988 in the Faroe Islands, where increased methylmercury exposure occurs from traditional seafood diets that include pilot whale meat. The prenatal exposure level was determined from mercury analyses of cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. At age 14 years, 878 of 1010 living cohort members underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. Eighteen

Frodi Debes; Esben Budtz-Jørgensen; Pal Weihe; Roberta F. White; Philippe Grandjean

2006-01-01

154

Use of budesonide in severe asthmatics aged 1-3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of severe asthmatics aged 1-3 years with budesonide administered via Nebuhaler and Laerdal facemask was assessed in a six month, double blind, placebo controlled study. Patients were randomised to budesonide (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) treatment. Daily symptom scores were recorded by parents and clinic visits occurred every six weeks. Cough scores improved significantly with

G J Connett; C Warde; E Wooler; W Lenney

1993-01-01

155

Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

2013-01-01

156

Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria.  

PubMed

The incidence of fatal injuries in children has been reported to be highest among children aged 1 to 4 years. Major causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, falls, and intentional or inflicted injury (such as nonaccidental injury syndrome). This study reviewed the profile of children (under 5 years of age) who had been admitted to a large urban medicolegal mortuary (in Pretoria, the capital city of South Africa), after having suffered fatal head injuries. This study was conducted over a 5-year period (from January 2004 through December 2008), and a total of 107 cases were identified for inclusion. These cases constituted nearly a fifth of admissions in this age group. The male-to-female ratio was 56%:44%, and the peak age of injury was less than 1 year. Most head injuries were sustained in road traffic accidents (70%) followed by falls (10%) and other types of blunt force injuries (9%). Only 1 case of nonaccidental injury syndrome (child abuse) was found. The great majority of deaths were deemed to have been accidental in nature (91%) with 6 (6%) homicides. Urgent review pertaining to the use of child restraint devices and the safety of pedestrians is required, and the institution of childhood injury registers could aid in reducing childhood fatalities in South Africa. PMID:25072811

du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Saayman, Gert

2014-09-01

157

Frequency of low back pain among men and women aged 30 to 64 years in France  

E-print Network

1 Frequency of low back pain among men and women aged 30 to 64 years in France Results of two back pain (LBP) have been carried out among workers or patients. Until very recently, the frequency: prevalence; low back pain; general population. inserm-00225042,version1-30Jan2008 #12;3 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

2007-01-01

159

US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.  

PubMed

This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study. PMID:24799579

Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

2014-05-01

160

A Screening Instrument for Autism at 18 Months of Age: A 6Year Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesA population of 16,235 children aged 18 months was screened using the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) to identify childhood autism (CA). Two further screening procedures were conducted at age 3 and 5 years. The population was followed up at age 7 years in order to establish the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the instrument.

GILLIAN BAIRD; TONY CHARMAN; SIMON BARON-COHEN; ANTONY COX; JOHN SWETTENHAM; SALLY WHEELWRIGHT; AURIOL DREW

2000-01-01

161

Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

2014-01-01

162

Safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients 80 years of age and older  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary tract diseases. The ERCP is an invasive procedure that does not increase complications in the elderly. Few studies have assessed the safety of ERCP in the elderly. Life expectancy is rising, which causes an increasing demand for ERCP in the elderly. Aim To show that therapeutic ERCP is safe and we compared the level of complications among the elderly (> 80 years of age) and the level among a younger group (< 65 years of age). Material and methods The study was designed retrospectively. The details of all patients 80 years of age and older undergoing ERCP were analysed. One hundred and fifty patients were included in each of the groups: > 80 years of age, older group A; and < 65 years of age, younger group B. Results In group A, 4 cases (2.7%) of bleeding (all mild) was observed, and perforation was not observed. The ERCP-related mild pancreatitis was observed in 7 patients (4.6%). There were no cases of mortality during procedures of ERCP in group A. In group B 6 bleeding cases (4%) (all mild) were observed. Perforation was not observed in group B. ERCP-related mild pancreatitis occurred in 11 patients (7.3%). There were no cases of mortality during procedures of ERCP in group B. Our study showed that ERCP is a safe and effective procedure in elderly patients. Conclusions Outcomes of ERCP for diagnostic and therapeutic success, and complication rates, are similar to those in younger patients. The ERCP is effective and safe in the elderly. PMID:25276254

Behlül, Baydar; Sezgin, Vatansever; Altay, Kandemir; Mustafa, Çelik; Cem, Çekiç; Bilge, Örmeci; Fatih, Aslan; Emrah, Alper; Zafer, Buyraç; Kadir, Aksöz; Belkis, Ünsal

2014-01-01

163

Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age.  

PubMed

We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group: median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years). The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but different in age. After careful arthroscopic evaluation of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear, rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy were performed in all patients. Pre- and post-operatively, each patient was evaluated for range of motion, shoulder score (UCLA), and SF-36 self-administered questionnaire. Comparing pre- versus post-operative status at a minimum 24 months follow-up, forward elevation, internal and external rotation, modified UCLA rating system scores, and SF-36 scores improved significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. At the last follow-up, strength improved significantly in both groups, with non-significant intergroup difference. The Popeye sign was detected in 13/28 (46%) of the patients in the over 65 group and in 11/28 (39%) in the under 65 group (? = 0.29) with non-significant difference between the two groups. In selected active patients older than 65, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair associated with biceps tenotomy (when necessary) can yield clinical and related quality of life outcomes similar to those of patients younger than 65 years. PMID:20182868

Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

2010-12-01

164

Changes in the peripheral speech mechanism of children from the age of 7 to 10 years.  

PubMed

Changes in the morphology and functioning of the speech articulators were assessed in 118 children monitored from the age of 7 to 10 years, and associations between these variables and misarticulations were analyzed. The accuracy of articulatory movements and their coordination improved markedly. There was a relative delay in development of the motor coordination of boys who produced sounds too far posteriorly. Difficulties in tongue movements and their coordination increased the risk for the category of other misarticulations. Difficulties in motor coordination contributed to a lesser extent to articulatory speech disorders in 10-year-olds compared to 7-year-olds. Some new cases of inaccuracy of coordinating the movements refer to the liability of muscle coordination still at the age of 10. PMID:8069361

Qvarnström, M J; Jaroma, S M; Laine, M T

1994-01-01

165

Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Aim Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females) younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years). The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females) older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years). Results The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001), pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001), treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001), and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084). Conclusion Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia represent a frequent cause of venous thrombosis among young female patients. Inferior vena cava abnormalities should be excluded in young patients with spontaneous proximal venous thrombosis especially when recurrent venous thrombosis or resistance to anticoagulation are observed. PMID:22454560

Kreidy, Raghid; Salameh, Pascale; Waked, Mirna

2012-01-01

166

Motor skills in extremely low birthweight children at the age of 6 years.  

PubMed

Fifty three children aged 6 years old who had weighed less than 1251 g at birth without cerebral palsy and receiving mainstream education, were entered into a controlled study of motor skills. The index and control children were matched by age, sex, and school. The index group were considered by their teachers to have similar academic performances to their index group were considered by their teachers to have similar academic performances to their controls, although two index cases were receiving remedial teaching. On the test of motor impairment extremely low birthweight children had significantly more motor difficulties than controls. In addition, the index group had more minor neurological signs, lower intelligence quotients, and more adverse behavioural traits. The higher motor impairment scores among index children were independent of differences in intelligence quotient between the two groups. There was no association between impairment score and the presence or degree of periventricular haemorrhage or periventricular leucomalacia on neonatal cerebral ultrasound. Children with Apgar scores at five minutes of less than 7 had significantly higher impairment scores compared with those whose scores were 7 or more. Three perinatal factors (Apgar score at five minutes, neonatal septicaemia, and abnormal movements) explained 32% of the variance in impairment score at the age of 6 years. In children who do not have cerebral palsy perinatal factors may still be important in the development of motor skills. The presence of subtle neuromotor impairments at 6 years of age has implications for schooling that need further evaluation. PMID:2476079

Marlow, N; Roberts, B L; Cooke, R W

1989-06-01

167

Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C. [and others

1995-11-01

168

Environmental Exposure to Metals and Children's Growth to Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001–2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were ?0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.60, ?0.06) for high (?95th percentile) arsenic exposure and ?0.57 kg (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (?5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were ?0.50 cm (95% CI: ?1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and ?1.6 cm (95% CI: ?2.4, ?0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (?0.67 kg, 95% CI: ?0.82, ?0.53) and height (?1.3 cm, 95% CI: ?1.7, ?0.89). PMID:23676282

Gardner, Renee M.; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Vahter, Marie

2013-01-01

169

Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Texas Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: For > 50 years, polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) have been used worldwide, mainly as surfactants and emulsifiers, and human exposure to some PFCs is widespread. Objectives: Our goal was to report PFC serum concentrations from a convenience sample of Dallas, Texas, children from birth to < 13 years of age, and to examine age and sex differences in PFC concentrations. Methods: We analyzed 300 serum samples collected in 2009 for eight PFCs by online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in > 92% of participants; the other PFCs measured were detected less frequently. Overall median concentrations of PFOS (4.1 ng/mL) were higher than those for PFOA (2.85 ng/mL), PFNA (1.2 ng/mL), and PFHxS (1.2 ng/mL). For PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, we found no significant differences (p < 0.05) by sex, significantly increasing concentrations for all four chemicals by age, and significantly positive correlations between all four compounds. Conclusions: We found no significant differences in the serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS by sex, but increasing concentrations with age. Our results suggest that these 300 Texas children from birth through 12 years of age continued to be exposed to several PFCs in late 2009, years after changes in production of some PFCs in the United States. PMID:22182702

Malik-Bass, Noor; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Colacino, Justin A.; Gent, Tyra L.; Hynan, Linda S.; Harris, T. Robert; Malla, Sunitha; Birnbaum, Linda

2011-01-01

170

Risk factors for low BMD in healthy men age 50 years or older: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this systematic review, we summarize risk factors for low bone mineral density and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years\\u000a or older. Consistent risk factors were: age, smoking, low weight, physical\\/functional limitations, and previous fracture.\\u000a Data specific to men has clinical and policy implications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Osteoporosis is a significant health care problem in men as well as women, yet the

A. Papaioannou; C. C. Kennedy; A. Cranney; G. Hawker; J. P. Brown; S. M. Kaiser; W. D. Leslie; C. J. M. O’Brien; A. M. Sawka; A. Khan; K. Siminoski; G. Tarulli; D. Webster; J. McGowan; J. D. Adachi

2009-01-01

171

Screening for undiagnosed parkinsonism in people aged 65 years and over in the community.  

PubMed

We screened a random sample of 2449 people aged 65 years and over for undiagnosed parkinsonism, using a postal screening questionnaire followed by clinical neurological assessment. Amongst the 1556 (63.5%) patients who responded, four patients with previously undiagnosed parkinsonism were identified, suggesting a prevalence of 257 per 100,000 (95% CI 70, 658) in this age-group. Although only small, the numbers were sufficient to significantly increase the incidence of parkinsonism in an incidence study. Two simple screening questions achieved a high sensitivity for newly diagnosed parkinsonism of 95%, but a low specificity of 28%. PMID:16338158

Taylor, K S M; Counsell, C E; Harris, C E; Gordon, J C

2006-03-01

172

Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India  

PubMed Central

Aim: The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India). Materials and Methods: A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO) rules and standards were followed. Result: Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00) with respect to affected teeth. PMID:20376235

Mathur, Anmol; Jain, Manish; Jain, Koushal; Samar, Mahima; Goutham, Balasubramanya; Swamy, Prabu Durai; Kulkarni, Suhas

2009-01-01

173

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children younger than 2 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the treatment of hydrocephalus of different etiologies is still controversial in\\u000a children younger than 2 years of age. The success rate of ETV in this group of patients is analyzed in this study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The series consisted of 21 patients treated with ETV. The mean age of the patients was 6.7 months, ranging from 9 days to

Jörg Baldauf; J. Oertel; Michael R. Gaab; Henry W. S. Schroeder

2007-01-01

174

Clinical and radiological outcome of the cemented Contemporary acetabular component in patients < 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide usage of the cemented Contemporary acetabular component (Stryker), no published data are available regarding its use in patients aged < 50 years. We undertook a mid- to long-term follow-up study, including all consecutive patients aged < 50 years who underwent a primary total hip replacement using the Contemporary acetabular component with the Exeter cemented stem between January 1999 and January 2006. There were 152 hips in 126 patients, 61 men and 65 women, mean age at surgery 37.6 years (16 to 49 yrs). One patient was lost to follow-up. Mean clinical follow-up of all implants was 7.6 years (0.9 to 12.0). All clinical questionnaire scores, including Harris hip score, Oxford hip score and several visual analogue scales, were found to have improved. The eight year survivorship of all acetabular components for the endpoints revision for any reason or revision for aseptic loosening was 94.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 89.2 to 97.2) and 96.4% (95% CI 91.6 to 98.5), respectively. Radiological follow-up was complete for 146 implants. The eight year survival for the endpoint radiological loosening was 93.1% (95% CI 86.2 to 96.6). Three surviving implants were considered radiologically loose but were asymptomatic. The presence of acetabular osteolysis (n = 17, 11.8%) and radiolucent lines (n = 20, 13.9%) in the 144 surviving cups indicates a need for continued observation in the second decade of follow-up in order to observe their influence on long-term survival. The clinical and radiological data resulting in a ten-year survival rate > 90% in young patients support the use of the Contemporary acetabular component in this specific patient group. PMID:24293590

Schmitz, M W J L; Timmer, C; Rijnen, W H C; Gardeniers, J W M; Schreurs, B W

2013-12-01

175

Regio- and stereospecific oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene by naphthalene dioxygenase: structure and absolute stereochemistry of metabolites.  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene was examined with mutant and recombinant strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (NCIB 9816.4. Salicylate-induced cells of P. putida strain 9816/11 and isopropylthiogalactopyranoside-induced cells of Escherichia coli JM109(DE3)(pDTG141) oxidized 9,10-dihydroanthracene to (+)-cis-1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,9,10-tetrahydroanthracene (> 95% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess) as the major product. 9-Hydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracene (< 5% relative yield) was a minor product formed by both organisms. The same cells oxidized 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to (+)-cis-(3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4,9,10-tetrahydrophenanthrene (70% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess) and (+)-(S)-9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (30% relative yield). The major reaction catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase with 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene was stereospecific dihydroxylation in which both of the previously undescribed cis-diene diols were of R configuration at the benzylic center adjacent to the bridgehead carbon atom. The results suggest that for benzocylic substrates, the location of benzylic carbons influences the type of reaction(s) catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase. PMID:8795226

Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

1996-01-01

176

Infant Formula with Docosahexaenoic Acid, Maternal Smoking, and Body Mass Index of Children To Six Years of Age  

E-print Network

the possibility to evaluate maternal smoking status and growth. Statement of Purpose The study has two primary objectives. The first objective is to determine if the concentration of DHA in a formula consumed from birth to 12 months of age affects growth... from birth to six years of age, particularly in weight-for-length (for children younger than two years of age) and BMI-for-age (for children between two and six years of age). A second objective is to determine if maternal smoking during pregnancy...

Currie, Lindsey Marie

2012-05-31

177

Lead Exposure, B Vitamins, and Plasma Homocysteine in Men 55 Years of Age and Older: The VA Normative Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead (Pb) exposure may influence the plasma concentration of homocysteine, a one-carbon metabolite associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the associations between Pb and homocysteine over time, or the potential influence of dietary factors. Objectives: We examined the longitudinal association of recent and cumulative Pb exposure with homocysteine concentrations and the potential modifying effect of dietary nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism. Methods: In a subcohort of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study (1,056 men with 2,301 total observations between 1993 and 2011), we used mixed-effects models to estimate differences in repeated measures of total plasma homocysteine across concentrations of Pb in blood and tibia bone, assessing recent and cumulative Pb exposure, respectively. We also assessed effect modification by dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increment in blood Pb (3 ?g/dL) was associated with a 6.3% higher homocysteine concentration (95% CI: 4.8, 7.8%). An IQR increment in tibia bone Pb (14 ?g/g) was associated with a 3.7% higher homocysteine (95% CI: 1.6, 5.6%), which was attenuated to 1.5% (95% CI: –0.5, 3.6%) after adjusting for blood Pb. For comparison, a 5-year increase in time from baseline was associated with a 5.7% increase in homocysteine (95% CI: 4.3, 7.1%). The association between blood Pb and homocysteine was significantly stronger among participants with estimated dietary intakes of vitamin B6 and folate below (vs. above) the study population medians, which were similar to the U.S. recommended dietary allowance intakes. Conclusions: Pb exposure was positively associated with plasma homocysteine concentration. This association was stronger among men with below-median dietary intakes of vitamins B6 and folate. These findings suggest that increasing intake of folate and B6 might reduce Pb-associated increases in homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Citation: Bakulski KM, Park SK, Weisskopf MG, Tucker KL, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Nie LH, Hu H, Weuve J. 2014. Lead exposure, B vitamins, and plasma homocysteine in men 55 years of age and older: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:1066–1074;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306931 PMID:24905780

Park, Sung Kyun; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Linda Huiling; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer

2014-01-01

178

Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

2011-01-01

179

Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.  

PubMed

We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity. PMID:19913844

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

2010-05-01

180

Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years.  

PubMed

Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ?50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p?=?0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p?age (p?=?0.002) was the only significant factor associated with the presence of back pain. Musculoskeletal pain was not affected by or associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected body part in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years after adjusting for the degree of osteoarthritis. PMID:25288023

Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, In Hyeok; Jung, Ki Jin; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok

2015-02-01

181

Feeding strategy of juvenile (age-0+ year) Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi in the Patagonian nursery ground.  

PubMed

Age-0+ year juvenile Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi (60-150?mm total length, L(T)) from San Jorge Gulf, north Patagonian shelf region of the Argentine Sea, had an almost exclusively pelagic diet dominated by the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii and the euphausiid Euphausia lucens. This suggested that final settlement and permanent demersal habitat utilization might not, as previously reported, occur at earlier sizes (c. 20?mm L(T)). Their feeding strategy involves specialization at a population level towards both the main pelagic prey, indicating a narrow trophic niche. Novel data are provided which contribute to the growing body of information in relation to the age-0+ year transitional stage in demersal fishes and particularly to M. hubbsi recruitment in the Argentine Sea. PMID:24580669

Temperoni, B; Viñas, M D; Buratti, C C

2013-11-01

182

Banning children and youth younger than 18 years of age from commercial tanning facilities.  

PubMed

Cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased more than three-fold in the past 35 years. Because damage is cumulative, exposure to ultraviolet radiation early in life elevates a risk that is increased further as individuals use artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation. The full impact and scope of damage caused by year-round indoor tanning may take years to appreciate given the long latency period for most skin cancers. Teenagers are frequent visitors to tanning parlours, with girls being more frequent and sustained users. The tanning industry disputes the World Health Organization's and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's classification of their product as a Class 1 physical carcinogen. Tanning parlours have sought to establish and maintain a client-base among teenagers. Consequently, the Canadian Paediatric Society is joining other prominent health organizations in support of a ban on the use of commercial tanning facilities by Canadian children and youth younger than 18 years of age. PMID:23372400

Taddeo, Danielle; Stanwick, Richard

2012-02-01

183

Functional abilities at age 4 years of children born before 29 weeks of gestation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To assess the rate of impairment and disability among babies born very preterm and to investigate the association between such impairment and gestational age at birth. DESIGN--Cohort study of a geographically defined population of babies. SETTING--Oxford Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS--All babies born alive before 29 weeks of gestation to mothers resident in the region during 1984-6. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Survival rates and rates of impairment and disability among survivors at the age of 4 years. RESULTS--Of the 342 babies, half (170) survived to be discharged home. Of the 164 survivors to age 4 years, 153 (93%) were assessed. A total of 35 (23%; 95% confidence interval 16% to 30%) were severely disabled and only 54 (35%; 28% to 43%) were unimpaired. The risk of impairment and disability increased with decreasing gestational age at birth (p < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS--With the increasing survival rate among babies born before 29 weeks of gestation, we need urgently to establish reliable ways of monitoring the proportion of survivors who have a disability. PMID:7688251

Johnson, A; Townshend, P; Yudkin, P; Bull, D; Wilkinson, A R

1993-01-01

184

Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

Celina, Mathias C.; Celina, Mathias C.; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

2014-09-01

185

Endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients 70 years of age and older  

PubMed Central

Background: An increasing number of elderly patients present with intracranial aneurysms. In addition to female gender, an older age is associated with a higher risk of developing a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and these patients often fare poorly in terms of long-term outcome. It is often thought that elderly patients would especially benefit from endovascular aneurysm treatment. We assessed the clinical outcomes in elderly patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) who were treated by endovascular procedures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of elderly patients treated with coil embolization for RIAs. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. The rates of procedural complications and adverse events were also recorded. Results: During a period of 5 years, 162 patients with 183 intracranial aneurysms were treated in our hospital by means of an endovascular approach. Among them, 51 patients (31.5%) with a ruptured aneurysm were aged 70 years or older. These patients aged 70-91 years (mean age, 74 years) were treated by coil embolization for RIAs. Among them, seven had a Hunt and Hess (HH) grade of I or II, 42 had an HH grade of III or IV, and 2 had an HH grade of V. Endovascular treatment resulted in 32 complete occlusions (62.7%), 15 neck remnants (22%), and 4 body fillings (7.9%). Procedural complications occurred in five patients (9.8%). The outcomes were good or excellent in 17 patients (33.3%). Three patients (5.8%) who died had an HH grade of IV or V. Rebleeding occurred during follow-up in one patient (1.9%). Conclusions: Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective in the elderly. However, the morbidity and mortality rates are higher in patients with high HH grades. This finding suggests that the timing of treatment should be based on the patient's initial clinical status. PMID:25101199

Watanabe, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takao; Koyama, Shunichi; Ohashi, H. Tomoo; Okada, Hirohumi; Ichimasu, Norio; Kohno, Michihiro

2014-01-01

186

Risk Factors for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women Under the Age of 45 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the etiologic profile of triple-negative breast cancer (negative for estrogen receptor\\/progesterone receptor\\/human epidermal growth factor), a breast cancer subtype associated with high mortality and inadequate therapeutic options. We undertook this study to assess the risk for triple-negative breast cancer among women 45 years of age and younger in relation to demographic\\/lifestyle factors, reproductive history, and oral

Jessica M. Dolle; Janet R. Daling; Emily White; Louise A. Brinton; David R. Doody; Peggy L. Porter; Kathleen E. Malone

187

Transsphenoidal surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas in patients aged 80 years or older.  

PubMed

To know the clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas in the elderly patients aged 80 years or older who were surgically treated. From 1995 through 2012, 907 patients underwent surgery for the pituitary adenomas at Kagoshima- and Hiroshima University hospitals in Japan. Ten (1.1%) patients were aged 80 years or older. We retrospectively assessed the clinical characteristics including preoperative comorbidities, manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and endocrinologic features of these ten patients. The subjects included eight males and two females. Their ages ranged from 80 to 86 with mean of 83.1 years. Of these, besides one case of growth hormone-producing adenoma, others were clinically nonfunctioning adenoma. Six patients had modest comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney dysfunction, and all patients were classified into grade 2-3 on American Society of Anesthesiologists' Physical Status grading. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in all due to visual disturbance in eight, diabetes mellitus as an intercurrent illness of acromegaly in one, and for the purpose of preventing visual disturbance in one patient who had an adenoma impinging optic chiasm but still had normal visual field. The surgeries provided sufficient decompression of the optic pathways and improved visual disorder in all. In an acromegalic male, his comorbidities considerably improved. No permanent surgical morbidity ensued. More than three axes of anterior pituitary hormones were preoperatively impaired in all, which were rarely recovered. Transsphenoidal surgery is safe and efficient treatment way for patients aged 80 years or older with pituitary adenomas with chiasmatic symptoms when the patients' general condition is well preserved and pituitary hormonal deficiency is adequately replaced. PMID:24233259

Yunoue, Shunji; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Fujio, Shingo; Karki, Prasanna; Usui, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Habu, Mika; Moinuddin, F M; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

2014-04-01

188

Mental Health Outcomes of Cocaine-Exposed Children at 6 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess 6-year-old cocaine- and noncocaine-exposed children's mental health outcomes controlling for potential confounders. Methods The sample consisted of 322 children (169 cocaine exposed (CE) and 153 noncocaine exposed (NCE)) enrolled in a longitudinal study since birth. At age 6, children were assessed for mental health symptoms using the Dominic Interactive (DI), a child self-report measure, and the Child

Teresa J. Linares; Lynn T. Singer; H. Lester Kirchner; Elizabeth J. Short; Meeyoung O. Min; Patrick Hussey; Sonia Minnes

2006-01-01

189

Effects of Zopiclone as Compared to Flurazepam on Sleep in Women over 40 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zopiclone is a new nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, the recommended dose of which is 7.5 mg. It was compared to flurazepam 30 mg in a sleep laboratory study. 12 women aged 40–60 years, with subjective sleep disorders for at least 2 months, were treated for 13 nights with each drug in a crossover double-blind design. Each active drug period was preceded by

Petre Quadens; G. Hoffman; G. Buytaert

1983-01-01

190

Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

2012-08-31

191

Infant Formula Docosahexaenoic Acid and Body Mass Index to Four Years of Age  

E-print Network

with the effects of the environment, nutrition, and health. Regardless of racial- ethnic status, children given good nutrition, access to health care, and good social and overall living conditions have similar growth patterns (14-17) . Breast...INFANT FORMULA DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND BODY MASS INDEX TO FOUR YEARS OF AGE By Nicole Kreber, RD B.S., Iowa State University, 2006 Submitted to the Department of Dietetics and Nutrition and to the Graduate Faculty of the University...

Kreber, Nicole Lynn

2009-12-11

192

Lung function in white children aged 4 to 19 years: I--Spirometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--A study was performed to produce reference standards for spirometric lung function in white children and to calculate standard deviation scores adjusted for gender and pubertal stage. METHODS--A cross sectional study was made of 772 white children aged 4.6 to 18.8 years (455 male) tested on an OHIO 840 spirometer and assessed anthropometrically and pubertally. RESULTS--Before puberty there was a

M Rosenthal; S H Bain; D Cramer; P Helms; D Denison; A Bush; J O Warner

1993-01-01

193

Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

2014-03-19

194

Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

2014-01-01

195

Rubella Immunity in Women of Childbearing Age, Eight Years After the Immunization Program in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Rubella is a viral disease with a worldwide distribution. Mass vaccination campaigns have increased the vaccine coverage in the world with substantial impact on reduction of rubella infections. In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals 5-25 years old, was initiated in 2003 and mass childhood vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps has continued ever since. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine vaccination on rubella immunity among women of childbearing age in Babol, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 women of childbearing age living in Babol, north of Iran, in 2011. Twelve samples were excluded from the study because of inadequate sera amounts. Serum samples were examined for presence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies by means of quantitative ELISA. Results: From a total of 800 samples in this study, rubella IgG seropositivity was seen in 786 (98.3% [95% CI = %97.5-%99.1]) cases. The maximum IgG seropositivity (99.2%) was seen in the age group of 21-25 years old and the lowest immunity (87.7%) was in the group of above 30 years old. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the rate of seropositivity to rubella virus in our population was high, suggesting that vaccination has been successful in Babol, reducing the likelihood of congenital rubella infection. PMID:25237562

Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpana, Fatemeh; Pournasrollah, Mohammad

2014-01-01

196

Association between poverty and psychiatric disability among Chinese population aged 15-64 years.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disability is an important public health problem in China, and poverty may be positively correlated with disability. Little study in the existing literatures has explored the contribution of poverty to the psychiatric disability among Chinese population. Using a nationally representative data, this paper aims to investigate the association between poverty and psychiatric disability in Chinese population aged 15-64 years. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 1.8 million people aged 15-64 years. Identification and classification for psychiatric disability was based on consensus manuals. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted proportions, and the adjusted Odd Ratios (OR) were calculated. For people with psychiatric disability aged 15-64 years, more than 4 million were below the poverty level in China. After controlling for other demographic variables, poverty was found to be significantly associated with psychiatric disability (OR=2.25, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.15-2.35). Given China is undergoing rapid social-economic transition and psychiatric diseases become a leading burden to the individuals, community, and health care systems, poverty reduction programs are warranted to prevent psychiatric disability and/or improve the lives for persons with psychiatric disability. PMID:22748185

Li, Ning; Pang, Lihua; Du, Wei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

2012-12-30

197

Herpes simplex type 2 infection in a cohort aged 21 years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies in a birth cohort of 21 year old New Zealanders from whom detailed sexual histories had been obtained, and to assess the potential for HSV-2 serology in characterising a young adult population's risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STD). METHODS: Sera from 784 cohort members were tested using an indirect IgG enzyme linked immunoassay specific to the HSV-2 glycoprotein G. Positive results were confirmed by western blot. RESULTS: In all, 27 subjects were seropositive for HSV-2 (3.4%), only seven of whom gave a history of genital herpes (26%). Risk among females increased with lifetime number of partners, while risk for males increased with having a first partner who was aged 16 years or under. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in this cohort was low, but similar to that seen in several other populations in this age group. HSV-2 seropositivity did not appear to be a sensitive marker for high risk sexual activity in this young population. This may be because a critical mass of HSV-2 carriers has not accumulated among potential partners by age 21 years. ??? PMID:9849560

Eberhart-Phillips, J.; Dickson, N. P.; Paul, C.; Fawcett, J. P.; Holland, D.; Taylor, J.; Cunningham, A. L.

1998-01-01

198

Increased risk of failure following revision total knee replacement in patients aged 55 years and younger.  

PubMed

The aims of this retrospective study were to compare the mid-term outcomes following revision total knee replacement (TKR) in 76 patients (81 knees) < 55 years of age with those of a matched group of primary TKRs based on age, BMI, gender and comorbid conditions. We report the activity levels, functional scores, rates of revision and complications. Compared with patients undergoing primary TKR, those undergoing revision TKR had less improvement in the mean Knee Society function scores (8.14 (-55 to +60) vs 23.3 points (-40 to +80), p < 0.001), a similar improvement in UCLA activity level (p = 0.52), and similar minor complication rates (16% vs 13%, p = 0.83) at a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (2 to 13.4). Further revision surgery was more common among revised TKRs (17% vs 5%, p = 0.02), with deep infection and instability being the most common reasons for failure. As many as one-third of patients aged < 55 years in the revision group had a complication or failure requiring further surgery. Young patients undergoing revision TKR should be counselled that they can expect somewhat less improvement and a higher risk of complications than occur after primary TKR. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:1657-62. PMID:25452369

Stambough, J B; Clohisy, J C; Barrack, R L; Nunley, R M; Keeney, J A

2014-12-01

199

Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters—Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population. PMID:23983630

El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Tuma, Mazin; El-Hennawy, Hany; AbdulRahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Asim, Mohammad; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

2013-01-01

200

Is the prevalence of overweight reducing at age 5–6?years? Ten years data collection in ASL Milano 2  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of overweight and obesity has been reported as high even in preschool age children. However, recent international reports suggest that prevalence is now plateauing in pediatric age. Up to now no data are available on prevalence changes in Italy in the new Millennium. Aim of the study was to describe changes of overweight and obesity prevalence during the last decade in 5–6 y children in a large Health Unit in Northern Italy. Methods The Health Report n 8, used at 5–6 y and containing body mass index (BMI), was utilized for prevalence estimation from 2002 to 2011 according to BMI cut-offs proposed by Cole et al. Results Overweight and obese children progressively decreased during the study period (p 0.0002) with a minimum observed in 2011, showing a cumulative frequency of 23.1% in 2002 and of 16.6% in 2011 (?6.5%). Mean BMI values progressively decreased with time so that BMI values in 2010–2011 were significantly lower than in 2002–2003 (p?years 2010 plus 2011, not Italians children showed higher percentages of underweight (12.5%) and overweight plus obesity (23.5%) respect to Italian peers (9.0% and 18.1%, respectively, p values <0.01 and 0.0029). Conclusions This is the first report suggesting a possible decrease of overweight and obesity at 5–6 y in Italy in the last decade. As the study focused only on 5–6 y children, we don’t know if the true overweight prevalence in pediatric age is really reducing or the starting age of overweight status is simply delayed. The higher risk for malnutrition, both for excess or defect, found in our Area in not Italian children respect to Italian peers, strongly suggests to implement weight control especially for those children. Our finding needs further confirm studies but seems encouraging for true prevention of such condition. PMID:22682373

2012-01-01

201

Assessment of Dental Age of Children Aged 3.5 to 16.9 Years Using Demirjian’s Method: A Meta-Analysis Based on 26 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background A method for assessing dental maturity in different populations was first developed in 1973 by Demirjian and has been widely used and accepted since then. While the accuracy for evaluating dental age using Demirjian’s method compared to children’s chronological age has been extensively studied in recent years, the results currently available remain controversial and ambiguous. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before July 12th, 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian’s method for estimating chronological age in children. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 26 studies with a total of 11,499 children (5,301 boys and 6,198 girls) aged 3.5 to 16.9 years. Overall, we found that Demirjian’s method overestimated dental age by 0.35 (4.2 months) and 0.39 (4.68 months) years in males and females, respectively. A subgroup analysis by age revealed that boys and girls between the ages of 5 to 14 were given a dental age estimate that was significantly more advanced than their chronological age. Differences between underestimated dental ages and actual chronological ages were lower for male and female 15- and 16-year-old subgroups, though a significant difference was found in the 16-year-old subgroup. Conclusions Demirjian’s method’s overestimation of actual chronological tooth age reveals the need for population-specific standards to better estimate the rate of human dental maturation. PMID:24367690

Yan, Jin; Lou, Xintian; Xie, Liming; Yu, Dedong; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Yilin

2013-01-01

202

In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age. PMID:23092909

Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

2012-01-01

203

Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school  

PubMed Central

Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n?=?3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n?=?1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

2014-01-01

204

Seroprevalence of antipolio antibodies among children <15 years of age in border provinces in China.  

PubMed

Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals <15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ?8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China. PMID:23677325

Wang, HaiBo; Cui, Hui; Ding, ZhenGrong; Ba, Pian; Zhu, ShuangLi; Wen, Ning; Hao, LiXin; Ning, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, De; Xu, WenBo; Zhang, Yong; Fan, ChunXiang; Yu, WenZhou; Liang, XiaoFeng; Luo, HuiMing

2013-07-01

205

Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

2014-01-01

206

Auditory Brainstem Responses from Children Three Months to Three Years of Age: Normal Patterns of Response II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in 535 children from 3 months to 3 years of age. Results suggested that changes in wave V latency with age are due to central (neural) factors and that age-appropriate norms should be used in evaluations of ABR latencies in children. (Author/DB)

Gorga, Michael P.; And Others

1989-01-01

207

Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

2000-01-01

208

Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

2011-01-01

209

Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

Miyamoto, David T. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-07-15

210

Impact of prenatal methylmercury exposure on neurobehavioral function at age 14 years.  

PubMed

A cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1987-1988 in the Faroe Islands, where increased methylmercury exposure occurs from traditional seafood diets that include pilot whale meat. The prenatal exposure level was determined from mercury analyses of cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. At age 14 years, 878 of 1010 living cohort members underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. Eighteen participants with neurological disorders were excluded. Blood and hair samples obtained from the participants were analyzed for mercury. The neuropsychological test battery was designed based on the same criteria as applied at the examination at age 7 years. Multiple regression analysis was carried out and included adjustment for confounders. Indicators of prenatal methylmercury exposure were significantly associated with deficits in finger tapping speed, reaction time on a continued performance task, and cued naming. Postnatal methylmercury exposure had no discernible effect. These findings are similar to those obtained at age 7 years, and the relative contribution of mercury exposure to the predictive power of the multiple regression models was also similar. An analysis of the test score difference between results at 7 and 14 years suggested that mercury-associated deficits had not changed between the two examinations. In structural equation model analyses, the neuropsychological tests were separated into five groups; methylmercury exposure was significantly associated with deficits in motor, attention, and verbal tests. These findings are supported by independent assessment of neurophysiological outcomes. The effects on brain function associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure therefore appear to be multi-focal and permanent. PMID:16647838

Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Weihe, Pal; White, Roberta F; Grandjean, Philippe

2006-01-01

211

Impact of prenatal methylmercury exposure on neurobehavioral function at age 14 years.  

PubMed

A cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1987-1988 in the Faroe Islands, where increased methylmercury exposure occurs from traditional seafood diets that include pilot whale meat. The prenatal exposure level was determined from mercury analyses of cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. At age 14 years, 878 of 1010 living cohort members underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. Eighteen participants with neurological disorders were excluded. Blood and hair samples obtained from the participants were analyzed for mercury. The neuropsychological test battery was designed based on the same criteria as applied at the examination at age 7 years. Multiple regression analysis was carried out and included adjustment for confounders. Indicators of prenatal methylmercury exposure were significantly associated with deficits in finger tapping speed, reaction time on a continued performance task, and cued naming. Postnatal methylmercury exposure had no discernible effect. These findings are similar to those obtained at age 7 years, and the relative contribution of mercury exposure to the predictive power of the multiple regression models was also similar. An analysis of the test score difference between results at 7 and 14 years suggested that mercury-associated deficits had not changed between the two examinations. In structural equation model analyses, the neuropsychological tests were separated into five groups; methylmercury exposure was significantly associated with deficits in motor, attention, and verbal tests. These findings are supported by independent assessment of neurophysiological outcomes. The effects on brain function associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure therefore appear to be multi-focal and permanent. PMID:17067778

Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Weihe, Pal; White, Roberta F; Grandjean, Philippe

2006-01-01

212

Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.  

PubMed

This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001

Turcotte Benedict, Frances; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

2015-03-01

213

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania ABSTRACT.--Diet of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is poorly known. Age, sex and time of year are thought to influence bobcat prey selection, but accounts vary. We examined the contents of 85

McCay, Timothy S.

214

Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

215

Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

Lichota, Malgorzata

2008-01-01

216

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults August 28, 2007  

E-print Network

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults 326 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN YOUTHS 12 YEARS OF AGE AND ADULTS K E Y P O I N T S : M A N A G I N for therapy is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome

Levin, Judith G.

217

Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

2009-01-01

218

NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council July 9-10, 2009 NASA Headquarters Washington, D Chair, Planetary Science Subcommittee (Interim) #12;NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009

Rathbun, Julie A.

219

Norms for hand grip strength in children aged 6-12 years in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: There were two main objectives of this study: to establish normative values of hand grip strengths for 6-12-year-old children in Saudi Arabia and to compare results with existing Western data. Methods: Five-hundred twenty-five children from the central area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were recruited. Hand grip strength was measured using a standard adjustable electronic hand dynamometer. Results: The grip strength increased with advancing age in both genders, but grip strength for boys was significantly stronger than that of girls. There was no significant difference in hand grip strength according to the type of hand dominance. The hand strength of the Saudi children appeared to be lower than that of Western children. Conclusion: The reported values of hand grip strength will allow therapists to compare scores from typical and atypical children according to the age, gender, and body measures. PMID:25325246

Omar, Mohammed Taher Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al Baker, Shaheerah

2014-10-17

220

Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years.  

PubMed

Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a 'mini-ice age' with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times. PMID:20236963

Balazik, Matthew T; Garman, Greg C; Fine, Michael L; Hager, Christian H; McIninch, Stephen P

2010-10-23

221

Overweight/obesity and hypertension in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years, Aden Governorate, Yemen, 2009.  

PubMed

Hypertension and obesity in children are increasing concerns worldwide. A cross-sectional study of hypertension in relation to overweight/obesity was conducted in 2009 among schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Aden, Yemen. Using multistage stratified random sampling 1885 children were classified into wasted, normal weight, overweight and obese according to body mass index. The prevalence of wasting was 10.1%, normal weight 69.2%, overweight 12.7% and obesity 8.0%. The rate of high blood pressure (World Health Organization criteria) was 8.2% for prehypertension and 2.4% for hypertension and was significantly related to the presence of overweight or obesity. Child's body mass index combined with age was a predictor for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The study provides further evidence that overweight/obesity is associated with hypertension in these schoolchildren. PMID:22891519

Badi, M A H; Garcia-Triana, B E; Suarez-Martinez, R

2012-07-01

222

Health and nutritional status of boys aged 6 to 12 years in a children observation home.  

PubMed

One hundred and ninety two boys in the age group 6 to 12 years, living in a Children Observation Home in Delhi were studied for their nutritional status and morbidity profile. Body Mass Index (BMI), an age-independent index was used to grade the nutritional status according to which, 36.7% of the boys were found to be malnourished. Signs of specific nutritional deficiencies were observed in 13.5% of the boys. Morbidity in some form or the other was present in 148 (60%) boys. Skin disease was the commonest morbidity (31.7%), followed by diseases of the oral cavity (16.1%), acute respiratory infections (8.6%) and diseases of the ear (9.9%). Need for health promotional activities is stressed to reduce the morbidity and improve the health status of these children. PMID:9119431

Chhabra, P; Garg, S; Sharma, N; Bansal, R D

1996-01-01

223

Epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases among children under age 5 years in Dakahlia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Using multistage cluster sampling, we conducted a household survey of diarrhoea among 4458 children under age 5 years in Dakahlia governorate from June 2002 to May 2003 to determine the prevalence and determinants of diarrhoeal diseases. Frequency of diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks and last 24 hours were 23.6% and 8.7% respectively. Oral rehydration solution use rate was 24.3% among children with diarrhoea in the past 2 weeks. The frequency of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children in rural areas, those aged 6-24 months and of higher birth order, in the summer, when mothers were younger, had lower education or were not working, and when fathers had lower education or were farmers or manual labourers. Overcrowding, improper refuse disposal and non-flush toilets were also significantly correlated with diarrhoea incidence. PMID:16700393

El-Gilany, A H; Hammad, S

2005-07-01

224

Incisor crowding in untreated persons 15-50 years of age: United States, 1988-1994.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the prevalence of mandibular incisor irregularity (II) among untreated adults in the United States and (2) evaluate the factors explaining individual differences in II. Data were derived for a random sample of 9044 individuals (49% male and 51% female; 35% Mexican American, 34% black, and 31% white) between 15 and 50 years of age collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although the differences were small (0.5 mm), males had significantly greater II than did females; blacks showed less II than did whites (0.9 mm) and Mexican Americans (1.1 mm). Family income was negatively related with II. Incisor irregularity increased in a curvilinear fashion with age, with the greatest increases occurring during early adulthood. Although the number of premolars and molars (first and second) were positively related with II, the presence of third molars had a negative effect on II. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that the ethnicity, the number of first and second molars, sex, and age combined to explain differences in II. Odds ratios were relatively low, indicating that these factors explained relatively small amounts of between-subject variation. We conclude that (1) approximately 50% of individuals in the United States who were 15-50 years of age have little or no II, 23% have moderate II, and 17% have severe irregularity, (2) erupted third molars are not associated with increased crowding, (3) crowding increases most during early adulthood, and (4) although individual differences in crowding are multifactorial, the primary determinants remain unidentified. PMID:14580016

Buschang, Peter H; Shulman, Jay D

2003-10-01

225

Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.  

PubMed

To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

2014-01-01

226

Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children  

PubMed Central

To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

2014-01-01

227

Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years (aged 0-4 years).  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that young children spend excessive time being sedentary. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviours and health indicators during the early years (ages 0-4 years). Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework, this review aimed to present the best available evidence on the threshold of sedentary behaviour associated with healthy measures of adiposity, bone health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardiometabolic health indicators in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Online databases, personal libraries, and government documents were searched for relevant studies. Studies that included an intervention (or experimental) group or prospective analysis were included. Twenty-one unique studies, representing 23 papers and 22 417 participants, met inclusion criteria; 7 studies included information on infants, 13 on toddlers, and 10 on preschoolers. Of these, 11, 6, and 8 studies reported data on adiposity, psychosocial health, and cognitive development, respectively. No included study reported on motor skill development, bone, or cardiometabolic health indicators. In conclusion, this review found low- to moderate-quality evidence to suggest that increased television viewing is associated with unfavourable measures of adiposity and decreased scores on measures of psychosocial health and cognitive development. No evidence existed to indicate that television viewing is beneficial for improving psychosocial health or cognitive development. In several instances a dose-response relationship was evident between increased time spent watching television and decreased psychosocial health or cognitive development. This work may be used as evidence to inform public health guidelines. (PROSPERO registration: CRD4011001280.). PMID:22765839

LeBlanc, Allana G; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

2012-08-01

228

Comparison of usefulness of Sokolow and Cornell criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy in subjects aged <20 years versus >30 years.  

PubMed

The use of electrocardiography in sports or military screening is considered an effective tool for diagnosing potentially fatal conditions. The present study was designed to compare the yield of electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) criteria for the diagnosis of LVH and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in subjects aged <20 years and >30 years. The association between the electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria for LVH (ECG-LVH) and echocardiographic findings was compared in 4 groups of air force academy candidates: (1) young candidates undergoing echocardiography because of ECG-LVH findings (n = 666); (2) young candidates without ECG-LVH findings undergoing routine echocardiography (n = 4,043); (3) older designated aviators undergoing echocardiography because of ECG-LVH findings (n = 196); and (4) older designated aviators undergoing routine echocardiography without ECG-LVH findings (n = 1,098). The predictive value of ECG-LVH findings for echocardiographic LVH, left ventricular mass, posterior wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness were compared among the 4 groups. The ECG criteria in young subjects correlated with the left ventricular mass and posterior wall thickness but not with the interventricular septal thickness. In older subjects, these criteria correlated with left ventricular mass, interventricular septal, and posterior wall thickness. The positive and negative predictive value of ECG-LVH findings for the echocardiographic diagnosis of LVH in young subjects was 6.0% and 99.0%, respectively. In older subjects the positive and negative predictive value of ECG-LVH findings was 34% and 93%, respectively. In conclusion, ECG criteria are probably a useful tool for exclusion of LVH in young and older subjects; however, their low positive predictive value would probably lead to unnecessary echocardiographic tests, particularly in young subjects. PMID:22534054

Grossman, Alon; Prokupetz, Alex; Koren-Morag, Nira; Grossman, Ehud; Shamiss, Ari

2012-08-01

229

21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N?-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is N ,N ?-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide (CAS Reg. No. 82-18-8), Colour Index No. 61725. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section may...

2011-04-01

230

21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N?-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is N ,N ?-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide (CAS Reg. No. 82-18-8), Colour Index No. 61725. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section may...

2010-04-01

231

Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5–13 pathogens, p<0·0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000–295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000–146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000–113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000–76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world. PMID:24023773

Lanata, Claudio F.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Olascoaga, Ana C.; Torres, Carla X.; Aryee, Martin J.; Black, Robert E.

2013-01-01

232

Increased Rate of Amygdala Growth in Children Aged 2 to 4 Years With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Context Precocious amygdala enlargement is commonly observed in young children with autism. However, the age at which abnormal amygdala enlargement begins and the relative growth trajectories of the amygdala and total brain remain unclear. Objective To determine whether the rate of amygdala growth is abnormal and disproportionate to total brain growth in very young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Design Longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting Neuroimaging and diagnostic assessments were performed at an academic medical center. Participants were recruited from the community. Participants Baseline scans were acquired in 132 boys (85 with ASD and 47 control subjects with typical development [TD]; mean age, 37 months). Longitudinal magnetic resonance images were acquired in 70 participants (45 with ASD and 25 TD controls) 1 year later. Main Outcome Measure Amygdala volumes and total cerebral volumes (TCVs) were evaluated at both time points, and 1-year growth rates were calculated. Results The amygdala was larger in children with ASD at both time points, but the magnitude of enlargement was greater at time 2. The TCV was also enlarged in the children with ASD by the same magnitude at both time points. When we controlled for TCV, amygdala enlargement remained significant at both time points. The rate of amygdala growth during this 1-year interval was faster in children with ASD than in TD controls. The rate of TCV growth did not differ between groups. Post hoc exploratory analyses revealed 3 patterns of amygdala and TCV growth rates in the ASD group. Conclusions Disproportionate amygdala enlargement is present by 37 months of age in ASD. The amygdala continues to grow at an increased rate, but substantial heterogeneity exists in amygdala and TCV growth patterns. Future studies aimed at clinical characterization of different growth patterns could have implications for choice and outcomes of treatment and behavioral therapy. PMID:22213789

Nordahl, Christine Wu; Scholz, Robert; Yang, Xiaowei; Buonocore, Michael H.; Simon, Tony; Rogers, Sally; Amaral, David G.

2013-01-01

233

Spirometric standard of healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function test of various types are utilized clinically and epidemiologically to measures the functional status of the lung and to asses the diseases. Spirometric standard for healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years is conducted in National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH). This is cross sectional study is establish normal value of lung functions for Bangladeshi adult. Total of 995 (628 males & 367 females) healthy adults were selected to obtain lung function values; from a healthy adult those who attended in the hospital as a patients attended and healthy stuff of NIDCH. A computerized spirometer was used to measure lung volume and flows in a standard way. The best of the three reading was taken as the correct value. Anthropometric parameters including age, weight and height were recorded appropriately and body mass index was calculated. The statistical package for the social science (SPSS-10.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The pulmonary function data was separated by sex and classified on the basis of height weight age and body surface area. The mean and standard deviation was calculated for every such variable. The lung function variable shows a linear positive correlation with height, weight and age. Force vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) increase in height. Males show higher values for lung function variables than female. Stepwise regression analysis was done using age, height and weight, BMI as independent variable strong correlation was found between lung function values and independent variables. Height shows the highest correlation. The regression equation for lung function variables was determined for males and females considering height as independent variable. Lung function values of Bangladeshi adult were significantly lower than Nigerian, British and American result but nearly similar to Indian result. Nomogram was constructed in relation to height for males and females. PMID:23416817

Khuda, K M; Sultana, R; Bari, M R; Islam, R; Erfan, M A

2013-01-01

234

Spinal cord tumors in children under the age of 3 years: a retrospective Canadian review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tumors of the spinal cord are exceedingly rare in infancy and only a paucity of literature exists describing the spectrum\\u000a of this disease and its management. The objectives of our study were to describe the demographic characteristics of spinal\\u000a cord tumors (SCT) in children less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and to review their treatment and outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A national

Shayna Zelcer; Daniel Keene; Ute Bartels; Anne-Sophie Carret; Bruce Crooks; David D. Eisenstat; Chris Fryer; Lucie Lafay-Cousin; Donna L. Johnston; Valerie Larouche; Albert Moghrabi; Beverly Wilson; Mariana Silva; Josee Brossard; Eric Bouffet

2011-01-01

235

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50 years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

Ju, Yo-El S.

2014-01-01

236

Tetanus in patients three years of age and up. A personal series of 230 consecutive patients.  

PubMed

My experience with 230 patients with tetanus who were admitted to the intensive care unit of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer during a period of four years and four months is presented. We have observed a male predominance and the prognostic importance of age. The survival rate of over 84 per cent that we have achieved has resulted from the dedicated care of our nursing personnel and the collaboration of collegues of various specialties. Tetanus antitoxin, 10,000 units, is sufficient. Diazepam provides adequate relaxation and sedation. Gastrostomy and tracheostomy play a considerable role. PMID:804827

Garnier, M J

1975-04-01

237

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus in children younger than 1 year of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study is to assess the role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in the treatment of hydrocephalus\\u000a in children under 1 year of age. The authors analyzed data of ETV in their institution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between January 1995 and December 2008, 52 ETV procedures were performed for the treatment of hydrocephalus in 49 infants\\u000a (32 male and 17 female). Their

Essam A. Elgamal; Abdel-Azim El-Dawlatly; Waleed R. Murshid; Sherif M. F. El-Watidy; Zain Al-Abedin B. Jamjoom

2011-01-01

238

Outcome in preterm small for gestational age infants compared to appropriate for gestational age preterms at the age of 2 years: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in preterm infants on growth and development until the age of 22 months. Study design: Seventy-four preterm infants being born SGA (birth weight <10th percentile) were compared with 74 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched prospectively according to gestational age with respect to growth parameters and neurodevelopment (using

Ludwig Gortner; Michael van Husen; Ute Thyen; Ulrich Gembruch; Hans-Jürgen Friedrich; Eva Landmann

2003-01-01

239

A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

2014-01-01

240

Attachment security in young foster children: continuity from 2 to 3 years of age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated attachment patterns among 60 foster children (FC) and 42 comparison children (CC) at 2 years (T1) and again at 3 years (T2) of age, as well as stability from T1 to T2. Descriptive analyses, including cross-tabulation, were used to present attachment patterns, group differences and stability from T1 to T2. Most FC were securely attached at T1, and no group differences were identified; neither the FC nor CC differed from typical children in their attachment patterns. Furthermore, the majority of children in both groups received the same classification at both time points. Among FC who were securely attached at T1, a majority remained so at T2, while among those classified as disorganized at T1, significantly less remained so at T2. The study suggests that young FC have the possibility to form enduring secure attachments when placed in stable and well-functioning foster homes. PMID:24215159

Jacobsen, Heidi; Ivarsson, Tord; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke

2014-01-01

241

Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4–6 Years  

PubMed Central

Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3–4) in Japanese preschool children. Methods The SDQ 3–4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week interval between June and July 2012. Cronbach’s ? and correlation coefficients were used to examine internal consistency and test-retest reliability, respectively. Results Of 393 parents who returned their responses at Time 1 (response rate 52.1%), 383 were used for analysis after excluding 10 responses with missing data. Their children’s mean age was 4.7 (standard deviation 0.7) years. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s ?) was good for the total difficulties score (0.74) and the prosocial behavior scale (0.70). However, it was slightly worse for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales (0.61–0.66) and poor for the peer problems scale (0.45). Of the 383 included respondents at Time 1, 211 parents returned their responses at Time 2 (response rate: 55.1%). Test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients) was good (0.73–0.82), except for the peer problems scale (0.58). Conclusions The results support the reliability of the SDQ 3–4 being satisfactory for the total difficulties score and prosocial behavior scale and being acceptable for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales in Japanese preschool children aged 4–6 years. PMID:25373462

Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

2014-01-01

242

Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older.  

PubMed

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is present in the majority of persons who reach the age of 80 years, and is caused directly or indirectly by stiffening of the aorta and large central elastic arteries. Until recently, there was no consensus on whether or not persons over 80 should be treated, according to principles established for the younger group examined in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Project (SHEP). The recent Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET) study endorses application of SHEP to most such subjects. This review describes the background to SHEP and HYVET, including concepts of hypertension and interpretation of blood pressure values. It describes the effects of age on arterial stiffness, and effects of stiffness on the heart, large arteries and microvessels in brain and kidneys as the basis of symptomatic disease. It describes logic of therapy with newer antihypertensives which indirectly affect arterial stiffness and form the basis of therapy in older persons. It proposes how, with what and in whom antihypertensive therapy could be offered in persons over age 80. PMID:19277002

O'rourke, M F; Namasivayam, M; Adji, A

2009-02-01

243

Epidemiology of Rotavirus and Cholera in Children Aged Less Than Five Years in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Despite the known presence of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in Bangladesh, its prevalence, including records of hospitalization in rural health facilities, is largely unknown. In a systematic surveillance undertaken in two government-run rural health facilities, 457 children, aged less than five years, having acute watery diarrhoea, were studied between August 2005 and July 2007 to determine the prevalence of rotavirus. Due to limited financial support, the surveillance of rotavirus was included as an addendum to an ongoing study for cholera in the same area. Rotavirus infection was detected in 114 (25%) and Vibrio cholerae in 63 (14%) children. Neither rotavirus nor V. cholerae was detected in 280 (61%) samples; these were termed ‘non-rotavirus and non-cholera’ diarrhoea. Both rotavirus and cholera were detected in all groups of patients (<5 years). The highest proportion (41%; 47/114) of rotavirus was in the age-group of 6-11 months. In children aged less than 18 months, the proportion (67%; 76/114) of rotavirus was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of cholera (16%; 10/63). By contrast, the proportion (84%; 53/63) of cholera was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of rotavirus (33%; 38/114) in the age-group of 18-59 months. During the study period, 528 children were hospitalized for various illnesses. Thirty-eight percent (202/528) of the hospitalizations were due to acute watery diarrhoea, and 62% were due to non-diarrhoeal illnesses. Rotavirus accounted for 34% of hospitalizations due to diarrhoea. Severe dehydration was detected in 16% (74/457) of the children. The proportion (51%; 32/63) of severe dehydration among V. cholerae-infected children was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the proportion (16%; 18/114) of rotavirus-infected children. The study revealed that 12-14% of the hospitalizations in rural Bangladesh in this age-group were due to rotavirus infection, which has not been previously documented. PMID:21528784

Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Iqbal, Anwarul; Sobhan, Arif; Poddar, Goutam; Azim, Tasnim; Sack, D.A.; Rahman, Mustafizur; Sack, R.B.

2011-01-01

244

Frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in children under 4 years of age.  

PubMed

The work aimed at establishment of frequency of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children under 4 years of age. One hundred ninety-eight children (6 month to 4 year) were tested using urea breath test (UBT) with the non-radioactive isotope (13)C (50 mg of urea). The air was collected before and in the 20(th) and 30(th) minute after standard meal. The results of measurements (mass spectrometry IRMS) were given as a quotient (13)CO(2)/CO(2) (delta), and a positive value was set at delta>3,5%. Parents of tested children were asked to fill in a questionnaire on a somatic development, the digestive tract symptoms of a child and family members as well as socioeconomic conditions. The data were analyzed to establish the risk factors in Hp infection in children. Hp infection was found in 18,38% of children. It was not related to child's sex nor age. The statistical significance was found in the occurrence of Hp infection among children whose family members had infection and among those attending créches or kindergartens. Non-radioactive (13)C UBT is very useful and easy method to use in epidemiological studies even in youngest children. The course of infection was asymptomatic and had no impact on their somatic development. Factors increasing the risk of Hp infection were occurrence of Hp among other family members and contact with other children in educational facilities. PMID:17033110

Przybyszewska, K; Bielanski, W; Fyderek, K

2006-09-01

245

Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.  

PubMed

Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

2011-07-01

246

Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years  

PubMed Central

Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended.

Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

2014-01-01

247

Age trends in anthropometric characteristics among 6-9 years old Bengalee Hindu school girls of Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 431 6-9 years old urban Bengalee Hindu schoolgirls of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study age trends in anthropometric characteristics including regional and subcutaneous adiposity. The anthropometric variables measured included height, weight, sitting height (SH), waist (WC), hip (HPC), thigh (TC), mid-upper arm (MUAC) and medial calf (MC) circumferences as well as triceps (TSF), biceps (BSF), subscapular SUBSF), suprailliac (SUPSF) and medial calf (MCASF) skinfolds. The results revealed, that there was a significant increasing age trend for all the anthropometric variables including the two derived variables: body mass index (BMI) and subischial leg length (SLL). For all variables, the lowest and the highest means were observed at the age of 6 and 9 years, respectively. The maximum increase in weight, BMI, all linear measurements, WC and HPC were observed during the period 6-7 years of age. In general, all skinfolds recorded similar yearly increments. More importantly, this study clearly indicated that among Bengalee girls aged 6-9 years, the highest amount of linear growth (height, SH and SLL) was observed at 6 years of age. The overall adiposity (BMI) also recorded the maximum increment during this period. The unique data presented here can be used as reference values for urban Bengalee Hindu girls aged 6-9 years. PMID:16402594

Bose, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, Sharbani; Basu, Kamalika; Ghosh, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, Asish; Bhadra, Mithu; Bhara, Mithu

2005-12-01

248

Relationship between body size and habitat complexity preference in age-0 and -1 year winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus.  

PubMed

The interaction between body size, habitat complexity and interstice width on habitat preference of age-0 and -1 year Pseudopleuronectes americanus was examined using continuous remote video observation. The habitat choices of juvenile P. americanus were recorded over a 6 h period in tanks with four treatments: bare sand, sand with low complexity cobble, sand with intermediate complexity cobble and sand with high complexity cobble. Both age-0 and -1 year fish preferred cobble to bare sand. Within cobble treatments, age-0 year fish preferred intermediate complexity cobble, with a 1.59 ratio of interstitial space to body width. The largest age-1 year fish (123-130 mm standard length, L(S) ) preferred low complexity cobble. While a significant preference was not detected, medium age-1 year fish (83-88 mm L(S) ) tended to select low complexity cobble, whereas small age-1 year fish (73-82 mm L(S) ) tended to select low and intermediate cobble, with an interstitial space to body width ratio of 1.05. For medium and large age-1 year fish, there was an increased selection of low complexity cobble, corresponding to larger interstitial space to body size ratios. This study indicates that juvenile P. americanus prefer complex habitat to unstructured habitat and that this preference is mediated by a relationship between fish body size and the size of structure interstices. These results contribute to the growing body of knowledge of complex habitat selection and drivers of habitat choice in flatfishes. PMID:22747815

Pappal, A L; Rountree, R A; MacDonald, D G

2012-07-01

249

Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.  

PubMed

In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

2011-10-26

250

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

251

Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.  

PubMed

Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation. PMID:25599927

Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

2015-02-01

252

Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p?0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ? 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

2014-01-01

253

Interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance in 50-80-year-olds.  

PubMed

The variability of walking gait timing increases with age and is strongly related to fall risk. The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance during dual-task walking. Forty-two, healthy men and women, 50-80 years old, completed the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test (TMT) to assess cognitive performance and were separated into groups by decade of life. They then performed dual-task walking, at a self-selected pace, on an instrumented treadmill during three cognitive loading conditions: (1) no cognitive load, (2) subtraction from 100 by 1s, and (3) subtraction from 100 by 3s. The treadmill recorded spatiotemporal gait parameters that were used to calculate the mean and coefficient of variation for each variable over ten strides. Time to complete the TMT was positively correlated with age, stride time, double-limb support time, and mediolateral instability and was inversely correlated with single-limb support time. Subjects in their 70s increased their stride time and double-limb support time during the most challenging dual-task condition (subtraction by 3s), whereas subjects in their 50s and 60s did not. Across conditions, the variability of stride length, stride time, and single-limb support time was greatest in the 70s. Mediolateral instability increased only for subjects in their 70s in the subtraction by 3s condition. Reduced cognitive function with age makes it difficult for older adults to maintain a normal, rhythmical gait pattern while performing a cognitive task, which may place them at greater risk for falling. PMID:25073454

LaRoche, Dain P; Greenleaf, Brittnee L; Croce, Ronald V; McGaughy, Jill A

2014-01-01

254

Antimüllerian Hormone as a Predictor of Natural Fecundability in Women Aged 30–42 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To generate estimates of the association between markers of ovarian aging and natural fertility in a community sample at risk for ovarian aging. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months provided early-follicular phase serum and urine (N=100). Subsequently, these women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding and intercourse and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Serum was analyzed for estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antimüllerian hormone, and inhibin B. Urine was analyzed for FSH and estrone 3-glucuronide (E13G). Diary data on menstrual cycle day and patterns of intercourse were used to calculate day-specific fecundability ratios. Results Sixty-three percent of subjects conceived within 6 months. After adjusting for age, 18 women (18%) with serum antimüllerian hormone levels of 0.7 ng/ml or less had significantly reduced fecundability given intercourse on a fertile day compared to women with higher antimüllerian hormone levels (fecundability ratio 0.38, 95% CI:0.08–0.91). The day-specific fecundability for women with early-follicular phase serum FSH values greater than 10 mIU/ml compared to women with lower FSH levels was also reduced, though nonsignificantly (11% of women affected; fecundability ratio 0.44, 95% CI: 0.08, 1.10). The association with urinary FSH was weaker (27% women affected; fecundability ratio 0.61, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.26), and the associations for the other markers were weaker still. Conclusions Early-follicular phase antimüllerian hormone appears to be associated with natural fertility in the general population. PMID:21422850

Steiner, Anne Z.; Herring, Amy H.; Kesner, James S.; Meadows, Juliana W.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Hoberman, Steven; Baird, Donna D.

2013-01-01

255

Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged ?20 Years in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ?20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ?20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We present the first empirical estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium prevalence at high spatial resolution throughout West Africa. Our prediction maps allow prioritizing of interventions in a spatially explicit manner, and will be useful for monitoring and evaluation of schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:21695107

Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2011-01-01

256

Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50?years or more: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49?years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56?years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=?0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30?years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30?years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

2014-01-01

257

Male age negatively influences clinical pregnancy rate in women younger than 40 years undergoing donor insemination cycles.  

PubMed

The influence of paternal age on clinical pregnancy was examined within younger patients undergoing donor insemination (DI) cycles in Western Australia. A retrospective analysis of 2142 DI cycles was carried out, including only women <40 years with no history of fertility problems. Logistic regression analysis was used to relate donor age to clinical pregnancy rate. Proportional hazards regression analysis was used to relate male age to time to pregnancy. Mediation analysis was conducted to adjust for influence of sperm concentration and motility. Analysis was controlled for female age, luteal-phase progesterone support and insemination year. There was no effect of female age on pregnancy rate or time to pregnancy. Older males (age ? 45 years) were significantly associated with a reduced pregnancy rate and longer time to pregnancy. Mediation analysis indicated that sperm concentration and motility did not fully account for the effect of male age on pregnancy. This study reveals an adverse effect of male age on clinical pregnancy in women <40 years of age that is not solely mediated by decreased sperm concentration or motility. This has implications for recruitment systems that attract older donors such as open-identity systems, which may benefit from actively recruiting younger donors. PMID:23768621

Koh, Su-Ann; Sanders, Katherine; Deakin, Richard; Burton, Peter

2013-08-01

258

[Implantation of mechanical prosthetic valves in the pediatric age group. Review of the last ten years].  

PubMed

Our aim is to evaluate the outcome of 13 patients, under the age of 18, who underwent 15 valve replacements with mechanical prostheses, from January 1985 through December 1995, in our Hospital. The mean age was 11.7 +/- 5.0 years (from eight months to 18 years); six patients were male. The follow-up was five months to 9.5 years. All of them were initially in NYHA classes III or IV, under medical therapy. Indication for valve replacement was rheumatic valve disease in five and congenital in eight. The mitral valve was replaced in eight patients, the aortic in three and both valves in two patients. Two patients (15%) died in the early post operative period. After the procedure there was a remarkable hemodynamic improvement of the remaining patients; the echocardiographic evaluation showed good left ventricular function in all patients and a reduction in systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery and dimensions of the right chambers of the heart. Two patients had perivalvular leaks. Nine patients were NYHA functional class I, one in class II and one in class III. All patients received warfarin anticoagulation and antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis. There was no incidence of anticoagulant related haemorrhage or thromboembolic or infectious events. One patient (7.6%) underwent valve replacement as the first procedure; the others underwent valvuloplasty before replacement of the valve. Although valve replacement in this population should only take place when conventional forms of therapy fail, in our group we observed low mortality and morbidity rates. PMID:10418262

Castilho, T; Menezes, I; Queirós e Melo, J; Anjos, R; Martins, F M

1999-05-01

259

Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. PMID:23201765

Scott, Jane A.; Chih, Tsz Ying; Oddy, Wendy H.

2012-01-01

260

Are restrained children under 15 years of age in cars as effectively protected as adults?  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare the injury distribution between children and adults, injured as restrained car passengers. Methods Population based study of data from a French road trauma registry in 1996–2002. Children under 15 years old were compared with adult casualties according to the distribution of serious injuries in three distinct body regions (head, chest, and abdomen) when they were restrained car passengers. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to quantify the risk of AIS2+ injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale of 2 or more). Results Among the 7568 casualties who were injured as restrained car passengers in car accidents, 1033 were less than 15 years old. Overall, 35.4% of children and 25.2% of adults were unrestrained. For children and adults, the risk of fatality was significantly reduced when they were restrained, but the percentages of children with Injury Severity Score (ISS) ?16, were not significantly different between restrained and not restrained casualties. Compared to adults, restrained children aged 5–9 were 2.7 times (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.17 to 6.43) as likely to sustain an AIS2+ abdominal injury, and tended to be more at risk of AIS2+ head injuries, but were less at risk of AIS2+ chest injuries. Conclusions Children aged 5–9 years injured in road accidents as restrained car passengers were more likely to sustain an AIS2+ abdominal injury than adults. This emphasises the need to reinforce educational campaigns aimed not only at getting children into restraint systems, but also insisting on their correct use. PMID:16407436

Javouhey, E; Guérin, A?C; Gadegbeku, B; Chiron, M; Floret, D

2006-01-01

261

Consumption, possession or purchase of alcoholic beverages by any person less than twenty-one (21) years of age. Distribution of alcoholic beverages to anyone less than twenty-one (21) years of age.  

E-print Network

of age. Typical Behavior Sanctions Rule #1: Underage drinking Underage individual with small amount notification if relocated. Rule #1: Underage drinking Underage individual with large amount of alcohol. Note beverages to anyone less than twenty-one (21) years of age. Typical Behavior Sanctions Rule #1: Underage

Suzuki, Masatsugu

262

Postnatal Cadmium Exposure, Neurodevelopment, and Blood Pressure in Children at 2, 5, and 7 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse health effects of cadmium in adults are well documented, but little is known about the neuropsychological effects of cadmium in children, and no studies of cadmium and blood pressure in children have been conducted. Objective We examined the potential effects of low-level cadmium exposure on intelligence quotient, neuropsychological functions, behavior, and blood pressure among children, using blood cadmium as a measure of exposure. Methods We used the data from a multicenter randomized clinical trial of lead-exposed children and analyzed blood cadmium concentrations using the whole blood samples collected when children were 2 years of age. We compared neuropsychological and behavioral scores at 2, 5, and 7 years of age by cadmium level and analyzed the relationship between blood cadmium levels at 2 years of age and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 2, 5, and 7 years of age. Results The average cadmium concentration of these children was 0.21 ?g/L, lower than for adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), but comparable to concentrations in children < 3 years of age in NHANES. Except for the California Verbal Learning Test for Children, there were no differences in test scores among children in different cadmium categories. For children with detectable pretreatment blood cadmium, after adjusting for a variety of covariates, general linear model analyses showed that at none of the three age points was the coefficient of cadmium on Mental Development Index or IQ statistically significant. Spline regression analysis suggested that behavioral problem scores at 5 and 7 years of age tended to increase with increasing blood cadmium, but the trend was not significant. We found no significant associations between blood cadmium levels and blood pressure. Conclusion We found no significant associations between background blood cadmium levels at 2 years of age and neurodevelopmental end points and blood pressure at 2, 5, and 7 years of age. The neuropsychological or hypertensive effects from longer background exposures to cadmium need further study. PMID:20019909

Cao, Yang; Chen, Aimin; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Dietrich, Kim N.; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen; Rogan, Walter J.

2009-01-01

263

[Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon).  

PubMed

The strategies recently implemented in Gabon have been effective in improving immunization coverage. These include, in particular, the integration of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in primary health care centers, the integration of immunization outside of EPI, immunization by peripheral health centers according to pre-set advanced strategies, and awareness and catch-up campaigns. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted from 1 October 2007 through 30 January 2008, throughout public- and private-sector health care centers in the town of Libreville. In the public sector, where health care is free, the study took place at the largest health facility in the country, the Hospital Center of Libreville (HCL), at Estuary Mélen Hospital (on the outskirts of Libreville), at Nkembo Hospital, which houses the EPI offices, and the 5 Maternal and Child Health centers (MCH) where vaccine monitoring is done. Monitoring in the private sector covered only the three largest clinics, where vaccine monitoring is done, all of which agreed to participate. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or guardian accompanying the child, a semi-structured interview according to a standardised questionnaire was conducted to collect socioeconomic and demographic data, including age, sex, recruitment site, place of residence, number of siblings, parental origin, ethnicity of head of household, type of family (couple or single parent), mother's age, level of education, employment and socio-economic status, as determined by the head of household's monthly income (in three categories: 1) low income, at or below the minimum wage, set at 80 000 FCFA (120 euros); 2) average income, from more than 80 000 FCFA to 300 000 FCFA (458 euros); and 3) high income over 300 000 FCFA. After the interview, the child's vaccination booklet was carefully examined to identify the types of antigen, number of doses administered, age at vaccination, and the regularity of the monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) Results: The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the public sector, 74.5%. The measles vaccination rate in the private sector was 82.5% compared w

Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

2010-10-01

264

Mortality after Distal Radius Fracture in Men and Women Aged 50 Years and Older in Southern Norway  

PubMed Central

Increased mortality rates in patients sustaining hip and vertebral fractures are well documented; however in distal radius fracture patients the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine short- and long-term mortality in distal radius fracture patient in comparison with the background population. Patients aged ?50 years with distal radius fracture living in Southern Norway who suffered a fracture in the two year period 2004 and 2005 were included in the study. The mortality risk of the standard Norwegian population was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). The number of distal radius fractures was 883 (166 men and 717 women). Mean age was 69 years (men 65 years and women 70 years). After one year the overall mortality rate was 3.4% (men 5.4% and women 2.9%) and after five years 4.6% (men 4.0% and women 4.8%). The SMR for men and women compared to the Norwegian population for the first year was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 2.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.2), respectively, and after five years 1.7 (95% CI: 0.3, 3.0) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). Stratified on age groups (50–70 and >70 years) an increased SMR was only seen in female patients aged >70 years five years after the fracture (SMR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6). In conclusion, increased SMR was found in female patients aged >70 years five years after the distal radius fracture, but not in men or in women younger than 70 years. PMID:25380128

Øyen, Jannike; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Haugeberg, Glenn

2014-01-01

265

Ileosigmoid knotting in patients under 25 years of age: A report of two cases?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Ileosigmoid knotting is a rare cause of acute abdomen with high morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis is infrequently made before surgery because of its varying ways of presentation and rarity. PRESENTATION OF CASE The first was a 21-year-old male who presented with a history of sudden generalized abdominal pain and progressive abdominal distension. He was pale and severely dehydrated. His extremities were cold and clammy. His pulse rate was 110 per minute and blood pressure was 90/50 mmHg. The second case was 20-year-old male who presented with similar symptoms as above. He was not pale but mildly dehydrated. His pulse rate was 92 per minute and blood pressure 110/70 mmHg. Both patients were resuscitated and had exploratory laparotomy a few hours after presentation. The first patient was found to have ileosigmoid knotting with gangrenous sigmoid colon and terminal ileum. He had Hartmann's procedure and right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis. The second patient was found to have ileosigmoid knotting with viable loops of bowel. He had careful detorsion, sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis. Both patients’ have good outcome. DISCUSSION This is to report two cases of ileosigmoid knotting in two male patients aged 21 and 20 years, respectively, with the hope of increasing awareness. CONCLUSION Ileosigmoid knotting though more common in fourth or fifth decade of life, can also occur in the 2nd decade. Early diagnosis, careful resuscitation and skilful surgical intervention will improve outcome. PMID:25462043

Igwe, Patrick Okechukwu; Jebbin, Nze Jephet; Dodiyi-Manuel, Amabra; Adotey, Jacob Molai

2014-01-01

266

Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Associated Factors among Elderly Hong Kong Chinese Aged 70 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of cognitive impairment was determined in a random age- and sex-stratified sample of 2,011 elderly Hong Kong Chinese, aged 70 years and over, consisting of subjects living in the community and in institutions. The Information\\/ Orientation Section of the Clifton Assessment Procedure was used as the screening instrument using a cutoff point of 7. The overall age-adjusted prevalence

J. Woo; S. C. Ho; S. Lau; J. Lau; Y. K. Yuen

1994-01-01

267

Long-Term Effect of Different Physical Activity Levels on Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Men: A 25-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of lifetime physical activity (PA) on selected indices of atherosclerosis in longitudinal observation of middle-aged men. Methods The subject of the study was a cohort of 101 men (mean age 59,7±9,0 years), free of cardiovascular symptoms and treatment, participating in follow-up examinations in the years 1985/90-2011/12. Self-report PA was assessed by interviewer-administered Seven-Day PA Recall and Historical PA questionnaire. Subclinical atherosclerosis was measured by assessing the coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to Agatston's method using multi-slice computed tomography; the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound; and the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT2000). The participants were initially divided into three groups according to tertiles of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) in kcal/week at baseline, i.e. <2050 (low-to-moderate; n?=?33), 2050–3840 (high; n?=?34), >3840 (very high; n?=?34). Results The low-to-moderate, high and very high PA groups were comparable in terms of age and atherosclerosis risk factors at baseline. No linear relationship was found between PA and CAC, IMT and RHI. Men who maintained low-to-moderate (n?=?26), high (n?=?21) and very high (n?=?15) PA level had the mean CAC of 286.1±361.9, 10.7±28.9, and 106.1±278.3 (p<0.001 for low-to moderate vs high; p<0.05 for low-to-moderate vs very high); the mean IMT of 0.751±0.19 mm, 0,641±0.26 mm, and 0.750±0.60 mm (p>0.05); and the mean RHI of 1.69±0.4, 2.00±0.4, and 2.13±0.5 (p for trend?=?0.050), respectively. No cases of CAC>400, IMT ?0.9 and RHI<1.67 were noted only among men with maintained high PA level. At final examination men with high and very high PA had more favorable cardiometabolic profile than men with lower PA. Conclusions Maintaining regular high PA level through young and middle adulthood may protect against atherosclerosis as measured by CAC, IMT and RHI. PMID:24465505

Kwa?niewska, Magdalena; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, El?bieta; R?bowska, Ewa; Kozi?ska, Joanna; Drygas, Wojciech

2014-01-01

268

Fetal exposure to an intra-amniotic inflammation and the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim of this study was to determine whether fetal exposure to intra-amniotic inflammation and a systemic fetal inflammatory response (funisitis) are associated with the development of cerebral palsy at the age of 3 years.

Bo Hyun Yoon; Roberto Romero; Joong Shin Park; Chong Jai Kim; Seung Hyup Kim; Jung Hwan Choi; Tai Ryoon Han

2000-01-01

269

High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

270

Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was…

Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

2010-01-01

271

Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

2011-01-01

272

Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years  

PubMed Central

Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

2013-01-01

273

Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

2014-06-01

274

A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

2009-01-01

275

[Difficulties in appraisals of adolescents aged over 14 years with respect to custody and visitation rights].  

PubMed

This retrospective study analyses 55 custody- and visitation rights expert opinions furnished at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Tübingen from 1990 to 2005. The aim of the study was to find out reasons and circumstances prompting judges to order appraisals of adolescents aged over 14 years during proceedings of custody and visitation rights. Expertises were examined for possible gender-specific differences. Further, a census of the judges was arranged. It became obvious that expertises were rarely requested during proceedings of custody and especially of visitation rights. Financial problems, parental alcoholism and educational incompetence or mental diseases of the adolescents and/or their parents were found in these extremely conflict-ridden family situations. Gender-specific variable results were found as far as the relationship of the young towards their parents and siblings is concerned, their wish for future residence, and the expert recommendation on provision for custody and visitation rights. PMID:18461847

Liebrich, Franziska; Müller-Berner, Nina; Klosinski, Gunther

2008-01-01

276

21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.  

...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No....

2014-04-01

277

21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No....

2013-04-01

278

21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No....

2010-04-01

279

21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No....

2012-04-01

280

21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color...2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No....

2011-04-01

281

Associations of work and health-related characteristics with intention to continue working after the age of 65 years.  

PubMed

This study examines the association of work and health-related characteristics with the intention to continue working after the age of 65 years. Data were from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative population survey, including 1854 employees aged 45-64 years; 29.0% reported the intention to continue working after 65 years. Lower education, more adverse psychosocial working conditions and any physical disorder were negatively associated with this intention. Mental disorders were not associated. These findings highlight the importance of favourable working conditions and good physical health in relation to employees' intention to continue working after 65 years. PMID:25395396

Ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; de Graaf, Ron

2015-02-01

282

Food Intake of Kansans Over 80 Years of Age Attending Congregate Meal Sites  

PubMed Central

As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group intake, and the food choices of community-dwelling Kansans, 80 years of age and older who participate in congregate meal programs. Participants completed a short questionnaire querying demographic information, current health status, and dietary supplement use. Participants (n = 113) were then followed up via telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls. Data were analyzed to determine adequacy of food group intake and mean intake. Regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting intake and frequency analysis established food typically consumed. Female participants were significantly more likely to consume more fruit servings than males. Intake was low for all five of the food groups, especially dairy. Chronic health conditions and dietary supplement use were consistently predictive factors of the amount of each food group consumed. PMID:22254010

Weeden, Allisha M.; Remig, Valentina M.

2010-01-01

283

Spirometric reference values for Malagasy adults aged 18-73 years.  

PubMed

The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) recommend that spirometry prediction equations be derived from samples of similar race/ethnicity. Malagasy prediction equations do not exist. The objectives of this study were to establish prediction equations for healthy Malagasy adults, and then compare Malagasy measurements with published prediction equations. We enrolled 2491 healthy Malagasy subjects aged 18-73 years (1428 males) from June 2006 to April 2008. The subjects attempted to meet the ATS/ERS 2005 guidelines when performing forced expiratory spirograms. We compared Malagasy measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with predictions from the European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the ERS Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 study. A linear model for the entire population, using age and height as independent variables, best predicted all spirometry parameters for sea level and highland subjects. FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were most accurately predicted by NHANES III African-American male and female, and by GLI 2012 black male and black and South East Asian female equations. ECSC-predicted FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were poorly matched to Malagasy measurements. We provide the first spirometry reference equations for a healthy adult Malagasy population, and the first comparison of Malagasy population measurements with ECSC, NHANES III and GLI 2012 prediction equations. PMID:25395033

Ratomaharo, Julia; Linares Perdomo, Olinto; Collingridge, Dave S; Andriamihaja, Rabezanahary; Hegewald, Matthew; Jensen, Robert L; Hankinson, John; Morris, Alan H

2014-11-13

284

Myocardial infarction before the age of 40 years is associated with insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is associated with atherosclerosis, and hyperinsulinemia is predictive of coronary heart disease. However, a quantitative estimation of in vivo insulin sensitivity in juvenile myocardial infarction is still lacking and the mechanism of hyperinsulinemia is unknown. We estimated insulin sensitivity, beta-cell secretion, and hepatic insulin extraction using the minimal model analysis of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) in 25 normal-weight subjects without glucose intolerance and hypertension who had an acute myocardial infarction before the age of 40 years, and 10 control subjects comparable for age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure. All patients underwent a coronary angiography. Insulin sensitivity was significantly lower in patients than in control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 4.6 +/- 0.6 v8.5 +/- 1.2 10(-4). min(-1)(microU/mL), P = .002). The basal C-peptide secretion rate (P = .02), total C-peptide secretion (P = .005), area under the curve (AUC) of insulin (P = .04) and C-peptide (P = .01), and hepatic insulin extraction (P = .04) were higher in patients versus control subjects. In conclusion, insulin resistance is evident in subjects with early myocardial infarction accurately selected to avoid the influence of other factors known to reduce insulin sensitivity, and hyperinsulinemia is due to an increase in beta-cell secretion rather than a decrease in hepatic insulin extraction. PMID:11172471

Cavallo-Perin, P; Bergerone, S; Gagnor, A; Comune, M; Giunti, S; Cassader, M; Pagano, G; Pacini, G

2001-01-01

285

Short- and long-term outcomes of definitive chemoradiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma aged ?75 years  

PubMed Central

The most relevant treatment modalities in elderly patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC) remain a subject of debate. Combined definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is currently widely accepted as a non-surgical treatment for esophageal cancer. However, elderly patients were excluded from the majority of studies on CRT, or the proportion of elderly patients was relatively low in those studies and the number of available studies on the treatment of EC patients aged ?75 years is limited. The aim of the present retrospective study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of CRT in patients aged ?75 years in order to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of CRT for elderly patients with EC. In this study, based on further refinement of patient age groups and analysis of the Charlson comorbidity score, we performed a statistical analysis of factors such as short-term response, long-term survival and toxicity reactions. The results of the analysis indicated that the treatment of patients with EC aged ?75 years with radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy was effective. However, we recommend that customized treatment is based on the stratification of patients into different age groups and the Charlson score, as for patients aged ?80 years a lower-dose therapy may be more beneficial and for patients aged ?85 years definitive CRT should be administered with greater caution. PMID:24649350

LU, XIAOXU; WU, HUI; WANG, JIANHUA; XU, JING

2014-01-01

286

Reference range variation in haematological indices amongst five different age groups of less than one year in Islamabad, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the current study was to establish the reference ranges of haematological indices amongst five healthy infantile (<1 year) age groups. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Non probability convenience sampling was adopted for the proceedings for the study. A sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed as 400 samples for all the five age groups i.e. <27 days, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and one year. One thousands were males and 1000 were the females. An informed consent from the guardian was the pre requisite of study, while those candidates having an evidence of any systemic illness were not excluded. Results : The values of haematological indices i.e. MCV, MCHC, MCH, PCV and RDW varies with growing age of an infant. A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. Conclusion : A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. The values reported in this study can be used as a local reference for the newborn aged between <27 days and 1 year of age. PMID:24353580

Tauseef Bukhari, Kiran; Zafar, Humaira

2013-01-01

287

The Contribution of Youth Sport Football to Weekend Physical Activity for Males Aged 9- to 16- Years: Variability Related to Age and Playing Position.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to determine minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) accrued in youth sport football (also internationally referred to as soccer), and the contribution towards daily weekend MVPA and VPA for males aged 9 to 16 years, and (2) to investigate variability in these outcomes related to age and playing position. One hundred and nine male grassroots footballers (Mean age = 11.98 ± 1.75 years) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Weekend youth sport football participation and playing position were recorded. Youth sport football MVPA (M = 51.51 ± 17.99) and VPA (M = 27.78 ± 14.55) contributed 60.27% and 70.68% towards daily weekend MVPA and VPA, respectively. Overall, 36.70% of participants accumulated ? 60 minutes MVPA and 69.70% accrued ? 20 minutes of VPA during youth sport. For participants aged 13 to16 years, youth sport football MVPA and VPA were significantly higher, and contributed a greater amount towards daily weekend MVPA and VPA than for participants aged 9 to 12 years (p = <.01). Youth sport football is an important source of MVPA and VPA at the weekend for male youth, and particularly for adolescents. Participation may offer opportunity for weekend engagement in VPA towards health enhancing levels. PMID:25387122

Fenton S, A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

2014-11-10

288

Non-fatal injuries among Chinese aged 65 years and older: findings from the Fourth National Health Services Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiology of non-fatal injuries among adults aged 65 years and older in China.DesignCross-sectional survey (the Fourth National Health Services Survey of China).ParticipantsUrban and rural residents aged 65 years and older from 56 400 households in China.Main Outcome MeasuresThe incidence rate was calculated as the number of persons injured in the previous 12 months divided by the population×1000.ResultsThe

Guoqing Hu; Keqin Rao; Susan P Baker

2010-01-01

289

Infant temperament and eating style predict change in standardized weight status and obesity risk at 6 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Little research has addressed the relationships among infant temperament, eating styles and obesity risk. To address this gap, we tested whether infant temperament and eating patterns at the age of 1 year are associated with a greater increase in standardized weight status, and greater obesity risk at 6 years of age.Design:A secondary, prospective analysis of the Colorado Adoption Study was

M S Faith; J B Hittner

2010-01-01

290

Increasing trends in HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older: evidence from estimates and survey data  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the most recent 2013 UNAIDS estimates of HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older, and to validate these estimates using data from national household surveys. Design: Modelled estimates of HIV prevalence were validated against nationally representative household survey measures of HIV prevalence. Methods: The UNAIDS 2013 HIV estimates were used to compute HIV prevalence and number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older. Sex-specific HIV-prevalence rates by the 5-year age group were calculated from nationally representative household surveys conducted between 2003 and 2013, and were compared to prevalence rates from the modelled estimates. The ratios (Spectrum/Survey) of the prevalence rates from the two sources were analysed. Results: In 2013, an estimated 4.2 million (4.0–4.5 million) people aged 50 years and older were living with HIV. The global HIV prevalence among older individuals more than doubled in almost all the 5-year age groups since 1995. There was a relatively good agreement between the modelled HIV-prevalence rates and the survey-based rates among men and women aged 50–54 years (0.90 and 1.00 median ratio, respectively), whereas for 55–59 year-olds, the differences were more notable (ratios of 0.63 for men and 0.90 for women). Conclusion: Both data sources suggest HIV-prevalence rates among people aged over 50 have increased steadily in the recent years. Care and treatment services need to address the specific needs of older people living with HIV. Action is needed to incorporate older age groups into HIV surveillance systems. PMID:25222641

Mahy, Mary; Autenrieth, Christine S.; Stanecki, Karen; Wynd, Shona

2014-01-01

291

Longitudinal Volumetric Brain Changes in Autism Spectrum Disorder Ages 6-35 Years.  

PubMed

Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an 8-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans, and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. Autism Res 2014, ??: ??-??. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25381736

Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Prigge, Molly B D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cariello, Annahir N; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A; Lainhart, Janet E

2014-11-01

292

Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the strength of association between age, gender, ethnicity, family history of disease and refractive error and the risk of developing glaucoma or ARM? Clinical Need A routine eye exam serves a primary, secondary, and tertiary care role. In a primary care role, it allows contact with a doctor who can provide advice about eye care, which may reduce the incidence of eye disease and injury. In a secondary care role, it can via a case finding approach, diagnose persons with degenerative eye diseases such as glaucoma and or AMD, and lead to earlier treatment to slow the progression of the disease. Finally in a tertiary care role, it provides ongoing monitoring and treatment to those with diseases associated with vision loss. Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve, which causes gradual loss of peripheral (side) vision, and in advanced disease states loss of central vision. Blindness may results if glaucoma is not diagnosed and managed. The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) ranges from 1.1% to 3.0% in Western populations, and from 4.2% to 8.8% in populations of African descent. It is estimated up to 50% of people with glaucoma are aware that they have the disease. In Canada, glaucoma disease is the second leading cause of blindness in people aged 50 years and older. Tonometry, inspection of the optic disc and perimetry are used concurrently by physicians and optometrists to make the diagnosis of glaucoma. In general, the evidence shows that treating people with increased IOP only, increased IOP and clinical signs of early glaucoma or with normal-tension glaucoma can reduce the progression of disease. Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is a degenerative disease of the macula, which is a part of the retina. Damage to the macula causes loss of central vision affecting the ability to read, recognize faces and to move about freely. ARM can be divided into an early- stage (early ARM) and a late-stage (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The prevalence of AMD increases with increasing age. It is estimated that 1% of people 55 years of age, 5% aged 75 to 84 years and 15% 80 years of age and older have AMD. ARM can be diagnosed during fundoscopy (ophthalmoscopy) which is a visual inspection of the retina by a physician or optometrist, or from a photograph of the retina. There is no cure or prevention for ARM. Likewise, there is currently no treatment to restore vision lost due to AMD. However, there are treatments to delay the progression of the disease and further loss of vision. The Technology A periodic oculo-visual assessment is defined “as an examination of the eye and vision system rendered primarily to determine if a patient has a simple refractive error (visual acuity assessment) including myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, anisometropia or astigmatism.” This service includes a history of the presenting complaint, past medical history, visual acuity examination, ocular mobility examination, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, ophthalmoscopy, and tonometry (measurement of IOP) and is completed by either a physician or an optometrist. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, INAHTA and the Cochrane Library. The search was limited to English-language articles with human subjects, published from January 2000 to March 2006. In addition, a search was conducted for published guidelines, health technology assessments, and policy decisions. Bibliographies of references of relevant papers were searched for additional references that may have been missed in the computerized database search. Studies including participants 20 years and older, population-based prospective cohort studies, population-based cross-sectional studies when prospective cohort studies were unavailable or insufficient and studies determining and r

2006-01-01

293

Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12–19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999–2008)  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. Objectives: We investigated children’s PFC serum concentrations and their associations with asthma-related outcomes. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum concentrations of eight PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), with self-reported lifetime asthma, recent wheezing, and current asthma using data from participants 12–19 years of age from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, PFOA was associated with higher odds of ever having received a diagnosis of asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39 for a doubling in PFOA], whereas for PFOS there were inverse relationships with both asthma and wheezing (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.04, and OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.02, respectively). The associations were attenuated after accounting for sampling weights. No associations were seen between the other PFCs and any outcome. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study provides some evidence for associations between exposure to PFCs and asthma-related outcomes in children. The evidence is inconsistent, however, and prospective studies are needed. Citation: Humblet O, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Balmes JR, Pinney SM, Hiatt RA. 2014. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 12–19 years of age: NHANES (1999–2008). Environ Health Perspect 122:1129–1133;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606 PMID:24905661

Humblet, Olivier; Diaz-Ramirez, Ledif Grisell; Balmes, John R.; Pinney, Susan M.

2014-01-01

294

Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

2014-01-01

295

The haematological profile of urban black Africans aged 15-64 years in the Cape Peninsula.  

PubMed

A stratified probability sample (n = 986) with quotas was drawn from black residential areas in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Subjects (n = 819) aged 15-64 years, participated in a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor survey, the BRISK Study. Nutritional status and prevalence of CHD was determined in this population undergoing rapid urbanization. Full blood and differential white blood cell counts provided data to calculate population reference values based on the 95% reference limits of the haematological parameter. Mean haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) in men (14.0 g/dl) and women (12.4 g/dl) were +/- 1.5 g/dl lower than previous South African reports. Mean BRISK Hb values were very similar to the World Health Organization's Hb cutoff criteria (< 13 g/dl men; < 12 g/dl women), indicating a possible high prevalence of anaemia. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean values for red cell indices were confirmed in men, which also reflected equally higher red blood cell counts (RBC), haematocrit (HCT) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) values. Mean Hb values were significantly lower in the younger (15-24 years) and older (55-64 years) men compared with 25-54 year-olds (P < 0.05). Hypochromic microcytic anaemia was more prevalent in women, possibly due to iron deficiency (ID), while macrocytic anaemia was more prevalent in men. No significant differences were noted in mean total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) between men and women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7781549

Badenhorst, C J; Fourie, J; Steyn, K; Jooste, P L; Lombard, C J; Bourne, L; Slazus, W

1995-01-01

296

Elective and emergency abdominal surgery in patients 90 years of age or older  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined perioperative outcomes in nonagenarians undergoing abdominal surgery, and fewer have reported on 1-year mortality. Our objectives were to determine the outcomes of abdominal surgery in nonagenarians and to assess the performance of Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and Portsmouth-POSSUM (p-POSSUM) as predictors of mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients 90 years and older who underwent abdominal surgery between 2000 and 2007 at a tertiary care hospital. Results We included 145 patients (median age 91, range 90–101 yr). The most common diagnoses were colorectal cancer (19.3%) and hernias (19.3%), and the most common procedures were bowel resection with anastomosis (25.5%) and hernia repair (18.6%). Overall in-hospital mortality was 15.2% (20.8% in the emergent group and 9.6% in the elective group; p = 0.06). The 1-year mortality (49.1% v. 27.8%; p = 0.016), complication (81.9% v. 61.6%; p = 0.007) and intensive care unit admission rates (44.4% v. 11.0%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher among emergent than elective surgical patients. The operative indications and procedures associated with the highest in-hospital mortality were large bowel obstruction (42.3%) and bowel resection with anastomosis (27.0%). Both the POSSUM and p-POSSUM scoring systems significantly overpredicted mortality, particularly in higher risk groups. Conclusion Nonagenarians undergoing abdominal surgery have substantial operative morbidity and mortality, particularly in emergent surgical cases. Nearly 50% of patients who undergo emergency procedures die within 1 year after surgery. The POSSUM and p-POSSUM scoring systems were not reliable predictors of in-hospital mortality. PMID:22992421

Racz, Jennifer; Dubois, Luc; Katchky, Adam; Wall, William

2012-01-01

297

EDC-mediated condensations of 1-chloro-5-hydrazino-9,10-anthracenedione, 1-hydrazino-9,10-anthracenedione, and the corresponding anthrapyrazoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EDC-mediated condensation of 1-chloro-5-hydrazino-9,10-anthracenedione afforded an N-1 acyl anthrapyrazole instead of the expected hydrazide. The regiochemistry of the N-acyl substituent was assigned on the basis of an extensive set of NMR experiments, and identification of this isomer suggests a reaction sequence based on initial acylation and subsequent cyclization. In contrast, the parallel reaction of 1-hydrazino-9,10-anthracenedione proceeded to afford the

MeeKyoung Kim; David F Wiemer

2004-01-01

298

Presenting features and outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients diagnosed at age 80 years or more. An ICLLSG study.  

PubMed

Although the incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) increases exponentially with age, data on patients 80 years or older at diagnosis are sparse. The records of patients diagnosed with CLL at age ?80 years at seven medical centers in Israel during 1979-2009 were reviewed. Patients included 118 men and 96 women with a mean age of 84 years (range 80-94). Diagnosis was established in 56.5% due to routine blood count; 56% had Rai stage 0 disease and 25% of the patients received treatment. By June 2010, 72% had died. Mean survival was 67.7 months (median 56±5.4 months) and 5-year survival rate 47.2±3.6%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with better survival were age <84 years (p=0.002), early Rai and Binet stages (p=0.023, 0.003), low white blood cell count at time of diagnosis (p=0.015), low ?2 microglobulin level (p=0.006), diagnosis by routine blood test (p<0.001), and low CD38 level (p=0.036). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression revealed that younger age, low white cell count, and diagnosis by routine blood test were independent predictors of good prognosis (hazards ratios 1.8, 1.6, and 1.9, respectively). Patients diagnosed with CLL at age ?80 years may expect to live a long life. This study identifies several factors predicting good prognosis which are easy to obtain. PMID:21614458

Bairey, Osnat; Ruchlemer, Rosa; Rahimi-Levene, Neomy; Herishanu, Yair; Braester, Andre; Berrebi, Alain; Polliack, Aaron; Klepfish, Avraham; Shvidel, Lev

2011-10-01

299

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ?2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P?=?0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P?=?0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P?=?0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P?=?0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

2014-01-01

300

Ten-year experience with aortic valve replacement in 482 patients 70 years of age or older: operative risk and long-term results.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of an institutional experience with aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients 70 years of age or older during 1976 to 1987 was performed. The study was prompted in part by the current interest in palliative aortic valvoplasty, an interest based to a certain extent on the impression that AVR in the elderly has a high mortality. The mean age of the patients was 75.0 +/- 4.0 years (+/- the standard deviation) (range, 70 to 89 years). Eighty-three percent of patients received porcine valves and 17%, mechanical valves. Preoperatively 32% were in New York Heart Association class III, and 59% were in class IV. Operative mortality was 5.6% for elective isolated AVR for aortic stenosis (19% of all patients), 8.2% for all isolated AVR (38%), and 12.4% overall. Concomitant operative procedures were done in 62.0%; AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (42%) had an operative mortality of 14.3%. Multivariate analysis showed significant predictors of operative mortality to be emergency operation (p less than 0.01), isolated aortic regurgitation (p = 0.01), and previous cardiac operation (p = 0.02). Follow-up (34 +/- 27 months) was 94% complete. Five-year survival from late cardiac-related death was 81.0%. The constant yearly hazard rate for late death for patients 70 years of age or older who underwent AVR was 5.42% per year, which is similar to the 5.77% per year rate calculated for age-matched and sex-matched controls. Five-year freedom from reoperation was 99%; from late thromboembolic complications, 91%; and from late anticoagulant-related complications, 94%. Freedom from all valve-related morbidity and mortality was 61% at 5 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2297278

Galloway, A C; Colvin, S B; Grossi, E A; Baumann, F G; Sabban, Y P; Esposito, R; Ribakove, G H; Culliford, A T; Slater, J N; Glassman, E

1990-01-01

301

Age-related hearing loss and bone mass in a population of rural women aged 60 to 85 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demineralisation of the cochlear capsule in conjunction with age-related bone mass loss may be one biologic factor contributing to hearing loss in the elderly. In other metabolic bone diseases, including Paget's disease of the bone and cochlear otosclerosis, demineralization of the cochlea has been associated with sensorineural hearing loss. In 1988\\/1989, the relation between hearing loss and bone mass of

Kathleen Clark; Maryfran R. Sowers; Robert B. Wallace; Mary L. Jannausch; Jon Lemke; Charles V. Anderson

1995-01-01

302

Disparities in gingival height in the mandibular central incisor region of children aged 6--12 years.  

PubMed

An investigation of disparate gingival heights of the mandibular central incisor region in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years was undertaken. Unaffected paired teeth demonstrated an age-associated increase in clinical crown length, similar to previous reports, suggesting a gradual remodelling of soft tissues. Affected teeth displayed a rapid increase in clinical crown length suggesting that by age 10 years true recession had occurred. Significant associations with gingival inflammation (at the 0.1% level), and with anterior crowding (at the 0.2% level), occurred. Frenal involvement did not influence the position of the gingival margin. PMID:6941875

Powell, R N; McEniery, T M

1981-02-01

303

Prediction of correlates of daily physical activity in Spanish children aged 8-9 years.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were (a) to examine the associations between the daily physical activity (PA) of 8- to 9-year-old children and their parents, and (b) to examine what effect the child's daily PA has on its cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The sample consisted of 1021 persons [351 children (8.73 ± 0.69 years in age) and 670 parents]. Pedometers were used to evaluate PA in parents and their children over the course of 4 days (Thursday-Sunday), with the instructions on how to wear the pedometers for 24 h a day. Also evaluated were height, weight, BMI, CRF (via the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test), and HRQoL (via the EQ-5D-Y questionnaire). Associations between these variables were studied using path model techniques. The father's PA predicts his child's daily PA. This in turn predicts the child's lower BMI, CRF, and perceived quality of life. The findings suggest that the role model of a physically active father positively influences the child's PA habits, and hence that the family environment can have an important part to play in promoting health. PMID:24224913

Saavedra, J M; Escalante, Y; Domínguez, A M; García-Hermoso, A; Hernández-Mocholí, M A

2014-06-01

304

Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

2014-01-01

305

Prevalence of colorectal adenoma in an average-risk population aged 40-50 versus 50-60 years.  

PubMed

According to current guidelines, screening colonoscopy begins at 50 years for the average-risk population, although there are not enough data on the incidence of precancerous lesions of individuals in the preceding decades. To evaluate the prevalence of colorectal polyps including potentially premalignant lesions in asymptomatic, average-risk individuals aged 40-49 versus 50-59 years, we offered total colonoscopy screening to individuals without any lower gastrointestinal symptoms. The primary end point was the prevalence of colorectal adenoma in two age groups. Of a total of 737 studies, 333 participants were 40-49 years old and 407 participants were 50-59 years old. The overall prevalence of adenomas was 11.2 and 16.4% in the group of 40-49 and 50-59 year olds, respectively. Advanced adenoma was more common in 50-59 year olds (1.2 vs. 2.9%). Malignancy was not reported in these groups. Furthermore, 77.5 and 68.6% of adenomas were observed in the distal colon in the groups of 40-49 year olds and 50-59 year olds, whereas in the proximal colon, 22.2 and 57.1% of adenomas in the groups of 40-49 year olds and 50-59 year olds, respectively, were advanced adenomas. In our study, male sex showed an association with adenoma. However, importantly, there was no significant association between age and colorectal adenoma. Although the prevalence of colorectal adenoma was similar in the two age groups investigated, the rate of advanced adenoma was higher in the group of individuals who were 50-59 years old, suggesting that colorectal cancer screening could be recommended at an age younger than 50 years. PMID:25380192

Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Zamani, Farhad; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Rakhshani, Naser; Khoonsari, Mahmoodreza; Ameli, Mitra; Hatami, Khadijeh

2014-11-01

306

Perceptions of five-year competitive categories: model of how relative age influences competitiveness in masters sport.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps < .001). Findings point to perceived psycho-social and physical factors that potentially explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key PointsThere are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes.Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes.Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes' continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training. PMID:24421732

Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Grove, J Robert

2013-01-01

307

Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2. PMID:19555967

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

308

Age-dependent salt hypertension in Dahl rats: fifty years of research.  

PubMed

Fifty years ago, Lewis K. Dahl has presented a new model of salt hypertension - salt-sensitive and salt-resistant Dahl rats. Twenty years later, John P. Rapp has published the first and so far the only comprehensive review on this rat model covering numerous aspects of pathophysiology and genetics of salt hypertension. When we summarized 25 years of our own research on Dahl/Rapp rats, we have realized the need to outline principal abnormalities of this model, to show their interactions at different levels of the organism and to highlight the ontogenetic aspects of salt hypertension development. Our attention was focused on some cellular aspects (cell membrane function, ion transport, cell calcium handling), intra- and extrarenal factors affecting renal function and/or renal injury, local and systemic effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial and smooth muscle changes responsible for abnormal vascular contraction or relaxation, altered balance between various vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in blood pressure maintenance as well as on the central nervous and peripheral mechanisms involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis. We also searched for the age-dependent impact of environmental and pharmacological interventions, which modify the development of high blood pressure and/or organ damage, if they influence the salt-sensitive organism in particular critical periods of development (developmental windows). Thus, severe self-sustaining salt hypertension in young Dahl rats is characterized by pronounced dysbalance between augmented sympathetic hyperactivity and relative nitric oxide deficiency, attenuated baroreflex as well as by a major increase of residual blood pressure indicating profound remodeling of resistance vessels. Salt hypertension development in young but not in adult Dahl rats can be attenuated by preventive increase of potassium or calcium intake. On the contrary, moderate salt hypertension in adult Dahl rats is attenuated by superoxide scavenging or endothelin-A receptor blockade which do not affect salt hypertension development in young animals. PMID:22827876

Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Hojná, S; Kadlecová, M; Behuliak, M; Van??ková, I; Kuneš, J

2012-01-01

309

Adding Years to Your Life (or at Least Looking Like It): A Simple Normalization Underlies Adaptation to Facial Age  

PubMed Central

Adaptation has been widely used to probe how experience shapes the visual encoding of faces, but the pattern of perceptual changes produced by adaptation and the neural mechanisms these imply remain poorly characterized. We explored how adaptation alters the perceived age of faces, a fundamental facial attribute which can uniquely and reliably be scaled by observers. This allowed us to measure how adaptation to one age level affected the full continuum of perceived ages. Participants guessed the ages of faces ranging from 18–89, before or after adapting to a different set of faces composed of younger, older, or middle-aged adults. Adapting to young or old faces induced opposite linear shifts in perceived age that were independent of the model's age. Specifically, after adapting to younger or older faces, faces of all ages appeared 2 to 3 years older or younger, respectively. In contrast, middle-aged adaptors induced no aftereffects. This pattern suggests that adaptation leads to a simple and uniform renormalization of age perception, and is consistent with a norm-based neural code for the mechanisms mediating the perception of facial age. PMID:25541948

O'Neil, Sean F.; Mac, Amy; Rhodes, Gillian; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

310

Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p?year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p?age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. PMID:25136967

Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

2015-04-01

311

Seven-year results of a press-fit, hydroxyapatite-coated double mobility acetabular component in patients aged 65 years or older.  

PubMed

One hundred and thirty-four THA were done between 1998 and 2002 with AVANTAGE(®) Press-Fit double mobility cup. The mean age of patients was 74 ± 6 years (range 65-94 years). The mean follow-up was 5.4 years (range, 0.15-10 years). The mean preoperative Harris Hip Score was 51.3 ± 14 versus 88 ± 12, at the latest follow-up, and the mean Merle d'Aubigné hip functional score was 8 ± 3 versus 16.3 ± 2.91; patients (68 %) were alive at a mean of 7.2 years postoperatively (range, 5-10 years). Three revisions were documented for aseptic loosening. The overall survival rate at 7.2 years was 96.3 % (95 % confidence interval 92.2-100) using cup revision for aseptic loosening as the end point. PMID:23412297

Fresard, Pierre-Luc; Alvherne, Charles; Cartier, Jean-Loup; Cuinet, Patrick; Lantuejoul, Jean-Pierre

2013-05-01

312

Six-Minute Walk Test: Reference Values and Prediction Equation in Healthy Boys Aged 5 to12 Years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This study aimed to (1) generate normative data in healthy boys aged 5–12 years for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), an outcome measure currently used in clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), (2) to describe the relation with anthropometric variables and myometry, and (3) to compare our data with published equations. METHODS The 6MWT was conducted in 442 boys according to a standardized protocol, as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions for knee flexion and extension were recorded with a hand-held myometer. RESULTS The 6MWD increased significantly with age, from 478.0±44.1 m at age 5, to 650.0±76.8 m at age 12, with the steepest increase between 5 and 8 years. Age- and height related percentile curves of the 6MWD were developed. Correlations with anthropometric variables were fair to good (age r?=?0.60, height r?=?0.57, weight r?=?0.44). Myometric variables (knee flexors and extensors) showed correlations of 0.46 and 0.50 respectively. When dividing into two age categories (5–8 years, 9–12 years), these magnitudes of correlations only applied to the younger age group. Additionally, predicted values were calculated according to available reference equations (Geiger and Ben Saad), indicating an overestimation by those equations. Finally, the Geiger equation was refitted to our population. CONCLUSION The percentile curves according to age and height provide a useful tool in the assessment of ambulatory capacity in boys aged 5 to 12 years. Significant correlations with anthropometric variables and myometry were only found in the 5–8 years age group. The Geiger prediction equation, currently used to assess ambulatory capacity in DMD was refitted to obtain a more accurate prediction model based on a large sample with a homogenous distribution across the age categories 5 to 12 years and applying the methodology as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. PMID:24391899

Goemans, Nathalie; Klingels, Katrijn; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Boons, Stefanie; Verstraete, Liese; Peeters, Charlotte; Feys, Hilde; Buyse, Gunnar

2013-01-01

313

Association between Ozone and Hospitalization for Acute Respiratory Diseases in Children Less than 2 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the health effects of ozone exposure in young children, the authors studied the association between air pollution and hospital admissions for acute respiratory problems in children less than 2 years of age during the 15-year period from 1980 to 1994 in Toronto, Canada. The daily time series of admissions was adjusted for the influences of day of the

Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; Dave Stieb; Mark E. Raizenne; Jeffrey R. Brook; Robert E. Dales; Judy A. Leech; Sabit Cakmak; Daniel Krewski

314

Effects of a Regular Motor Activity on Somatic and Fitness Variables in Boys Aged 17-18 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness changes in semisedentary boys persuaded to undertake Nordic Walking activities throughout a school year. Material and methods: Two groups of schoolboys aged 17-18 years were studied: regularly attending physical education (PE) classes (Group A; n = 46) and those who avoided PE classes by submitting sick…

Piotrowska, Joanna

2011-01-01

315

yielded age-specific-survival fractions (Lx) for females of each year class. Ro* for each year class  

E-print Network

. P. CHEEK. AND R. L. KROGER. 1973. Preliminary analyses of Atlantic menhaden, Bre· voortia tyrannus and movements of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, as inferred from back- calculated length frequencies. Chesapeake Sci. 13:161- 174. 1975. Age and size composition ofthe Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus

316

Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.  

PubMed

A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain. PMID:25485731

Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

2014-12-01

317

Fetal alcohol syndrome among children aged 7-9 years - Arizona, colorado, and new york, 2010.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious birth defect and developmental disorder caused by in utero exposure to alcohol. Assessment of the public health burden of FAS through surveillance has proven difficult; there is wide variation in reported prevalence depending on the study population and surveillance method. Generally, records-based birth prevalence studies report estimates of 0.2-1.5 per 1,000 live births, whereas studies that use in-person, expert assessment of school-aged children in a community report estimates of 6-9 per 1,000 population. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II addressed some of the challenges in records-based ascertainment by assessing a period prevalence of FAS among children aged 7?9 years in Arizona, Colorado, and New York. The prevalence across sites ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 per 1,000 children. Prevalence of FAS was highest among American Indian/Alaska Native children and lowest among Hispanic children. These estimates continue to be much lower than those obtained from studies using in-person, expert assessment. Factors that might contribute to this discrepancy include 1) inadequate recognition of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS by clinical care providers; 2) insufficient documentation of those characteristics in the medical record; and 3) failure to consider prenatal alcohol exposure with diagnoses of behavioral and learning problems. Addressing these factors through training of medical and allied health providers can lead to practice changes, ultimately increasing recognition and documentation of the characteristics of FAS. PMID:25632951

Fox, Deborah J; Pettygrove, Sydney; Cunniff, Christopher; O'Leary, Leslie A; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Druschel, Charlotte M; Breen, April; Robinson, Luther; Ortiz, Linnette; Frías, Jaime L; Ruttenber, Margaret; Klumb, Donald; Meaney, F John

2015-01-30

318

Pedometer determined physical activity and obesity prevalence of Greek children aged 4-6 years.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Pre-school age is important for developing healthy attitudes towards physical activity (PA). However, research on pre-schoolers' pedometer-determined PA is limited. Aim: To describe pre-schoolers' ambulatory activity; investigate step count differences in respect to Body Mass Index (BMI) categories and examine the prevalence of obesity. Subjects and methods: Pre-school aged children (n?=?250; 5.5?±?0.4 years) from Komotini (Greece) wore Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers for 10 consecutive days. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Results: Three-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that children performed more steps on weekdays than during weekends (p?

Kambas, Antonis; Venetsanou, Fotini; Avloniti, Alexandra; Giannakidou, Dimitra M; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Michalopoulou, Maria

2014-08-26

319

Blood cadmium and depressive symptoms in young adults (aged 20-39 years).  

PubMed

Background. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of depression and several studies have noted an association between tobacco smoke and depression. Cadmium is a neurotoxicant and the main source of non-occupational exposure is tobacco smoke. Method. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 2892 young adult (aged 20-39 years) participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Multivariate logistic regressions, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio (PIR), obesity, alcohol intake, blood lead (BPb) and smoking status, were used to analyze the association between blood cadmium (BCd) and depressive symptoms, as determined by the score on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. Individuals in the highest BCd quartile had higher odds of having depressive symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-4.25] than those in the lowest BCd quartile. Smoking status, but not BPb, was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Stratification by smoking status found that BCd was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both non-smokers (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.12-7.58) and current smokers (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.13-6.42). Conclusions. This is the first study to report an association between BCd levels and depressive symptoms using a nationally representative sample. The association of cadmium with depressive symptoms was independent of smoking status. If this association is further confirmed, the continued efforts at reducing cadmium exposures, mainly through tobacco smoking cessation programs, may decrease the incidence of depression. PMID:25115444

Scinicariello, F; Buser, M C

2015-03-01

320

Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years).  

PubMed

In this rostrum we aim to increase awareness of anaphylaxis in infancy in order to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of recurrences. Anaphylaxis is increasingly reported in this age group. Foods are the most common triggers. Presentation typically involves the skin (generalized urticaria), the respiratory tract (cough, wheeze, stridor, and dyspnea), and/or the gastrointestinal tract (persistent vomiting). Tryptase levels are seldom increased because of infant anaphylaxis, although baseline tryptase levels can be increased in the first few months of life, reflecting mast cell burden in the developing immune system. The differential diagnosis of infant anaphylaxis includes consideration of age-unique entities, such as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with acute presentation. Epinephrine (adrenaline) treatment is underused in health care and community settings. No epinephrine autoinjectors contain an optimal dose for infants weighing 10 kg or less. After treatment of an anaphylactic episode, follow-up with a physician, preferably an allergy/immunology specialist, is important for confirmation of anaphylaxis triggers and prevention of recurrences through avoidance of confirmed specific triggers. Natural desensitization to milk and egg can occur. Future research should include validation of the clinical criteria for anaphylaxis diagnosis in infants, prospective longitudinal monitoring of baseline serum tryptase levels in healthy and atopic infants during the first year of life, studies of infant comorbidities and cofactors that increase the risk of severe anaphylaxis, development of autoinjectors containing a 0.1-mg epinephrine dose suitable for infants, and inclusion of infants in prospective studies of immune modulation to prevent anaphylaxis recurrences. PMID:25441636

Simons, F Estelle R; Sampson, Hugh A

2014-10-30

321

Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients below 45 years of age  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the traditional risk factors and biochemical profile of patients with established CAD (coronary artery disease), and compare the trends of these in specified age groups of different populations as depicted in various studies. Methodology: All consecutive patients below 45 years of age, having classical history of Ischemic heart disease and also having definite ECG changes consistent with coronary artery disease were enrolled. These patients were admitted to CCU/Intermediate Coronary Care Unit of Pakistan Ordinance Factories (POF) Hospital Wah Cantonment from April 2007 to December 2011. Patients who had doubtful history as regards CHD and those having ECG changes not classically consistent with CAD were excluded. Information collected through Performa included history including family history and details of risk factors. Clinical examination was carried out and relevant investigations including the serial ECG changes were recorded. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast of 14 hours and tests were done for total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol by using Pioneer-USA, linear chemical kits by cholesterol oxidase and enzymatic calometric method. Results: A total of 109 cases were included. Cigarette smoking (46%) Family history (43%), Hypertension (37%), Dyslipidemia (33%), Diabetes mellitus (18%) and above normal BMI (63.3%) are the most common risk factors in our patients. Increased abdominal girth has appeared to be an important risk factor and at occasions is documented to be independent of obesity. Casual dietary habits and sedentary life style are the other less important risk factors. The majority of risk factors were equally prevalent in males as well as females except smoking which was less prevalent in females. Conclusions: Our study shows that Family history, Smoking, Hypertension, increased BMI, increased Abdominal girth, Dyslipidemia and Diabetes Mellitus are the main risk factors. Considering the increasing incidence of the coronary heart disease in our society it is essential to assess and evaluate these risk factors at national level. PMID:24353515

Nadeem, Mansoor; Ahmed, Syed Shahzad; Mansoor, Sarah; Farooq, Sidra

2013-01-01

322

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes for Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome at the Age of 5 Years  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to determine the neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) at early school age. English-speaking patients who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2000 and 2005 were eligible at 4–6 years of age for ND testing. Of the 72 eligible patients, 44 (61 %) agreed to participate, and 37 completed ND testing before the close of the study. Three subjects were excluded from analyses due to late stroke. The ND testing included intelligence, visual motor integration, memory and motor and language skills. Parents and teachers completed measures of behavior and attention problems. Subjects’ scores and parent/teacher ratings were converted to z-scores and compared with test norms. Higher scores on child measures represent better outcomes, whereas higher scores on parent and teacher rating scales indicate more problems. The average ND performance of the tested cohort fell within one standard deviation of the test norms for all measures. However, the subjects performed significantly lower than the test norms on measures of visual-motor integration, fine motor skills, memory, and word structure (z = ?0.42 to ?0.54; p < 0.005). On the parent and teacher completed measures, the subjects scored higher than the test norms on attention problems (z = 0.40–0.62; p < 0.005). Although the overall ND performance of the cohort was normal, the subjects showed relative weakness in visual motor and attention skills. Ongoing developmental monitoring of these children is recommended to guide interventions that may improve individual outcomes and to assess the impact of changes in clinical management strategies on functional outcomes. PMID:23503929

Mussatto, Kathleen; Hoffman, George; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Tweddell, James; Ghanayem, Nancy

2014-01-01

323

Analysis of the success and failure of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in infants less than 1 year of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  In infants less than 1 year of age, the value of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is controversial. It is believed to\\u000a cause more morbidity and to have higher failure rates. We analyzed our data enlarging the reported pool of ETV outcome in\\u000a infants less than 1 year of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We performed 12 ETVs in ten patients younger than 1 year of

A. J. R. Balthasar; H. Kort; E. M. J. Cornips; E. A. M. Beuls; J. W. Weber; J. S. H. Vles

2007-01-01

324

Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under  

PubMed Central

Background Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2010, MEDLINE (1950 to 2010 April week 4), EMBASE (1947 to 2010 week 18), CINAHL (up to 12 May 2010), PsycINFO (up to 12 May 2010) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (up to February 2011) were searched to identify eligible trials, as well as electronic trial registers (also up to February 2011). The reference lists of included trials were reviewed and handsearches of three international nutrition journals were also performed. Authors of all included trials were contacted in order to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials, of any intervention primarily targeting fruit and/or vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under and incorporating a biochemical or dietary assessment of fruit and/or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified papers. A third review author with expertise in review methodology resolved any disagreements regarding study eligibility. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements between review authors. Fixed-effect models were used to perform meta-analysis for the primary review outcomes where a sufficient number of trials with suitable data and homogeneity were identified. Main results Five trials, with 13 trial arms and 3967 participants were included in the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI ?0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

2014-01-01

325

Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in children at two and three years of age  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure affects neurodevelopment and behavior during the first years of life. Objectives To evaluate the effect of maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during pregnancy on mental and psychomotor development in children 24-36 months of age. Methods This analysis was conducted on the first three years of life among a subsample of 136 mother-child pairs from the ELEMENT cohort studies conducted in Mexico City. Maternal urine samples collected during the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for 9 phthalate metabolites: Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites [mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)]. Among the 136 children, 135 (99.3%) completed the study period. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using mental and psychomotor development indexes (MDI and PDI) from a Bayley (BSID II) test at 24, 30, and 36 months of age. The effect of prenatal phthalate exposure on neurodevelopment was estimated using linear regression models for longitudinal data clustered at the individual level. Results No significant associations were observed among all children combined, but differential effects by gender were found. Among girls, there was a negative association between MDI and DEHP metabolites MEHP (? = ?2.11 [95% CI: ?3.73, ?0.49]), MEHHP (? = ?1.89 [95% CI: ?3.64, ?0.15]), MEOHP (? = ?1.80 [95% CI: ?3.58, ?0.03]) MECPP (? = ?2.52 [95% CI: ?4.44, ?0.61]), and DEHP (? = ?3.41 [95% CI: ?5.26, ?1.55]); there was no significant effect among boys. Male PDI was positively related to MBzP (? = 1.79 [95% CI: 0.14, 3.45]) and MCPP (? = 1.64 [95% CI: 0.15, 3.12]); there was no significant effect on PDI among girls. Conclusion This study demonstrates that sex plays a role of an effect modifier in the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and neurodevelopment. PMID:23747553

Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Cantonwine, David E.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Peterson, Karen; Hu, Howard; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

326

Preterm birth results in alterations in neural connectivity at age 16 years.  

PubMed

Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p=0.003), verbal (p=0.043), and performance IQ tests (p=0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p=0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p=0.01; right: p=0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p<0.001; right: p<0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p=0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p<0.001; right: p=0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.314, p=0.038; right: r=0.336, p=0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.424, p=0.004; right: r=0.301, p=0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in maturation or the engagement of alternative neural pathways for language in the developing PT brain. PMID:21073965

Mullen, Katherine M; Vohr, Betty R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W; Reiss, Allan L; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

2011-02-14

327

Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years  

E-print Network

Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

Sheridan, Margaret

328

Incidence and characteristics of sporadic norovirus gastroenteritis associated with hospitalization of children less than 5 years of age in Israel.  

PubMed

The incidence of sporadic GII norovirus gastroenteritis associated with hospitalization was examined among 515 children aged <5 years in a prospective study in Israel. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, norovirus was detected in stools of 89 (17.3%) children, yielding an estimated incidence of 3.3 per 1000 children. Genotypes GII.3 (40.4%) and GII.4a (21.3%) predominated, though year-to-year variation was observed. PMID:23411623

Muhsen, Khitam; Kassem, Eias; Rubinstein, Uri; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Goren, Sophy; Zilberstein, Ilana; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani; Shulman, Lester M

2013-06-01

329

Archean Rocks in Antarctica: 2.5-Billion-Year Uranium-Lead Ages of Pegmatites in Enderby Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-billion-year lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may

Edward S. Grew; William I. Manton

1979-01-01

330

Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.  

PubMed

Abstract This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (? 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mure?, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ? 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ? 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ? 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs. PMID:25093420

Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

2015-02-01

331

Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.  

PubMed

Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n=553; INMA: n=481; and LISAplus: n=395), endotoxin, (1,3,)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments. PMID:25186271

Tischer, Christina; Casas, Lidia; Wouters, Inge M; Doekes, Gert; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Gehring, Ulrike; Hyvärinen, Anne; Oldenwening, Marieke; Kerkhof, Marjan; Sunyer, Jordi; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Torrent, Maties; Heinrich, Joachim

2015-02-01

332

Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

2013-01-01

333

Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

2011-01-01

334

Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years  

PubMed Central

There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ?500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = ?4.69, CI: ?7.31, ?2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

2012-01-01

335

Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC) centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children). Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight) and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76) for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17) for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions. PMID:21159203

2010-01-01

336

Behavioural factors associated with diarrhea among adults over 18 years of age in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Background To date, a large proportion of people still suffer from diarrhea diseases. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there are substantial social and economic costs caused by the high incidence of diarrheal diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors of diarrhea among adults in Beijing, China. Methods A multistage, stratified study based on cross-sectional data was performed using randomized and systematic sampling, recruiting 12,936 adults over 18 years of age in Beijing. All adults were requested to complete a questionnaire, including information such as demographic characteristics, incidence of diarrhea, and behaviors related to the diarrhea. Results The self-reported prevalence of diarrhea was 17.5% during the last year prior to the survey. Six behavioral factors were significantly associated with diarrhea in our study including: (1) washing hands before meals and after defecation (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.707, 95% CI 0.597?~?0.837), (2) washing hands with soap and running water (AOR 0.872, 95% CI 0.786?~?0.967), (3) consuming raw seafood (AOR 1.285, 95% CI 1.138?~?1.450), (4) using the same chopping block and knife when processing raw and cooked food (AOR 1.375, 95% CI 1.225?~?1.542), (5) using the same chopsticks to handle raw and cooked food (AOR1.149, 95% CI 1.041?~?1.268), and (6) regularly participating in physical exercise (AOR 0.719, 95% CI 0.651?~?0.793). Conclusion Good health habits, good eating habits, and regular exercise can prevent the episodes of diarrhea, and thus decrease the potential for disease occurrence. PMID:24885464

2014-01-01

337

[Development of intestinal and bladder control from birth until the 18th year of age. Longitudial study].  

PubMed

The development of bowel and bladder control from 0 to 18 years of age in 321 Swiss children of the Zurich Longitudinal Study (1955-1976) is described. 3% of the children had started toilet training by the age of 1 month and 96% by 12 months. Bowel control was completed in 32% at age one, in 75% at age two and in 97% at age three. Complete bladder control by day and at night was established in none of the children at age one, in 20% at ages two and three and in 90% at age five. About one quarter of the boys and one tenth of the girls had a period of incomplete bowel or bladder control between 6 and 18 years. During the prepubertal period, the annual incidence of enuresis was 7-15% in boys and 7-10% in girls, and that of encopresis 2-4% and 1-2% respectively. Some combination of enuresis diurna, enuresis nocturna and encopresis were found in 7% of all children, although in most children, these events did not occur simultaneously. With the exception of primary diurnal enuresis, the different types of enuresis and encopresis were more frequent in males than in females. By the onset of puberty, encopresis resolved in all children and enuresis persisted in only a few children. The role of toilet training and the etiologies and pathogenesis of enuresis and encopresis are discussed from a development point of view. PMID:622544

Largo, R H; Gianciaruso, M; Prader, A

1978-02-01

338

Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone.

Thompson, K.L.; Chang, M.N.; Chabala, J.C.; Chiu, S.H.; Eline, D.; Hucker, H.B.; Sweeney, B.M.; White, S.D.; Arison, B.H.; Smith, J.L.

1988-09-01

339

Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123  

PubMed Central

Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

2014-01-01

340

Multi-directional Reach Test: An Investigation of the Limits of Stability of People Aged between 20–79 Years  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The multi-directional reach test (MDRT) is a simple, inexpensive, reliable and valid screening tool for assessing the limits of stability in the anterorposterior and mediolateral directions. The aim of this study was to quantify the limits of stability of people aged between 20 and 79?years using the MDRT. [Subjects] One hundred and eighty subjects were divided into the following 6 age groups: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and 70–79 years (n=30 per group). [Methods] The MDRT was used to measure the limits of stability in four directions: forward, backward, leftward and rightward. Subjects performed maximal outstretched arm reach in each direction with their feet flat on the floor. [Results] All age groups performed the greatest values of the limit of stability in the forward direction. The 60–79 year group demonstrated significantly lower limits of stability in the forward, leftward and rightward directions compared to the 20–39 year group. [Conclusion] The limits of stability declined with age mainly in the forward, leftward and rightward directions. The MDRT appears to be a useful assessment tool for postural control and balance of those aged 60?years and over. PMID:25013287

Tantisuwat, Anong; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

2014-01-01

341

Pregnancy outcomes in women aged 35 years or older with gestational diabetes - a registry-based study in Finland.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To compare pregnancy outcomes of women ?35 years to women <35 years with and without gestational diabetes. Methods: The data include 230?003 women <35 years and 53?321 women ?35 years and their newborns from 2004 to 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were preterm delivery (<28, 28-31 and 32-36 weeks' gestation), Apgar scores <7 at 5?min, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, asphyxia, preeclampsia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), shoulder dystocia and large for gestational age (LGA). Results: In comparison to women <35 with normal glucose tolerance, preeclampsia (OR 1.57, CI 1.30-1.88), admission to the NICU (OR 3.30, CI 2.94-3.69) and shoulder dystocia (OR 2.12, CI 1.05-4.30) were highest in insulin-treated women ?35 years. In women ?35, diet- and insulin-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased the rates of preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia and admission to NICU (OR 3.07 CI 2.73-3.45). The effect of advanced maternal age was observed in very preterm delivery (<28 weeks), fetal death, preeclampsia and NICU. The increase in preeclampsia was statistically significant. Conclusions: GDM at advanced age is a high risk state and, more specifically, the risk caused by age and GDM appear to be increasing in preeclampsia. PMID:25385268

Lamminpää, Reeta; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Gissler, Mika; Selander, Tuomas; Heinonen, Seppo

2014-12-01

342

Obstetric brachial plexus injuries: assessment protocol and functional outcome at age 5 years.  

PubMed

One hundred and five children with the whole spectrum of obstetric brachial plexus (OBP) injuries, from severe to full recovery, were examined at the age of 5 years with regard to motor and sensory functions as well as to use of the affected limb. Since root involvement level does not fully reflect the degree of disability, a classification based on range of motion and grip-strength was formulated and found to correspond well with functional abilities. The results from this study indicate that the eventual outcome in upper-plexus lesions is more complex than is commonly believed. Hand function is affected due to the effect of limited shoulder movements on hand positioning. Grip strength was also reduced in many of these children. All the children with total-plexus lesions had diminished grip strength and half of them had impaired tactile sensibility. In most children with total-plexus lesions, performance of activities in daily life was affected as were bimanual activities requiring use of the involved limb. Hand preference was affected in children with a right-sided injury. From a clinical perspective, as well as for research, it is important to describe OBP injuries not only in terms of impairment but also of disability. PMID:9459211

Sundholm, L K; Eliasson, A C; Forssberg, H

1998-01-01

343

Lung function in white children aged 4 to 19 years: I--Spirometry.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--A study was performed to produce reference standards for spirometric lung function in white children and to calculate standard deviation scores adjusted for gender and pubertal stage. METHODS--A cross sectional study was made of 772 white children aged 4.6 to 18.8 years (455 male) tested on an OHIO 840 spirometer and assessed anthropometrically and pubertally. RESULTS--Before puberty there was a linear increase in all lung function measurements with height. During puberty a sudden increase occurred, but subsequently the relationship was again linear. No simple single equation described this pattern. Advanced puberty in younger children conferred a respiratory advantage, whilst delayed puberty resulted in the converse. Girls had poorer volumes per unit height, but young girls had superior airflow/unit lung volume. In both sexes lung volumes and flows bore a constant relationship to external thoracic dimensions. CONCLUSIONS--Puberty has a dramatic effect on lung function. Regression equations for predicted values of lung function measurements and for calculation of standard deviation scores are given (with pubertal correction factors) for each gender. PMID:8211868

Rosenthal, M.; Bain, S. H.; Cramer, D.; Helms, P.; Denison, D.; Bush, A.; Warner, J. O.

1993-01-01

344

Aging well: methanotrophic potential and community structure along a paddy soil chronosequence of 2000 years.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that rice paddies are anthropogenic methane sources and the inevitable need to increase rice production to sustain human population growth, it is pertinent to identify the effects of long term agriculture on the selection of methanotrophs. Methanotrophs play a crucial role in mitigating methane emission from rice paddies. Therefore, we analyzed the methanotroph community along a chronosequence of paddy soils from China covering recently reclaimed sites to paddies under permanent agriculture since 2000 years (Cheng et al., 2009; doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.016). Maximum potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) increased monotonically with age. Our results also showed that long-term agriculture imposes a selection pressure on different groups of methanotrophs. In contrast to younger soils, type Ib methanotrophs were observed to multiply in correspondence with increasing PMOR in ancient soils, while other groups showed a relatively stable community composition as revealed by pmoA-based fingerprints (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cloning and sequencing the pmoA (a key gene in methane oxidation), the soils were found to harbour known and putative methanotrophs, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and interestingly, sequences affiliated to Crenothrix, a methane oxidizer with an unusual pmoA (Stoecker et al., 2006; doi:10.1073/pnas.0506361103). In summary, long-term agriculture shapes the community and allows for an elevated level of potential methane oxidation.

Ho, Adrian; Frenzel, Peter

2010-05-01

345

Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.  

PubMed

To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

2012-07-01

346

Probiotic and synbiotic safety in infants under two years of age.  

PubMed

In this study, we systematically evaluated safety aspects in clinical trials with probiotics and synbiotics in young infants (0-2 years of age). This study is an update of earlier reports and covers the recent literature from 2008-2013. The safety evaluation is performed along the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 scale, hereby also providing guidance for future studies. Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. The results show a deficiency in the precise reporting and classification of adverse events in most studies. Analysis of 57 clinical trials with probiotics and synbiotics in combination with eight follow-up studies indicate that probiotic administration to infants between 0 and 24 months is safe with regard to the evaluated strains in infants with a particular health status or susceptibility. Most adverse events and serious adverse events were considered unrelated to the study product, and there were no major safety concerns. Almost all studies concluded that none of the adverse effects were related to the study product; the study products are generally well tolerated. Finally, inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes, greatly limit the generalizability of conclusions and argue convincingly for obligatory and standardised behaviour on adverse events (CTCAE) reporting in 'food' studies. PMID:24463207

van den Nieuwboer, M; Claassen, E; Morelli, L; Guarner, F; Brummer, R J

2014-03-01

347

24 CFR 100.306 - Intent to operate as housing designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.306 Section 100.306...for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) In order for a housing...for persons who are 55 years of age or older, it must publish and adhere...

2013-04-01

348

24 CFR 100.306 - Intent to operate as housing designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.306 Section 100.306...for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) In order for a housing...for persons who are 55 years of age or older, it must publish and adhere...

2012-04-01

349

24 CFR 100.306 - Intent to operate as housing designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

...designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.306 Section 100.306...for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) In order for a housing...for persons who are 55 years of age or older, it must publish and adhere...

2014-04-01

350

Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

2014-01-01

351

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM...operation and maintenance of applied conservation practices; (5) Include...

2012-01-01

352

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM...operation and maintenance of applied conservation practices; (5) Include...

2013-01-01

353

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM...operation and maintenance of applied conservation practices; (5) Include...

2014-01-01

354

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM...operation and maintenance of applied conservation practices; (5) Include...

2011-01-01

355

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625...agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625...Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period...treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

2010-01-01

356

Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children  

E-print Network

, suggesting that surveillance and promotion of health behaviours should start early in life [3–5]. In young people, physical activity, dietary patterns, sleep and sedentary behaviours have been associated with overweight and obesity, cardio-metabolic risk... lifestyles in young people are delivered through the school, thus it was of interest to examine the association between health-related school policies and children’s health behaviour profile [44]. Statistical analysis Analyses were conducted using Stata...

Elsenburg, Leonie K; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Atkin, Andrew J

2014-06-12

357

Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius  

E-print Network

. Ministry of Health & Quality of Life: The Mauritius Non-communicable Disease Survey 2009. Port Louis; 2009. 15. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH: Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey...

Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Siegel, Karen R; Richards, Nigel; Whincup, Peter H

2012-07-23

358

Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Three-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and -10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first three years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

Wilkes, K.E.

2001-05-29

359

Incidence of diabetes amongst people aged 18–50 years in nine British towns: A collaborative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The incidence of diabetes among people aged 18–50 years has been studied prospectively in nine towns, chosen to encompass the range of socioeconomic conditions and spread of latitude in England and Wales. The incidence of Type 1 (insulindependent) diabetes in this age group varied little between the towns. However, the incidence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes was markedly higher in

D. J. P. Barker; M. J. Gardner; C. Power

1982-01-01

360

Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

2010-01-01

361

Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

2011-01-01

362

Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

1999-09-27

363

Childhood Sexual Abuse is Associated With Physical Illness Burden and Functioning in Psychiatric Patients 50 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) with cumulative illness burden, physical function, and bodily pain (BP) in a sample of male and female psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. Previous research on the health consequences of sexual abuse has focused on nonpsychiatric samples of younger-age adults, especially women. The health implications of abuse for mixed-gender samples of older psychiatric patients have not been explored. Methods Participants were 163 patients with primary mood disorders. Sexual abuse histories were collected via patient self-report, as was BP. The measure of medical illness burden was based on chart review. Clinical interviewers rated physical function, using the activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales. Linear and logistic regressions examined the association between CSA and health outcomes. Results As hypothesized, severe childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher cumulative medical illness burden, worse physical function, and greater BP. Comparisons of regression coefficients revealed that severe CSA’s influence on illness burden is roughly comparable to the effects of adding 8 years of age. For ADL impairment and BP, the effects are comparable to adding 20 years of age. Conclusions Strong relationships exist between CSA and medical illness burden, function, and pain among psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. These relationships cannot be ascribed to shared method variance. Early detection of patients’ abuse histories could inform targeted interventions to prevent or decelerate the progression of morbidity in this high-risk group. PMID:19251869

Talbot, Nancy L.; Chapman, Ben; Conwell, Yeates; McCollumn, Kelly; Franus, Nathan; Cotescu, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul R.

2009-01-01

364

Estimation of chronological age from different body segments in boys and girls aged 4-19 years, using anthropometric and photogrammetric techniques.  

PubMed

Data obtained from measuring different body segments (stature, sitting height, upper limb, upper arm, forearm, leg, hand and foot length), were used to construct equations for estimating the chronological age of children with unknown date of birth. About 18,510 sets of measurements were taken on boys and 11,568 sets on girls. All were healthy British children aged 4-19 years and participating in three longitudinal studies at the Department of Growth and Development, Institute of Child Health, University of London. Both anthropometric and photogrammetric techniques of measurement were used to construct 35 anthropometric and 49 photogrammetric equations using the multiple linear regression model. These equations give the most likely estimated value for age together with its error. The accuracy of the equations and its applicability both on live children and on postmortem material is discussed. PMID:2747476

Attallah, N L; Marshall, W A

1989-04-01

365

Hip arthroplasty with the thrust plate prosthesis in patients of 65 years of age or older: 67 patients followed 2–7 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Thrust plate prosthesis (TPP) is a relatively new concept in total hip arthroplasty and advocated to be used in young patients.\\u000a We retrospectively evaluated the results of 67 patients (71 hips) who were older than 65 years of age and underwent hip arthroplasty\\u000a using the TPP.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  There were 50 female and 17 male patients with a mean age 71

Vasfi Karatosun; Bayram Unver; Izge Gunal

2008-01-01

366

Solving the Jiwang date and its year by the method of moon's age calendar in the Western Zhou Dynasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the method of moon's age calendar,the 16 Jiwang (near full moon) data that recorded in documents and bronze vessels in Westerm Zhou dynasty are analysed. It is derived that 1) some of the dates and the periods when the Kings took their powers are ascertained; 2) the upper limit year is BC 1040 when King Wu waged a decisive battle against the last King Zhou of the Shang dynasty; 3) the moom's age range of Jiwang data is from 16 to 20 and the first month of a year is just after the Winter Solstice (named Jian Chou in Chinese).

Li, Y.

2002-08-01

367

Pulmonary function, smoking cessation and 30 year mortality in middle aged Finnish men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Although it is well known that impaired pulmonary function is a strong predictor of mortality and that smoking decreases pulmonary function, little is known about the long term effect of smoking cessation on mortality at different levels of pulmonary function. We have studied the impact of smoking cessation on mortality over the entire range of baseline pulmonary function.?METHODS—The study subjects consisted of men aged 40-59 at entry who were the Finnish participants in the Seven Countries Study during 1959-89.?RESULTS—In all the participants (n = 1582) impaired forced expiratory volume in 0.75 seconds (FEV0.75) was significantly associated with increased all cause mortality. When those who gave up smoking during the follow up period were compared with continuous smokers (n = 860) all cause mortality was found to be decreased among those who quit. The relative adjusted hazard (HR) was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.00). The median survival time in those who stopped smoking compared with those who continued to smoke from 1969 onwards was 7.65, 7.59, and 6.30 years longer in the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of adjusted FEV0.75 distribution, respectively. In those who gave up smoking, mortality from cardiovascular causes was significantly lower (HR 0.60 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.98)).?CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that smokers across the entire range of pulmonary function may increase their expectation of lifespan by giving up smoking.?? PMID:10950892

Pelkonen, M.; Tukiainen, H.; Tervahauta, M.; Notkola, I.; Kivela, S.; Salorinne, Y.; Nissinen, A.

2000-01-01

368

Diet quality, social determinants, and weight status in Puerto Rican children aged 12 years.  

PubMed

Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico; therefore, our cross-sectional study examined whether diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (sex, school type, and region) and weight status in children in Puerto Rico. As part of an island-wide study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 children aged 12 years, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hour diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared with boys (P<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, and dark green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared with those from private schools (P<0.05). Children from the central mountains had higher scores for the dark green and orange vegetables and legumes and for whole fruit compared with the other regions (P<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk, but lower scores for total fruit and sodium compared with non-overweight children (P<0.01). Some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in our sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in Puerto Rican children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

2014-08-01

369

Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years  

PubMed Central

Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments. PMID:25043255

2014-01-01

370

Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adré; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O’Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

2009-01-01

371

Utility of the test of memory malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4-7 years with and without ADHD.  

PubMed

There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4-7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); 66 children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved "passing" score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved a passing score. Four-year-olds had greater difficulty and achieved a passing score significantly less often than children 5-7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year-olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year-olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

Schneider, Heather E; Kirk, John W; Mahone, E Mark

2014-01-01

372

Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. (CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

1992-10-29

373

A change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years and more: analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2010).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between a change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years or more. Methods: Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) (2006-2010), with 5,327 participants aged 45 years or more. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) with the logit link was used to investigate an association between a change in social activity during 2006-2008 (or 2008-2010) and depression among respondents in year 2008 (or Y2010). Depression was measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D10) and a change in social activity was classified with four categories, i.e. "consistent participation", "consistent non-participation", "participation to non-participation", and "non-participation to participation". Social activity was divided into various elements and the same analysis was conducted for each of these elements. Results: Those with consistent non-participation and from participation to non-participation were more likely to be depressed than those with consistent participation and from non-participation to participation in social activities (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.22-1.71], OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.15-1.58] vs. OR 1.00 [Reference], OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.09-1.48]). In addition, the strength of the negative association between consistent or new participation in social activity and depression was different across different elements of social activity. The negative association was particularly strong for leisure, culture or sports clubs, and for family or school reunion. Conclusion: For improving the mental health of the population aged 45 years or more, the promotion of their continued or new participations in leisure/culture clubs and family/school reunion might be needed in South Korea. PMID:25410611

Choi, Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Sig

2014-11-20

374

Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites  

Cancer.gov

SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2006 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

375

Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: Evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing  

E-print Network

) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km triathletes between 18 and 69 yrs of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analyzed-endurance performance with advancing age. Keywords : Master athletes, Endurance, Gender differences. Triathlon, Swimming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Blacks  

Cancer.gov

SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2003 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

377

Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites  

Cancer.gov

SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2005 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

378

Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Blacks  

Cancer.gov

SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2009 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

379

Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites  

Cancer.gov

SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

380

Telomere length and aging biomarkers in 70-year-olds: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomeres are nucleo-protein complexes at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. They shorten each time a somatic cell replicates and this shortening is modulated by the effects of oxidative stress. Previous studies have associated telomere length with a number of age-related outcomes and it is hypothesized to be a quantitative indicator of aging. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of

Sarah E. Harris; Carmen Martin-Ruiz; Thomas von Zglinicki; John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary

381

Developmental Outcome of Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage at One and Two Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined developmental outcome at 1 and 2 years in relation to the presence and severity of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Intraventricular hemorrhage related to Bayley mental and motor scores and neurologic ratings at 1 year but not at 2 years. Significant associations were found between the 1- and 2-year measures but not…

Sostek, Anita Miller; And Others

1987-01-01

382

Study of mini-mental state exam evolution in community-dwelling subjects aged over 60 years without dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  \\u000a In recent years, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used and has been proposed for cognitive decline\\u000a screening in the framework of a systematic geriatric evaluation in health centers. The aim of the present longitudinal study\\u000a was to identify the potential determinants of MMSE score and its evolution over a 4-year period in a population aged over

G. Watfa; N. Husson; S. Buatois; M. C. Laurain; P. Miget; Athanase Benetos

383

Paediatric HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: clinical presentation and 2-year outcomes stratified by age group  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine age differences in mortality and programme attrition amongst paediatric patients treated in four African HIV programmes. Methods Longitudinal analysis of data from patients enrolled in HIV care. Two-year mortality and programme attrition rates per 1000 person-years stratified by age group (<2, 2–4 and 5–15 years) were calculated. Associations between outcomes and age and other individual-level factors were studied using multiple Cox proportional hazards (mortality) and Poisson (attrition) regression models. Results Six thousand two hundred and sixty-one patients contributed 9500 person-years; 27.1% were aged <2 years, 30.1% were 2–4, and 42.8% were 5–14 years old. At programme entry, 45.3% were underweight and 12.6% were in clinical stage 4. The highest mortality and attrition rates (98.85 and 244.00 per 1000 person-years), and relative ratios (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.92, 95% CI 1.56–2.37; incidence ratio [aIR] = 2.10, 95% CI 1.86–2.37, respectively, compared with the 5- to 14-year group) were observed amongst the youngest children. Increased mortality and attrition were also associated with advanced clinical stage, underweight and diagnosis of tuberculosis at programme entry. Conclusions These results highlight the need to increase access, diagnose and provide early HIV care and to accelerate antiretroviral treatment initiation for those eligible. Adapted education and support for children and their families would also be important. PMID:23782065

Ben-Farhat, Jihane; Gale, Marianne; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Balkan, Suna; Poulet, Elisabeth; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar

2013-01-01

384

Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use Reported by Adolescents Aged 12-17 years: United States, 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—This report presents national prevalence estimates for self- reported health risk behaviors of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Methods—Data in this report are from 6 years (1999-2004) of NHANES, which is conducted on a complex, stratified, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized

Cheryl D. Fryar; Mercy C. Merino; Rosemarie Hirsch; Kathryn S. Porter

385

Effects of Aging on Perceived Exertion and Pain During Arm Cranking in Women 70 to 80 YEARS OLD  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE) and perceived arm pain (PaP) at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years), and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years) women performed a maximal graded test (GXT) on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62) and when heart rate (HR) was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax) (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17). Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95) in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. Key Points At the end of a maximal graded arm test, perceived exertion is not influenced, whereas perceived arm pain may be altered by aging. It appears difficult to use perceived arm pain in elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. PMID:24259993

Groslambert, Alain; Grange, Céline C.; Perrey, Stéphane; Maire, Jérôme; Tordi, Nicolas; Rouillon, Jean Denis

2006-01-01

386

AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1  

PubMed Central

Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

2014-01-01

387

Sensorimotor and psychosocial determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability in middle-aged and older adults  

PubMed Central

Objective: to identify sensorimotor and psychosocial determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability. Design: prospective. Setting: population-based sample of community-dwelling older persons. Participants: community-living middle-aged and older persons (age: 50–85 years) without baseline mobility disability (n = 622). Measurements: mobility disability, defined as self-reported inability to walk a quarter mile without resting or inability to walk up a flight of stairs unsupported, was ascertained at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Potential baseline determinant characteristics included demographics, education, social support, financial condition, knee extensor strength, visual contrast sensitivity, cognition, depression, presence of chronic conditions and history of falls. Results: a total of 13.5% participant reported 3-year incident mobility disability. Age ?75 years, female sex, knee extensor strength in the lowest quartile, visual contrast sensitivity <1.7 on the Pelli-Robson chart or significant depressive symptoms (CESD score >16) were independent determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability (ORs 1.84–16.51). Conclusions: low visual contrast sensitivity, poor knee extensor strength and significant depressive symptoms are independent determinants of future onset of mobility disability. PMID:24042004

Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Guralnik, Jack; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

2014-01-01

388

Prognostic implications of initial oropharyngeal bacterial flora in patients with cystic fibrosis diagnosed before the age of two years.  

PubMed

To evaluate the significance of early bacteriologic findings in infants and younger children with cystic fibrosis, we divided patients identified at < or = 2 years of age into groups by initial oropharyngeal culture: group NF, normal respiratory flora (n = 17); group SA, Staphylococcus aureus without Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 20); group PA, P. aeruginosa without S. aureus (n = 6); group PA/SA, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus (n = 7); and group O, other potentially pathogenic bacteria (n = 31). Follow-up of patients ranged in age from 5.4 to 13 years. At diagnosis, group PA/SA had lower Brasfield scores (p < 0.02) and higher gamma-globulin levels (p < 0.03) than the other groups. Five years after diagnosis, Brasfield scores were significantly lower in groups PA and PA/SA compared with the other groups; mean gamma-globulin levels did not differ significantly among the groups. Groups PA and PA/SA also had evidence of significantly greater obstructive pulmonary disease by spirometry than groups NF and O. Group PA/SA had a 10-year survival estimate of 57%, significantly lower than the 92% to 100% estimates of the other four groups (p < 0.0001). Thus P. aeruginosa in initial oropharyngeal cultures from patients < or = 2 years of age with cystic fibrosis was associated with significantly increased morbidity, and the finding of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus together in initial oropharyngeal cultures with a significantly increased mortality rate during the first 10 years after diagnosis. PMID:8501559

Hudson, V L; Wielinski, C L; Regelmann, W E

1993-06-01

389

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

DeSante, David F.

390

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

DeSante, David F.

391

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

DeSante, David F.

392

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

DeSante, David F.

393

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull S Feather NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

DeSante, David F.

394

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

DeSante, David F.

395

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull BANDER'S INITIALS CODE BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR

DeSante, David F.

396

Fracture mechanisms and fracture pattern in men and women aged 50 years and older: a study of a 12-year population-based injury register, Umeå, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a study of a 12-year population-based injury register, Umeå, Sweden, we analyzed the fracture mechanisms and fracture pattern\\u000a in men and women 50 years and older. Low-energy trauma was responsible for the major and costliest part of the fracture panorama,\\u000a but the pattern differs between age groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Osteoporosis-related fracture is a major health problem: the number of hip fractures is

U. Bergström; U. Björnstig; H. Stenlund; H. Jonsson; O. Svensson

2008-01-01

397

Feasibility of overnight closed-loop therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes aged 3–6?years: comparison between diluted and standard insulin strength  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess feasibility of overnight closed-loop therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes and contrast closed loop using diluted versus standard insulin strength. Research design and methods Eleven children (male 6; age range 3.75–6.96?years; glycated hemoglobin 60 (14) mmol/mol; body mass index SD score 1.0 (0.8); diabetes duration 2.2 (1.0) years, mean (SD); total daily dose 12.9 (10.6, 16.5) IU/day, median (IQR)) were studied at a clinical research facility on two occasions. In random order, participants received closed loop with diluted insulin aspart (CL_Dil; 20?IU/mL) or closed loop with standard aspart (CL_Std; 100?IU/mL) from 17:00 until 8:00 the following morning. Children consumed an evening meal at 17:00 (44 (12) gCHO) and an optional bedtime snack (6 (7) gCHO) identical on both occasions. Meal insulin boluses were calculated by standard pump bolus calculators. Basal rates on insulin pump were adjusted every 15?min as directed by a model-predictive-control algorithm informed by a real-time glucose sensor values. Results Mean plasma glucose was 122 (24) mg/dL during CL_Dil vs 122 (23) mg/dL during CL_Std (p=0.993). The time spent in the target glucose range 70–145?mg/dL was 83 (70, 100)% vs 72 (54, 81)% (p=0.328). Time above 145?mg/dL was 13 (0, 27)% vs 19 (10, 45)% (p=0.477) and time spent below 70?mg/dL was 0.0 (0.0, 1.4)% vs 1.4 (0.0, 11.6)% (p=0.161). One asymptomatic hypoglycemia below 63?mg/dL occurred in one participant during CL_Dil versus six episodes in five participants during CL_Std (p=0.09). Glucose variability measured by CV of plasma glucose tended to be reduced during CL_Dil (20% (13, 31) vs 32% (24, 42), p=0.075). Conclusions In this feasibility study, closed-loop therapy maintained good overnight glucose control with tendency towards reduced hypoglycemia and reduced glucose variability using diluted insulin. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01557634. PMID:25512874

Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M; Tauschmann, Martin; El-Khairi, Ranna; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Hovorka, Roman

2014-01-01

398

Investigation of mechanical properties of modern dental composites after artificial aging for one year.  

PubMed

This in vitro study investigated the aging behavior of dental composites with regard to surface roughness (SR), Vickers hardness (VH) and flexural strength (FS), and the study elucidated the impact of artificial aging parameters. One hundred and sixty-five rectangular specimens were prepared from five composites (Filtek Supreme XT, Filtek Silorane, CeramX, Quixfil, experimental ormocer) and subjected to various artificial aging protocols (storage in distilled water/ethanol/artificial saliva for 7, 90 and 365 days; thermal cycling, 2 x 3000 cycles 5/55 degrees C). SR, VH and FS were determined at baseline and after each aging treatment. Means and standard deviations were calculated; statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test (alpha=.05). The results showed a significant influence in the composite and aging duration on mechanical parameters; the aging medium did not have a significant influence on VH and FS, but there was a significant influence on SR. The highest overall VH was found for theexperimental ormocer; Filtek Silorane yielded the lowest values. For FS, the significantly highest values were found for Filtek Silorane, and the lowest values were found for the experimental ormocer. Prolonged aging periods (90 or 365 days) or thermal cycling led to significant decreases in both VH and FS and significant increases in SR. The findings of the current study indicate that composites differ significantly for SR and its mechanical properties with regard to FS and VH, as well as in aging behavior. Generally, artificial aging leads to a significant decrease in mechanical properties, which underlines the relevance of continuous improvement of dental composites. PMID:20672725

Hahnel, Sebastian; Henrich, Anne; Bürgers, Ralf; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

2010-01-01

399

Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

2005-04-01

400

Arrhythmia and survival in patients >18 years of age after the Mustard procedure for complete transposition of the great arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of patients who underwent Mustard repair as children are now adults. Loss of sinus rhythm, supraventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death have been described in pediatric series. However, little is known about the clinical course of adult patients. This retrospective cohort study examined 86 consecutive adults (age >18 years) who had undergone the Mustard procedure and were referred to

Geoff Puley; Samuel Siu; Michael Connelly; David Harrison; Gary Webb; William G Williams; Louise Harris

1999-01-01

401

New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-Wide Extinction About 46,000 Years Ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Australian land mammals, reptiles, and birds weighing more than 100 kilograms, and six of the seven genera with a body mass of 45 to 100 kilograms, perished in the late Quaternary. The timing and causes of these extinctions remain uncertain. We report burial ages for megafauna from 28 sites and infer extinction across the continent around 46,400 years ago

Richard G. Roberts; Timothy F. Flannery; Linda K. Ayliffe; Hiroyuki Yoshida; Jon M. Olley; Gavin J. Prideaux; Geoff M. Laslett; Alexander Baynes; M. A. Smith; Rhys Jones; Barton L. Smith

2001-01-01

402

DISTRIBUTION OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME IN ONE SECOND IN CHILDREN 6 TO 11 YEARS OF AGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors analyzed 44,664 annual measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in 12,258 white children and 1,041 black children between 6 and 11 years of age in 6 communities. Sex and race-specific lung function development is de...

403

Health Behaviors and Protective Factors of School Students Aged 13-15 Years Old in Four Cities of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents baseline data on health behaviors and protective factors among junior middle school students aged 13-15 years old in China for the purpose of developing priorities, establishing programs and policies for school health and youth health and also establishing trends in the prevalence of these behaviors. The 2003 CHINA GSHS…

Tian, Benchun; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ling; Lv, Shuhong; Tian, Xiangyang; Xiong, Guanglian; Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Xinwei; Kann, Laura K.; Riley, Leanne

2007-01-01

404

PORTABLE biofeedback device for rehabilitating children with scoliosis between ages of 3–10 years and their posture correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biofeedback device is being designed to help children between age 3-10 years who are suffering from scoliosis which is a condition where the spine bends laterally or the sides and posture correction. Scoliosis is a disorder that causes an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, or backbone. The biofeedback sensor is placed at the back of the child suffering

D Archibald; KrishnaManohar Vemula; M Anburajan; Siva Kumar Vpr

2011-01-01

405

Acquisition of visuomotor abilities and intellectual quotient in children aged 4-10 years: relationship with micronutrient nutritional status.  

PubMed

Lethargy, poor attention, and the high rate and severity of infections in malnourished children affect their educational achievement. We therefore studied the association between visuomotor abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) and their relationship with iron, zinc, and copper. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 89 healthy children (age range, 4-10 years). Evaluations of visuomotor ability and IQ were performed with the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Scale for Measurement of Intelligence for children aged 3-18 years, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry and biochemical assessments, which included serum ferritin, zinc and copper levels, and Hb. The sample was classified as having low or normal VMI scores: 47 children (52.8%, mean age 7 +/- 1.5 years) had low VMI, and 42 (47.2%, mean age 7 +/- 2.06 years) had normal VMI. There were no statistically significant differences in socioeconomic and cultural condition between both groups. We found significantly higher serum copper and ferritin levels in normal as compared to low VMI, but we did not find any differences with zinc. IQ was significantly higher in normal vs low VMI children. The fact that children with abnormal VMI presented low mean serum copper and ferritin concentrations could indicate that copper and iron deficiencies in this sample could be related with visuomotor abilities. PMID:17916959

González, Horacio F; Malpeli, Agustina; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Lucero, Lucrecia; Romero, Florencia; Lagunas, Carolina; Lailhacar, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Uauy, Ricardo

2007-01-01

406

Gender Differences in Physical Aggression: A Prospective Population-Based Survey of Children before and after 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much controversy over the past decades on the origins of gender differences in children's aggressive behavior. A widely held view is that gender differences emerge sometime after 2 years of age and increase in magnitude thereafter because of gender-differentiated socialization practices. The objective of this study was to test…

Baillargeon, Raymond H.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Cote, Sylvana; Perusse, Daniel; Wu, Hong-Xing; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

2007-01-01

407

Total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than 30 years of age following developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in young patients is a controversial subject, due to the high failure rates reported in the literature, and even more so in patients with a history of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). A group of 11 patients, all under the age of 30 years at the time of surgery, underwent THA due to congenital dislocation

I. Dudkiewicz; M. Salai; A. Ganel; A. Blankstein; A. Chechik

2002-01-01

408

Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

2011-01-01

409

International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights,…

Goldman, Juliette D. G.

2013-01-01

410

Variation in Early Developmental Course in Autism and Its Relation with Behavioral Outcome at 3-4 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the present study were to describe variations in the early course of development in autism by utilizing an in-depth parent interview that incorporated techniques to improve accuracy of parent recall, and to examine the relation between variations in early developmental course in autism and behavioral outcome at 3-4 years of age. The…

Werner, Emily; Dawson, Geraldine; Munson, Jeffrey; Osterling, Julie

2005-01-01

411

Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

2008-01-01

412

Energy intake from foods and beverages consumed between meals by adolescents ages 12–18 years: NHANES, 1999–2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this study was to describe meal patterns of adolescents ages 12–18 years (n = 5,811), and energy intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals. NHANES, 1999–2004, Day 1, 24-h recall data were classified by food group, meal type, and time of day. Snacks/drinks were consumed by 90% of ad...

413

Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

2010-01-01

414

Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

2012-01-01

415

Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare changes over time in waist circumference (a measure of central fatness) and body mass index (a measure of overall obesity) in British youth. Design Representative cross sectional surveys in 1977, 1987, and 1997. Setting Great Britain. Participants Young people aged 11-16 years surveyed in 1977 (boys) and 1987 (girls) for the British Standards Institute (n=3784) and in

H David McCarthy; Sandra M Ellis; Tim J Cole

2003-01-01

416

The Relationship Between Psychological Health and Attitude Toward Christianity Among Pupils Aged 11 to 15 Years in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a measure of psychological health) and the Francis Scale

LESLIE J. FRANCIS; LINDA BURTON

2007-01-01

417

Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

2008-01-01

418

Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

2010-01-01

419

Thirty-year trends of physical activity in relation to age, calendar time and birth cohort in Finnish adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this article was to investigate time trends 1972-2002 in leisure time, occupational and commuting physical activity across birth cohorts in Finnish adults. Methods: The study population comprised 59 028 men and women aged 25-64 years who participated in the FINRISK Study. The first birth cohort was born in 1913 and the last in 1977. Prevalence of

Katja Borodulin; Tiina Laatikainen; Anne Juolevi; Pekka Jousilahti

2008-01-01

420

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in infants of less than 1 year of age: which factors influence the outcome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a successful method of treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus. In infants, however, it is reported to have a higher failure rate. On the basis of our own data and a meta-analysis of the literature, we try to define factors prognosticating potential failure in infants aged less than 1 year. Methods Data were collected retrospectively. Between October

Dorothee Koch; Wolfgang Wagner

2004-01-01

421

Endoscopic Intraventricular Surgery for Treatment of Hydrocephalus and Loculated CSF Space in Children Less than One Year of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists regarding whether children under 1 year of age have a higher risk of treatment failure after neuroendoscopic procedures for the treatment of hydrocephalus than older children. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical management and clinical outcome of 15 infants who underwent neuroendoscopic surgery for the treatment of CSF space loculation and hydrocephalus. We performed 8 third ventriculostomies, 3 endoscopic

Michael J. Fritsch; Maximilian Mehdorn

2002-01-01

422

Ten-Year Results of Home Vision-Screening Test in Children Aged 3-6 Years in Seoul, Korea.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of refractive error and amblyopia among three- to six-year-old children during the period from 2002 to 2011. Methods: About 31,400 children annually (from 16,592 to 40,816) during the period from 2002 to 2011 were enrolled. The preschool vision screening was performed by the Korean Foundation for the Prevention of Blindness (KFPB) annually during a period that extended from March to September. We reviewed the KFPB annual report about the home vision-screening test as performed during the period from 2002 to 2011. Changes in the prevalence and types of refractive error, strabismus, and amblyopia that manifested throughout this period were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of refractive errors ranged from 1.10% in 2002 to 0.42% in 2011. The prevalence of hyperopia and myopia changed little throughout the 10-year study period. Myopia and hyperopia were equally common among the population examined (?(2)-test, p?=?0.137). The prevalence of anisometropia decreased over time. The annual prevalence of amblyopia ranged from 0.39% to 0.06%, while the overall prevalence of amblyopia dropped from 0.25% in 2002 to 0.06% in 2011. The prevalence of strabismus was highest in 2006 (0.30%) and had decreased by 0.06% in 2011. The type of strabismus showed no significant difference over time (?(2)-test, p?=?0.579). Conclusions: The prevalence of amblyopia, refractive error, anisometropia, and strabismus was lower in 2011 than in early 2000. The prevalence of hyperopia and myopia as well as strabismus remained similar throughout the study period. PMID:24809740

Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel

2014-05-01

423

Annual assessments of patients aged 75 years and over: views and experiences of elderly people.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. The 1990 contract requires general practitioners to offer all their patients aged 75 years and over an annual health check. Increasing importance is being placed on consumers' views of service provision. AIM. A study was undertaken in June 1992 to investigate elderly patients' views and experiences of the annual health check, and to compare these with the previously reported views of general practitioners and practice nurses who had also been surveyed as part of the study. METHOD. Twenty family health services authorities wrote to a sample of 1500 elderly patients asking if the patient's name could be passed to researchers. Patients who agreed were then interviewed. RESULTS. A total of 664 elderly patients (44%) were interviewed. Only 64% of respondents were aware of their entitlement to a health check. Vulnerable patients, such as those in poor health or who lived alone, were less likely to know about the health checks than other patients. Only 31% of respondents thought they had had a health check. Of these, fewer than half recalled the doctor or nurse discussing the findings with them, although 80% of doctors reported that they always or mostly discussed results with patients. Elderly patients were more likely to recall the physical aspects of the health check rather than discussion about particular health aspects. However, doctors and nurses felt that routine checks were useful for giving advice rather than detecting medical problems. Of those who had had a health check, 82% reported no improvement in their health as a result, but 93% thought that they were a good idea. Only 7% of doctors thought they were of value, compared with the majority of nurses. CONCLUSION. It appeared that the inverse care law was operating, with those more in need of the service being less likely to have known about it. Discrepancies were found between general practitioners' and practice nurses' reports of service provision and those of elderly patients. Evidence about the cost-effectiveness of regular health checks may help the conflict between professional scepticism and consumer enthusiasm for these assessments. PMID:7748667

Chew, C A; Wilkin, D; Glendinning, C

1994-01-01

424

SIRT6 Minor Allele Genotype Is Associated with >5-Year Decrease in Lifespan in an Aged Cohort  

PubMed Central

Aging is a natural process involving complex interplay between environment, metabolism, and genes. Sirtuin genes and their downstream targets have been associated with lifespan in numerous organisms from nematodes to humans. Several target proteins of the sirtuin genes are key sensors and/or effectors of oxidative stress pathways including FOXO3, SOD3, and AKT1. To examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at candidate genes in these pathways and human lifespan, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study of an elderly cohort (?65 years old.). Using age at death as a continuous outcome variable and assuming a co-dominant genetic model within the framework of multi-variable linear regression analysis, the genotype-specific adjusted mean age at death was estimated for individual SNP genotypes while controlling for age-related risk factors including smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and co-morbidity. Significant associations were detected between human lifespan and SNPs in genes SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, FOXO3 and SOD3. Individuals with either the CC or CT genotype at rs107251 within SIRT6 displayed >5-year mean survival advantages compared to the TT genotype (5.5 and 5.9 years, respectively; q-value ?=?0.012). Other SNPs revealed genotype-specific mean survival advantages ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 years. Gender also modified the effect of SNPs in SIRT3, SIRT5 and AKT1 on lifespan. Our novel findings highlight the impact of sirtuins and sirtuin-related genotypes on lifespan, the importance of evaluating gender and the advantage of using age as a continuous variable in analyses to report mean age at death. PMID:25541994

TenNapel, Mindi J.; Lynch, Charles F.; Burns, Trudy L.; Wallace, Robert; Smith, Brian J.; Button, Anna; Domann, Frederick E.

2014-01-01

425

National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ?10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children.

H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

2015-01-01

426

Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant