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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for the assessment of calcium intake in schoolchildren aged 9-10 years.  

PubMed

Bone mass increases steadily until age 20-30 years, when peak bone mass (PBM) is acquired. Nutrition plays a critical role in achievement of the optimal genetically programmed PBM, with reduction in the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Intake of nutrients can be estimated through the use of various tools; typically, food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are used in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to validate a 21-item, semiquantitative FFQ to assess important nutrient intakes for bone health in Italian schoolchildren 9-10 years of age. Relative validation was accomplished through comparison of the 7-days weighed food record (7D records) with an FFQ developed ad hoc, completed by a group of 75 Italian schoolchildren (36 females, 39 males). Agreement between the two methods was evaluated by Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman analysis applied on the data on intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Particular attention was devoted to nutrients relevant for bone health. Good correlations between the two methods (FFQ and 7D records) were observed for all nutrients. In particular, mean dietary calcium intakes were 725.6 mg/day (95 % CI 683.2-768.1) from 7D records and 892.4 mg/day (95 % CI 844.6-940.2) from the FFQ. These results indicate that our FFQ for schoolchildren aged 9-10 years is highly acceptable as it is an accurate method that can be used in large-scale or epidemiological studies for the evaluation of nutrient intakes important for the prevention of osteoporosis in a similar population. PMID:23543130

Pampaloni, B; Bartolini, E; Barbieri, M; Piscitelli, P; Di Tanna, G L; Giolli, L; Brandi, M L

2013-03-30

2

Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete

Y. P. Li; G. S. Ma; E. G. Schouten; X. Q. Hu; Z. H. Cui; D. Wang; F. J. Kok

2007-01-01

3

Single leg mini squat: an inter-tester reproducibility study of children in the age of 9-10 and 12-14 years presented by various methods of kappa calculation  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies suggest that reduced postural orientation is a possible risk factor for both patello-femoral joint pain (PFP) and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In order to prevent PFP and ACL injuries in adolescent athletes, it is necessary to develop simple and predictive screening tests to identify those at high risk. Single Leg Mini Squat (SLMS) is a functional and dynamic real-time screening test, which has shown good validity and reproducibility in evaluation of postural orientation of the knee in an adult population. The aim of this study was to determine the inter-tester reproducibility of SLMS in the age group of 9–10 and 12–14 years by evaluating postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk. Further on, this study exemplify the divergence of kappa values when using different methods of calculating kappa for the same dataset. Methods A total of 72 non-injured children were included in the study. Postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk for both legs was determined by two testers using a four-point scale (ordinal, 0–3). Prevalence, overall agreement as well as four different methods for calculating kappa were evaluated: linear weighted kappa in comparison with un-weighted kappa, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) and quadratic weighted kappa. Results The linear weighted kappa values ranged between 0.54-0.86 (overall agreement 0.86-0.97), reflecting a moderate to almost perfect agreement. When calculating un-weighted kappa (with and without PABAK) and quadratic weighted kappa, the results spread between 0.46-0.88, 0.50-0.94, and 0.76-0.95, reflecting the various results when using different methods of kappa calculation. Conclusions The Single Leg Mini Squat test has moderate to almost perfect reproducibility in children aged 9–10 and 12–14 years when evaluating postural orientation of the ankles, knees, hips and trunk, based on the excellent strength of agreement as presented by linear weighted kappa. The inconsistency in results when using different methods of kappa calculation demonstrated the linear weighted kappa being generally 15% lower than the quadratic weighted values. On average, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa increased the un-weighted kappa values by 7% and 12% by children aged 9–10 and 12–14, respectively.

2012-01-01

4

Physical Education Studies (Years 9 & 10): Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides an outline of possible course content for a 2-year physical education studies program during years 9 and 10. Teachers will need to supplement the ideas and materials presented in the guide with ideas and information of their own, using the guide as a starting point and resource for developing their own programs. Most of the…

Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

5

Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius  

PubMed Central

Objective To document the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9–10?year old children in Mauritius. Methods 412 boys and 429 girls aged 9–10?years from 23 primary schools were selected using stratified cluster random sampling. All data was cross-sectional and collected via anthropometry and self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures were BMI (kg/m2), prevalence of overweight, obesity (International Obesity Task Force definitions) and thinness (low BMI for age). Linear and logistic regression analyses, accounting for clustering at the school level, were used to assess associations between gender, ethnicity, school location, and school's academic performance (average) to each outcome measure. Results The distribution of BMI was marginally skewed with a more pronounced positive tail in the girls. Median BMI was 15.6?kg/m2 in boys and 15.4?kg/m2 in girls, respectively. In boys, prevalence of overweight was 15.8% (95% CI: 12.6, 19.6), prevalence of obesity 4.9% (95% CI: 3.2, 7.4) and prevalence of thinness 12.4% (95% CI: 9.5, 15.9). Among girls, 18.9% (95% CI: 15.5, 22.9) were overweight, 5.1% (95% CI: 3.4, 7.7) were obese and 13.1% (95% CI: 10.2, 16.6) were thin. Urban children had a slightly higher mean BMI than rural children (0.5?kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.00) and were nearly twice as likely to be obese (6.7% vs. 4.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.5). Creole children were less likely to be classified as thin compared to Indian children (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusion Mauritius is currently in the midst of nutritional transition with both a high prevalence of overweight and thinness in children aged 9–10?years. The coexistence of children representing opposite sides of the energy balance equation presents a unique challenge for policy and interventions. Further exploration is needed to understand the specific causes of the double burden of malnutrition and to make appropriate policy recommendations.

2012-01-01

6

Teachers' Perceptions of Geometry Instruction and the Learning Environment in Years 9-10 ESL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the development of an instrument to assess teachers' views on their geometry instruction and their classroom learning environments in six government high schools in southwest Sydney. The sample consisted of 18 Years 9/10 ESL teachers from participating schools. The study involved completion of a survey form using a modified…

Ly, Rinna K.; Malone, John A.

2010-01-01

7

School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children.  

PubMed

We examined the associations between the physical, social, and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height (m(2))) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity. PMID:21474361

Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J

2011-01-28

8

Association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old British White children  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To examine the association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9–10-year-old children. Study design A cross-sectional study using data from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study undertaken in Norfolk, UK. Methods Data from 4-day food diaries and 7 days of accelerometery were matched on concurrent days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent in sedentary behaviour and various measures of dietary intake were collected. Covariates included age, sex, weight status, family socio-economic status, and energy intake reporting quality. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for clustering of children by school and stratified by sex, were fitted to examine the associations between dietary measures and physical activity and sedentary outcomes. Results In total, 1317 children (584 boys and 733 girls) provided concurrent data. Boys in the highest quartile of energy percentage from protein spent approximately 6 min [95% confidence interval (CI) 0–12] less in MVPA compared with boys in the lowest quartile. Those in the highest quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake and fruit juice intake had respective average activity counts per minute that were 56 above (95% CI 8–105) and 48 below (95% CI 2–95) those in the lowest quartiles, whilst those in the highest quartile of fizzy drink consumption spent approximately 7 min (95% CI 2–13) more in MVPA and approximately 14 min (95% CI 5–24 min) less in sedentary behaviour. Boys in the highest quartile of savoury snack consumption spent approximately 8 min (95% CI 2–13 min) more in MVPA per day, and approximately 12 min (95% CI 2–23) less in sedentary behaviour. No significant associations were apparent among girls. Conclusions Few associations were detected, and the directions of those that were apparent were mainly counterintuitive. The extent to which this reflects a true lack of association or is associated with the measurement methods used for diet and physical activity needs further investigation.

Vissers, P.A.J.; Jones, A.P.; van Sluijs, E.M.F.; Jennings, A.; Welch, A.; Cassidy, A.; Griffin, S.J.

2013-01-01

9

Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9-10 year old children in Liverpool, UK  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the common childhood phenomenon of growing up with pets.

2013-01-01

10

Availability of local food outlets is associated with weight status and dietary intake in 9-10 year olds  

PubMed Central

Background The rising rate of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Limited evidence suggests that there may be interactions between environmental factors at a neighbourhood level and the development of obesity, with the availability and accessibility of foods outlets being potentially important. Purpose To examine how the weight status and dietary intake of 1669 9-10 year-olds was associated with neighbourhood food-outlets in a cross-sectional study. Methods Availability of food outlets was computed from GIS data for each child’s unique neighbourhood. Outlets were grouped into BMI-healthy, BMI-unhealthy or BMI-intermediate categories according to food-type sold. Weight status measurements were objectively collected and food intake was recorded using four-day food-diaries. Data was collected in 2007 and analysed in 2009. Results Availability of BMI-healthy outlets in neighbourhoods was associated with lower body weight (1.3kg; p=0.03), BMI (0.5kg/m2; p=0.02), BMI z-score (0.20; p=0.02), waist circumference (1.3cm; p=0.02), and percentage body fat (1.1%; p=0.03) compared to no availability. In contrast, neighbourhood availability of BMI-unhealthy outlets was inversely associated with body weight (1.3kg; p=0.02), BMI (0.4kg/m2; p=0.05), BMI z-score (0.15; p=0.05), waist circumference (1.1cm; p=0.04), and percentage body fat (1.0%; p=0.03). Unhealthy food intake (fizzy drinks 15.3%; p=0.04, and non-carbonated ‘fruit’ drinks 11.8%; p=0.03) was also associated with availability of BMI-unhealthy food outlets. Conclusions This study suggests that features of the built environment relating to food purchasing opportunities are independent significant correlates of weight status in children.

Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; Jones, Andy P; Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedin

2013-01-01

11

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume II. Volunteerism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 19 papers on volunteerism presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Volunteers in the 1990s"…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

12

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume III. Family/Caregiving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

13

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume II. Volunteerism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on volunteerism presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Volunteers in the 1990s"…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

14

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

15

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

16

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

17

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

18

Is Air Temperature at Birth Associated with Body Mass Index in 9–10 YearOld Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that temperature (season) at birth affects body weight and obesity years later. This study related air temperature at birth to body mass index in Liverpool primary school children (n = 11,084). No association was found between body mass index categories and month or season of birth and only weak correlations with month of birth and air temperature

Allan F. Hackett; Tim A. Stott; Lynne M. Boddy; Gareth Stratton

2009-01-01

19

Diet quality is independently associated with weight status in children aged 9-10 years.  

PubMed

Although energy imbalance is key to the development of childhood obesity, the association between different dietary components, reflected in diet quality scores, and children's weight status has not been extensively studied. The current study determined if diet quality, characterized according to 3 predefined scores, was associated with weight status in a population-based sample of 9- to 10-y-old British children, independently of factors previously associated with weight status. In a cross-sectional study of 1700 children (56% girls), data from 4-d food diaries were used to calculate 3 diet quality scores modified to be reflective of children's diets: the Diet Quality Index (DQI), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Physical activity was measured with 7-d accelerometery, and height, weight, waist, and bio-impedance were objectively measured and used to calculate weight status variables. After multiple adjustments, including physical activity and overall energy density, higher DQI and HDI scores were significantly associated with improved weight status. Comparing extreme quintiles of the scores revealed the DQI and HDI were associated with lower waist circumference (-3.0%, P = 0.005 and -2.5%, P = 0.033, respectively), and lower body fat (-5.1%, P = 0.023 and -4.9%, P = 0.026, respectively). The DQI was also associated with lower weight (-5.9%; P = 0.002) and BMI (-4.2%; P = 0.004). No significant associations were observed with the MDS. These findings suggest that diet quality is independently associated with children's weight status. Future work should consider if diet quality scores could be key components of interventions designed to reduce obesity in children. PMID:21270356

Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

2011-01-26

20

Breakfast habits and snacks consumed at school among Qatari schoolchildren aged 9-10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this study is to assess breakfast habits and foods mostly consumed as snacks during the school day among fourth grade Qatari schoolchildren. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A cross-sectional survey on a random sample of fourth grade students was carried out using a questionnaire on food frequency, food habits and types of foods consumed in breakfast and during

Abdelmonem S. Hassan; Sara N. Al-Dosari

2008-01-01

21

{sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perfit, M.R. [Univ., of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Batiza, R. [Univ., of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fornari, D.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1994-06-01

22

18 CFR 9.10 - Filing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 9.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY Application for Lease of...

2013-04-01

23

32 CFR 9.10 - Other.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This part is not intended to and does not create any right, benefit, or privilege,...

2013-07-01

24

Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

2012-01-01

25

Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years  

PubMed Central

This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging.

Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

2006-01-01

26

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

27

Fluorescence Spectra and Quantum Yields: Quinine, Uranine, 9,10-Diphenylanthracene and 9,10-Bis(Phenylethynyl) Anthracenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectra and quantum yields obtained on a corrected spectrum Turner Spectrofluorometer are carefully tabulated for quinine, uranine, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, and 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracenes. Our quinine sulfate spectrum is compared to a literature ...

C. A. Heller R. A. Henry B. A. McLaughlin

1973-01-01

28

Malnutrition at Age 3 Years and Externalizing Behavior Problems at Ages 8, 11, and 17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective Poor nutrition is thought to predispose to externalizing behavior problems, but to date there appear to have been no prospective longitudinal studies testing this hypothesis. This study assessed whether 1) poor nutrition at age 3 years predisposes to antisocial behavior at ages 8, 11, and 17 years, 2) such relationships are independent of psychosocial adversity, and 3) IQ mediates the relationship between nutrition and externalizing behavior problems. Method The participants were drawn from a birth cohort (N=1,795) in whom signs of malnutrition were assessed at age 3 years, cognitive measures were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years, and antisocial, aggressive, and hyperactive behavior was assessed at ages 8, 11, and 17 years. Results In relation to comparison subjects (N=1,206), the children with malnutrition signs at age 3 years (N=353) were more aggressive or hyperactive at age 8 years, had more externalizing problems at age 11, and had greater conduct disorder and excessive motor activity at age 17. The results were independent of psychosocial adversity and were not moderated by gender. There was a dose-response relationship between degree of malnutrition and degree of externalizing behavior at ages 8 and 17. Low IQ mediated the link between malnutrition and externalizing behavior at ages 8 and 11. Conclusions These results indicate that malnutrition predisposes to neurocognitive deficits, which in turn predispose to persistent externalizing behavior problems throughout childhood and adolescence. The findings suggest that reducing early malnutrition may help reduce later antisocial and aggressive behavior.

Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2006-01-01

29

Fat Intake and Weight Development from 9 to 16 Years of Age: The European Youth Heart Study – a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryObjective: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat intake and weight development among a cohort of children aged 9–10 years at baseline

Carina Sjöberg Brixval; Lars Bo Andersen; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann

2009-01-01

30

Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years  

PubMed Central

Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer.

Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

2010-01-01

31

The Tommotian Age: 530 Million Years Ago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tommotian Age began about 530 million years ago and is a subdivision of the early Cambrian. Named for rock exposures in Siberia, the Tommotian saw the first major radiation of the animals, or metazoans, including the first appearance of a great many mineralized taxa such as brachiopods, trilobites, archaeocyathids, molluscs, and echinoderms. A few million years before the Tommotian, in the Vendian, the continents had been joined in a single supercontinent called Rodinia. As the Cambrian began, Rodinia began to fragment into smaller continents which did not always correspond to the ones we see today. This site contains a map with a reconstruction that shows the rifting of Rodinia. There is also information about the climate as well as the location of some present day land masses at that time.

32

Dialysis outcomes in those aged >=65 years  

PubMed Central

Background The number of elderly people over the age of 65 commencing dialysis in NZ has increased by almost 400% in the past decade. Few data are available about health related outcomes and survival on dialysis in the elderly to help the individual, their family, clinicians and health planners with decision-making. Methods/design This study will provide the first comprehensive longitudinal survey of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient centred outcomes for individuals aged ?65 years on, or eligible for, dialysis therapy and will link these data to survival outcomes. Data collected by yearly structured interviews with participants will be linked to co-morbidity data, health service use, and laboratory information collected from health records, and analysed with respect to HRQOL and survival. The information obtained will inform the delivery of dialysis services in New Zealand and facilitate improved decision-making by individuals, their family and clinicians, about the appropriateness and impact of dialysis therapy on subsequent health and survival. Discussion Results from this study will make possible more informed decision-making by future elderly patients and their families as they contemplate renal replacement therapy. Results will also allow health professionals to more accurately describe the impact of dialysis therapy on quality of life and outcomes for patients. Trial registration ACTRN12611000024943.

2013-01-01

33

[Dysthyroidism after 60 years of age].  

PubMed

This work has been conducted on 162 subjects, aged over 60 years, living in Senegal, investigated in the Departement of Biophysics and Nuclear Medecine of Dakar for suspicion of dysthyroidism. The levels of T3, T4 and TSH US hormones were determined by a radio-immunological method. This technique, exhibiting good functionnal sensitivity and its high specificity, is likely to be beneficial to the diagnosis of dysthyroidisms. Besides, this experiment leads us to consider that the dosage of TSH remains an useful first intention examination for the old patients and could notably improve the screening of dysthyroidisms with a decrease in the cost of the investigation. However, because of the therapeutical implications, some biological profiles schould be interpreted cautiously. The equipment for the determination of the free fractions (T3 and T4) with the brought additional accuracy could allow to dismiss some diagnostci uncertainties. PMID:15773172

Ndoye, O; Mbodj, M; Gassama, S; Sidibe, E H; Toure-Sow, H; Ndoye, R

2001-01-01

34

9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes and phenanthrenes from Juncus setchuensis.  

PubMed

Four new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, juncuenins A-D (1-4), three new phenanthrenes, dehydrojuncuenins A-C (5-7), and three known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Juncus setchuensis. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of detailed 1D and 2D NMR studies. PMID:19514742

Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Tang, Chun-Ping; Yuan, Dan; Ye, Yang

2009-06-01

35

Features of clathrate formation of trans -9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracene-11,12-dicarboxylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural data illustrating various ways of association of the molecules of host and guest observed in the clathrates of\\u000a trans-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracene-11,12-dicarboxylic acid (DED) with chloroform, ethyl propionate, 1,4-dioxane and acetone\\u000a are presented. The following types of host-guest interactions are considered: “true clathrate” without host-guest hydrogen\\u000a bonds (DED + chloroform, DED + ethyl propionate), infinite associate (DED + 1,4-dioxane) and discrete associate

L. Yu. Izotova; D. M. Ashurov; B. T. Ibragimov; E. Weber; M. Perren; S. A. Talipov

2005-01-01

36

Teenagers (15-17 years of age)  

MedlinePLUS

... is some information on how teens develop: Emotional/Social Changes Children in this age group might: Have ... availability of substance abuse prevention, alcohol and drug addiction treatment, and mental health services. Talk With Your ...

37

Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7.

Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

2013-01-01

38

Crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report on the crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Crystals of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) were grown by the solution growth technique as well as the vertical Bridgman method. In case of the solution growth technique, several organic solvents were investigated including heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and p-xylene. The largest crystals of the highest quality were obtained from toluene and xylene. In the case of vertical Bridgman, evacuated silica ampoules were used to grow large single crystals of DPA. Crystals grown by this method exhibit excellent scintillation properties.Radioluminescence spectra of DPA crystals exhibit a broad emission band peaking at 475 nm. DPA crystals show high light yields of up to 20,000 ph/MeV and a fast scintillation decay of less than 20 ns. Fast neutron detection was achieved using a 252Cf source.

van Loef, Edgar V.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Zaitseva, Natalia; Payne, Steve; Shah, Kanai S.

2012-08-01

39

Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a handbook of stimulation activities to encourage a child's physical and mental development from birth to age five. It emphasizes the making of low-cost, easily available developmental tools, and gives advice on how to carry out various acti...

D. Bloomgarden

1983-01-01

40

Chronic constipation with encopresis persisting beyond 15 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood constipation with encopresis is a common malady. Previous reports suggest that essentially all patients either respond to standard treatments or have spontaneous recovery before 16 years of age. In this paper, we describe the results of anorectal function studies and treatment outcome in four patients in whom constipation and encopresis persisted beyond 15 years of age. Abnormalities in the

Douglas K. Rex; Joseph F. Fitzgerald; Robert J. Goulet

1992-01-01

41

Sex-andage-specificrelationsbetweeneconomicdevelopment, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. Methods Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries.

Alexander Butchart; Karin Engstrom

2002-01-01

42

Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years  

PubMed Central

Girls’ perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls’ physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways linking perceived competence, parental support, and physical activity were assessed using path analysis. Results provided evidence for the child elicitation pathway; higher perceived competence at the age of 9 years predicted higher parental support at age 11 years, which, in turn, predicted higher physical activity among girls. Findings highlight the importance of encouraging parents to make a special effort to support physical activity among girls who do not perceive themselves as being athletically competent.

Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

2008-01-01

43

Multiple sclerosis in children under 10 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the consistent amount of information accumulated in recent years on multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood, many clinicians still view this condition as an exclusively young adult-onset disease and do not consider that it may occur and manifest even during infancy and pre-school age, suggesting that the number of MS cases in the paediatric age group may have been underestimated.

M. Ruggieri; P. Iannetti; A. Polizzi; L. Pavone

2004-01-01

44

Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age

Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

2011-01-01

45

Mycosis fungoides with onset before 20 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent identification of mycosis fungoides (MF) in a man in whom the diagnosis was established at age 22 months prompted us to evaluate our experience with early onset MF.Objective: Our purpose was to summarize the clinical characteristics and course of 24 patients in whom MF began by history before age 20 years and was confirmed by biopsy in 13

Herschel S. Zackheim; Timothy H. McCalmont; Frank W. Deanovic; Richard B. Odom

1997-01-01

46

Nonfatal unintentional injuries in children aged <15 years in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe the nonfatal unintentional injuries among children aged <15 years treated in four emergency departments (EDs) in Nicaragua. The 2004 Injury Surveillance System included all cases of injuries that attended the four hospital EDs (n = 37,577). We analysed the records of 13,426 children aged <15 years who sustained nonfatal unintentional injuries. The leading causes

Carme Clavel-Arcas; Karin A. Mack

2010-01-01

47

Associations Between Temperament at Age 1.5 Years and Obesogenic Diet at Ages 3 and 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether temperament in 1.5-year-olds predicts their consumption of potentially obesogenic foods and drinks at ages 3 and 7 years. Methods Participants were 6 997 mothers and infants from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Questionnaires were collected during pregnancy, at birth, and at child ages 6 months and 1.5, 3, and 7 years. Predictor variables: children’s temperament at age 1.5 (internalizing, externalizing, surgent) and mothers’ negative affectivity. Outcome variables: children’s consumption of sweet foods, sweet drinks, and fruits/vegetables at ages 3 and 7 (dichotomized at the 85th percentile). Results Controlling for covariates, internalizing 1.5-year-olds (anxious, dependent) were 77% and 63% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively; they were 55% and 43% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. Externalizing 1.5-year-olds (hyperactive, aggressive) were 34% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at age 7, 39% and 44% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively, and they were 47% and 33% less likely to consume fruits/vegetables daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. Surgent 1.5-year-olds (active, sociable) were 197% and 78% more likely to consume two portions of fruits/vegetables daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. The association of maternal negative affectivity was limited to the child’s consumption of sweet foods at 3 and 7 years. Conclusion Early child temperament is a risk factor for obesogenic diet in later childhood. Mechanisms explaining this association need to be explored.

Vollrath, Margarete E.; Stene-Larsen, Kim; Tonstad, Serena; Rothbart, Mary K.; Hampson, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

48

Effect of Age and Comorbidity in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients Aged 55 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Postmenopausal women aged 55 years and older have 66% of incident breast tumors and experience 77% of breast cancer mortality, but other age-related health problems may affect tumor prognosis and treatment decisions. Objective To document the comorbidity burden of postmenopausal breast cancer patients and evaluate its relationship with age on disease stage, treatment, and early mortality. Design and Setting

Rosemary Yancik; Margaret N. Wesley; Lynn A. G. Ries; Richard J. Havlik; Brenda K. Edwards; Jerome W. Yates

2010-01-01

49

Neurosurgical vascular malformations in children under 1 year of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aims to analyze the clinical and radiological findings, timing and type of treatment, and outcome in children under\\u000a 1 year of age that presented with neurosurgical vascular malformations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective review of 23 children under 1 year of age with neurosurgical vascular malformations was performed at a single\\u000a institution between 1999 and 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The lesions found in this age group

Graciela Zuccaro; Romina Argañaraz; Francisco Villasante; Alejandro Ceciliano

2010-01-01

50

Pre-teen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at age 18-19: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, BMI (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9-10. We hypothesized that pre-teen insulin and insulin resistance (IR) would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Further, we hypothesized that increased insulin and IR, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Patients and Methods: Prospective 10-yr follow-up of 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. Results: When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9-10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9-10, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19. Black girls consumed a greater percent of calories from fat throughout. At age 19, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9-10 for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and greater fat free mass. By ages 18-19, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by age 9-10 BMI, 10 year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between age 9-10 insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls), all p <.0001. Conclusions: Insulin at ages 9-10 interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9-10 could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity.

Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping

2009-01-01

51

Physical activity and fractures over the age of fifty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim has been to determine the relationship between long term physical activity (running) and the number and type of fractures occurring in 906 subjects. Analysis focused on the fractures which occurred during the last 10 years of observation in 722 subjects over the age of 55 years (456 runners and 266 nonrunners). Male and female runners had more fractures

B. A. Michel; D. A. Bloch; J. F. Fries

1992-01-01

52

Appendicitis in children less than 3 years of age: a 28-year review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appendicitis is the most common surgical abdominal emergency in the pediatric population, but is rarely considered in children less than 3 years of age. The goal of this study was to identify the presenting symptoms and signs in this age group and examine their subsequent management and outcome. A 28-year experience of a single pediatric surgeon in academic practice was

Javed Alloo; Theodore Gerstle; Joel Shilyansky; Sigmund H. Ein

2004-01-01

53

Nine-year aging behavior of the ceramic flatpack resonator  

SciTech Connect

GE has developed a multichannel, high precision aging{asterisk} measurement facility capable of high volume testing of resonators. Features of the facility considered unique for production aging systems test include: (1) Loran-C/disciplined time-frequency (DTF) oscillator frequency standard, (2) direct current power bus design, (3) measurement and switching techniques, and (4) high volume automatic precision resonator aging. Computer-controlled data acquisition is used for unattended operation. Facility requirements included frequency measurement with sufficient precision to allow 20- year extrapolation of resonator frequency shift using 30 data points. The frequency reference is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Long-term extrapolation required selection of a model which would most accurately reflect the major processes involved in aging. In order to verify the accuracy of model extrapolation, a group of resonators has been maintained in test for more than nine years. 9 refs., 16 figs.

Beetley, D.E.

1990-03-06

54

21 CFR 73.3118 - N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...N â²-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthra-cenediyl) bis-benzamide (CAS Reg. No. 82-18-8), Colour Index No. 61725. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section may...

2000-04-01

55

21 CFR 73.3118 - N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is N ,N â²-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide (CAS Reg. No. 82-18-8), Colour Index No. 61725. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section may...

2008-04-01

56

21 CFR 73.3118 - N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...N â²-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthra-cenediyl) bis-benzamide (CAS Reg. No. 82-18-8), Colour Index No. 61725. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section may...

2005-04-01

57

Pretibial injury in patients aged 50 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To establish the rate of, and identify circumstances surrounding, pretibial injury in patients aged 50 years and over. Methods The rate of pretibial injury was estimated from national hospital discharge data from the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS) National Minimum Dataset (1986-1999), and estimates of New Zealand's resident population. Cases accepted by the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance

Raechel Laing; Swee Tan; Joanna McDouall; Craig Wright; Brian Niven

58

Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. METHODS: Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or

Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh; Cyrus Ahmadi Yazdi; Omid Rouhi; Parvin Tajik; Parvin Mohseni

2005-01-01

59

Smoking after Age 65 Years and Mortality in Barcelona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the risk of dying associated with smoking after the age of 65 years and the benefits of quitting smoking, taking into account baseline health status. The study was carried out in Barcelona, Spain, a southern European city with an increase in smoking prevalence and lifestyle different from those of other areas where

Jordi Sunyer; Rosa Lamarca; Jordi Alonso

60

Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

1988-01-01

61

Alkyl 9, 9(10, 10)-Bis(acyloxymethyl)octadecanoates as Primary Plasticizers for Polyvinylchloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alkyl 9,9(10,10)-bis(acyloxymethyl)octadecanoates were prepared from 9(10)-formylstearic acid and found to function as primary plasticizers. Polyvinylchloride resins plasticized by these compounds have permanence and heat stability properties superior to ...

W. R. Miller E. H. Pryde

1977-01-01

62

Lung cancer in patients under the age of 40 years  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study In the paper clinical cases of individuals diagnosed with lung cancer below the age of 40 years have been analyzed. Material and methods The analysis included: sex, age, clinical symptoms found before and at the moment of diagnosis, character of changes visible in radiological imaging, time that passed from the first symptoms to reporting to a doctor and to establishing a diagnosis, type of diagnostic method used in establishing the final diagnosis, histopathologic type of cancer, degree of cancer progression. Results The results have been compared with a peer group who had been diagnosed 20 years earlier. Currently 7% of patients were diagnosed at the age of 25 or younger, whereas in the previous cohort patients in this age constituted 2%. The predominant pathological type was adenocarcinoma (currently 33%, previously 4%) in contrast to the earlier group in which 57% of patients had small cell lung cancer (57%). The incidence is equally distributed between both sexes, although there is an evident increase in female lung cancer cases. In the majority of patients the clinical presentation is a peripheral mass on chest X-ray. 20% of patients present pleural effusion on diagnosis. Patients reported the following complaints: breathlessness, chest pain, weight loss and fatigue. The majority of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages on the basis of a bronchoscopy acquired specimen. Time course from symptoms to diagnosis tends to be shorter than 20 years ago.

Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Porebska, Irena; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Golecki, Marcin

2012-01-01

63

Prenatal famine exposure and cognition at age 59 years  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the perceived importance of early life nutrition for mental development, few studies have related gestational undernutrition to later-life cognitive functioning. We investigated the consequences of gestational exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944–45 for cognitive functioning at the age of 59 years. Methods We recruited men and women who were (i) born in birth clinics in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Leiden, between January 1945 and March 1946, whose mothers experienced famine during or immediately preceding pregnancy (n?=?354); (ii) born in the same three institutions during 1943 and 1947, whose mothers did not experience famine during this pregnancy (n?=?292); or (iii) same-sex siblings of those in the first two categories (n?=?311). We assessed cognitive performance at the age of 59 years by means of a comprehensive test battery. Results All cognitive functioning test scores were within normal ranges for this age group. There were no differences in cognitive performance at the age of 59 years between individuals exposed to gestational undernutrition and those without this exposure. For the general cognitive index, a summary measure across six functional domains (mean 100, standard deviation (SD) 15 points), famine exposure was associated with a decrease of 0.57 points [95% confidence interval (95% CI) ?2.41 to 1.28] points. Individuals exposed to famine in gestational weeks 1–10 had a cognitive functioning index 4.36 (95% CI 8.04–0.67) points lower than those without this exposure. Within-sibling-pair analyses gave consistent results. Conclusion We found no overall association between maternal exposure to acute famine in pregnancy and cognitive performance of the offspring at the age of 59 years, but cannot rule out an association specific to early pregnancy exposure.

Stein, Aryeh D; Jolles, Jelle; van Boxtel, Martin PJ; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; van de Bor, Margot; Lumey, LH

2011-01-01

64

Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.  

PubMed

SUMMARY By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4·9, 95% CI 2·8-8·4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1·7-5·4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2·6, 95% CI 1·3-5·2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6·3, 95% CI 1·2-33·9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1·9, 95% CI 1·0-3·5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

2013-02-22

65

25 years after age-1: genes, interventions and the revolution in aging research.  

PubMed

This communication will briefly review more than 30 years of research on aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ("The Worm") as carried out in the labs of Tom Johnson. We will highlight research directions initiated in the 1980's, which were exciting for those of us trying to turn over a new leaf in aging research. In this narrative, I will discuss primarily the science that I and my lab have been involved with for the last 30 years. This area has been fascinating to those studying the sociology of science as modern aging research has moved to replace the simplistic, poorly controlled and outright fictitious approaches seen in much of the previous aging research. PMID:23466302

Johnson, Thomas E

2013-03-04

66

Infant Growth and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND.Infancy is a critical period for brain development. Few studies have examined the extent to which infant weight gain is associated with later neurode- velopmental outcomes in healthy populations. OBJECTIVE.The purpose of this work was to examine associations of infant weight gain from birth to 6 months with child cognitive and visual-motor skills at 3 years of age. PATIENTS AND

Mandy B. Belfort; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Janet W. Rich-Edwards; Ken P. Kleinman; Emily Oken; Matthew W. Gillman

2009-01-01

67

Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined.Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the

J Hussey; J Gormley; C Bell

2001-01-01

68

Age-related morphological changes of the deltoid muscle from 50 to 79 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative analysis of deltoid muscle biopsy specimens was performed by light microscopy in 26 males and 25 females aged 50-79 years without known neuromuscular disease. Muscle fibre size, fibre type distribution and increase in mitochondrial content in muscle fibres were examined using a semi-automatic image analysis system. This study showed significant age- and gender-related differences. In females, there was

Guillemette Fayet; Andrée Rouche; Jean-Yves Hogrel; Fernando M. S. Tomé; Michel Fardeau

2001-01-01

69

Age Effects on Emotion Recognition in Facial Displays: From 20 to 89 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Study Context: An emotion recognition task that morphs emotional facial expressions from an initial neutral expression to distinct increments of the full emotional expression was administered to 482 individuals, 20 to 89 years of age.Methods: Participants assessed six basic emotions at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the full facial expression.Results: Participants in the three oldest age groups (60s, 70s,

Jeffrey T. West; Sheena M. Horning; Kelli J. Klebe; Shannon M. Foster; R. Elisabeth Cornwell; David Perrett; D. Michael Burt; Hasker P. Davis

2012-01-01

70

[Survival after 60 years of age among elderly retired miners].  

PubMed

This study analyses long term effects of working conditions at an advanced age and post retirement. A longitudinal study was done among 63,000 retired miners between 60 to 65 years old. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) in the cohort was above that expected on the basis of concurrent mortality in the reference population (SMR = 111; 95% confidence interval (CI): 108-114). The excess mortality was observed in occupational groups with exposure to underground tasks (10 years of underground tasks: RR = 2; 95% CI: .1.7-2.5), but there was sign of a healthy worker effect after 25 underground years. The effects of modern technologies and of medical progress have changed working conditions and care has reduced mortality for retired manual workers: exposure to underground tasks before 1950: RR = 1.7; CI 95%: 1.4-2.0; after 1950: RR = 1.2; CI 95%: 1.1-1.2. PMID:9221450

Gonthier, R; Ecochard, R; Simand, R; Delomier, Y; Derriennic, F; Legrand, P; Cassou, B

1997-04-01

71

Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years  

PubMed Central

Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a count-down task in 843 children (aged 9–10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or unsignaled white-noise bursts. Using multilevel regression models, both larger HR acceleration and fewer NS-SCR were found to be significantly associated with psychopathic traits during anticipation of signaled white-noise bursts. However, two divergent patterns appeared for HR and SCR: (1) larger HR acceleration was specific to the callousness-disinhibition factor of psychopathic traits while reduced NS-SCR was only associated with the manipulative-deceitfulness factor; (2) the negative association between the manipulative-deceitfulness factor and NS-SCR was only found in boys but not in girls. These findings replicated what has been found in psychopathic adults, suggesting that autonomic deficits present in children at risk may predispose them to later psychopathy. The divergent findings across psychopathic facets and sexes raised the possibility of different etiologies underlying psychopathy, which may in turn suggest multiple treatment strategies for boys and girls.

Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

2012-01-01

72

Is Age of 80 Years a Threshold for Carotid Revascularization?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative to Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) in treatment of carotid stenotic disease. With increasing life expectancy clinicians are more often confronted with patients of higher age. Octogenarians were often excluded from randomized trials comparing CAS to CEA because they were considered high-risk for revascularization. Conflicting results on the peri-procedural outcome of carotid revascularization in these patients have been reported. In order to objectively evaluate whether age above 80 years should be an upper limit for indicating carotid revascularization we systematically reviewed the currently available literature. Methods: Literature was systematically reviewed between January 2000 and June 2010 using Pubmed and Embase, to identify all relevant studies concerning CAS and CEA in octogenarians. Inclusion criteria were 1) reporting outcome on either CEA or CAS; and 2) data subanalysis on treatment outcome by age. The 30-day Major Adverse Event (MAE) rate (disabling stroke, myocardial infarction or death) was extracted as well as demographic features of included patients. Results: After exclusion of 23 articles, 46 studies were included in this review, 18 involving CAS and 28 involving CEA. A total of 2.963 CAS patients and 14.365 CEA patients with an age >80 years were reviewed. The MAE rate was 6.9% (range 1.6 - 24.0%) following CAS and 4.2% (range 0 – 8.8%) following CEA. A separate analysis in this review included the results of one major registry 140.376 patients) analyzing CEA in octogenarians only reporting on 30-day mortality and not on neurological or cardiac adverse events. When these data were included the MAE following CEA is 2.4% (range 0 – 8.8%) Conclusions: MAE rates after CEA in octogenarians are comparable with the results of large randomized trials in younger patients. Higher complication rates are described for CAS in octogenarians. In general, age > 80 years is not an absolute cut off point to exclude patients from carotid surgery. In our opinion, CEA should remain the golden standard in the treatment of significant carotid artery stenoses, even in the very elderly.

Reichmann, Boudewijn L; van Lammeren, Guus W.; Moll, Frans L; de Borst, Gert J.

2011-01-01

73

Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds  

PubMed Central

Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children.

Ilkay Kosar, M; Otag, Ilhan; Sabanc?ogullar?, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otag, Aynur; Cimen, Mehmet

2012-01-01

74

Aging After Spinal Cord Injury: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: This longitudinal study investigated changes in life satisfaction, general health, activities, and adjustment over 3 decades among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants: The cohort of participants was identified from outpatient records of a large Midwestern United States university hospital. In 1973, 256 individuals completed an initial survey. There were 5 subsequent follow-up surveys, with the most recent being in 2002. Seventy-eight participants completed materials on all 6 occasions. Methods: The Life Situation Questionnaire was used to identify changes over the 30-year period in 6 areas of life satisfaction, self-rated adjustment (current and predicted), employment status, activities, and medical treatments. Analyses: These analyses used data from 3 points in time, separated by approximately 15-year intervals. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to identify changes in outcomes between 1973, 1988, and 2002 for all continuous variables. Results: We found a mixed pattern of changes over the 30 years, with increases noted during the first 15-year period in sitting tolerance, educational and employment outcomes, satisfaction with employment, and adjustment. Although these changes tended to remain stable during the last 15 years, subtle declines were suggested in some areas, with clear declines noted in terms of diminished sitting tolerance, an increase in the number of physician visits, and decreased satisfaction with social life and sex life. Conclusions: The results suggest that many positive changes occur within the first 2 decades after SCI, followed by a period of stability in some life areas, but decline with aging in some participation and health-related aspects of life.

Krause, James S; Coker, Jennifer L

2006-01-01

75

Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years  

PubMed Central

Background As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. Methods Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or neurological disorder, between the ages 7 and 14. Five hundred twenty five studies from 192 girls and 335 boys were considered in this study excluding the staccato/interrupted voiding pattern or voided volume less than 20 ml. The voiding volume, the maximum and average urinary flow rates were extensively analyzed. Results The maximal and average urine flow rate nomograms were plotted for both girls and boys. Mean maximum urine flow rate was 19.9 (ml/sec) for boys and 23.5 (ml/sec) for girls with a mean voided volume of 142 (ml) for boys and 147 (ml) for girls. Flow rates showed a close association with voiding volume in both sexes. The maximum and average flow rates were higher in girls than in boys, and they showed a significant increase in flow rates with increasing age, where boys did not. The mean maximum urine flow rates (19.9 ml/sec for boys and 23.5 ml/sec for girls) were found to be higher in this study than other studies. Conclusion Nomograms of maximal and average flow rates of girls and boys are presented in centile form, which can help the physician to evaluate the response to medical or surgical treatment and be useful for the screening of lower urinary tract disturbances in children, for a wide range of voided volumes.

Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Yazdi, Cyrus Ahmadi; Rouhi, Omid; Tajik, Parvin; Mohseni, Parvin

2005-01-01

76

Brief report: Pregnant by age 15 years and substance use initiation among US adolescent girls  

PubMed Central

We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999–2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11–12, 13–14, and age 15 years) for alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, controlling for race/ethnicity and metropolitan location. Of girls pregnant by age 15 years (3% of the sample, weighted n = 243), 16% had smoked marijuana by age 10 years and over 20% had smoked cigarettes and initiated alcohol use by age 10 years. In the multivariable analysis, marijuana use by age 14 years and/or cigarette smoking by age 12 years clearly distinguished girls who became pregnant by age 15 years and is perhaps due to a common underlying risk factor.

Rehg, Patricia A. Cavazos; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

2012-01-01

77

Perthes' disease: prognosis in children under six years of age.  

PubMed

Children presenting with Perthes' disease before their sixth birthday are considered to have a good prognosis. We describe 166 hips in children in this age group. The mean age at onset of the disease was 44 months (22 to 72). Mild forms (Catterall I and II) were treated conservatively and severe forms (Catterall III and IV) either conservatively or operatively. The aim of the former treatment was to restrict weight-bearing. Operative treatment consisted of innominate osteotomy and was indicated by a Conway type-B appearance on the bone scan. All the patients were followed to skeletal maturity with a mean follow-up of 11 years (8 to 15). The end results were evaluated radiologically using the classifications of Stulberg and Mose. A total of 50 hips were Catterall grade-I or grade-II, 65 Catterall grade-III and 51 Catterall grade-IV. All hips with mild disease had a good result at skeletal maturity. Of the hips with severe disease 78 (67.3%) had good (Stulberg I and II), 26 (22.4%) fair (Stulberg III) and 12 (10.3%) poor results (Stulberg IV and V). Of the Catterall grade-III hips 38 were treated conservatively of which 31 (81.6%) had a good result, six (15.8%) a fair and one (2.6%) a poor result. Operative treatment was carried out on 27 Catterall grade-III hips, of which 21 (77.8%) had a good, four (14.8%) a fair and two (7.4%) a poor result. By comparison conservative treatment of 19 Catterall grade-IV hips led to ten (52.7%) good, seven (36.8%) fair and two (10.5%) poor results. Operative treatment was carried out on 32 Catterall grade-IV hips, of which 16 (50.0%) had a good, nine (28.1%) a fair and seven (21.9%) a poor result. We confirm that the prognosis in Perthes' disease is generally good when the age at onset is less than six years. In severe disease there is no significant difference in outcome after conservative or operative treatment (p > 0.05). Catterall grade-III hips had a better outcome according to the Stulberg and Mose criteria than Catterall grade-IV hips, regardless of the method of treatment. PMID:18591607

Canavese, F; Dimeglio, A

2008-07-01

78

Early otitis media and phonological development at age 2 years.  

PubMed

The effect of early otitis media on phonology and articulation in the presence of expressive language delay was investigated in 16 2-year-olds followed prospectively from birth. Eight of the children were designated otitis-positive and 8 were considered otitis-negative as determined by bilateral pneumatic otoscopy outcomes during year 1 of life. The groups differed significantly on measures of expressive, not receptive, language development. All members of the otitis-positive group were expressive language delayed. Phonological analyses were completed on spoken language samples elicited from each child at age 24 months. Results showed similar developmental tendencies in speech sound acquisition between the groups, but the otitis-positive group had established significantly fewer initial consonant phones and produced them less accurately than the otitis-negative subject group. The otitis-positive group acquired significantly fewer consonants with back place of articulation. Similar phonological error patterns of deletion and phoneme class deficiency were used by the groups, but the otitis-positive group used the error patterns more frequently. Findings here lend support to the otitis media effect as one of interaction among risk factors. PMID:8656958

Abraham, S S; Wallace, I F; Gravel, J S

1996-06-01

79

9,10-Disubstituted octafluoroanthracene derivatives via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling.  

PubMed

9,10-Dichlorooctafluoroanthracene (1) reacts with aryl boronic acids and terminal alkynes under palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling conditions to afford 9,10-diaryloctafluoroanthracenes (2a-e) and 9,10-dialkynyloctafluoroanthracenes (6a,b), respectively. Optical spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry indicate that octafluoro-9,10-di(thiophen-2-yl)anthracene (2d) exhibits donor-acceptor character and a LUMO energy level of -3.27 eV relative to vacuum. A functionalized 5-bromothiophen-2-yl derivative (2e) was obtained in high yield by bromination of 2d with NBS. X-ray crystallographic analysis of octafluoro-9,10-bis[(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]anthracene (6a) reveals a solid-state structure that mimics the packing of columnar liquid crystals, with a pi stacking distance of 3.39 A between the octafluoroanthracene cores. In addition, octafluoro-9,10-bis(mesitylethynyl)anthracene (6b) displays a LUMO energy level of -3.50 eV, which approaches the value of -3.65 eV measured for perfluoropentacene, making 9,10-dialkynyloctafluoroanthracenes a promising new class of n-type organic materials. PMID:18788782

Tannaci, John F; Noji, Masahiro; McBee, Jennifer L; Tilley, T Don

2008-09-13

80

Dental care demand: age-specific estimates for the population 65 years of age and over.  

PubMed

This paper derives estimates of the demand for dental care among the U.S. population 65 years of age and over. The analysis is unique in that it focuses on a segment of the population with particular relevance to future policy regarding dental insurance coverage and distinguishes determinants of dental care demand by type of service. The empirical estimates suggest that the use of dental service by elderly persons does respond to price changes and that price-elasticity of demand varies significantly among different dental procedures. PMID:10309999

Conrad, D A

1983-01-01

81

Two year prospective dietary survey of newly diagnosed children with diabetes aged less than 6 years  

PubMed Central

The food consumption of 38 children newly diagnosed with diabetes aged < 6 years at diagnosis was assessed by 5 day food records. During the 2 year follow up, the proportion of the total energy intake made up of protein decreased from 20% to 18%, that of carbohydrates from 54% to 52%, and that of fat increased from 26% to 30%. The energy intake from sucrose (3%) did not change. In addition, There was a small decrease in the intake of fibre and several vitamins and minerals. One year after diagnosis, the diet of diabetic children was compared with that of 66 age, sex, and social status matched control children. More energy was derived from protein (19% v 15%) and carbohydrates (53% v 50%), and less from fat (28% v 35%), especially from saturated fatty acids (11% v 15%), and sucrose (3% v 16%) in the diet of children with diabetes compared with that of control children. The higher intakes of several vitamins and minerals reflected the higher nutrient density of the diet of children with diabetes. Therefore, the diet of young children with diabetes met the dietary recommendations for subjects with diabetes. Only the protein content of the diet was higher than necessary.??

Virtanen, S.; Ylonen, K.; Rasanen, L.; Ala-Venna, E.; Maenpaa, J.; Akerblom, H.

2000-01-01

82

Transcript of Meeting (7th), Held on 9-10 May 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The edition is the transcript of the May 9-10, 1975 meeting of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Commission members made final alterations on recommendations, deliberations, and conclusions...

1975-01-01

83

Normative Monocular Visual Acuity for Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Charts in Emmetropic Children 5 - 12 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 252 Native American (Tohono O’odham) children 5 years through 12 years of age. Based on cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia ? 0.25 diopter (D) spherical equivalent, hyperopia ? 1.00 D spherical equivalent, and astigmatism ? 0.50 D in both eyes). Methods Monocular visual acuity was tested at 4 m, using one ETDRS chart for the right eye (RE), and another for the left eye (LE). Main Outcome Measure Visual acuity was scored as the total number of letters correctly identified, by naming or by matching to letters on a lap card, and as the smallest letter size for which the child identified 3 of 5 letters correctly. Results Visual acuity results did not differ for the RE vs the LE, so data are reported for the RE only. Mean visual acuity for the 5-year-old group (0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) [20/29]) was significantly worse than for 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds (0.05 logMAR [20/22] or better at each age). The lower 95% prediction limit for determining if a child has visual acuity within the normal range was 0.38 (20/48) for 5-year-olds and 0.30 (20/40) for 6–12-year-olds, which was reduced to 0.32 (20/42) for 5-year-olds and 0.21 (20/32) for 6–12-year-olds when recalculated with outlying data points removed. Mean interocular acuity difference did not vary by age, averaging less than 1 logMAR line at each age, with a lower 95% prediction limit of 0.17 log unit (1.7 logMAR lines) across all ages. Conclusion For monocular visual acuity based on ETDRS charts to be in the normal range, it must be better than 20/50 for 5-year-olds and better than 20/40 for 6–12-year-olds. Normal interocular acuity difference includes values of less than 2 logMAR lines. Normative ETDRS visual acuity values are not as good as norms reported for adults, suggesting that a child’s visual acuity results should be compared with norms based on data from children, not with adult norms.

Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Miller, Joseph M.; Harvey, Erin M.

2009-01-01

84

Formation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone by atmospheric gas-phase reactions of phenanthrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenanthrene is a 3-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which exists mainly in the gas-phase in the atmosphere. Recent concern over the presence of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in ambient particles led us to study the products of the gas-phase reactions of phenanthrene with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone. The formation yields of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were measured to be ?3%, 33±9%, and ?2% from the

Lin Wang; Roger Atkinson; Janet Arey

2007-01-01

85

Comparison of facial trauma in late middle age (55-64 years) and old age (older than 65 years).  

PubMed

In this study, we attempted to compare facial trauma of late-middle-age patients (55-64 years, LM group) and old-age patients (>65 years old, OL group). The goal of this study was to evaluate the natural history of facial trauma in geriatric patients.The medical record of patients older than 55 years seeking treatment for facial trauma between March 2006 and February 2009 were reviewed, and parameters were collected. Seven hundred seventy-two patients (553 male, 219 female) were analyzed. There were 438 patients of the LM group (55-64 years old) and 334 patients of the OL group (>65 years old).In men (n = 553), the number of patients within the LM group (n = 336, 60.8%) was greater than the number in the OL group (n = 217, 39.2%). Of the 219 women, the number within the OL group (n = 117, 53.4%) was greater than that within the LM group (n = 102, 46.6%) (P = 0.000, ?). Facial lacerations comprised a significantly higher proportion in the OL group (79.3%) than that in the ML group (70.1%), whereas facial bone fractures were more frequent in the ML group (29.9%) than in the OL group (20.7%), which was significant (P = 0.004, ?). Assault and automobile accidents were significantly more frequent in the ML group (n = 65 [15.1%] and n = 31 [7.2%], respectively) than the OL group (n = 20 [6.0%] and n = 11 [3.3%]), whereas falls and pedestrian accidents were more significantly frequent in the OL group (n = 30 [9.0%] and n = 23 [6.9%], respectively) than in the LM group (n = 30 [7.0%] and n = 19 [4.4%]) (P = 0.000, ?). During the hours of the day, between 4 to 6 PM and 6 to 8 PM, injuries occurred more frequently in the OL group (14.5% and 12.4%, respectively) than in the LM group (10.5% and 11.0%, respectively). At the times of 8 to 10 PM and 10 PM to midnight, however, injuries occurred more frequently in the LM group (17.1%, 12.1%, respectively) than in the OL group (12.1% and 8.2%, respectively) (P = 0.03, ?). Frequency of injuries at home within the OL group (n = 68, 22.2%) was significantly higher than within the LM group (n = 55, 14.4%) (P = 0.001, ?), whereas frequency of injuries at the workplace of the LM group (n = 47, 12.3%) was significantly higher than that of the OL group (n = 16, 5.2%) (P = 0.001, ?). Alcohol ingestion at the time of injury was significantly more frequent in the LM group (n = 146, 34.1%) than in the OL group (n = 57, 17.3%) (P = 0.000, ?). In regard to diabetes, the OL group (35.6%) showed a higher prevalence than that of the LM group (25.4%; odds ratio, 2.65).Prevention of injury is important for elderly patients. It is worthy of notice that more than one fourth (26.8%) were in a drunken state at the time of injury. There were no significant differences in the days of hospitalization or in the interval from injury to operation. However, there were significant differences in the place of the injuries, causes of injuries, and time of injuries, which is important in the prevention of injuries. Attention should be paid to assault and automobile accidents in the LM group and to falls and pedestrian injuries in the OL group. Thus, injury prevention should be prepared for differently for both LM and OL groups. PMID:23714909

Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong

2013-05-01

86

A 13-year review of lisinopril ingestions in children less than 6 years of age.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used for treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction. Reports of clinical experience with pediatric ingestions are minimal. Method. A 13-year retrospective study of lisinopril ingestions in children reported to the California Poison Control System was analyzed and case notes were reviewed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained and cases were blinded. Inclusion criteria were lisinopril as a single ingestant, age less than 6 years, treatment in a health care facility, case followed to a known outcome. Results. Inclusion criteria were met in 296 cases. Demographics include 51% of male patients and the mean age was 1.97 years (range: 9 months-5 years). Of the 296 patients, 8 patients (2.7%) developed hypotension (ranges: 55-74 mm Hg systolic and 22-48 mm Hg diastolic). The lowest blood pressure of 55/22 mm Hg was recorded in a 22-month old male who ingested an estimated 120-mg lisinopril (13.3 mg/kg). The lowest dose of lisinopril causing hypotension was with an estimated dose of approximately 50 mg or 3.9 mg/kg in a 2-year old. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (95.3%) were treated and released from the emergency department and 14 patients (4.7%) were admitted. The dose ingested was reported in 189 cases and an exact-dose of lisinopril was reported in 61 patients (20.6%); mean amount ingested was 3.0 mg/kg, median amount ingested was 2.1 mg/kg (range: 0.1-10.9 mg/kg, N = 38); and mean total dose was 33.4 mg, median total dose was 20 mg (range: 2.5-160 mg, N = 61). None of the patients with exact-dose lisinopril ingestions developed hypotension, received intravenous fluids, or were admitted. Conclusion. The lowest estimated dose of lisinopril to cause hypotension was 50 mg or 3.9 mg/kg. Although continued evaluation of pediatric lisinopril ingestions is essential to determine more specific thresholds of toxicity, the lack of effect on blood pressure in children with exact-dose ingestions indicate that pediatric lisinopril ingestions (for ages > 9 months) ? 4 mg/kg up to 40 mg total may be safely managed at home. PMID:23964854

Lewis, J C; Alsop, J A

2013-08-22

87

Test-retest reliability and developmental evolution of the 6-min walk test in Caucasian boys aged 5-12 years.  

PubMed

The 6-min walk test (6MWT) assesses functional capacity and has been used as outcome measure in therapeutic studies in childhood neuromuscular disorders. The objectives were to evaluate test-retest reliability of the 6MWT and to generate normative data for healthy boys aged 5-12 years. Ninety boys (mean age 8 years 10 months) were recruited over four age subcategories (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 years). Mean 6MWT distance and velocity (±standard deviation) for the total group were 555.5±93 m and 92.6±16.6 m/min. The 6MWT distance increased significantly with age. Test-retest reliability (mean interval 12 days) was very high for the total group (ICC>0.95) and for all age subcategories (ICC>0.80) a moderately high reliability (ICC>0.75) was found from 3 min onwards for each age subcategory. There was a mean difference of 5.2 m between test and retest without systematic bias. The standard error of measurement and smallest detectable difference were 20.7 and 57.4 m, respectively. These findings demonstrate the reliability of the 6MWT in young children, underscore its evolution with age, and indicate that a shorter version of the test is also reliable. PMID:23137525

Goemans, Nathalie; Klingels, Katrijn; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Van Orshoven, Anneleen; Vanpraet, Sofie; Feys, Hilde; Buyse, Gunnar

2012-11-06

88

Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

2008-01-01

89

Longitudinal Cognition-Survival Relations in Old and Very Old Age: 13Year Data from the Berlin Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a statistical model that combines longitudinal and survival analyses to estimate the influence of level and change in cognition on age at death in old and very old individuals. Data are from the Berlin Aging Study, in which an initial sample of 516 elderly individuals with an age range of 70 to 103 years was assessed up to

Paolo Ghisletta; John J. McArdle; Ulman Lindenberger

2006-01-01

90

Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

2012-01-01

91

Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 ?g\\/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic

Todd A. Jusko; Charles R. Henderson Jr.; Bruce P. Lanphear; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta; Patrick J. Parsons; Richard L. Canfield

2007-01-01

92

Young Teens (12-14 years of age)  

MedlinePLUS

... some information on how young teens develop: Emotional/Social Changes Children in this age group might: Show ... availability of substance abuse prevention, alcohol and drug addiction treatment, and mental health services. Talk With Your ...

93

Importance of Age for 3Year Continuous Behavioral Obesity Treatment Success and Dropout Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether first year weight loss, age, and socioeconomic background correlate with the success rate of continuous long-term behavioral obesity treatment. Methods: In a 3-year longitudinal study, obese children (n = 684) were divided into three groups based on age at the start of treatment, age 6–9 years, 10–13 years, and 14–16 years. Results: The mean BMI standard

Pernilla Danielsson; Viktoria Svensson; Jan Kowalski; Gisela Nyberg; Örjan Ekblom; Claude Marcus

2012-01-01

94

Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents.  

PubMed

Ginsenosides is a low molecular weight substance found in ginseng as one of the active ingredients. Ginsenosides, like other herbal medicines, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions including neuroprotective effects. The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is one of numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that exists as a heteropentameric form in auditory hair cells of the cochlea. In this study, we report the effects of ginsenosides on rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with acetylcholine evoked inward currents (IACh) in oocytes heterologously expressing the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Ginsenosides blocked IACh in order of potency of Rg3> Rb2> CK>Re = Rg2> Rf>Rc> Rb1> Rg1 with reversible manners, and the blocking effect of Rg3 on IACh was same after pre-application than co-application of Rg3. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Rg3 was 39.6 ± 4.9 µm. Rg3-induced IACh inhibition was not affected by acetylcholine concentration and was independent of membrane holding potential. Although the inhibitory effect of Rg3 on IACh was abolished in oocytes expressing ?9 subunit alone, indicating that the presence of ?10 subunit might be required for Rg3-induced regulations of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity. These results indicate that ?10 subunit of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor might play an important role in Rg3-induced regulation of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. PMID:23649337

Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

2013-01-01

95

702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

Winkelman, W.D.

1998-07-22

96

Dating, sex, and substance use predict increases in adolescents' subjective age across two years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12—19 and again two years later (ages 14—21). Results were

Nancy L. Galambos; Arne K. Albrecht; S. Mikael Jansson

2009-01-01

97

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Paternity Among Adolescent Females Ages 14 through 16 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14–16 years having children fathered by males\\u000a age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was\\u000a a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females\\u000a aged 14–16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence

Brian C. Castrucci; Jamie Clark; Kayan Lewis; Rachel Samsel; Gita Mirchandani

2010-01-01

98

Cognitive development of term small for gestational age children at five years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo assess the relative significance for cognitive development of small for gestational age, parental demographic factors, and factors related to the child rearing environment.METHODSIQ of a population based cohort of 338 term infants who were small for gestational age (SGA) and without major handicap, and a random control sample of 335 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were compared at

K Sommerfelt; H W Andersson; K Sonnander; G Ahlsten; B Ellertsen; T Markestad; G Jacobsen; H J Hoffman; L Bakketeig

2000-01-01

99

Photochemical synthesis of 3-alkynals from 1-alkynoxy-9,10-anthraquinones.  

PubMed

Photolysis of 1-(3-alkynoxy)-9,10-anthraquinones in deoxygenated methanol leads to moderate yields (35-45%) of 3-alkynals along with the unexpected formation of diacetals. Reaction of these 3-alkynals with Grignard and Wittig reagents occurs nearly quantitatively without rearrangement to their 2,3-dienal isomers. PMID:19374382

Blankespoor, Ronald L; Boldenow, Peter J; Hansen, Eric C; Kallemeyn, Jeffrey M; Lohse, Andrew G; Rubush, David M; Vrieze, Derek

2009-05-15

100

Preparation and Evaluation of a Series of Alpha-Hydroxy Ethers from 9,10-Epoxystearates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several novel alpha-hydroxy ethers were synthesized by treatment of isobutyl 9,10-epoxystearate with a number of aliphatic alcohols in the presence of acid catalyst in good overall yield from oleic acid. The materials low temperature behavior was analyzed through cloud point and pour point determi...

101

Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Studies of 9, 10-Anthraquinone in a Room Temperature Molten Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) in the low-temperature AlCl3:n-butylpyridinium chloride (BuPyCl) molten salt system have been studied as a function of melt acidity. Infrared spectroscopic data indicate that AQ e...

G. T. Cheek R. A. Osteryoung

1980-01-01

102

Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group:\\u000a median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years).\\u000a The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but\\u000a different in age. After

Leonardo OstiRocco; Rocco Papalia; Angelo Del Buono; Vincenzo Denaro; Nicola Maffulli

2010-01-01

103

Effects of quercetin on ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents.  

PubMed

Quercetin, one of the flavonoids, is a low molecular weight substance found in fruits and vegetables. Quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions and antioxidant effects. The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is one of the numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that exist as a heteropentameric form between efferent olivocochlear fibers and hair cells of the cochlea. In this study, we report the effects of quercetin on rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Treatment with acetylcholine evoked inward currents (I(ACh)) in oocytes heterologously expressing the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Quercetin blocked I(ACh) in concentration-dependent and reversible manners, and the blocking effect on I(ACh) was stronger with pre-application than co-application of quercetin. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of quercetin was 45.4±10.1?M. Quercetin-mediated I(ACh) inhibition was not affected by acetylcholine concentration and was independent of membrane-holding potential. Although the inhibitory effect of quercetin was significantly attenuated in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), the action of quercetin was independent of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration, indicating that the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) might be needed for quercetin-related effects and might play an important role in quercetin-mediated regulation of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that quercetin-mediated regulation of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor could provide a molecular basis for quercetin actions at the cellular level. PMID:20950602

Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Tae-Joon; Pyo, Mi Kyung; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Mok; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

2010-10-13

104

The novel small molecule ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist ZZ-204G is analgesic  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is inadequately managed with currently available classes of analgesic drugs. Recently, peptide antagonists of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were shown to be analgesic. The present study was conducted to characterize a novel small molecule, non-peptide antagonist at nicotinic receptors. The tetrakis-quaternary ammonium compound ZZ-204G was evaluated for functional activity on cloned nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In-vivo efficacy was assessed in rat models of tonic inflammatory pain (formalin test), neuropathic pain (chronic constriction nerve injury), and thermal nociception (tail flick test). ZZ-204G was an antagonist at nicotinic receptors inhibiting the ?9?10 subtype with an IC50 of 0.51 (0.35–0.72) nM. Antagonist activity at other nicotinic subtypes (?1?1??, ?2?2, ?2?4, ?3?2, ?3?4, ?4?2, ?4?4, ?6/?3?2?3, ?6/?3?4 and ?7) was 10–1000-fold lower than at the ?9?10 subtype. In competition binding assays, the ki of ZZ-204G at ?-aminobutyric acid(A), serotonin(3), ?-aminobutyric acid(B), ?- and ?-opioid receptors was 1000- to >10,000- fold lower than at ?9?10 nicotinic receptors. Parenteral administration of ZZ-204G dose-dependently decreased nociceptive behaviors (paw flinches) in the formalin test and mechanical hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. ZZ-204G was not antinociceptive in the tail flick assay. Results from the rotarod assay indicated that lower doses of ZZ-204G that were analgesic did not alter motor function. In summary, ZZ-204G represents a prototype small molecule antagonist for ?9?10 nicotinic receptors and provides a novel molecular scaffold for analgesic agents with the potential to treat chronic inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

Holtman, Joseph R.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Dowell, Cheryl; Wala, Elzbieta P.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Crooks, Peter A.; McIntosh, J. Michael

2011-01-01

105

Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

Westermeyer, Jerry F.

2013-01-01

106

Early Childhood Heart Rate Does Not Predict Externalizing Behavior Problems at Age 7 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn previous research, low resting heart rate in childhood and adolescence has been shown to predict aggressive and\\/or delinquent behavior at subsequent ages. It has been found that heart rate recorded as early as age 3 years could predict externalizing behavior at age 11 years. This study explored the possibility of a similar relationship between heart rate and externalizing behavior

CAROL A. VAN HULLE; ROBIN CORLEY; CAROLYN ZAHN-WAXLER; JEROME KAGAN; JOHN K. HEWITT

2000-01-01

107

Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2010-01-01

108

Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages

Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

2009-01-01

109

Interrupter resistance and wheezing phenotypes at 4 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to distinguish young children with respiratory symp- toms who will develop asthma from those with transient symptoms only. Measurement of interrupter resistance may help to identify children at high risk of asthma. The aim of this study is to compare interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children with different wheez- ing phenotypes. All children participated in the Prevention and

Jessica E. Brussee; Henriette A. Smit; Laurens P. Koopman; Alet H. Wijga; Marjan Kerkhof; Karen Corver; Ada P. H. Vos; Jorrit Gerritsen; Diederick E. Grobbee; Bert Brunekreef; Peter J. F. M. Merkus; J. C. de Jongste

2004-01-01

110

Reaction Time, Age, and Cognitive Ability: Longitudinal Findings from Age 16 to 63 Years in Representative Population Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction time variables are used widely in studies of human cognitive ageing and in research on the information processing foundations of psychometric intelligence. The research is largely based on biased population samples. In the present study, large (500+), representative samples of the population of the West of Scotland were tested at ages 16, 36 and 56 years on simple and

Ian J. Deary; Geoff Der

2005-01-01

111

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

112

Intellectual outcome at 12 years of age in congenital hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: The intellectual outcome,in children with congenital hypothyroidism,detected by neonatal screening is generally good; however, subtle neurological dysfunctions, subnormal IQ, or both, have been reported. Objective: To evaluate the intellectual outcome in 12-year-old patients with congenital hypothyroidism, detected by neonatal screening, in an attempt to identify factors that may affect intellectual development. Methods: The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 40

M Salerno; Roberto Militerni; Salvatore Di Maio; Carmela Bravaccio; Nicoletta Gasparini; Alfred Tenore

1999-01-01

113

Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

2011-01-01

114

[Characteristics of medulloblastoma in children under age of three years].  

PubMed

We present a series of 51 medulloblastoma in children under three years, collected in N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute from 2000 to 2010. 57% of the tumors showed desmoplastic/nodular histology. Performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the MYC oncogene amplification in 4%, the MYCN oncogene amplification - in 8%, isochromosome 17q - in 16% of cases. 9q deletion was found in 8% of desmoplastic/ nodular medulloblastomas. Our results showed that desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma has a positive predictive value for progression-free survival. Another feature of a biology of medulloblastomas in children younger than three years is the lack of nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, and 6q deletion. Medulloblastomas with MYCN oncogene amplification often exhibit desmoplastic/nodular histology and a relatively favorable outcome. The most unfavorable prognostic marker is the MYC oncogene amplification, which in our series of 100% combined with the large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma and isochromosome 17q - such tumors should be included in the "high risk" protocol. PMID:23659115

Ryzhova, M V; Zheludkova, O G; Kumirova, É V; Shishkina, L V; Panina, T N; Gorelyshev, S K; Khukhlaeva, E A; Mazerkina, N A; Matuev, K B; Medvedeva, O A; Tarasova, E M; Kholodov, B V; Kapitul'skaia, O Iu

2013-01-01

115

Star clusterings in the Carina complex: UBVRI photometry of Bochum 9, 10 and 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the first UBVRI CCD photometry of three poorly known star clusterings in the region of eta Carinae: Bochum 9, 10 and 11. We find that they are young, rather poor, loose open clusters. We argue that Bochum 9 is probably a small and loose open cluster with about 30 probable members having E(B-V)=0.63+\\/-0.08, located 4.6kpc far from

Ferdinando Patat; Giovanni Carraro

2001-01-01

116

Urethane foams from animal fats I. Oxyethylated 9, 10-dihydroxystearic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threo- anderythro-9,10-dihydroxystearic acids were reacted with 2, 4, 6 and 8 moles of ethylene oxide. The oxyethylated polyols from thethreo acid, adjusted to equivalent weight 100 with triisopropanolamine, were converted to satisfactory rigid foams by mixing with\\u000a corresponding amts of isocyanate-terminated oxypropylated sorbitol prepolymers of three viscosities. Typical foam properties\\u000a had maxima for the tetra- or hexaoxyethylene polyol, and most

E. J. Saggese; Marta Zubillaga; A. N. Wrigley; W. C. Ault

1965-01-01

117

Extrusive thickness variability at the East Pacific Rise, 9°-10°N: Constraints from seismic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate synthetic shot gathers and their corresponding common depth point (CDP) profiles over plausible East Pacific Rise (EPR) shallow velocity structures, based on the structures obtained from high-resolution on-bottom seismic refraction experiments. We then use these results to analyze the variability in layer 2A thickness at the EPR 9°-10°N region, as measured by CDP, wide-aperture profile (WAP), on-bottom seismic

G. L. Christeson; G. M. Kent; G. M. Purdy; R. S. Detrick

1996-01-01

118

Kinetics of photoreduction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the presence of amines and polymethylbenzenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the kinetics of photoreduction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the presence of hydrogen donors (para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines and polymethylbenzenes) showed that plots of the quantum yield of photoreduction (?H) and apparent reaction rate constant (kH) vs. oxidation potential of hydrogen donors are extreme. In the presence of amines, kH and ?H increase, as a whole, whereas they decrease in the

M. P. Shurygina; S. A. Chesnokov; M. A. Lopatin; V. K. Cherkasov; G. A. Abakumov

2004-01-01

119

Neutrophil-derived epoxide, 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate, induces pulmonary edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed that neutrophils biosynthesize linoleate epoxide, 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate, and have named it leukotoxin\\u000a because of its cytotoxic effect. In this experiment, the effect of leukotoxin on the lung was investigated. Acute effect of\\u000a leukotoxin: Using Wistar rats, leukotoxin (100µmol\\/kg) was injected intravenously for the leukotoxin group, and linoleate (100µmol\\/kg) for the linoleate group. Physiological saline was injected as the

Hu Jia-ning; Fumio Taki; Satoru Sugiyama; Junpei Asai; Yohei Izawa; Tatsuo Satake; Takayuki Ozawa

1988-01-01

120

The physical maps for sequencing human chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20 and X  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed maps for eight chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, X and (previously) 22), representing one-third of the genome, by building landmark maps, isolating bacterial clones and assembling contigs. By this approach, we could establish the long-range organization of the maps early in the project, and all contig extension, gap closure and problem-solving was simplified by containment within

P. Deloukas; A. Dunham; S. G. Gregory; S. J. Humphray; A. J. Mungall; M. T. Ross; N. P. Carter; I. Dunham; C. E. Scott; K. J. Ashcroft; A. L. Atkinson; K. Aubin; D. M. Beare; G. Bethel; N. Brady; J. C. Brook; D. C. Burford; W. D. Burrill; C. Burrows; A. P. Butler; C. Carder; J. J. Catanese; C. M. Clee; S. M. Clegg; V. Cobley; A. J. Coffey; C. G. Cole; J. E. Collins; J. S. Conquer; R. A. Cooper; K. M. Culley; E. Dawson; F. L. Dearden; R. M. Durbin; P. J. de Jong; P. D. Dhami; M. E. Earthrowl; C. A. Edwards; R. S. Evans; C. J. Gillson; J. Ghori; L. Green; R. Gwilliam; K. S. Halls; S. Hammond; G. L. Harper; R. W. Heathcott; J. L. Holden; E. Holloway; B. L. Hopkins; P. J. Howard; G. R. Howell; E. J. Huckle; J. Hughes; P. J. Hunt; S. E. Hunt; M. Izmajlowicz; C. A. Jones; S. S. Joseph; G. Laird; C. F. Langford; M. H. Lehvaslaiho; M. A. Leversha; O. T. McCann; L. M. McDonald; J. McDowall; G. L. Maslen; D. Mistry; N. K. Moschonas; V. Neocleous; D. M. Pearson; K. J. Phillips; K. M. Porter; S. R. Prathalingam; Y. H. Ramsey; S. A. Ranby; C. M. Rice; J. Rogers; L. J. Rogers; T. Sarafidou; D. J. Scott; G. J. Sharp; C. J. Shaw-Smith; L. J. Smink; C. Soderlund; E. C. Sotheran; H. E. Steingruber; J. E. Sulston; A. Taylor; R. G. Taylor; A. A. Thorpe; E. Tinsley; G. L. Warry; A. Whittaker; P. Whittaker; S. H. Williams; T. E. Wilmer; R. Wooster; C. L. Wright

2001-01-01

121

Immune thrombocytopenia in children less than 1 year of age: a single-institution 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children less than one year of age is less well characterized compared to ITP in toddlers and school-age children. We performed a 10-year retrospective review of ITP patients in this age-cohort at our institution. Diagnosis and classification were made according to the 2009 International Working Group criteria. Fourteen infants were identified. Their bleeding scores were Grades 1 to 2 (79%), Grade 3 (22%), Grades 4 to 5 (0%). Eight patients received treatment with a 75% response rate. Three patients (21%) developed chronic ITP. These observations suggest that ITP in very young patients is similar to typical childhood ITP. PMID:22767132

Lo, Clara; Wong, Wendy; Glader, Bertil; Jeng, Michael

2013-07-01

122

Measuring years of inactivity, years in retirement, time to retirement, and age at retirement within the Markov model.  

PubMed

Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed-all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

Skoog, Gary R; Ciecka, James E

2010-08-01

123

Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

2011-01-01

124

The Sonksen logMAR test of visual acuity: II. Age norms from 2 years 9 months to 8 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS All curves demonstrated an increase in visual acuity with age that was steepest between 2 years 9 months and 5 years 3 months. Equivalent centiles for linear visual acuity were better when viewed binocularly than monocularly; the difference was least between the 95th centiles ( best levels) and greatest between the 5th centiles (worst levels). There were no clinically

Patricia M. Sonksen; Angie M. Wade; Ruth Proffitt; Sally Heavens; Alison T. Salt

125

Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

2011-01-01

126

Quantifying the Stellar Mass Density of the Universe out to z~9-10: Ultra-Deep Spitzer Observations of Two Highly Magnified z~9-10 Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the stellar mass in galaxies to increasingly high redshifts provide us one of the most powerful ways of gauging early galaxy build-up. Combining ultra- deep IRAC imaging observations with deep WFC3/IR observations have allowed astronomers both to identify and estimate masses for sources out to redshifts as high as z~8. However, it has been difficult to extend such studies to even higher redshifts due to the incredible faintness and rarity of typical z~9-10 galaxies. One method for stepping beyond the normal S/N limitations is to take advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to magnify faint z>8 sources, but to do so, we must know where the magnified sources lie. Fortunately, utilizing the huge investment of HST time in the 524-orbit CLASH program, we have been able to identify 100s of z~5-8 galaxies and even 4 extremely tantalizing z~9-11 galaxy candidates. To extend our measurement of galaxy masses to the earliest possible times, we require ultra-deep Spitzer observations on these candidates to accurately measure their rest-frame optical properties. While two of the z~9-11 candidates are the subject of deep IRAC observations as a result of an approved program, the other two will not be the subject of such observations. Given the considerable galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the mass-to-light ratio, ultra-deep Spitzer observations are needed for all four z~9-11 candidates to establish the typical properties of galaxies in this epoch. We propose to obtain such observations over the two z~9 candidates lacking such observations. Not only will our proposed observations substantially improve our ability to estimate the stellar mass density at z~9-11, but it will play a pivotal role in characterizing the stellar masses and other properties of 20-30 other gravitationally lensed z~4-8 galaxies behind these clusters.

Bouwens, Rychard; Zheng, Wei; Moustakas, Leonidas; Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Donahue, Megan; Labbe, Ivo; Smit, Renske; Zitrin, Adi

2012-12-01

127

Age at initiation of cannabis use predicts age at onset of psychosis: the 7- to 8-year trend.  

PubMed

We investigated the existence of a temporal association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness in 997 participants from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia. We tested for group differences in age at onset of psychotic illness and in the duration of premorbid exposure to cannabis (DPEC). Analyses were repeated in subgroups of participants with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), a diagnosis of lifetime cannabis dependence (LCD), and a comorbid SSD/LCD diagnosis. The association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was linear and significant, F(11, 984) = 13.77, P < .001, even after adjusting for confounders. The effect of age at initiation of cannabis use on DPEC was not significant (mean duration of 7.8 years), and this effect was similar in participants with a SSD, LCD, and comorbid SSD/ LCD diagnosis although a shift toward shorter premorbid exposure to cannabis was noted in the SSD/LCD subgroup (mean duration of 7.19 years for SSD/LCD). A temporal direct relationship between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was detected with a premorbid exposure to cannabis trend of 7-8 years, modifiable by higher severity of premorbid cannabis use and a diagnosis of SSD. Cannabis may exert a cumulative toxic effect on individuals on the pathway to developing psychosis, the manifestation of which is delayed for approximately 7-8 years, regardless of age at which cannabis use was initiated. PMID:23314189

Stefanis, Nikos C; Dragovic, Milan; Power, Brian D; Jablensky, Assen; Castle, David; Morgan, Vera Anne

2013-01-11

128

Effect of parity and age at delivery on breast cancer risk in Slovenian women aged 25-54 years.  

PubMed

In 1988, a case-control study on breast cancer and oral contraceptives with 624 cases and 624 matched controls in the age range 25-54 years was undertaken in Slovenia. This analysis assesses the relationship between parity and breast cancer risk: the relative importance of age at first birth, age at subsequent births and total parity. We also evaluate whether a dual effect of an increased risk immediately after childbirth followed by a long-term benefit exists. Three logistic regression models were used. Age at first delivery is an important breast cancer risk factor: among parous women it was associated with a 5.3% increase/year in the odds of breast cancer. Multiparity was not shown to be an independent risk factor. Age at subsequent deliveries was associated with a 1% increase in risk for every 1 year increase of age at any birth, but this contribution to the risk was not significant. In the analysis stratified by parity the most important influence is with the age at first birth. We find no evidence of an effect on the odds of breast cancer associated with the age at the second, or later, births. We do find that there is an increased risk associated with the birth of the first child followed by a longer term protective effect. A post-menopausal woman has a reduced breast cancer risk compared with a pre-menopausal woman of the same age, adjusting for the same number of deliveries and ages at these deliveries. PMID:9334801

Robertson, C; Primic-Zakelj, M; Boyle, P; Hsieh, C C

1997-09-26

129

Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

1996-01-01

130

Sixteen years age limit for learner drivers in Sweden—an evaluation of safety effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a reform implemented in Sweden, September 1993, the age limit for practising car driving was lowered from 1712 to 16 years while the licensing age remained 18. The purpose of lowering the age limit was to give the learner drivers an opportunity to acquire more experience as drivers before being allowed to drive on their own. The primary aim

Nils P. Gregersen; Hans-Yngve Berg; Inger Engström; Sixten Nolén; Anders Nyberg; Per-Arne Rimmö

2000-01-01

131

Oxygen Saturation in Healthy Children Aged 5 to 16 Years Residing in Huayllay, Peru at 4340 m  

PubMed Central

Abstract Schult, Sandra, and Carlos Canelo-Aybar. Oxygen saturation in healthy chidren aged 5 to 6 years residing in Huayllay, Peru, at 4340?m. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:89–92, 2011.—Hypoxemia is a major life-threatening complication of childhood pneumonia. The threshold points for hypoxemia vary with altitude. However, few published data describe that normal range of variation. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of normal mean Sao2 levels and an approximate cutoff point to define hypoxemia for clinical purposes above 4300 meters above sea level (masl). Children aged 5 to 16 yr were examined during primary care visits at the Huayllay Health Center. Huayllay is a rural community located at 4340?m in the province of Pasco in the Peruvian Andes. We collected basic sociodemographic data and evaluated three outcomes: arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) with a pulse oximeter, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Comparisons of main outcomes among age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 yr) and sex were performed using linear regression models. The correlation of Sao2 with heart rate and respiration rate was established by Pearson's correlation test. We evaluated 583 children, of whom 386 were included in the study. The average age was 10.3 yr; 55.7% were female. The average Sao2, heart rate, and respiratory rate were 85.7% (95% CI: 85.2–86.2), 80.4/min (95% CI: 79.0–81.9), and 19.9/min (95% CI: 19.6–20.2), respectively. Sao2 increased with age (p?age group. At 4300?m, the reference values for hypoxemia may be 14.2% lower than at sea level. This difference must be considered when diagnosing hypoxemia or deciding oxygen supplementation at high altitude. Other studies are needed to determine whether this reference value is appropriate for clinical use.

Schult, Sandra

2011-01-01

132

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance*body mass index interactions at ages 9 to 10 years predict metabolic syndrome risk factor aggregate score at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

If homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) interactions with obesity (body mass index [BMI]) at ages 9 to 10 years predict aggregate metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years, this would identify novel avenues for primary prevention of metabolic syndrome. Our hypothesis was that HOMA-IR*BMI interactions at ages 9 to 10 years would predict aggregate metabolic

John A. Morrison; Charles J. Glueck; Paul S. Horn; George B. Schreiber; Ping Wang

2009-01-01

133

National Institute on Aging: Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2001-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Director's message; National Institute of Aging Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2001-2005 Table of Contents; National Institute of Aging Strategic Plan--Fiscal Years 2001-2005 Overview; Research Goal A: Improve Health and Quality of Lif...

2001-01-01

134

Allergy in Patients Under Fourteen Years of Age in Alergológica 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Objective: To present the most signifi cant data obtained on patients younger than 14 years from the Alergológica-2005 study. Results: Nine hundred seventeen (18.3%) of the patients included in the study were under the age of 14 (average age 8 years with a similar distribution by gender) and were heavy users of healthcare resources. The most frequently diagnosed

JM Garde

135

Coping of Judo Competitors in the Context of Gender, Age, Years of Practice and Skill Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which gender, age, skill level, and years of practice, serves as predictors of coping styles in judo. Participants in the study consisted of 98 judo competitors (47 females and 51 males, aged 13-21 years). As a result of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis four coping styles have been established for

Aleksandra Rogowska; Cezary Ku?nierz

2012-01-01

136

Radiation doses in the UK trial of breast screening in women aged 40-48 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although data have been published on the radiation doses involved in screening women in the UK in the age range 50-64 years, data have not been published for the screening of younger women, when one might expect higher doses and a different risk benefit balance. Therefore, data on the radiation doses arising from screening younger women (age range 40-48 years)

K C YOUNG

137

Clinical Characteristics of Aged Becker Muscular Dystrophy Patients with Onset after 30 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the clinical characteristics of aged patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), 4 patients with this disease who were over 50 years were examined. The ages at onset in all patients were later than 30 years. All were proven to have a deletion around exons 45–55 of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene. Two patients became wheelchair bound in

Masahide Yazaki; Kunihiro Yoshida; Akinori Nakamura; Jun Koyama; Takashi Nanba; Nobuhira Ohori; Shu-ichi Ikeda

1999-01-01

138

How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

Grayson, Nancy Mathea

2010-01-01

139

Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21–35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into

S. Bird; M. George; S. Theakston; J. Balmer; R. C. R. Davison

2003-01-01

140

Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Colman, S. M.; Rosenbaum, J. G.; Kaufman, D. S.; Dean, W. E.; McGeehin, J. P.

2009-01-01

141

Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age.Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a

S Bird; M George; J Balmer; R C R Davison

2003-01-01

142

Neurocognitive Functioning in Children Diagnosed with Diabetes Before Age 10 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine scores on tests of neurocognitive functioning in children diagnosed with diabetes before age 10 years and to determine the association of age of diagnosis, duration of diabetes, subtle hypoglycemia, severe hypoglycemia, and history of hypoglycemic seizures with these neurocognitive test scores. Fifty-five of 62 eligible patients with a mean age of 7.9 ± 1.6 years

Francine Ratner Kaufman; Karen Epport; Raquel Engilman; Mary Halvorson

1999-01-01

143

Probing solute{endash}solvent electrostatic interactions: Rotational diffusion studies of 9,10-disubstituted anthracenes  

SciTech Connect

The rotational diffusion of 9,10-disubstituted anthracenes is studied in various solvents. By systematic variation of the anthracene functionalities the influence of the electrostatic properties of the solute on the solute{endash}solvent frictional coupling is investigated. These studies explore the range of validity of continuum based dielectric friction models for describing the frictional coupling. It is found that a continuum model of the solvent with an extended charge distribution for the solute is adequate in unassociated solvents, but does not adequately describe the friction in the associated solvent, benzyl alcohol. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Hartman, R.S. [Department of Chemistry, LaRoche College, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15237 (United States); Konitsky, W.M.; Waldeck, D.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Chang, Y.J.; Castner, E.W., Jr. [Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

1997-05-01

144

White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Förster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

Guan, Yunxia; Niu, Lianbin

2009-03-01

145

Structure effects in the reactions 9,10,11Be+64Zn at the Coulomb barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic scattering and direct reactions have been studied for the collisions induced by the three Beryllium isotopes 9,10,11Be, on a medium mass 64Zn target at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The elastic scattering angular distributions, measured for the three systems at the same center of mass energy, were analyzed within the Optical Model and reaction cross-sections were deduced from optical model calculations. For the 11Be induced reaction the transfer/break-up angular distribution was also extracted.

Scuderi, V.; Di Pietro, A.; Acosta, L.; Amorini, F.; Borge, M. J. G.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Fraile, L. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Jeppesen, H.; Lattuada, M.; Martel, I.; Milin, M.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perez-Bernal, F.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Tengblad, O.; Torresi, D.; Vidal, A. M.; Zadro, M.

2011-01-01

146

2Ethyl9,10-anthraquinone hydrogenation over Pd\\/polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two polymers, namely poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) and polyaniline (PANI), were used as the supports for palladium catalysts acting in 2-ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (EAQ) hydrogenation, a key step in the industrial production of H2O2. The nature of PVP and PANI interactions with various chlorocomplexes of Pd(II) coexisting in PdCl2–H2O–HCl solutions was studied using IR (mid-IR, far-IR), UV–Vis and XPS spectroscopies. It was found that

A Drelinkiewicz; M Hasik

2001-01-01

147

Flexibility of Older Adults Aged 55-86 Years and the Influence of Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55–86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, 71 ± 9 years; 231 women, 72 ± 8 years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes.

McDonald, Matthew W.; Little, Robert M. D.; Paterson, Donald H.

2013-01-01

148

Assessment and classification of psychopathology in epidemiological research of children 0–3 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of psychopathology in children 0–3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0–3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic assessments of children 0–3 years of age are based on information from different sources and investigation of

A. M. Skovgaard; T. Houmann; S. L. Landorph; E. Christiansen

2004-01-01

149

Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education.

Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

2013-01-01

150

Rearrangement of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) diketone: 9,10-diarylanthracenes with OLED applications.  

PubMed

Electroluminescent 9,10-diaryl anthracenes have been shown to be promising host and hole-transporting materials in organic electroluminescence due to their high thermal stability, electrochemical reversibility, and wide band gap useful for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), especially blue OLEDs. Oxidation of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) to the corresponding diketone and subsequent bromination resulted in an unexpected rearrangement to a highly functionalized 9-aryl-10-bromoanthracene derivative, which was employed in Suzuki couplings to synthesize a series of 9,10-diaryl compounds that are structural analogues of anthracene derivatives used in the preparation of OLEDs but are more highly functionalized, including electron-donating methoxy groups in addition to substitution by a carboxylic acid moiety. The UV/fluorescence solution spectra show strong emissions at 446, 438, and 479 nm, respectively, for the anthracene 10-phenyl, 10-naphthyl, and 10-pyrenyl adducts containing a benzoic acid functional group, whereas the analogues bearing the hydroxymethylene moiety from reduction of the benzoic acid to the corresponding alcohols gave much shorter emission wavelengths of 408, 417, and 476 nm, respectively, and had somewhat higher quantum yields, suggesting they are better candidates for OLED applications. PMID:23190432

Sarsah, Samuel R S; Lutz, Marlon R; Zeller, Matthias; Crumrine, David S; Becker, Daniel P

2012-12-14

151

Rubella seroprevalence among women aged 15-39 years in Morocco.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the age-specific rubella seroprevalence in women of childbearing age in Morocco and to contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy in the country. Of 967 women aged 15-39 years tested in 2000, 161 (16.6%) were susceptible to rubella based on absence of IgG antibodies. A significantly higher rate of susceptibility among women aged 15-19 years was observed (29.3%) compared with age 35-39 years (8.3%). An estimated 77,562 live births occur annually to rubella-susceptible women. No statistical difference in seroprevalence was seen between women in rural and urban areas (81.5% and 85.0% respectively). A substantial risk of rubella infection exists for Moroccan women of childbearing age. PMID:19731768

Caidi, H; Bloom, S; Azilmaat, M; Benjouad, A; Reef, S; El Aouad, R

152

Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult predictors of favorable overall outcome included good peer social adjustment, an absence of troubled parental discipline, and an absence of immature defensive behaviors when angry. However, young adult factors were more predictive of outcomes in middle age than in early old age, as predictor effect sizes decreased between the first follow-up and the second follow-up 16 years later. Findings support the possibility of both favorable and unfavorable changes in the second half of life that may diminish the impact of some young adult characteristics and family environments on adjustment in early old age. PMID:23855185

Westermeyer, Jerry F

2013-01-01

153

Synthesis and properties of organosilicon polymers containing 9,10-diethynylanthracene units with highly hole-transporting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling reactions of 9,10-di(lithioethynyl)anthracene with dichloromono-, di-, and trisilanes, Cl(SiR2)mCl (m=1–3) gave polymers composed of alternating 9,10-diethynylanthracene and organosilicon units. With dichlorotetraorganodisilanes, the corresponding dianthracenophanes composed of two 9,10-diethynylanthracene units linked by tetraorganodisilanylene bridges were also obtained, together with the polymers. The emission spectra of the polymers with di- and trisilanylene units suggest that intrachain aggregation takes place in solution,

Stefan A Manhart; Akira Adachi; Koichi Sakamaki; Koichi Okita; Joji Ohshita; Takahiro Ohno; Takeshi Hamaguchi; Atsutaka Kunai; Junji Kido

1999-01-01

154

Underrepresentation of individuals 80 years of age and older in chronic disease clinical practice guidelines  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine whether Canadian clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and the evidence used to create CPGs, include individuals 80 years of age and older. Design Descriptive analysis of 14 CPGs for 5 dominant chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, osteoporosis, stroke) and descriptive analysis of all research-based references with human participants in the 14 guidelines. Main outcome measures To identify recommendations for individuals 65 years of age and older or 80 years of age and older and for those with multiple chronic conditions. Results Although 12 of 14 guidelines provided specific recommendations for individuals 65 years of age and older, only 5 provided recommendations for frail older individuals (? 80 years). A total of 2559 studies were used as evidence to support the recommendations in the 14 CPGs; 2272 studies provided the mean age of participants, of which only 31 (1.4%) reported a mean age of 80 years of age and older. Conclusion There is very low representation of individuals in advanced old age in CPGs and in the studies upon which these guidelines are based, calling into question the applicability of current chronic disease CPGs to older individuals. The variety of medical and functional issues occurring in the elderly raises the concern of whether or not evidence-based disease-specific CPGs are appropriate for such a diverse population.

Cox, Lizebeth; Kloseck, Marita; Crilly, Richard; McWilliam, Carol; Diachun, Laura

2011-01-01

155

VALUE OF TREE MEASUREMENTS MADE AT AGE 5 YEARS FOR PREDICTING THE HEIGHT AND DIAMETER GROWTH AT AGE 25YEARS IN LOBLOLLY PINE PLANTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early growth measurements Of pins plantations are Ofkm used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management On productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots\\/location ) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years and productivity at

Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

156

[[Decomposition of the group with less than 5 years of age by simple ages starting from quinquennial survival relations  

PubMed

The author reports on 5 procedures to disaggregate data for those under age 5 in population-based projections because of the need to understand the data associated with health and pre-school data. Some techniques in interpolation could be useful but changes in fertility levels and in infant mortality are characteristic of those age 0-5 which limits its applicability. The first 3 techniques use relations that are manageable with stable populations, and more limited in the case of real populations. The 4th procedure is based on rejuvenating populations from age 5-9 by simple ages, and by quinquennial age groups after the year considered. The last procedure is used directly in Sprague's game of multipliers. The proposed procedures use projected information and is used to construct mortality tables when wishing to do a population projection. The author cautions against differentiating between closed populations and those affected by migration movements. This paper uses the example of Chilean males ages 0-4 for the year 1990. PMID:12282296

Moya, O

1987-12-01

157

Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.  

PubMed

To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males. PMID:19795199

Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

2010-11-01

158

Public Hearings: Gambling, Law Enforcement, Organized Crime Held at Boston, Massachusetts on April 9, 10, and 11, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains testimony before the National Gambling Commission concerning gambling, law enforcement and organized crime. Hearings were conducted in Boston, Massachusetts on April 9, 10, 11, 1975.

1975-01-01

159

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance*body mass index interactions at ages 9 to 10 years predict metabolic syndrome risk factor aggregate score at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.  

PubMed

If homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) interactions with obesity (body mass index [BMI]) at ages 9 to 10 years predict aggregate metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years, this would identify novel avenues for primary prevention of metabolic syndrome. Our hypothesis was that HOMA-IR*BMI interactions at ages 9 to 10 years would predict aggregate metabolic syndrome risk factor z scores at ages 18 to 19 years in prospective studies of a biracial population of girls. Two centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study measured serum insulin and glucose at ages 9 to 10 years and 5 metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years (triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and glucose). Studies in Cincinnati, OH, included girls from public and parochial schools in the inner city, within-city residential neighborhoods, and suburban areas; and those in Washington, DC, included girls from a health maintenance organization. Girls (194 white, 281 black) were studied first at ages 9 to 10 years, then at ages 18 to 19 years. We assessed HOMA-IR*BMI interactions at ages 9 to 10 years with race-specific z scores for 5 metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years. The lowest summed z score (mean +/- SD) was observed for subjects in the lowest tertiles for both HOMA-IR and BMI (-1.15 +/- 2.05), and the highest z score (2.58 +/- 3.11) was for subjects in the highest tertiles for both HOMA-IR and BMI (P < .0001). For the top BMI tertile, there was a progressive increase in z score (increasing risk of metabolic syndrome) as HOMA-IR increased. Interaction of BMI with HOMA-IR at ages 9 to 10 years predicts aggregate metabolic risk score at ages 18 to 19 years, with progressive risk increments within the top BMI tertile as HOMA-IR increases, opening avenues for intervention to reduce both BMI and HOMA-IR at ages 9 to 10 years as a primary approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome at ages 18 to 19 years. PMID:19217441

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Horn, Paul S; Schreiber, George B; Wang, Ping

2009-03-01

160

Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12–19 years: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12–19 years (n = 267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 years, resulting in 519 measurements. Two field tests, the Shuttle Sprint

Barbara C. H. Huijgen; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Wendy Post; Chris Visscher

2010-01-01

161

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30–46 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.METHODSAll eligible men aged 30–46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures),

Sjur Humerfelt; Geir E Eide; Amund Gulsvik

1998-01-01

162

Spectroscopic characterizations and comparisons of the structures of the covalent adducts derived from the reactions 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene and 9,10,11,12-tetrahydrobenzo(e)pyrene with DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conformation of covalent adducts derived from the reactions of racemic 7..beta..,8..cap alpha..-dihydroxy-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BaPDE), 9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BaPE), and 9,10-epoxy-9,10,11,12-tetrahydrobenzo(e)pyrene (BePE) with calf thymus DNA in aqueous buffer solution (25°C, pH 7.0) were investigated and compared by means of absorption, fluorescence and electric linear dichroism techniques. Two types of conformations are recognized. Site I is characterized by a red shift

N. E. Geacintov; A. G. Gagliano; V. Ibanez; R. G. Harvey

1982-01-01

163

Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.  

PubMed

Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age. PMID:22367579

Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

2012-02-26

164

Phase Behavior and Vapor Pressures of the Pyrene + 9,10-Dibromoanthracene System  

PubMed Central

The present work concerns the thermochemical and vapor pressure behavior of the pyrene + 9,10-dibromoanthracene system. The phase diagram of the system has been studied using the thaw melt method and the results show the formation of non-eutectic multiphase mixtures. The temperatures of crystallization, and enthalpies of fusion and crystallization of the system were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The system behavior can be divided into 5 regions. The X-ray diffraction results also indicated the existence of multiple phase characteristics. The solid-vapor equilibrium studies showed that for mixtures with high mole fractions of pyrene, two different preferred states exist that determine the vapor pressure. For those mixtures with moderate and low mole fractions of pyrene, only one preferred state exists that determines vapor pressure behavior. It was also demonstrated that the vapor pressure of the mixtures is independent of the mixture preparation technique.

Fu, Jinxia; Rice, James W.; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

165

Mass spectrometry of derivatives and heterocyclic analogues of 9,10-dihydroanthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fragmentation of derivatives of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and of its heterocyclic analogues containing atoms of O, S, N, P, Si, As, Se and Te at positions 9 and/or 10 is examined. The conditions reviewed are electron impact and chemical ionisation with recording of positive and negative ions. It has been shown that depending on its nature, the heteroatom may be eliminated together with substituents from the molecular ion or a substituent may be lost both as a radical and together with an additional H atom. The fragmentation of compounds in which the substituting groups are adjacent to the heteroatom is explained by the "peri-effect". The elimination of substituents from phenylene rings, at the meso position and at the heteroatom occurs in a similar manner to elimination in the corresponding aromatic derivatives. The bibliography contains 114 references.

Mikaya, Anzor I.; Varlamov, Alexey V.; Zaikin, Vladimir G.; Prostakov, Nikolai S.

1991-05-01

166

The physical maps for sequencing human chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20 and X.  

PubMed

We constructed maps for eight chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, X and (previously) 22), representing one-third of the genome, by building landmark maps, isolating bacterial clones and assembling contigs. By this approach, we could establish the long-range organization of the maps early in the project, and all contig extension, gap closure and problem-solving was simplified by containment within local regions. The maps currently represent more than 94% of the euchromatic (gene-containing) regions of these chromosomes in 176 contigs, and contain 96% of the chromosome-specific markers in the human gene map. By measuring the remaining gaps, we can assess chromosome length and coverage in sequenced clones. PMID:11237015

Bentley, D R; Deloukas, P; Dunham, A; French, L; Gregory, S G; Humphray, S J; Mungall, A J; Ross, M T; Carter, N P; Dunham, I; Scott, C E; Ashcroft, K J; Atkinson, A L; Aubin, K; Beare, D M; Bethel, G; Brady, N; Brook, J C; Burford, D C; Burrill, W D; Burrows, C; Butler, A P; Carder, C; Catanese, J J; Clee, C M; Clegg, S M; Cobley, V; Coffey, A J; Cole, C G; Collins, J E; Conquer, J S; Cooper, R A; Culley, K M; Dawson, E; Dearden, F L; Durbin, R M; de Jong, P J; Dhami, P D; Earthrowl, M E; Edwards, C A; Evans, R S; Gillson, C J; Ghori, J; Green, L; Gwilliam, R; Halls, K S; Hammond, S; Harper, G L; Heathcott, R W; Holden, J L; Holloway, E; Hopkins, B L; Howard, P J; Howell, G R; Huckle, E J; Hughes, J; Hunt, P J; Hunt, S E; Izmajlowicz, M; Jones, C A; Joseph, S S; Laird, G; Langford, C F; Lehvaslaiho, M H; Leversha, M A; McCann, O T; McDonald, L M; McDowall, J; Maslen, G L; Mistry, D; Moschonas, N K; Neocleous, V; Pearson, D M; Phillips, K J; Porter, K M; Prathalingam, S R; Ramsey, Y H; Ranby, S A; Rice, C M; Rogers, J; Rogers, L J; Sarafidou, T; Scott, D J; Sharp, G J; Shaw-Smith, C J; Smink, L J; Soderlund, C; Sotheran, E C; Steingruber, H E; Sulston, J E; Taylor, A; Taylor, R G; Thorpe, A A; Tinsley, E; Warry, G L; Whittaker, A; Whittaker, P; Williams, S H; Wilmer, T E; Wooster, R; Wright, C L

2001-02-15

167

Solubilities of p-quinone and 9,10-anthraquinone in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium solubilities of p-quinone (1,4-benzoquinone) and 9,10-anthraquinone at 35 C and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about (85--300) bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with a high-pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The solubility results, along with those reported in the literature for 1,4-naphthoquinone, are correlated with a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. The ability of a supercritical fluid to separate a multicomponent mixture is unique, since it utilizes the salient features of both distillation and liquid extraction. The solubility of a solute in a supercritical fluid is the most important thermophysical property that has to be determined and modeled for an efficient design of any extraction based on supercritical solvents.

Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1997-05-01

168

Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years  

PubMed Central

The MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N = 113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and receptive language and measures from parent–child conversation. Associations indicated reasonable concurrent and predictive validity. The findings suggest that satisfactory vocabulary scores at age 2 are likely to predict normal language skills at age 3, although some children with limited skills at age 3 will have had satisfactory scores at age 2. Many children with poor vocabulary scores at 2 will have normal skills at 3.

Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Dale, Philip S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Paradise, Jack L.

2005-01-01

169

Results of reanalysis of the "Venera-9, 10, and 15, 16" bistatic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insertion of the Venera-9,10 and -15,16 spacecraft into orbits around Venus affords the opportunity to make the bistatic and monostatic radar experiments. The main objective of these experiments is to study the topography and to measure the ground density of the planet. However, besides this objective, new data were obtained during the bistatic radar experiments on conditions of refraction of radio waves through the entire thickness of the atmosphere of Venus. The possibility of measuring refraction effects arose because the bistatic radar experiments were done immediately before the spacecraft passed into occultation by the planet. Therefore, the refraction effects were strongly evident. It should be noted also that the periodically repeated monostatic radar observations of Venus from Earth provided near the normal incidence direction give no information on refraction. The purpose of this contribution is to describe the method and the results of the experiments to measure the reflection properties of the surface and the refraction of radio waves in the atmosphere of Venus by means of bistatic radar. The author present measured values of the refractive angle and the coefficient of generalized spherical divergence of radio waves reflected from the surface of Venus. The measurements were made at wavelength 32 cm in the bistatic scheme using the Venera-9,10, and 15,16 spacecraft. Both the refraction angle and the reflection coefficient were determined in the experiment from the measured frequency difference between the direct and the reflected signals as a function of time, using the trajectory data on spacecraft positions. The reflection coefficient in the North Polar region varied considerably, which seems to correspond to significant variations in the conductivity of the soil. The results of the measurements agree with the theory of propagation of radio waves in the atmosphere of Venus. The work was partly supported by grant of Russian Fund of Basic Research No. 10-02-01015-a.

Pavelyev, Alexander

2012-07-01

170

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.??

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

171

Health effects in children aged 3–6 years induced by environmental lead exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate the involvement of oxidative damage in lead-induced toxicity in children aged 3–6 years and to enlighten whether oxidative stress indicators are correlated with the known indices of lead toxicity.

Yaping Jin; Yingjun Liao; Chunwei Lu; Gexin Li; Fei Yu; Xuping Zhi; Jianhong Xu; Shaoxia Liu; Meimei Liu; Jun Yang

2006-01-01

172

Age-Specific Radiation Dose Commitment Factors for a One-Year Chronic Intake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Age dependent dose conversion factors for internal radiation exposure via inhalation or ingestion are computed and tabulated. Results are presented in units of millirem received over a 50-year dose commitment interval per picocurie inhaled or ingested. Fo...

G. R. Hoenes J. K. Soldat

1977-01-01

173

High Incidence of Severe Influenza among Individuals over 50 Years of Age ?  

PubMed Central

Age-specific epidemiological data on asymptomatic, symptomatic, and severe infections are essential for public health policies on combating influenza. In this study, we incorporated data on microbiologically confirmed infections and seroprevalence to comprehensively describe the epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza. Seroprevalence was determined from 1,795 random serum samples collected in our hospital in January 2007 (before the first wave of the pandemic) and March 2010 (after the second wave). Data on microbiologically confirmed infection and severe cases were obtained from the Centre for Health Protection in Hong Kong. Severe cases were most common in the 51- to 60-year-old age group. The microbiologically confirmed incidence rate was highest for children aged ?10 years and dropped sharply for the adult population (? = ?1.0; P < 0.01), but the incidence rate for severe disease was highest for the 51- to 60-year-old age group. For the 51- to 60-year-old age group, the seroprevalence was similar to that for the younger age groups, but the proportion of severe cases relative to seroprevalence was significantly higher than that for 11- to 50-year-old age groups. As judged from the percentage of specimens positive for other respiratory viruses compared with that for pandemic H1N1 virus, the impact of symptomatic disease due to pandemic H1N1 virus was higher than that for other respiratory viruses in people aged ?50 years. In conclusion, the 51- to 60-year-old age group, which had the highest overall incidence and the highest rate of severe disease but is currently not considered by the World Health Organization to be an at-risk group, should be prioritized for influenza vaccination in areas where universal influenza vaccination is not practiced.

Zhang, Anna J. X.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Guo, Kun-Yuan; Li, Can; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Chen, Honglin; Tam, Sidney; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2011-01-01

174

Aging Issues: Related GAO Reports and Activities in Fiscal Year 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GAO's work in aging issues reflects the continuing importance of federal programs supporting older Americans. About 34 million Americans are age 65 and older, and by the year 2020 that number will exceed 52 million. Because the elderly represent one of th...

1996-01-01

175

The Auditory–Verbal Learning Test (AVLT): Norms for Ages 55 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-specific norms for the Auditory–Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) were derived from a sample of 394 cognitively normal persons ages 55 years and older. Normality was defined by the absence of active neurologic or psychiatric disorders that might compromise cognitive status. Selection processes screened for conditions that might be anticipated to compromise cognition and included thorough general medical examinations for all

Robert J. Ivnik; James F. Malec; Eric G. Tangalos; Ronald C. Petersen; Emre Kokmen; Leonard T. Kurland

1990-01-01

176

Major electrocardiographic abnormalities among American Indians aged 45 to 74 years (the strong heart study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Strong Heart Study assessment of prevalent cardiovascular disease in middle-aged to elderly American Indians, the prevalence of major Minnesota code electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities was assessed in 4,531 participants aged 45 to 74 years (59% women) in selected tribal communities in Arizona, South and North Dakota, and Oklahoma. The overall prevalence of major ECG abnormalities was lowest

Arvo J. Oopik; Mark Dorogy; Richard B. Devereux; Jeun-Liang Yeh; Peter M. Okin; Elisa T. Lee; Linda Cowan; Richard R. Fabsitz; Barbara V. Howard; Thomas K. Welty

1996-01-01

177

Plan for Services for the Aging: Fiscal Years 1978 - 1980. Illinois Human Services Plan, Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Illinois Department on Aging (DOA) was created in August 1973 to develop a comprehensive and coordinated system of services for the State's 1.636 million older persons, 60 years of age or older. Services to the elderly include homemaker, chore and hou...

1977-01-01

178

Multifactorial cardiovascular disease prevention in patients aged 75 years and older: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The number of patients aged 75+ years with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing, but few studies of secondary prevention in this age group exist. The aim of the Drug and Evidence Based Medicine in the Elderly (DEBATE) study is to test the applicability and effectiveness of established CVD treatments in elderly patients. Methods From 1998 to 2000, population-based postal

Timo E. Strandberg; Kaisu Pitkala; Saila Berglind; Markku S. Nieminen; Reijo S. Tilvis

2001-01-01

179

Sports-Related Injuries to Persons 65 Years of Age and Older.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1990, the U.S. population 65 years of age and older has increased by approximately 2.63 million people.1 Such a population increase could be expected to have an impact on the overall injury frequency in this age cohort, including injuries related to...

G. W. Rutherford T. J. Schroeder

1998-01-01

180

NOTE: Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of

D. Laurier; D. Hémon; J. Clavel

2008-01-01

181

Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study designIn this study sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and magnesium ion concentration was analyzed in stimulated whole saliva in 22 children with Down syndrome aged 6 to 10 years. These children were compared with 21 healthy children of the same age. Stimulated saliva was collected by chewing a piece of parafilm for 10 minutes. The pH was measured with

Walter Luiz Siqueira; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Zan Mustacchi; José Nicolau

2004-01-01

182

An Analysis of Problems and Perspective of the Black Aged: Preparation for the Year 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper addresses some of the problems and concerns of the nation's Black aged with special emphasis toward the year 2000. Dramatization of the plight of the Black aged may proceed in a number of directions. This paper focuses on strategies that may be developed within academic institutions, local communities, professional and other…

Turner, Clinton V.; Sheppard, N. Alan

183

Behavioral Outcome at 3 Years of Age in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. Our goal was to compare the prevalence of behavioral problems between very preterm children and term children at 3 years of age and examine the factors associated with behavioral problems in very preterm children. METHODS. We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study: the EPIPAGE (Etude Epidemiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels) study. All infants born between 22 and 32

Malika Delobel-Ayoub; Monique Kaminski; Stephane Marret; Antoine Burguet; Laetitia Marchand; Sylvie NGuyen; Jacqueline Matis; Jeanne Fresson; Catherine Arnaud; Martine Poher; Charles Nicolle; Mere Enfant

184

Muscle strength in male athletes aged 70–81 years and a population sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Muscle strength characteristics of different muscle groups were studied in active male strengthtrained (ST, n = 14), speed-trained (SP, n = 16), and endurance-trained (EN, n = 67) athletes aged between 70 and 81 years. A population sample of similar age (n = 42) served as a control group. The isometric forces for hand grip, arm flexion, knee extension, trunk

Sarianna Sipilii; Jukka Viitasalo; Pertti Era; Harri Suominen

1991-01-01

185

Assisted reproduction in women over 40 years of age: how old is too old?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s fertility progressively declines with advanced age due to depletion of the ovarian follicular reserve and poorer oocyte quality. However, many women of advanced age are eager to conceive from their own ova. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of IVF cycles among older patients. All IVF retrievals performed in the unit in patients ?42years

Ariel Hourvitz; Ronit Machtinger; Ettie Maman; Micha Baum; Jehoshua Dor; Jacob Levron

2009-01-01

186

The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive Transitions in School-Age

Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

187

Prostate cancer screening: knowledge, experiences and attitudes of men aged 40-79 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, experiences and attitudes of men aged 40-79 years regarding screening for prostate cancer. Methods This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of men aged 40-79 years whose names were randomly selected from the Auckland telephone directory. The study was undertaken in the summers of 2000\\/2001 and 2001\\/2002. Results The

Bruce Arroll; Salil Pandit; Stephen Buetow

188

Cost Effectiveness of HIV Screening in Patients Over 55 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although HIV infection is more prevalent in people <45, a significant number of infections occur in older individuals. Recent guidelines recommend HIV screening of patients aged 13–64. The cost-effectiveness of HIV screening patients aged 55–75 years is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To examine the costs and benefits of HIV screening in patients aged 55–75 years. DESIGN Markov model. DATA Derived from the literature. TARGET POPULATION Patients aged 55–75 with unknown HIV status. TIME HORIZON Lifetime. PERSPECTIVE Societal. INTERVENTIONS HIV screening program for patients aged 55–75 years compared to current practice. OUTCOME MEASURES Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, incremental cost-effectiveness. RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS For a 65-year-old patient, HIV screening using traditional counseling costs $55,440/QALY compared with current practice when the prevalence of HIV was 0.5% and they did not have a sexual partner-at-risk. In sexually-active patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $30,020/QALY. At a prevalence of 0.1%, HIV screening cost <$60,000/QALY for patients <75 years old with a partner-at-risk if less costly streamlined counseling is used. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening depended on HIV prevalence, age of the patient, counseling costs, and whether the patient was sexually active. Sensitivity analyses with other variables did not change our results substantially. LIMITATIONS Uncertainty regarding effects of age on HAART toxicity, efficacy, and AIDS mortality. Sensitivity analyses exploring these variables did not qualitatively affect our results. CONCLUSIONS If the tested population has a prevalence of ?0.1%, HIV screening in individuals between 55–75 years old reaches conventional levels of cost-effectiveness when counseling is streamlined and if the screened patient has a partner at risk. HIV screening of patients with advanced age is economically attractive in many circumstances.

Sanders, Gillian D.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Holodniy, Mark; Owens, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

189

In-vitro fertilisation in women aged 40 years and above  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To compare the results of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) in women aged less than 40 years with those aged 40 years and above with baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels less than 15iu and using their own oocytes. Methods: A total of 2179 fresh IVF cycles were started in KK Women's and Children's Hospital IVF Centre from 1997 to 2002, of

S W Seng; C T Yeong; S F Loh; N Sadhana; S K E Loh

190

Is Early Life Wheeze Associated with Lung Function at Age 6 Years?  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of wheeze is unknown and the role of early life wheeze in subsequent health is not clearly understood. Our goal was to calculate the age-specific incidence of wheeze and determine whether wheezing at particular times in early life was predictive of abnormal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), percent predicted FEV1 and current asthma at age 6 years. Methods Using data from a birth cohort study with annual report of wheezing (Childhood Allergy Study) and spirometry and methacholine challenge at age 6 years, the age-specific incidence of wheeze was determined using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the associations between the presence of age-specific wheezing and the outcomes of current asthma, AHR and percent predicted FEV1 at age 6 years. Results The 6-year cumulative incidence of wheezing was higher for boys (66.2%, 95% CI 59.8%, 72.6%) than girls (47.6% 95% CI 41.4%, 53.8%). There was no age when wheezing was more strongly associated with either AHR or percent predicted FEV1 at 6 years. Only wheeze in the fifth year among males and in females, both wheezing in the fourth and fifth years were positively predictive of current asthma at age 6. This is likely due to the definition of current asthma (ever doctor diagnosis and either medication or symptoms in last year). Eczema, parental asthma history and total cord blood IgE did not affect these associations. Conclusions Wheezing at any particular time in early life may not be predictive of early childhood lung function.

Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

2013-01-01

191

Unexplained syncope--is screening for carotid sinus hypersensitivity indicated in all patients aged >40 years?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the frequency, age distribution and clinical presentation of carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) among 373 patients (age range 15–92?years) referred to two autonomic referral centres during a 10?year period. Methods Carotid sinus massage (CSM) was performed both supine and during 60° head?up tilt. Beat?to?beat blood pressure, heart rate and a three?lead electrocardiography were recorded continuously. CSH was classified as cardioinhibitory (asystole ?3?s), vasodepressor (systolic blood pressure fall ?50?mm Hg) or mixed. All patients additionally underwent autonomic screening tests for orthostatic hypotension and autonomic failure. Results CSH was observed in 13.7% of all patients. The diagnostic yield of CSM was nil in patients aged <50?years (n?=?65), 2.4% in those aged 50–59?years (n?=?82), 9.1% in those aged 60–69?years (n?=?77), 20.7% in those aged 70–79?years (n?=?92) and reached 40.4% in those >80?years (n?=?57). Syncope was the leading clinical symptom in 62.8%. In 27.4% of patients falls without definite loss of consciousness was the main clinical symptom. Mild and mainly systolic orthostatic hypotension was recorded in 17.6%; evidence of sympathetic or parasympathetic dysfunction was found in none. Conclusions CSH was confirmed in patients >50?years, the incidence steeply increasing with age. The current European Society of Cardiology guidelines that recommend testing for CSH in all patients >40?years with syncope of unknown aetiology may need reconsideration. Orthostatic hypotension was noted in some patients with CSH, but evidence of sympathetic or parasympathetic failure was not found in any of them.

Humm, A M; Mathias, C J

2006-01-01

192

[Lifestyles related to preserving 20 or more teeth at 80 years of age].  

PubMed

To explore lifestyle factors related to preserving 20 or more teeth at 80 years of age, a total of 114 Japanese persons aged 80 years old (70 with 20 teeth or more (mean teeth: 25.0 +/- 2.8) and 44 with 19 teeth or less (mean teeth: 5.2 +/- 6.3)) were studied. Study subjects received a dental examination and were directly interviewed, using a questionnaire, to collect such information as past episodes of tooth and gingival conditions, past attitude to dental care and several lifestyle habits. The following major findings emerged by statistical analysis. Probability of preserving 20 or more teeth at 80 years of age was significantly high with: (1) strict upbringing in childhood (p < 0.05 in males), (2) no swollen gums around 60 years old (p < 0.01 in males), (3) early visit to a dentist around 40 years old (p < 0.05 in males), and (4) not being fond of sweets in childhood (p < 0.05 in females). The following related to a high tendency toward preserving 20 or more teeth at 80 years of age: (1) graduate from primary school only (in females), (2) having a home dentist around 20 years old (in males), (3) tended to visit a dentist earlier at 20 years old (in males), (4) not eating sweet things at 60 years old (in males), and (5) have not smoked cigarettes (in males).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8518433

Mizuno, T; Nakagaki, H; Murakami, T; Kato, K; Tsuboi, S; Takigawa, T; Ozawa, A; Kumeno, C; Ohno, Y

1993-03-01

193

Fecal Incontinence in Females Older Than Aged 40 Years: Who is at Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of, and identify risk factors associated with, fecal incontinence in racially\\u000a diverse females older than aged 40 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at Kaiser is a population-based study of 2,109 randomly selected middle-aged\\u000a and older females (average age, 56 years). Fecal incontinence, determined by self-report, was categorized by frequency. Females

Madhulika G. Varma; Jeanette S. Brown; Jennifer M. Creasman; David H. Thom; Stephen K. Van Den Eeden; Mary S. Beattie; Leslee L. Subak

2006-01-01

194

Aerobic and anaerobic power in relation to age and physical activity in 354 men aged 20-88 years.  

PubMed

We examined simultaneously the influence of age as well as both current and historical habitual physical activity (PA) on aerobic (physical working capacity - PWC) and anaerobic (Pmax) power in 354 men aged 20.2-87.6 yrs. All the participants performed the graded aerobic exercise test and 8-second explosive power tests on a bicycle ergometer. Current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and lifetime historical LTPA were assessed. The decline in Pmax/kg (10.3% per decade) was higher than in PWC/kg (7.5% per decade). Correlation coefficients for current LTPA and aerobic indices were higher than for current LTPA and anaerobic indices. In a multiple stepwise regression, current LTPA had the main effect on PWC/kg, whereas age had the main effect on Pmax/kg. Aerobic power was related to all measures of historical PA questionnaire, while anaerobic power - only to those historical measures which pertained to adolescence and younger years of adulthood. We conclude that the age-associated decline in anaerobic power is steeper than that of aerobic power. Habitual endurance-type LTPA increases aerobic but not anaerobic fitness throughout the adult lifespan. Anaerobic fitness indices are higher in young active vs sedentary men but this difference is not discernible as early as in the middle age. PMID:19130394

Kostka, T; Drygas, W; Jegier, A; Zaniewicz, D

2009-01-07

195

Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school. PMID:23033753

Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

2012-08-01

196

Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent\\u000a predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed\\u000a up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use

Taina Huurre; Tomi Lintonen; Jaakko Kaprio; Mirjami Pelkonen; Mauri Marttunen; Hillevi Aro

2010-01-01

197

Lateral cephalometric standards of Germans with normal occlusion from 6 to 17 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze sagittal and vertical dentofacial dimensions in subjects with normal occlusions during the juvenile and adolescents age periods to establish age- and gender-specific lateral cephalometric standard values for Germans during their active growth period. The study group consisted of a sample of 32 untreated subjects with normal occlusions. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at 11 consecutive stages, from 6-13 and from 15-17 years of age. A customized cephalometric analysis was used to measure 53 variables. Statistical comparisons of gender-specific differences were performed by means of Mann-Whitney U tests.Anterior and posterior cranial base lengths, midfacial length as well as mandibular length were recorded to be significantly larger in male subjects at the age of 6 years. For most of the linear measurements, significantly larger craniofacial distances were recorded in males from the age of 15 years onward. There were no statistically significant gender differences with regard to most angular measurements at subsequent age groups. Soft tissue analysis revealed flatter profiles in females than in males from the age of 10-11 years onward, while age-dependent changes in the soft tissue profile were similar in both genders.In untreated subjects with normal occlusion craniofacial development of the hard and soft tissues can be considered age- and gender-dependent. Therefore age- and gender-specific differences of linear craniofacial distances should be taken into account for diagnosis and treatment planning in children and adolescents. The present results can be used as reference values for children and adolescents of German origin. PMID:23649277

Stahl de Castrillon, F; Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; Grabowski, R; Klink-Heckmann, U; McNamara, J A

2013-05-08

198

A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective…

Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

2011-01-01

199

Is Routine Use of Stentless Aortic Prostheses Justified in an Elderly (aged ?75 Years) Population?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aim of the study: Stentless prosthe- ses in the aortic position produce a superior hemody- namic profile in comparison to that with stented valves. To determine whether routine use of stentless valves in an elderly population is justified, a 10-year retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients aged ?75 years undergoing stentless aortic valve replacement

Ayyaz Ali; Pankaj Kumar; Thanos Athanasiou; James Halstead; Hutan Ashrafian; Ziad Ali; Sanjay Kumar; Panagiotis Theodorou; John R. Pepper

2005-01-01

200

Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine whether duration of breast feeding has any effect on a child's cognitive or motor development in a population with favourable environmental conditions and a high prevalence of breast feeding.METHODSIn 345 Scandinavian children, data on breast feeding were prospectively recorded during the first year of life, and neuromotor development was assessed at 1 and 5 years of age. Main

N K Angelsen; T Vik; G Jacobsen; L S Bakketeig

2001-01-01

201

Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

2007-01-01

202

Prenatal marijuana exposure: Effect on child depressive symptoms at ten years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the consequences of prenatal marijuana use have reported effects predominantly on the behavioral and cognitive development of the children. Research on other aspects of child neurobehavioral development, such as psychiatric symptomatology, has been limited. This study examines the relations between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and child depressive symptoms at 10 years of age. Data are from the 10-year

Kimberly A. Gray; Nancy L. Day; Sharon Leech; Gale A. Richardson

2005-01-01

203

Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding of Children up to 2 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children’s nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of complementary foods of suitable nutritional and microbiological quality. The amounts

K. Brown

2007-01-01

204

Osteosarcoma in Children 5 Years of Age or Younger at Initial Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Since osteosarcoma is extremely rare in children ? 5 years of age, we sought to investigate if tumor characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes differ compared to older patients. Procedure Patients < 20 years of age with high-grade osteosarcoma reported to national SEER database from 1973–2006 were separated into two groups based on age at diagnosis: ? 5 years (n=49) and 6–19 years (n = 1687). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Overall survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods and compared using log-rank tests and Cox models. Results Patients ? 5 years had higher proportions of osteosarcoma arising from the upper limb compared to older patients (24.5% vs. 11.2%; p = 0.006). These very young patients had a significantly higher proportion of telangiectatic histology (10.2% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.017). Sex, metastatic status, race, or ethnicity did not differ by age. A higher proportion of very young patients was treated with amputation (55.2% vs. 27.3%; p = 0.002). Five-year overall survival was inferior for patients with localized osteosarcoma 5 years of age or younger compared to older children (51.9% vs. 67.3%; p = 0.03). After controlling for metastatic status, year of diagnosis, and tumor site, the hazard ratio for death in very young patients was 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.02 – 2.36; p = 0.04) compared to older patients. Conclusions Tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcomes differ among children ? 5 years of age compared to older pediatric patients. These differences may reflect differences in tumor biology.

Worch, Jennifer; Matthay, Katherine K.; Neuhaus, John; Goldsby, Robert; DuBois, Steven G.

2010-01-01

205

The gender- and age-specific 10-year and lifetime absolute fracture risk in Tromsø, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study is to estimate the gender- and age-specific 10-year and lifetime absolute risks of non-vertebral and osteoporotic\\u000a (included hip, distal forearm and proximal humerus) fractures in a large cohort of men and women. This is a population-based\\u000a 10 years follow-up study of 26,891 subjects aged 25 years and older in Tromsø, Norway. All non-vertebral fractures were registered\\u000a from 1995

Luai A. Ahmed; Henrik Schirmer; Åshild Bjørnerem; Nina Emaus; Lone Jørgensen; Jan Størmer; Ragnar M. Joakimsen

2009-01-01

206

Lifetime Dog and Cat Exposure and Dog and Cat Specific Sensitization at Age 18 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research about whether keeping a dog or cat in the home causes allergies to that pet has been limited to outcomes in early childhood. Objective Evaluate the association between lifetime dog and cat exposure and allergic sensitization to the specific animal at age 18 years. Methods Participants enrolled in the Detroit Childhood Allergy Study birth cohort in 1987–1989 were contacted at age 18 years. Sensitization to dog or cat was defined as animal-specific IgE ?0.35 kU/L. Annual interview data from childhood and follow-up interviews at age 18 years were used to determine lifetime indoor dog and cat exposure (indoor defined as the animal spent >50% of their time in the home). Exposure was considered in various ways: first year, age groups and cumulative lifetime. Analyses were conducted separately for dogs and cats. Results Among males, those with an indoor dog in the first year of life had half the risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence Interval=CI 0.27, 0.92) of being sensitized to dogs at age 18 compared to those who did not have an indoor dog in the first year. This was also true for males and females born via c-section (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.07, 0.97). Overall, teens with an indoor cat in the first year of life had decreased risk (RR=0.52, 95% CI 0.31, 0.90) of being sensitized to cats. Neither cumulative exposure nor exposure at any other particular age was associated with either outcome. Conclusions and clinical relevance The first year of life is the critical period during childhood when indoor exposure to dogs or cats influences sensitization to these animals.

Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Nicholas, Charlotte; Zoratti, Edward M.

2013-01-01

207

Characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer in patients aged >= 70 years  

PubMed Central

AIM: To elucidate the prognostic value of age for gastric cancer and identify the optimal treatment for elderly gastric cancer patients. METHODS: We enrolled 920 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy between January 2003 and December 2007 in our center. Patients were categorized into three groups: younger group (age < 50 years), middle-aged group (50-69 years), and elderly group (? 70 years). Clinicopathological features were compared among the three groups and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. The log-rank test was used to assess statistical differences between curves. Independent prognostic factors were identified by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Stratified analysis was used to investigate the impact of age on survival at each stage. Cancer-specific survival was also compared among the three groups by excluding deaths due to reasons other than gastric cancer. We analyzed the potential prognostic factors for patients aged ? 70 years. Finally, the impact of extent of lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy on survival for each age group was evaluated. RESULTS: In the elderly group, there was a male predominance. At the same time, cancers of the upper third of the stomach, differentiated type, and less-invasive surgery were more common than in the younger or middle-aged groups. Elderly patients were more likely to have advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and larger tumors, but less likely to have distant metastasis. Although 5-year overall survival (OS) rate specific to gastric cancer was not significantly different among the three groups, elderly patients demonstrated a significantly lower 5-year OS rate than the younger and middle-aged patients (elderly vs middle-aged vs younger patients = 22.0% vs 36.6% vs 38.0%, respectively). In the TNM-stratified analysis, the differences in OS were only observed in patients with II and III tumors. In multivariate analysis, only surgical margin status, pT4, lymph node metastasis, M1 and sex were independent prognostic factors for elderly patients. The 5-year OS rate did not differ between elderly patients undergoing D1 and D2 lymph node resection, and these patients benefited little from chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Age ? 70 years was an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer after gastrectomy. D1 resection is appropriate and postoperative chemotherapy is possibly unnecessary for elderly patients with gastric cancer.

Liang, Yue-Xiang; Deng, Jing-Yu; Guo, Han-Han; Ding, Xue-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Li; Liang, Han

2013-01-01

208

Five years later: language in school-age internationally adopted children.  

PubMed

This study followed a cohort of 46 school-age children adopted from Eastern Europe who were originally studied by Glennen and Masters up through age 2 or 3. Five years later, the children were 6 to 9 years of age. Data on their school-age abilities were collected through surveys of parents and teachers. Parents indicated that 17.4% of the children were receiving classroom accommodations or special education programs and 54.5% had one or more diagnoses. The most common diagnosis was attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), occurring in 25% of the children, primarily boys. Learning disability and speech language impairment were each noted in 11.4% of the children. Language and Social Skill profiles on the Children's Communication Checklist-2 and Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) indicated that structural and meaning-based language abilities were areas of strength. Measures of pragmatic use of language (i.e., Use of Context, Social Relations, Nonverbal Communication) were relative weaknesses. Behavior profiles on the SSRS indicated higher than average levels of hyperactivity. The profile of Language and Social Skills strengths and weaknesses was similar to patterns observed in children with ADD/ADHD. Age of adoption was not predictive of school-age outcomes on these measures, but the children's expressive vocabulary when they were 2 to 3 years of age predicted SSRS outcomes for Social Skills and Problem Behaviors. PMID:15731973

Glennen, Sharon; Bright, Betsy J

2005-02-01

209

Neurodevelopmental MRI brain templates for children from 2 weeks to 4 years of age  

PubMed Central

Spatial normalization and segmentation of pediatric brain MRI data with adult templates may impose biases and limitations in pediatric neuroimaging work. To remedy this deficiency, we created a single database made up of a series of pediatric, age-specific MRI average brain templates. These average, age-specific templates were constructed from brain scans of individual children obtained from two sources: (1) the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development and (2) MRIs from University of South Carolina’s McCausland Brain Imaging Center. Participants included young children enrolled at ages ranging from 8 days through 4.3 years of age. A total of 13 age group cohorts spanning the developmental progression from birth through 4.3 years of age were used to construct age-specific MRI brain templates (2 weeks, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5, 9, 12, 15, 18 months, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 years). Widely-used processing programs (FSL, SPM, ANTS) extracted the brain and constructed average templates separately for 1.5T and 3T MRI volumes. The resulting age-specific, average templates showed clear changes in head and brain size across ages and between males and females, as well as changes in regional brain structural characteristics (e.g., myelin development). This average brain template database is available via our website (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/neurodevelopmentalmridatabase) for use by other researchers. Use of these age-specific, average pediatric brain templates by the research community will enhance our ability to gain a clearer understanding of the early postnatal development of the human brain in health and in disease.

Sanchez, Carmen E.; Richards, John E.; Almli, C. Robert

2011-01-01

210

Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%), rotavirus (18.1%) and norovirus (13.7%). The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%). V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%), while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea.

2011-01-01

211

Cataracts among Adults Aged 30 to 49 Years: A 10-Year Study from 1995 to 2004 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the long-term characteristics of cataracts among adults aged 30 to 49 years in Korean over a span of 10 years. Methods Subjects between the ages of 30 to 49 years who underwent cataract surgery at St. Mary's Hospital from 1995 to 2004 (n = 976) were included. Patients with a history of ocular trauma, uveitis, other ocular or systemic diseases, and congenital cataracts were excluded. Additional information including type of lens opacity, urban/rural region, and pre- and postoperative visual acuities were analyzed. Lens opacity grading was conducted using Lens Opacity Classification System III. The Cochran-Armitage proportion trend test was used to analyze vision changes with the passage of time. Results Among the patients who had undergone cataract surgeries, 8.8% (976 / 11,111) met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41.7 ± 5.45 years. Gender breakdown of the patient population included 79.0% male and 21.0% female. In terms of home environment, 60.9% were from an urban region and 39.1% from a rural region. Opacity type included anterior polar (AP), posterior subcapsular (PSC), AP and PSC, cortical, and nuclear in 35.7%, 35.1%, 7.0%, 6.0%, and 5.4% of patients, respectively. At a 2-month postoperative follow-up appointment, 92.7% of patients showed a best-corrected visual acuity of more than 20 / 40. Conclusions Predominance of AP and PSC opacities as well as male patients was observed in this study population.

Cho, Hyun Kyung; Na, Kyung Sun; Jun, Eun Jung

2013-01-01

212

Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially valuable tool for both constraining the age distribution in sampled waters and investigating recharge transients.

Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

2012-08-01

213

A new cyanoaromatic photosensitizer vs. 9,10-dicyanoanthracene: systematic comparison of the photophysical properties.  

PubMed

The cyanoanthracene derivative, benzo[b]triphenylene-9,14-dicarbonitrile (1) can be prepared readily with a graftable function while maintaining (1)O(2) photosensitizing properties comparable to those of the standard compound 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCA). In view of the high potential of the derivatives of 1 for photooxidation reactions under heterogeneous conditions, we compared the photophysical properties of 1 in solution with those of DCA. In pursuing the comparison of 1 and DCA, we observed small but significant changes of the vibronic bands in the electronic absorption spectra of DCA in different solvents, which were well correlated with solvent polarity, similar to the pyrene polarity scale. The main difference between 1 and DCA is in the emission properties: we observed a much stronger sensitivity of the fluorescence emission spectrum to the electron-donating ability of the solvent than for DCA. The emission spectrum of 1 is in general structureless with a large Stokes shift. The ability of the singlet state of 1 to participate in charge transfer interactions with electron-donating solvents is proposed to account for these results. It makes 1 a highly sensitive probe to the surrounding medium. Reversible reduction was observed for both photosensitizers, with a small shift to more negative potentials for 1 compared to DCA. The reduction potential of the first singlet excited state is of the same order of magnitude in both cases. Several photo-oxidation reactions sensitized by 1 and DCA are compared in homogeneous solution and at the gas-solid interface by embedding 1 and DCA in silica monoliths. Our results confirmed the dual character of both cyanoanthracene derivatives as electron transfer and energy transfer sensitizers, highly efficient for singlet oxygen production. PMID:20661499

Blanc, Sylvie; Pigot, Thierry; Cugnet, Cyril; Brown, Ross; Lacombe, Sylvie

2010-07-27

214

Synthesis of 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,11-octasubstituted pentacenequinone derivatives and their conversion into substituted pentacenes.  

PubMed

A series of 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,11-octasubstituted pentacenequinone derivatives were prepared by the oxidation of 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,11-octasubstituted pentacenes, which were synthesized by the double homologation method. Oxidation of the pentacenes was carried out with H(5)IO(6) or air and DDQ. These octasubstituted pentacenequinones were converted into 1,2,3,4,6,8,9,10,11,13-decasubstituted or 2,3,6,9,10,13-hexasubstituted pentacene derivatives by the introduction of aryl or alkynyl groups at the carbonyl carbons. The photophysical properties of these new pentacenes have been measured in solution, and the substituent effects are discussed. PMID:20455241

Li, Shi; Zhou, Lishan; Nakajima, Kiyohiko; Kanno, Ken-ichiro; Takahashi, Tamotsu

2010-07-01

215

Quantitative effects of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in a biracial sample of 9–10-year-old girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic polymorphism at the apolipoprotein E locus (APOE) has been shown to have a significant impact on quantitative risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in diverse populations. However, despite the recognition that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that genetic factors are related to the initial stages of atherosclerosis, prior studies were carried out mostly on adults and little attention

D. K. Sanghera; R. E. Ferrell; C. E. Aston; A. E. McAllister; M. I. Kamboh; S. Y. S. Kimm

1996-01-01

216

Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound measurements in former pre-term children aged 9 11 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare phalangeal ultrasound values in 38 former pre-term children, aged 9-11 years, with 50 age-matched term controls. Skeletal status was evaluated using phalangeal quantitative ultrasound measurements (QUS) by DBM Sonic 1200 (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) which measures the amplitude dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS, m s21). There were no significant differences in values of

Z P Halaba; J Bursa; U Kostowska Kaplon; W Pluskiewicz; S Marciniak; U Drzewiecka

2007-01-01

217

[Assessment and standardization of the body mass index in French males aged 18-59 years].  

PubMed

This study of the corpulence of 54,360 French men aged from 18 to 59 years assessed the existence of a biological constant between height and weight. We observed a linear relation that links height to the mean weights corresponding to a fixed height. This new relationship informs us on the excess or the deficit of weight of each man and allows comparisons between body mass index in men, even if they have different heights or ages. PMID:7671014

Pineau, J C; Vol, S; Tichet, J

1995-06-01

218

Strength training alters contractile properties of the triceps brachii in men aged 65–78 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Voluntary and electrically evoked contractile properties were studied in the triceps brachii following a 24-week dynamic stength training program in ten men aged 65–78 years. Eight men of a similar age were control subjects. A resistance overload program was undertaken three times per week with subjects performing four sets of six to eight repetitions at 80% of their one repetition

Charles L. Rice; David A. Cunningham; Donald H. Paterson; John R. Dickinson

1993-01-01

219

Normative values of agonist-antagonist shoulder strength ratios of adults aged 20 to 78 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine normative values for isometric flexion\\/extension, abduction\\/adduction, and external\\/internal rotation strength ratios about the shoulder and to determine if these ratios are affected by age or gender.Study Design: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy volunteers (60 men, 60 women) aged 20 to 78 years.Setting: Orthopedic research laboratory.Methods: Flexion and extension strengths were measured isometrically using a Cybex II

Richard E. Hughes; Marjorie E. Johnson; Shawn W. O'Driscoll; Kai-Nan An

1999-01-01

220

Prevalence of Goiter among Children Aged 11–16 Years in Ahwaz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ahwaz, Iran to find out the prevalence of goiter among schoolchildren ages 11–16 years. Subjects andMethods: Multistage sampling methodology was followed for selecting the study population. A total of 1,950 children (1,050 males, 900 females) were clinically assessed for thyroid gland enlargement. Data were collected on age, sex, weight, height, iodized salt consumption,

Seyed Mehdi Monajemzadeh; Ali Zamani Moghadam

2008-01-01

221

Prenatal Drug Exposure: Effects on Cognitive Functioning at 5 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning at age 5 years in prenatal drug-exposed children with nondrug-exposed children from a comparable inner-city environment. Children with prenatal drug exposure scored significantly lower on measures of language, school readiness skills, impulse control, and visual attention span\\/sequencing than controls matched for age and socioeconomic status. Intelligence, visual-motor, manual dexterity,

Margaret B. Pulsifer; Arlene M. Butz; Megan OReilly Foran; Harolyn M. E. Belcher

2008-01-01

222

The Subjective Effects of Cocaine: Relationship to Years of Cocaine Use and Current Age  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about whether the duration of cocaine use or an individual’s age may influence the acute effects of cocaine, patterns of use, and specific treatment needs. Objectives This post hoc analysis determined whether the duration of cocaine use or current age influenced the acute subjective response to cocaine. Data from four smoked cocaine self-administration laboratory studies were combined and analyzed to determine whether the subjective effects of a 25-mg smoked cocaine dose varied as a function of years of cocaine use or current age. Methods Thirty-six nontreatment-seeking healthy cocaine users (ages 32–49) were admitted to studies lasting from 12 to 105 days. Participants rated the subjective effects of each cocaine dose from 0 to 100 by completing a computerized self-report visual analogue scale (VAS). The main outcome measures were the change in VAS ratings between a baseline placebo dose and the first 25-mg dose of smoked cocaine. Results No significant relationship was found between the subjective effects of cocaine and years of cocaine use (mean 20.9, range 5–30) or current age (mean 41.1, range 32–49). Conclusion Among long-term cocaine users between the ages of 32 and 49, the acute subjective effects of cocaine did not vary as a function of years of cocaine use or current age. Scientific Significance These data fail to support the incentive sensitization theory for addiction by Robinson and Berridge, as cocaine “liking” and “wanting” remained the same regardless of age or years of cocaine use.

Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Bedi, Gillinder; Haney, Margaret; Evans, Suzette M.; Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W.

2013-01-01

223

Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants.  

PubMed

A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants. PMID:18714138

Laurier, D; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

2008-08-20

224

Maximal mouth opening capacity: percentiles for healthy children 4-17 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background A reduced mouth opening capacity may be one of the first clinical signs of pathological changes in the masticatory system. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to create age related percentiles for unassisted maximal mouth opening capacity (MOC) of healthy children. Methods All recordings of MOC as measured at the yearly dental examinations of school children in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, between August 2009 and August 2010 were extracted from the database. The program LMSchartMaker Pro Version 2.43, Huiqi Pan and Tim Cole, Medical Research Council, 1997–2010 was used to calculate age and sex related reference centiles. Results Records from 22?060 dental examinations were found during the study period. In 1286 (5.8%) the maximal interincisal measurement was missing. Another 55 examinations were excluded because of missing data for sex (7), age at examination (11) or because the value was deemed to be pathologically low (37). Thus, a total of 20?719 measurements (10?060 girls, 10?659 boys) were included in the analysis. The median age (range) was 9.9 years (3.3-18.3) for girls and 10.0 years (2.8-18.7) for boys. The mean MOC (range) was 45 mm (25–69) for girls and 45 mm (25–70) for boys. Age related percentiles were created for girls and boys separately, showing the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile from 3 through 18 years of age. Conclusions In these 20?719 unselected school children MOC increased with age but showed a wide range within children of the same age.

2013-01-01

225

Recurrence and follow-up after urinary tract infection under the age of 1 year  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the risk factors for recurrence and the value of routine follow-up by monthly urine cultures in a group\\u000a of children who had their first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) under 1 year of age, we performed a retrospective\\u000a survey of 262 children (134 girls, 128 boys) who were treated for their first UTI while aged

Matti Nuutinen; Matti Uhari

2001-01-01

226

Cementless total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis in patients aged 55 years and older  

PubMed Central

Background Cemented total hip arthroplasty has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with osteoarthritis. We analyzed survival rates of the most common cementless designs used in this age group in Finland. Patients and methods Inclusion criteria permitted 10,310 replacements (8 designs) performed in patients aged 55 years or older to be selected for evaluation. The risk of revision of each of the 8 implants was compared with that of a group comprising 3 cemented designs as the reference (9,549 replacements). Survival analyses were performed overall and separately for 3 age cohorts: 55–64 years (6,781 replacements), 65–74 years (8,821 replacements), and 75 years or older (4,257 replacements). Results In all patients aged 55 years or more, the Bi-Metric stem had a higher survival rate for aseptic loosening at 15 years than the cemented reference group: 96% (95% CI: 94–98) vs. 91% (CI: 90–92). However, the 15-year survival rates of the Bi-Metric/Press-Fit Universal (71% (CI: 67–75)) and the Anatomic Mesh/Harris-Galante II (72% (CI: 67–78)) total hip replacements were lower than that of the reference group (86% (CI: 84–87)). Information was scarce for patients aged 75 years or more. Interpretation Cementless proximal porous-coated stems are a good option for elderly patients. Even though biological fixation is a reliable fixation method in THA, polyethylene wear and osteolysis remain a serious problem for cementless cup designs with unplugged screw holes and low-quality liners.

Eskelinen, Antti; Paavolainen, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Pekka

2010-01-01

227

Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.  

PubMed

To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5?mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4?oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ?2?hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72?hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value?=?0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (?16?hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ?70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%. PMID:23868556

Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

2013-07-18

228

Electrochemical characteristics and dyeing properties of selected 9,10-anthraquinones as mediators for the indirect cathodic reduction of dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substituted 9,10-anthraquinones were characterised using cyclic voltammetry for their potential to serve as mediators for the indirect cathodic reduction of dispersed sulphur dyes, vat dyes and indigo. Besides characterisation of the electrochemical behaviour, the compounds were assessed in model dyeing experiments for chemical stability and staining of cotton fabric. 1,2-, 1,4- and 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinones exhibited negative mid-point potential ((Ep)d + (Ep)a)\\/2 of ?713

Thomas Bechtold; Christa Fitz-Binder; Aurora Turcanu

2010-01-01

229

The Association of APOE Genotype with Cognitive Function in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older  

PubMed Central

APOE genotype is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated whether APOE genotype was associated with cognitive function in predominantly middle-aged persons. In a population-based cohort of 4,135 persons aged 35 to 82 years (mean age (SD), 55 (12) years), cognitive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points). APOE genotype (rs429358 and rs7412) was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The mean RFFT score (SD) of the total cohort was 69 (26) points. Unadjusted, the mean RFFT score in homozygous APOE ?4 carriers was 4.66 points lower than in noncarriers (95% confidence interval, -9.84 to 0.51; p?=?0.08). After adjustment for age and other risk factors, the mean RFFT score in homozygous APOE ?4 carriers was 5.24 points lower than in noncarriers (95% confidence interval, -9.41 to -1.07; p?=?0.01). The difference in RFFT score was not dependent on age. There was no difference in RFFT score between heterozygous APOE ?4 carriers and noncarriers. The results indicated that homozygous APOE ?4 carriers aged 35 years or older had worse cognitive function than heterozygous carriers and noncarriers.

Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

2011-01-01

230

The effect of age and menopausal status on musculoskeletal symptoms in Chinese women aged 35-64 years.  

PubMed

Objective To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms at four different anatomical sites and the impact of menopause, age, and other factors on musculoskeletal symptoms. Methods Generally healthy women aged 35-64 years were recruited from a general community in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Data were collected with a questionnaire including the basic conditions, menopausal status, and frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms (rarely, occasionally or frequently) during the previous 2 weeks at the neck, lower back, knee and other sites. The prevalences of frequent symptoms were calculated for each site. Results A total of 743 women were enrolled in the study; 33.4% complained of frequent lower back pain, 31.0% of frequent knee pain, 29.7% of frequent neck pain, 25.6% of joint pain at other sites, 23.6% of joint stiffness and 21.1% of hand joint swelling. Postmenopausal women experienced a significantly higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms compared with premenopausal women. There was a peak in prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms at early postmenopause. The prevalences of neck pain and lower back pain were not associated with age, but did increase during the perimenopausal stage. The prevalences of knee pain, joint stiffness and hand joint swelling increased significantly with age. Higher body mass index (BMI) was related to increased prevalences of knee pain, joint stiffness and hand joint swelling. Logistic regression analysis showed odds ratios for knee pain, joint stiffness and hand joint swelling of 2.256, 1.865 and 1.955, respectively, in the obese women (BMI ? 28 kg/m(2)), compared with women with normal BMI (< 24 kg/m(2)). Conclusion Menopause is known to be a time of increased musculoskeletal symptoms, but the association of musculoskeletal symptoms with age and BMI also should be considered. PMID:23347340

Gao, H-L; Lin, S-Q; Wei, Y; Chen, Y; Wu, Z-L

2013-02-15

231

Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?  

PubMed Central

On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18

2012-01-01

232

State-specific healthy life expectancy at age 65 years--United States, 2007-2009.  

PubMed

Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is a population health measure that combines mortality data with morbidity or health status data to estimate expected years of life in good health for persons at a given age. HLE accounts for quantity and quality of life and can be used to describe and monitor the health status of populations. HLE estimates for countries have been used for predicting future health service needs, evaluating health programs, and identifying trends and inequalities, but to date, few studies have reported HLE at the state level for the United States. To determine state-level estimates, CDC used data from the National Vital Statistics Systems (NVSS), U.S. Census Bureau, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to calculate HLEs for persons aged 65 years, by sex and race, for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). Those calculations indicate that, during 2007-2009, females had a greater HLE than males at age 65 years in every state and DC. HLE was greater for whites than for blacks in all states from which sufficient data were available and DC, except in Nevada and New Mexico. These results can be used as a baseline for states to monitor changes in the HLE of persons aged 65 years as they age and identify health disparities among subpopulations. PMID:23863702

2013-07-19

233

Long-term quality of life of liver transplant recipients beyond 60 years of age.  

PubMed

Due to ameliorated surgery as well as better immunosuppression, the recipient age after liver transplantation has been extended over the past years. This study aimed to investigate the health related quality of life after liver transplantation in recipients beyond 60 years of age. The SF-36 was used to evaluate the recipients' health-related quality of life as standardized tool. It comprises 36 items that are attributed to 8 subscales attributed to 2 components: the physical component score and the mental component score. Differences in the health-related quality of life between the included aged recipients and age-matched general population as well as among female and male recipients. Aged recipients showed significantly lower scores in physical functioning (29 vs. 76, p?=?0.001), role physical (42 vs. 73, p?=?0.003), bodily pain (34 vs. 71, p?=?0.003), general health (28 vs. 59, p?=?0.001), vitality (25 vs. 61, p?=?0.001), social functioning (36 vs. 87, p?=?0.001), role emotional (46 vs. 89, p?=?0.001) as well as the physical component score (28 vs. 76, p?=?0.001). Aged female recipients showed lower results as compared to males in social functioning, physical functioning, role physical, and social functioning (p?=?0.03 respectively) but comparable results in the remaining. Quality of life seems to be an issue among aged recipients and should be assessed on a regular basis. PMID:23529506

Werkgartner, G; Wagner, D; Manhal, S; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Mischinger, H J; Wagner, M; Grgic, R; Roller, R E; Kniepeiss, D

2013-03-26

234

Tolerability and Safety of Primaquine in Papua New Guinean Children 1 to 10 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Primaquine is currently the only drug available for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale liver infection stages, but limited safety data exist for children <10 years of age. Detailed daily assessments of side effects in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-normal children treated with 14 days of primaquine plus chloroquine (3 days; n = 252) or artesunate (7 days; n = 141) (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) showed that both treatments are well tolerated, do not lead to reductions in hemoglobin levels, and can thus safely be used in children 1 to 10 years of age.

Betuela, Inoni; Bassat, Quique; Kiniboro, Benson; Robinson, Leanne J.; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Stanisic, Danielle; Siba, Peter M.; Alonso, Pedro L.

2012-01-01

235

Incidence and determinants of moderate COPD (GOLD II) in male smokers aged 40-65 years: 5-year follow up  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem with an estimated prevalence of 10–15% among smokers. The incidence of moderate COPD, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), is largely unknown. Aim To determine the cumulative incidence of moderate COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC] <0.7 and FEV1 <80% predicted) and its association with patient characteristics in a cohort of male smokers. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The city of IJsselstein, a small town in the Netherlands. Method Smokers aged 40–65 years who were registered with local GPs, participated in a study to identify undetected COPD. Baseline measurements were taken in 1998 of 399 smokers with normal spirometry (n = 292) or mild COPD (FEV1/FVC <0.7 and FEV1 ?80% predicted, n = 107) and follow-up measurements were conducted in 2003. Results After a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 33 participants developed moderate COPD (GOLD II). This showed an estimated cumulative incidence of 8.3% (95% CI = 5.8 to 11.4) and a mean annual incidence of 1.6%. No participant developed severe airflow obstruction. The risk of developing moderate COPD in smokers with baseline mild COPD (GOLD I) was five times higher than in those with baseline normal spirometry (one in five versus one in 25). Conclusions In a cohort of middle-aged male smokers, the estimated cumulative incidence of moderate COPD (GOLD II) over 5 years was relatively high (8.3%). Age, childhood smoking, cough, and one or more GP contacts for lower respiratory tract problems were independently associated with incident moderate COPD.

Geijer, Roeland MM; Sachs, Alfred PE; Verheij, Theo JM; Salome, Philippe L; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Hoes, Arno W

2006-01-01

236

[Overall goal of 20% reduction in age-adjusted cancer mortality under 75 years of age--is it achievable within 10 years?].  

PubMed

The Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs has stated an overall goal to decrease the age-adjusted cancer mortality of people under 75 years of age by 20% within the next 10 years. The announced basis for the estimation and my view on the possibilities are shown here. The estimated goal of a 20% reduction is to be achieved as the sum of each reduction of 10% by the natural course, 1.6% by a 50% decrease in smokers, 4.0% by a screening rate of 50%, and 4.7% from the nationwide standardization of cancer cure. Each component has hurdles to overcome, and it will be difficult to achieve the targets but for dramatic changes in our social environment such as a massive hike in tobacco tax, a smoking ban in the workplace and public places, a law mandating cancer screening, and reform of the medical-care system. Meanwhile, an approximate 10% reduction was observed during 2000 to 2005. Therefore, 20% reduction would be achievable even without any cancer control action. PMID:19011327

Tsugane, Shoichiro

2008-11-01

237

Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children.

Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

2012-01-01

238

Eating Attitudes Test in Boys and Girls Aged 6–18 Years: Decrease in Concerns with Eating in Boys and the Increase in Girls with Their Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns with eating were studied in 130 Japanese boys and 125 girls aged 6–18 years using the Simplified Eating Attitudes Test (s-EAT). The s-EAT scores in girls slightly increased with age. The mean scores in girls at age 10 years or older were significantly higher than in boys of the same age, suggesting that pubertal girls have more concerns with

Takehiko Ohzeki; Hiroko Otahara; Keiichi Hanaki; Hiroko Motozumi; Kazuo Shiraki

1993-01-01

239

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Diagnosis of Asthma in Offspring at AgeYears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and a diagnosis of asthma\\u000a in offspring at ageyears. Methods A population-based sample of children born in large U.S. cities in 1998–2000 was followed since birth (N = 1971). The main\\u000a outcome measure was whether the mother reported at 3 years that the child had ever been

Nancy E. Reichman; Lenna Nepomnyaschy

2008-01-01

240

Self-Esteem Development From Age 14 to 30 Years: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the development of self-esteem in adolescence and young adulthood. Data came from the Young Adults section of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which includes 8 assessments across a 14-year period of a national probability sample of 7,100 individuals age 14 to 30 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases during adolescence and continues to increase

Ruth Yasemin Erol; Ulrich Orth

2011-01-01

241

Neurodevelopmental status at age five years of neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the neurodevelopmental status at age 5 years among children who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the newborn period as a treatment for severe cardiorespiratory failure. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 103 five-year-old ECMO-treated children born between June 1984 and July 1988, and treated at our institution. Thirty-seven healthy control children were recruited locally.

Penny Glass; Ann E. Wagner; Patricia H. Papero; Shusila R. Rajasingham; Lucy A. Civitello; Mette S. Kjaer; Cara E. Coffman; Pamela R. Getson; Billie L. Short

1995-01-01

242

Survival to the age of 87 years in a woman with unoperated tetralogy of Fallot  

PubMed Central

Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect, affecting approximately 2700 infants per year born in the United States. The natural history of the tetralogy reflects the adverse physiologic consequences of the underlying structural abnormalities, with only approximately 3% of uncorrected patients surviving past age 40. In this case report, we report an 87-year-old woman with unoperated tetralogy of Fallot, who we believe to be the oldest and only second octogenarian described in the literature.

Subhawong, Ty K.; Teytelboym, Oleg

2009-01-01

243

Predictors for development of hyperuricemia: An 8-year longitudinal study in middle-aged Japanese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the factors responsible for increases in serum uric acid (SUA), a cohort of 1,312 hyperuricemia-free (SUA [lt ] 7.5 mg\\/dL and no medication for hyperuricemia or hypertension) male office workers aged 30 to 52 years were examined annually for 8 successive years. Subjects who were found to have become hyperuricemic (SUA [ge ] 7.5 mg\\/dL) or who started

Noriyuki Nakanishi; Hiroshi Yoshida; Koji Nakamura; Kenji Suzuki; Kozo Tatara

2001-01-01

244

Treatment of hypertension in patients 85 years of age or older: a J-BRAVE substudy.  

PubMed

Whether the strict control of blood pressure (BP) of patients with hypertension who are aged 85 years or older is beneficial is unclear. The Japan's Benidipine Research on Antihypertensive Effects in the Elderly study is a prospective, observational 3-year study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of treatment with a calcium channel blocker benidipine in 8897 hypertensive patients aged 65 years or older as a post-marketing surveillance. We examined the relationship between the achieved BP and cardiovascular events (i.e., stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in a subgroup of 415 patients aged 85 years or older (mean age 88 years). BP decreased significantly from 165 ± 14/84 ± 10 mmHg to 130 ± 11/71 ± 10 mmHg during treatment in patients with a treated systolic BP (SBP) < 140 mmHg (n = 230) and BP decreased significantly from 169 ± 16/86 ± 12 mmHg to 143 ± 13/75 ± 10 mmHg in those with a treated SBP ? 140 mmHg (n = 185). There was a nonsignificant trend toward a lower rate of cardiovascular events and higher rate of total death in patients with a treated SBP < 140 mmHg. On-treatment SBP ? 160 mmHg is tended to associate with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the controlled BP group (3.04%) and the less well controlled BP group (3.24%). In conclusion, although this study was not powered for definitive conclusion, there was a nonsignificant trend toward a lower rate of cardiovascular events and higher total death in patients aged 85 years or older with a treated SBP < 140 mmHg. PMID:21787236

Saito, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kageyama, Shigeru; Saruta, Takao

2011-01-01

245

The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years  

PubMed Central

Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories.

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2009-01-01

246

Smoking relapse after 2 years of abstinence: findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the risk of cigarette smoking relapse after 2 or more years of abstinence. The rates and predictors of late smoking relapse were estimated in 483 men who participated in a prospective study for up to 35 years. Subjects are participants in the VA Normative Aging Study, a prospective observational study of aging in men that began in 1963. Subjects are evaluated approximately every 3 years with physical examinations and questionnaires. Smoking, alcohol use, caffeine consumption, and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire, and weight and height were measured at clinical examinations every 3 years since 1963. Predictors of smoking relapse were identified using proportional hazards regression models. The rate of smoking relapse in the 2nd-6th years of abstinence fluctuated between 2 and 4% per year, and fell to less than 1% only after 10 years of abstinence. In multivariate regression models, coffee and alcohol consumption, and use of cigars or pipes significantly increased the risk of smoking relapse. A small risk of smoking relapse remains for at least 10 years after smoking cessation. Use of other tobacco products, coffee and alcohol increased the risk of late relapse. These findings may be useful in identifying those at highest risk for late relapse and for motivating former smokers to continue long-term abstinence. PMID:11906685

Krall, Elizabeth A; Garvey, Arthur J; Garcia, Raul I

2002-02-01

247

Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

2012-01-01

248

Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

2009-01-01

249

The epidemiology of sleep and its disorder in Chinese children aged 0–5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the sleep patterns and the prevalence and types of sleep problems among urban Chinese children under 5 years of age. Data were gathered on 14,883 children selected by stratified random sampling from 12 cities, using the Children's Sleep Status Questionnaire (CSSQ). The parents were asked about their children's average sleep time in

Huang Xiao-na; Wang Hui-shan; Jiang Jing-xiong; Ma Yu-yan; An Lin; Liu Xi-cheng

2009-01-01

250

The mobility of the sacroiliac joints in healthy volunteers between 20 and 50 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and amplitude of movement in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is still open to controversy. Whereas some authors using modern measuring techniques have reported on the range of motion in the SIJ of patients and in embalmed elderly humans, the following is a presentation of our observations related to healthy individuals between 20 and 50 years of age. Using

HAC Jacob; RO Kissling

1995-01-01

251

Stroke Incidence in Women under 60 Years of Age Related to Alcohol Intake and Smoking Habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: The association between alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of stroke amongst women remains unclear, especially in young women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 45,449 Swedish women aged 30–50 years free of stroke and heart diseases at enrolment in 1991 and 1992. Information on drinking and smoking habits at enrolment was collected using a questionnaire. Incident

Ming Lu; Weimin Ye; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2008-01-01

252

Changes in risky driving behavior from age 21 to 26 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of risky driving behavior changed between ages 21 and 26 years, among a cohort of young people. Method: This study was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort. This study involved examining changes in the prevalence of

Dorothy Begg; John Langley

2001-01-01

253

[The social motivations in formation of personality in schoolchildren of adolescent age (11-13 years)].  

PubMed

The analysis of social motivation in formation of personality in schoolchildren aged 11-13 years revealed that the majority of them have life goals and social cultural needs. The highest level of socialization was established in lyceum students. By the gender characteristics, the girls are socialized the most. PMID:22279801

254

Birth defects among surviving children under seven years of age in Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the developed countries. They are also of increasing concern in many developing countries, such as China. However, prevalence and causes of birth defects in China are inadequately understood.^ The purpose of the present study was to estimated prevalence of birth defects in surviving children under seven years of age in

Baoguang Wang

1997-01-01

255

Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

Liu, Chiung-ju

2010-01-01

256

Correlation between the age of smoking initiation and maintaining continuous abstinence for 5 years after quitting.  

PubMed

Many factors affect tobacco quit rate. In this study we investigated the abstinence rate after 5 years based on the age of smoking initiation. This pre-post field trial study was conducted on 398 smokers who participated voluntarily in a smoking cessation clinic in 2005. They were followed for 5 years and their success or failure in continuous abstinence was evaluated and recorded in 2010. Three hundred and five participants (76.6%) succeeded at the end of the course. Follow up at the end of 2010 revealed that 111 (27.8%) cases were still maintaining their continuous abstinence after 5 years including 64 men and 47 women. The mean age of smoking initiation in successful and failed subjects was 21.9 and 20.7 years respectively. The age of smoking initiation could be a predictor of maintaining abstinence in the future. Starting smoking at an earlier age could have a negative effect on long-term abstinence. PMID:23292627

Abdolahinia, Ali; Sadr, Makan; Hessami, Zahra

2012-11-01

257

Hospital morbidity pattern in children under 1 year of age born in Sheffield 1975-6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morbidity pattern, based on hospital admissions for a complete year's cohort of all children born in Sheffield 1975-6, was studied. In many children the diagnosis given on admission had changed by the time they were discharged from hospital. About one-quarter of children under age 6 months were admitted for social reasons. Despite a decreasing birth rate the admission rate

B Lloyd; E Pursall; J L Emery

1981-01-01

258

Prevalence of Dental Fear Among Vilnius Pupils Aged 12 to 15 Years. Determining Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Studies aimed at evaluating the incidence of dental fear among adolescents in the city of Vilnius on the basis of the CDAS (Corah Dental Anxiety Scale) , DFS (Dental Fear Survey) and DBS (Dental Beliefs scale) scales and establishing the determining factors of this phenom- enon. The research involved 557 pupils aged between 12 and 15 years from 9

Rasa Raciene

259

The relationship of preference for educational structure to age and years of education among practising nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in adult and lifelong education has included an expanding interest in the characteristics of adult learners, including an exploration of their preference for independence in the teaching\\/learning situation. Limited research, however, has focused upon this facet of adult education. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of age and years of education to preference for educational

Jan M. Russell; Steven R. Krantz

1994-01-01

260

Childhood IQ, smoking, and cognitive change from age 11 to 64 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether smoking is a risk factor for relative cognitive decline from age 11 to 64 years. The potentially confounding effects of childhood IQ, occupational status, level of education, presence of heart disease, hypertension, and lung function were examined. Subjects were nondemented and living independently. They were all born in 1936, had been participants in the same Scottish national

Lawrence J. Whalley; Helen C. Fox; Ian J. Deary; John M. Starr

2005-01-01

261

Alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure in Korean adults aged 50 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of the association between alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and carotid atherosclerosis by evaluating the effects of alcohol intake on carotid artery enlargement. METHODS: The study population consisted of 4302 community-dwelling Koreans (1577 men and 2725 women) aged 50 years and over. All the subjects

Young-Hoon Lee; Min-Ho Shin; Sun-Seog Kweon; Sung-Woo Choi; Hye-Yeon Kim; So-Yeon Ryu; Bok-Hee Kim; Jung-Ae Rhee; Jin-Su Choi

2009-01-01

262

Urinary Excretion of Fluoride Following Ingestion of MFP Toothpastes by Infants Aged Two to Six Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and excretion of fluoride in a group of 25 infants (<6 years of age) were followed for up to seven hours after the ingestion of a known quantity of either sodium monofluorophosphate alone in solution, or toothpastes with sodium monofluorophosphate and an abrasive of either hydrated silica or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. Fluoride appeared to be well-absorbed based on

B. K. Drummond; M. E. J. Curzon

1985-01-01

263

Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r ac t Background Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death. Methods We randomly assigned 3845 patients from Europe, China, Australasia, and Tunisia who

Nigel S. Beckett; Ruth Peters; Astrid E. Fletcher; Jan A. Staessen; Lisheng Liu; Dan Dumitrascu; Vassil Stoyanovsky; Riitta L. Antikainen; Yuri Nikitin; Craig Anderson; Alli Belhani; Françoise Forette; Chakravarthi Rajkumar; Lutgarde Thijs; Winston Banya; Christopher J. Bulpitt

2008-01-01

264

Length of stay after infant heart surgery is related to cognitive outcome at age 8 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the hypothesis that postoperative length of stay (LOS) after infant heart surgery might be an easily measured surrogate marker for various events that culminate in later adverse cognitive outcome.Methods Among 160 eligible patients with D-transposition of the great arteries undergoing reparative surgery in infancy, 155 (97%) were reevaluated at age 8 years with IQ and achievement testing.

Jane W. Newburger; David Wypij; David C. Bellinger; Adre J. du Plessis; Karl C. K. Kuban; Leonard A. Rappaport; Daniel Almirall; David L. Wessel; Richard A. Jonas; Gil Wernovsky

2003-01-01

265

Developmental changes in cognitive reaction time of children aged 6–12 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a visual Go\\/Nogo paradigm and subtraction methods, we examined detailed developmental changes in the cognitive reaction times of 153 healthy children aged 6–12 years. Three conditions were studied: simple reaction, even rate reaction (50% Go), and high rate reaction (80% Go). The subtraction of simple reaction time from even rate reaction time was considered to reflect discrimination time, while

Yukako Iida; Makoto Miyazaki; Sunao Uchida

2010-01-01

266

Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

2012-01-01

267

The Effects of Prenatal and Perinatal Complications on Development at One Year of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 35 variables descriptive of birth and obstetric complications, prematurity, maternal discomfort, and demographic status were studied for a sample of 322 infants. Factor analyses of these variables resulted in seven major factors that were used to predict developmental status at 1 year of age for 233 of the subjects. (Author/SB)

Goldstein, Kenneth M.; And Others

1976-01-01

268

Alcoholic Beverage Preference, 29Year Mortality, and Quality of Life in Men in Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Harms of excessive alcohol consumption are obvious, but moderate wine consumption is frequently advocated for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We compared 29-year mortality and quality of life in old age by alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, or spirits) in a cohort of men whose socioeconomic status was similar in their adult life. Methods. In 1974, cardiovascular risk factors and

Timo E. Strandberg; Arto Y. Strandberg; Veikko V. Salomaa; Kaisu Pitkala; Reijo S. Tilvis; Tatu A. Miettinen

2007-01-01

269

Exposure to Movie Smoking Among US Adolescents Aged 10 to 14 Years: A Population Estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Several studies have linked seeing smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, but none have determined how much movie smoking adolescents see. OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to determine exposure to movie smoking in a representative sample of young US adolescents. METHODS. We surveyed 6522 nationally representative US adolescents aged 10 -14 years. We content analyzed 534 contemporary box-office hits for

James D. Sargent; Susanne E. Tanski; Jennifer Gibson

2010-01-01

270

Optic Pathway Hypothalamic Gliomas in Children under Three Years of Age: The Role of Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Optic pathway\\/hypothalamic gliomas (OPHGs) tend to occur in young children. Treatment options consist of surgical resection, radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Due to complications induced by surgery and RT, chemotherapy has gained significant recognition for the treatment of OPHG in young children. Chemosensitivity of OPHG in very young children under 3 years of age has not been well documented.

Michele Madeira Silva; Stewart Goldman; Gesina Keating; Mary Anne Marymont; John Kalapurakal; Tadanori Tomita

2000-01-01

271

Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from…

Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

2009-01-01

272

Symbiotic tripartite nitrogen fixation effectual in eroded soil restoration with 20 year?age Sericea lespedeza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is an essential ecological attribute for sustained amelioration of severely eroded, low fertility soils. The long?lived perennial, Sericea (Lespedeza cuneata (Dument) G. Don.), is highly tolerant of depleted soil conditions and has exceptional nitrogen fixation capabilities. Objectives of this study were to determine nodulation characteristics, with adjunctive governing factors, that influence 20 year?age Sericea growth, effectual nitrogen

J. Q. Lynd; T. R. Ansman

1993-01-01

273

25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT...

2011-04-01

274

Gender and walking speed effects on plantar pressure distribution for adults aged 20–60 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates gender and walking speed (80%, 100%, 120% and 140% of preferred walking speed (PWS)) effects on plantar pressure parameters. In total, 30 healthy males and females, aged between 20 to 60 years, participated in this study. A plantar pressure measurement device was used to measure the peak pressure, peak force and contact area in six plantar zones.

Meng-Jung Chung; Mao-Jiun Wang

2011-01-01

275

Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

2013-01-01

276

Smoking and Periodontal Disease in the Finnish Population Aged 30 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study, which was part of the Mini-Finland Oral Health Survey, was to evaluate the effect of smoking on periodontal condition in the Finnish adult population. A representative sample was drawn from the population aged 30 years and over. The total number of subjects was 8000, 90% of whom participated in the clinical examination. Periodontal diagnoses were

H. Markkanen; I. Paunio; R. Tuominen; M. Rajala

1985-01-01

277

Interactive whiteboards, interactivity and play in the classroom with children aged three to seven years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current use of interactive whiteboards in the teaching and learning of children aged three to seven years in Wales, UK. It considers both teachers’ and children’s reflections regarding the use of this ‘novel’ technology. Observations in 30 classrooms with interactive whiteboards (IWB) and interviews with teachers and children from these classroom settings are analysed to develop

Alex Morgan

2010-01-01

278

Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

1969-01-01

279

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

280

Prognosis of primary care patients aged 80 years and older with lower respiratory tract infection  

PubMed Central

Background Predictors for a complicated course of a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) episode among patients aged ?80 years are unknown. Aim To determine prognostic factors for hospital admission or death within 30 days after first onset of LRTI among primary care patients aged ?80 years. Design of study Retrospective cohort study. Setting Utrecht General Practitioner Research Network. Method Data were obtained using the computerised database of the research network over the years 1997 to 2003. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the independent association of predictors with 30-day hospitalisation or death. Results In all, 860 episodes of LRTI were observed in 509 patients; 13% of patients were hospitalised or died within 30 days. Type of LRTI, diabetes, use of oral glucocorticoids, use of antibiotics in the previous month, and hospitalisation in the previous 12 months were independently associated with the combined outcome. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a greater risk of 30-day hospitalisation or death compared with patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Conclusion Independent of age, serious comorbidity – notably the presence of insulin-dependent diabetes or exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring oral glucocorticoids – increases the risk for complications, including hospital admissions, in patients aged ?80 years with an LRTI.

van de Nadort, Christiana; Smeets, Hugo M; Bont, Jettie; Zuithoff, N Peter A; Hak, Eelko; Verheij, Theo JM

2009-01-01

281

POSITION OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION: DIETARY GUIDANCE FOR HEALTHY CHILDREN AGES 2 TO 11 YEARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is the position of The American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activ...

282

Serologic Responses to ACYW135 Polysaccharide Meningococcal Vaccine in Saudi Children under 5 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunization campaign with meningococcal ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccine was conducted in 2003 by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health and included a study to evaluate the immune responses in children under 5 years of age in the Al Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Children who were >24 months old were given one dose of tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine, while younger children

Y. Al-Mazrou; M. Khalil; R. Borrow; P. Balmer; J. Bramwell; G. Lal; N. Andrews; M. Al-Jeffri

2005-01-01

283

Active and Passive Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer by Age 50 Years among German Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that both active and passive smokers have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with women who have never been either actively or passively exposed. Data on lifetime active and passive smoking were collected in 1999-2000 from 468 predominantly premenopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed by age 50 years and 1,093 controls who had previously participated in a

Silke Kropp; Jenny Chang-Claude

284

Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

2013-01-01

285

Behavioral Outcomes and Evidence of Psychopathology Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Age 20 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Information on the mental health of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) chil- dren in young adulthood is sparse. We thus sought to examine gender-specific behavioral outcomes and evi- dence of psychopathology in a cohort of VLBW young adults at 20 years of age. Methods. We compared a cohort of 241 survivors among VLBW infants who were born

Maureen Hack; Eric A. Youngstrom; Lydia Cartar; Mark Schluchter; H. Gerry Taylor; Daniel Flannery; Nancy Klein; Elaine Borawski

2010-01-01

286

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children under 1 year of age: indications, complications, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 9-year period from June 1979 to July 1988, 197 percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomies (PEG) were performed by us in infants and children; 69 (35%) were placed in 68 infants 12 months of age or younger. Indications for the PEG in this latter group were: (1) inability to swallow: 48 (CNS lesions — 40; maxillofacial malformations — 4; oropharyngeal dysmotility

John P. Coughlin; Michael W. L. Gauderere; Thomas A. Stellato

1991-01-01

287

The National CT Colonography Trial: Assessment of Accuracy in Participants 65 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To conduct post-hoc analysis of National CT Colonography Trial data and compare the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomographic (CT) colonography in participants younger than 65 years with those in participants aged 65 years and older. Materials and Methods: Of 2600 asymptomatic participants recruited at 15 centers for the trial, 497 were 65 years of age or older. Approval of this HIPAA-compliant study was obtained from the institutional review board of each site, and informed consent was obtained from each subject. Radiologists certified in CT colonography reported lesions 5 mm in diameter or larger. Screening detection of large (?10-mm) histologically confirmed colorectal neoplasia was the primary end point; screening detection of smaller (6–9-mm) colorectal neoplasia was a secondary end point. The differences in sensitivity and specificity of CT colonography in the two age cohorts (age < 65 years and age ? 65 years) were estimated with bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Complete data were available for 477 participants 65 years of age or older (among 2531 evaluable participants). Prevalence of adenomas 1 cm or larger for the older participants versus the younger participants was 6.9% (33 of 477) versus 3.7% (76 of 2054) (P < .004). For large neoplasms, mean estimates for CT colonography sensitivity and specificity among the older cohort were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.644, 0.944) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.779, 0.883), respectively. For large neoplasms in the younger group, CT colonography sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.837, 0.967) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.816, 0.899), respectively. Per-polyp sensitivity for large neoplasms for the older and younger populations was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.578, 0.869) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.717, 0.924), respectively. For the older and younger groups, per-participant sensitivity was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.565, 0.854) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.745, 0.882) for detecting adenomas 6 mm in diameter or larger. Conclusion: For most measures of diagnostic performance and in most subsets, the difference between senior-aged participants and those younger than 65 years was not statistically significant. © RSNA, 2012

Johnson, C. Daniel

2012-01-01

288

Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 ?g/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies provide data directly relevant to the question of whether blood lead concentrations < 10 ?g/dL adversely affect children’s cognitive function. Objective We examined the association between blood lead concentrations assessed throughout early childhood and children’s IQ at 6 years of age. Methods Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic models to estimate and test the association between blood lead concentration and IQ. Results After adjustment for maternal IQ, HOME scale scores, and other potential confounding factors, lifetime average blood lead concentration (mean = 7.2 ?g/dL; median = 6.2 ?g/dL) was inversely associated with Full-Scale IQ (p = 0.006) and Performance IQ scores (p = 0.002). Compared with children who had lifetime average blood lead concentrations < 5 ?g/dL, children with lifetime average concentrations between 5 and 9.9 ?g/dL scored 4.9 points lower on Full-Scale IQ (91.3 vs. 86.4, p = 0.03). Nonlinear modeling of the peak blood lead concentration revealed an inverse association (p = 0.003) between peak blood lead levels and Full-Scale IQ down to 2.1 ?g/dL, the lowest observed peak blood lead concentration in our study. Conclusions Evidence from this cohort indicates that children’s intellectual functioning at 6 years of age is impaired by blood lead concentrations well below 10 ?g/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood lead level.

Jusko, Todd A.; Henderson, Charles R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Canfield, Richard L.

2008-01-01

289

Total and near-total gastrectomy for gastric cancer in patients over 70 years of age.  

PubMed

A total or near-total gastrectomy was performed in 52 patients over 70 years of age in our hospital from 1975 through 1982. The hospital mortality rate was 9.6 percent. The operation was palliative in nine patients. In these patients, the operation was performed because of an obstructing cancer. At last follow-up, 11 patients had survived more than 5 years and 6 patients were alive and free of disease more than 3 years after the operation. Total and near-total gastrectomies seem to be justified in elderly patients in good overall physical condition. PMID:2443029

Saario, I; Salo, J; Lempinen, M; Kivilaakso, E

1987-09-01

290

Executive Functioning at Ages 5 and 7 Years in Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure  

PubMed Central

This prospective longitudinal study evaluated the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on executive functioning in 5- and 7-year-old children. In total, 154 pregnant cocaine users, identified by urine toxicology and structured interviews, were matched to 154 nonusers. Children were assessed by certified masked evaluators, and caregivers were interviewed by experienced staff during home visits. In approximately 90% of the surviving sample tested at ages 5 and 7 years, structural equation modeling demonstrated that an increased head circumference at birth (adjusted for gestation) significantly predicted better performance on executive functioning, and that PCE was indirectly related to executive functioning through its significant negative effect on head circumference at birth. At age 5 years, quality of environment also predicted executive functioning, and the R2 for the total model was 0.24. At 7 years, caregiver functioning predicted quality of environment, which in turn was positively related to executive functioning, and girls had better executive functioning. The total model at age 7 years accounted for 30% of the variance in executive functioning.

Eyler, Fonda Davis; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; Wobie, Kathleen; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

2011-01-01

291

Syntheses of anti-7,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-11-, and 12-Methylbenzo[A]Pyrene7,8DIOL9, 10-Epoxides: Identification and Comparison of DNA Adduct Formation with Calf-Thymus DNA in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a methyl group in the bay region adjacent to an angular ring enhances the carcinogenicity of many PAH compounds in contrast to structural analogues lacking this feature. For example, on mouse skin 5-methylchrysene is more carcinogenic than all other monomethylchrysenes or chrysene itself; 11-methylbenzo[a]pyrene is more tumorigenic than other monomethylbenzo[a]pyrenes or benzo[a]pyrene itself. anti-7,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-11-methylbenzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9, 10-epoxide (11-MeBPDE) is

Jyh-ming Lin; Dhimant Desai; Lehua Chung; Stephen S. Hecht; Shantu Amin

1999-01-01

292

Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over  

PubMed Central

Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ?65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention.

Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

2012-01-01

293

Management of anterior cruciate ligament rupture in patients aged 40 years and older.  

PubMed

The aim of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is essentially to restore functional stability of the knee and to allow patients to return to their desired work and activities. While in the young and active population, surgery is often the best therapeutic option after an ACL tear, ACL reconstruction in middle-aged people is rather more controversial due to concerns about a higher complication rate. The purpose of our article is to establish, through a systematic review of the literature, useful decision-making criteria for the management of anterior cruciate ligament rupture in patients aged 40 years and older, guiding surgeons to the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Various reports have shown excellent results of ACL reconstruction in patients over the age of 40 in terms of subjective satisfaction, return to previous activity level, and reduced complication and failure rates. Some even document excellent outcomes in subjects of 50 years and older. Although there are limited high-level studies, data reported in the literature suggest that ACL reconstruction can be successful in appropriately selected, motivated older patients with symptomatic knee instability who want to return to participating in highly demanding sport and recreational activities. Deciding factors are based on occupation, sex, activity level of the subject, amount of time spent performing such highly demanding activities, and presence of associated knee lesions. Physiological age and activity level are more important than chronological age as deciding factors when considering ACL reconstruction. PMID:22075673

Legnani, Claudio; Terzaghi, Clara; Borgo, Enrico; Ventura, Alberto

2011-11-11

294

Clinical presentation in patients more than 80 years of age at the start of peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

The age of new dialysis patients is rapidly increasing. In the present study, we examined clinical presentation in new peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients 80 years of age or older at our hospital. Data were collected from the records of patients newly starting continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) therapy between January 2005 and July 2010. During that period, 11 patients 80 years of age or older (average age: 83.1 +/- 3.8 years) were introduced to PD therapy. The reason for dialysis was hypertensive nephrosclerosis in 8 patients, and chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and an unknown primary disease in 1 patient each; there were no cases of diabetic nephropathy. At dialysis start, average serum creatinine was 6.1 +/- 1.4 mg/dL, arterial wall calcification was found by computed tomography or chest radiography in 10 of 11 patients (90.9%), and aortic or mitral valve calcification, or both, was found by echocardiography in 3 patients (27.3%). By the end of January 2011, 8 patients had died. Average survival after the start of PD was 31.9 +/- 22.3 months. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis, a cause less often seen in younger patients, was the most common primary disease among our elderly dialysis patients. As we previously reported, vascular and valvular calcification are important factors for determining prognosis; however, no significant relationships were observed in the present study, probably because almost all the patients had such calcifications. PMID:22073833

Sueyoshi, Keita; Inoue, Tsutomu; Kojima, Eriko; Sato, Takahiko; Tsuda, Masahiro; Kikuta, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Takane, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

2011-01-01

295

Characteristics of Atopic Bronchial Asthma in Seniors over 80 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background. Asthma in the elderly is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of asthma in seniors. Materials and Methods. The study involved 105 people of at least 80 years of age (mean age of 84.1 ± 3.9 years) selected from a group of 1860 individuals. Spirometry, the methacholine test, allergy diagnosis, a measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, and administration of the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) were performed. Results. The average morbidity of asthma in the study population of elderly people (at least 80 years of age) was 5.6% (105 people) of the confidence interval (95% CI: 5.1–6.0). In the study group, 34% of the elderly asthmatics had uncontrolled asthma, 47% had partly controlled asthma, and only 24% had fully controlled asthma. Allergy to house dust mites was predominant. The average total score on the AQLQ was 4.12 ± 0.72 (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation) for the seniors, which was significantly lower than the score for the young. Conclusion. The pathogenesis, natural history, and value of the basic diagnostic methods of asthma in the elderly are similar to those observed in younger age groups.

Bozek, Andrzej; Filipowski, Marek; Fischer, Andreas; Jarzab, Jerzy

2013-01-01

296

Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C. [and others

1995-11-01

297

Estimated Effect of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Examiner-Rated Behavior at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to increased child behavior difficulties in some studies but not others. Objective The primary aim was to estimate the relationship between in utero cocaine exposure and child behavioral functioning at age 7 years with ratings made by blinded examiners during a structured testing session. A second aim was to examine whether caregiver drug use and psychological problems might mediate suspected relationships between prenatal cocaine exposure and aspects of examiner-rated behavior. Methods 407 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 195 non-exposed) participating in the longitudinal Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study (MPCS) were rated with regard to their behavior during a neuropsychological assessment conducted at age 7 years. Raters were trained research psychometricians blinded to drug exposure. Individual behavioral items were summarized and the cocaine-behavior relationship was estimated within the context of latent variable modeling, using Mplus software. Results Two latent variables, Behavioral Regulation and Sociability, were derived via exploratory latent structure analysis with promax rotation. Prenatal cocaine exposure, statistically controlling for child sex, test age, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, was associated with Behavioral Regulation (estimated slope ß = -0.25; 95% CI = -0.48, -0.02; p = 0.04) but not Sociability (estimated slope ß = -0.03; 95% CI = -0.26, 0.20; p = 0.79). Neither postnatal drug use by caregivers nor the severity of their psychological problems at age 5 follow-up predicted levels of child Behavioral Regulation or Sociability at age 7 years (p>0.10). Conclusions Examiner ratings of child behavior at age 7 revealed less optimal behavioral regulation for prenatally cocaine-exposed compared to non-exposed children, in contrast with what had been previously found from parent-report data. This evidence highlights the potential value of trained observers in assessing behavioral outcomes of children exposed in utero to drugs and other toxicants.

Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Mansoor, Elana; Johnson, Arnise L.; McCoy, Clyde B.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

2011-01-01

298

Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.  

PubMed

Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years. PMID:22810299

Smithers, Lisa G; Golley, Rebecca K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brazionis, Laima; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Lynch, John W

2012-07-19

299

Environmental exposure to metals and children's growth to age 5 years: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001-2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were -0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.60, -0.06) for high (?95th percentile) arsenic exposure and -0.57 kg (95% CI: -0.88, -0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (?5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were -0.50 cm (95% CI: -1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and -1.6 cm (95% CI: -2.4, -0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (-0.67 kg, 95% CI: -0.82, -0.53) and height (-1.3 cm, 95% CI: -1.7, -0.89). PMID:23676282

Gardner, Renee M; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Vahter, Marie

2013-05-14

300

Association between umbilical cord glucocorticoids and blood pressure at age 3 years  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and 'programs' hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11?-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Methods Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11?-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. Results At age 3 years, each unit increase in the F/E ratio was associated with a 1.6 mm Hg increase in systolic BP (95% CI 0.0 to 3.1). The F/E ratio was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or birth weight for gestational age z-score. Conclusion A higher F/E ratio in umbilical venous cord blood, likely reflecting reduced placental 11?-HSD2 activity, was associated with higher systolic blood pressure at age 3 years. Our data suggest that increased fetal exposure to active maternal glucocorticoids may program later systolic blood pressure.

Huh, Susanna Y; Andrew, Ruth; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Gillman, Matthew W

2008-01-01

301

Neonatal outcome of IVF singletons versus naturally conceived in women aged 35 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare the delivery and neonatal outcome of IVF singleton pregnancies with those conceived spontaneously in primiparous\\u000a women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were collected by the hospital’s obstetrics and pediatric staff at the time of examination, hospitalization, delivery\\u000a and discharge. A total of 283 women with in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton deliveries were matched according to ethnicity,\\u000a age, gravidity, smoking

Vlatka Tomic; Jozo Tomic

302

Two-year citations of JAPPL original articles: evidence of a relative age effect.  

PubMed

Several indicators have been used to analyze scientific journals, with the impact factor and the number of citations in a 2-yr calendar time frame (2-YRC) being the most common factors. However, considering that the Journal of Applied Physiology (JAPPL) appears monthly and that calculations of these indicators are based on citations of papers published in previous years, we hypothesized that articles published at the beginning of the year would be cited more in the 2-YRC compared with those appearing in the last issues of the year, a phenomena known as a relative age effect. Our objective was to confirm the existence of a relative age effect in the 2-YRC for original articles published in JAPPL. From 2005 to 2008, a total of 1,726 original articles were published, according to the Web of Science, and 9,973 citations in 2-YRC, varying from 0 to 45, with a mean of 5.78 for individual papers. Although there were no differences in the number of original articles published in a given month (P = 0.99), the 2-YRC varied considerably throughout the year, being higher for those earlier issues of the year, as shown by the linear regression analysis (r(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). The 2-YRC began at 6.62 during the first 3 mo of the year, dropping by 10% at each 3-mo period. In summary, the longer an article has been out there, the more citations it collects. The relative age effect is a potential confounding variable for the assessment and interpretation of 2-YRC (using calendar years) from JAPPL original articles. PMID:22383506

Soares de Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ramalho de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; da Matta, Thiago Torres; Viana, Bruno Ferreira; de Souza, Cintia Pereira; Guerreiro, Renato de Carvalho; de Carvalho Guerreiro, Renato; Slama, Fabian Antonio; Portugal, Eduardo da Matta Mello; da Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo

2012-03-01

303

Age, gender, and arousal in recognition of negative and neutral pictures 1 year later.  

PubMed

Compared with nonarousing stimuli, arousing stimuli enhance memory performance. The most robust effects have been reported for negative stimuli, "the negativity effect," although a number of mediating factors prevent definitive conclusions, for example, age, gender, memory task, retention period, and alternative arousal measures. To clarify whether the negativity effect is robust across age, gender, and time, we studied incidental recognition of neutral and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999) in healthy younger and older adults--women and men--after a 1-year retention interval. Memory performance was related to 2 arousal measures at encoding, skin conductance response (SCR), and intensity rating of unpleasantness. The results showed weaker overall memory performance for older adults compared with younger adults. The negativity effect on accuracy (d') was gender dependent and age independent. In contrast, the negativity effect on response bias (c) interacted with age, but not gender, being weaker for older adults. Despite significant differences in arousal (SCR and arousal rating) between negative and neutral pictures, the correlations between arousal measures and memory performance were weak. Controlling for age and gender, a small negative partial correlation was found between arousal ratings and accuracy. The results extend previous studies by relating long-term recognition to both age and gender as well as to arousal at encoding. PMID:22506603

Gavazzeni, Joachim; Andersson, Tom; Bäckman, Lars; Wiens, Stefan; Fischer, Håkan

2012-04-16

304

Good results with cemented total hip arthroplasty in patients between 40 and 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Total hip arthroplasties in young patients have lower long-term survival rates than in older patients. We evaluated the use of a unique treatment protocol in patients aged between 40 and 50 years. In all cases we used a cemented THA, and for acetabular deficiencies we also used impacted bone grafts together with a cemented cup. Methods In 140 consecutive patients who were between 40 and 50 years of age at index surgery, 168 cemented total hip prostheses were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 10 (2–19) years. Acetabular deficiencies were reconstructed with wire meshes and impacted bone grafts with a cemented cup (70 hips). During follow-up, 18 patients died (27 hips); in this group 3 hips (3 patients) had been revised. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. In all surviving patients, clinical assessment was performed with hip-score questions and all radiographs were evaluated. Results All clinical questionnaires showed an improved clinical hip score. 29 hips (17%) were revised after a mean of 8 (0.3–18) years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a survival of 88% (95% CI: 82–94) after 10 years with revision of either component for any reason. Survival with endpoint revision for aseptic loosening of either component was 94% (95% CI: 90–99) after 10 years. Interpretation Cemented implants in young patients have satisfying long-term results. Reconstruction of acetabular deficiencies with impacted bone grafts show promising results.

de Kam, Daniel C J; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Veth, Rene P H

2010-01-01

305

Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years--Baghdad, Iraq, 2008.  

PubMed

In 2008, Iraq's parliament ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which obligates participants to establish tobacco use monitoring, surveillance, and evaluation systems. Lack of data on adolescent tobacco use in Iraq led the Ministry of Health (MOH) to conduct the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Baghdad in 2008. GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13--15 years that is self-administered in classes in selected schools. As in most Middle East countries, tobacco use in Iraq takes the form of cigarettes and shisha. Based on GYTS results, 7.4% of students aged 13--15 years reported having ever smoked cigarettes, 12.9% had ever smoked shisha, 3.2% currently smoked cigarettes, and 6.3% currently smoked shisha. Among never smokers aged 13--15 years, 13.0% reported they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking in the next year. Future declines in adolescent tobacco use in Iraq (and Baghdad) could be enhanced by expanding existing tobacco control programs to include prevention and cessation of the use of cigarettes and shisha, implementing measures that discourage adolescents who have never smoked from initiating tobacco use, expanding legislation to ban exposure to secondhand smoke in all indoor workplaces, and enacting legislation banning pro-tobacco advertising and sponsorship. PMID:19343010

2009-04-01

306

Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Purpose of the study Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. Materials and methods We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Results Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease.

Lopez-Basave, Horacio Noe; Morales-Vasquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Diaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gomez, Angel; Meneses-Garcia, Abelardo A

2013-01-01

307

High prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Saudi population, aged 30–64 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Study the prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and other cholesterol related risk factors among Saudi population, aged 30–64 years. Design: Cross sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey. Subject: 2059 Saudi subjects, aged 30–64 years. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and

Abdul Rahman Al-Nuaim

1997-01-01

308

Erectile dysfunction association with physical activity level and physical fitness in men aged 40–75 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between physical activity level and physical fitness with erectile dysfunction in men aged 40–75 years. We examined 180 men aged 40–75 years. The individuals were evaluated for age, presence of dyslipidemia and smoking and for anthropometric parameters for the characterization of body mass index. For assessing the level of physical

L C M Agostini; J M B Netto; M V Miranda; A A Figueiredo

2011-01-01

309

A CHC Theory-Based Analysis of Age Differences on Cognitive Abilities and Academic Skills at Ages 22 to 90 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Age differences for nine age groups between 22 and 25 years and 81 and 90 years were evaluated, covarying educational attainment, on five Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities: fluid reasoning (Gf), crystallized ability (Gc), quantitative knowledge (Gq), reading (Grw-Reading), and writing (Grw-Writing). Data were from the adult portions of the…

Kaufman, Alan S.; Johnson, Cheryl K.; Liu, Xin

2008-01-01

310

Age Trajectories of Genetic Variance in Physical Functioning: A Longitudinal Study of Danish Twins Aged 70 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic-evolutionary theories of aging predict that the genetic variance for fitness traits increases with age, while epidemiological-gerontological theories predict an increase in the environmental variance for most traits. In this study we examine the age trajectories of the genetic and environmental variance in physical functioning in a sample of 4731 Danish twins aged 70+ who are being followed longitudinally every

Kaare Christensen; Henrik Frederiksen; James W. Vaupel; Matt McGue

2003-01-01

311

Age Trajectories of Genetic Variance in Physical Functioning: A Longitudinal Study of Danish Twins Aged 70 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic-evolutionary theories of aging predict that the genetic variance for fitness traits increases with age, while epidemiological-gerontological theories predict an increase in the environmen- tal variance for most traits. In this study we examine the age trajectories of the genetic and en- vironmental variance in physical functioning in a sample of 4731 Danish twins aged 70 1 who are being

Kaare Christensen; Henrik Frederiksen; James W. Vaupel; Matt McGue

2003-01-01

312

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation for Treatment of Focal Cartilage Defects in Patients Age 40 Years and OlderA Matched-Pair Analysis With 2Year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an accepted surgical treatment in patients with isolated cartilage defects of the knee. Age has been considered as a limiting factor and the technique has not been recommended in patients older than 40 to 50 years. Nevertheless, some more recent studies report satisfying clinical results in middle-aged patients.Hypothesis: Analogous to the microfracture technique, age

Philipp Niemeyer; Wolfgang Köstler; Gian M. Salzmann; Philipp Lenz; Peter C. Kreuz; Norbert P. Südkamp

2010-01-01

313

Could the MMR vaccine replace the measles vaccine at one year of age in Egypt?  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study evaluated the immune status of non-vaccinated healthy infants to determine if it is possible to replace both measles vaccine (at 9 months) and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine (at 18 months) with a single dose of MMR at 12 months. Serum samples from 566 children in Alexandria, Egypt showed a significant decrease in the seropositive rate to the 3 viral diseases with increasing age, but a significant increase in the seropositive rate among infants who were ranked 1st or 2nd in their family, full-term or born to mothers with no history of hypertension during pregnancy. We recommend administration of the first dose of MMR vaccine between 9 and 12 months of age, and a booster dose of MMR vaccine at 4 years of age. PMID:19469430

Abbassy, A A; Barakat, S S; Abd El Fattah, M M; Said, Z N; El Metwally, H A

314

Tuberculin Reactivity in School Age Children; Five-year Follow-up in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective Tuberculosis (TB) is an important infectious disease worldwide. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard test for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection; Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination at birth has effects on this test. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive TST cases among 7- to 11-year-old primary school children and also to follow test-positive individuals for a five-year period. Methods TST was performed on 10.184 children aged 7–11 years sampled by cluster random method in Kermanshah, West Iran. Those who had a positive test result (i.e. an induration of ?15 mm following 72 hours of injecting 0.1 ml of 5 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were followed for five years to determine the presence of active TB. Also tuberculin positive rates at cut-off points of 10 mm and ?15 mm for boys and girls and at different ages were derived and compared using the chi-squared test. Findings Of 10.184 studied subjects, 830 (8.15%) cases showed positive TST. This rate was 8.7% in boys and 7.8% in girls (P=0.1). A significant linear trend was found between the tuberculin positive rates and age at all cut-off points (P<0.001). No active TB was detected during 5-year follow-up. Conclusion The rate of positive TST cases in primary school children in Kermanshah, Iran was 8.15% with no new cases of active tuberculosis detection within five-year follow-up.

Hemmati, Mitra; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Rezaei, Mansour

2011-01-01

315

Science and the Entrepreneurial University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current and still-evolving role of the American research university has been shaped by four key developments in the past sixty-five years: the historic decision to establish a comprehensive postwar federal science policy, described in Vannevar Bush's 1945 report, "Science, The Endless Frontier;" the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980; economic analyses…

Atkinson, Richard C.; Pelfrey, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

316

Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.  

PubMed

The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies. PMID:23054474

Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

2012-10-10

317

A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball  

PubMed Central

In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise.

Schorer, Jorg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

2013-01-01

318

[Elective total hip replacement in patients aged 80 years and older].  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis of the hip is frequent in older individuals and almost one out of five patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty at the Orthopaedic surgery service of the HUG is 80 years or older. A review of the literature indicates that the intervention provides excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome and high satisfaction in patients over 80 years. However, postoperative confusion and minor urological problems are more frequent. Moreover, the risk of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism and the 90-day-mortality rate are higher in these patients than in patients aged 60-79 years. The incidence of orthopaedic complications seems similar to the incidence in younger patients. Finally, revision due to aseptic loosening, the most important problem in young and active individuals, is uncommon in patients over 80 years. PMID:18277764

Lübbeke, Anne; Suvà, Domizio; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

2007-12-19

319

Inverse association between cancer risks and age in schizophrenic patients: a 12-year nationwide cohort study.  

PubMed

The association between schizophrenia and cancer risk is contentious in the clinical and epidemiological literature. Studies from different populations, tumor sites, or health care systems have provided inconsistent findings. In the present study, we examined a less well-investigated hypothesis that age plays a crucial role in cancer risk in schizophrenia. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) between 1995 and 2007. Overall, gender-, and age-stratified standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were used to investigate the pattern of cancer risk by age. Of the 102 202 schizophrenic patients, 1738 developed cancer after a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SIR = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.96). However, the age-stratified SIR declined with age (e.g. SIR [95% CI] = 1.97 [1.85-2.33], 0.68 [0.65-0.78], and 0.36 [0.34-0.45] for those aged 20-29, 60-69, and ?70 years, respectively) in both genders and for major cancers. Cancer risks in schizophrenic patients were lower for cancers that are more likely to develop at an older age in the general population (e.g. stomach cancer [SIR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.57-0.80], pancreatic cancer [SIR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.39-0.84], and prostate cancer [SIR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.29-0.58]). In contrast, cancer risks were higher for cancers that have a younger age of onset, such as cancers of the nasopharynx (SIR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.49), breast (SIR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.44-1.66) and uterine corpus (SIR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.98-2.74). The unique age structures and early aging potential of schizophrenia populations may contribute to the observed inverse relationship between age and cancer risk. Higher cancer comorbidity in young schizophrenic patients deserves more attention. PMID:23281874

Lin, Chun-Yuan; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Chen, Tsi-Ting; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wu, Vivian Y

2013-02-14

320

Infant temperament and school age behavior: 6-year longitudinal study in a pediatric practice.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a pediatric practice to assess the association between parents' ratings of temperamental difficulty (observations of specific infant behaviors) and perceptions of temperamental difficulty (impressions of one's infant as compared with other infants) in infancy and behavior problems at school age. Mothers of 129 infants, who had completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire at the 4-month visit, completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the child was 6 years of age. Teachers of 102 of these children completed the teacher Child Behavior Checklist. Temperamental difficulty was defined by assessments of rhythmicity, approach/withdrawal, intensity, mood, and adaptability. Initial analyses revealed that low socioeconomic status (r = -.29, P = .001), ratings of temperamental difficulty (r = .17, P = .06), and perceptions of temperamental difficulty (r = .22, P = .02) at 4 months of age were associated with increased maternal rating of behavior problems at 6 years of age (all 2-tailed tests). However, a multivariate regression analysis showed only low socioeconomic status (P less than .01) and increased perceptions of temperamental difficulty (P = .02) associated with maternal behavior problem scores. Teacher behavior problem scores were associated only with low socioeconomic status (r = -.27, P = .01). These results suggest that the link between difficult infant temperament and later behavior problems is complex and probably reflects both child factors and parent attitudes about what constitutes typical infant behavior. PMID:2330243

Wasserman, R C; DiBlasio, C M; Bond, L A; Young, P C; Colletti, R B

1990-05-01

321

Rhinitis in children less than 6 years of age: current knowledge and challenges  

PubMed Central

Rhinitis is a disease of the upper airway characterized by runny and/or blocked nose and/or sneezing. Though not viewed as a life threatening condition, it is also recognized to impose significant burden to the quality of life of sufferers and their caretakers and imposes an economic cost to society. Through a PubMed online search of the literature from 2006 to September 2011, this paper aims to review the published literature on rhinitis in young children below the age of 6 years. It is apparent from epidemiology studies that rhinitis in this age group is a relatively common problem. The condition has a heterogenous etiology with classification into allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. Respiratory viral infections may play a role in the pathogenesis of long standing rhinitis, but definitive studies are still lacking. Treatment guidelines for management are lacking for this age group, and is a significant unmet need. Although the consensus is that co-morbidities including otitis media with effusion, adenoidal hypertrophy and asthma, are important considerations of management of these children. Pharmacotherapy is limited for young children especially for those below the age of 2 years. This review underscores the lack of understanding of rhinitis in early childhood and therefore the need for further research in this area.

Hardjojo, Antony; Shek, Lynette PC; van Bever, Hugo PS

2011-01-01

322

Self-esteem development from age 14 to 30 years: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

We examined the development of self-esteem in adolescence and young adulthood. Data came from the Young Adults section of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which includes 8 assessments across a 14-year period of a national probability sample of 7,100 individuals age 14 to 30 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases during adolescence and continues to increase more slowly in young adulthood. Women and men did not differ in their self-esteem trajectories. In adolescence, Hispanics had lower self-esteem than Blacks and Whites, but the self-esteem of Hispanics subsequently increased more strongly, so that at age 30 Blacks and Hispanics had higher self-esteem than Whites. At each age, emotionally stable, extraverted, and conscientious individuals experienced higher self-esteem than emotionally unstable, introverted, and less conscientious individuals. Moreover, at each age, high sense of mastery, low risk taking, and better health predicted higher self-esteem. Finally, the results suggest that normative increase in sense of mastery accounts for a large proportion of the normative increase in self-esteem. PMID:21728448

Erol, Ruth Yasemin; Orth, Ulrich

2011-09-01

323

Mapping region-specific longitudinal cortical surface expansion from birth to 2 years of age.  

PubMed

The human cerebral cortex develops rapidly and dynamically in the first 2 years of life. It has been shown that cortical surface expansion from term infant to adult is highly nonuniform in a cross-sectional study. However, little is known about the longitudinal cortical surface expansion during early postnatal stages. In this article, we generate the first longitudinal surface-based atlases of human cortical structures at 0, 1, and 2 years of age from 73 healthy subjects. On the basis of the surface-based atlases, we study the longitudinal cortical surface expansion in the first 2 years of life and find that cortical surface expansion is age related and region specific. In the first year, cortical surface expands dramatically, with an average expansion of 1.80 times. In particular, regions of superior and medial temporal, superior parietal, medial orbitofrontal, lateral anterior prefrontal, occipital cortices, and postcentral gyrus expand relatively larger than other regions. In the second year, cortical surface still expands substantially, with an average expansion of 1.20 times. In particular, regions of superior and middle frontal, orbitofrontal, inferior temporal, inferior parietal, and superior parietal cortices expand relatively larger than other regions. These region-specific patterns of cortical surface expansion are related to cognitive and functional development at these stages. PMID:22923087

Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

2012-08-23

324

Do patients over 40 years of age benefit from surgical closure of atrial septal defects?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To determine the value of surgical closure of atrial septal defects in patients over 40 years of age.?METHODS—Retrospective analysis of 76 patients (63 women, 13 men), age range 40-62 years (mean (SD) 45.8 (5.1) years), who underwent surgical repair of atrial septal defect. Pre- and postoperative clinical status (New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class) was assessed, and ECG, x ray, and echocardiographic investigations performed. Follow up was between 1 and 17 years.?RESULTS—One operative and one late death occurred during the study period. Before operation, 47 patients (61.8%) were in NYHA functional classes III and IV. After operation, 61 patients (82.4%) were in classes I and II. Four patients had atrial fibrillation before surgery versus nine after surgery. Before operation, 52 patients had intensified pulmonary vascularity compared with only seven after operation. Echocardiographic examination showed a significant reduction in right ventricular dimension (4.10 (0.91) v 2.95 (0.36) cm, p < 0.001). No residual intracardiac shunts were identified on echocardiographic follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—Surgical closure of atrial septal defects in patients over 40 years old can improve their clinical status and prevent right ventricular dilatation and insufficiency.???Keywords: atrial septal defect; cardiac surgery

Jemielity, M; Dyszkiewicz, W; Paluszkiewicz, L; Perek, B; Buczkowski, P; Ponizynski, A

2001-01-01

325

Influenza Vaccination: The Persuasiveness of Messages Among People Aged 65 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 years and older. Vaccination remains the primary option for preventing influenza infection. This study examined the efficacy of messages designed to increase the uptake of influenza vaccination. Two messages, narrative and didactic, were created based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The study employed a one-factor between-subjects experimental

Gabriele Prati; Luca Pietrantoni; Bruna Zani

2012-01-01

326

Influenza Vaccination: The Persuasiveness of Messages Among People Aged 65 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 years and older. Vaccination remains the primary option for preventing influenza infection. This study examined the efficacy of messages designed to increase the uptake of influenza vaccination. Two messages, narrative and didactic, were created based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The study employed a one-factor between-subjects experimental

Gabriele Prati; Luca Pietrantoni; Bruna Zani

2011-01-01

327

Factors Related to Accelerometer-Derived Physical Activity in Pacific Children Aged 6 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors related to Pacific children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 393 Pacific children aged 6 years and their mothers were invited to participate. Participants wore accelerometers over 8 days; height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and mothers reported on individual, social, and perceived environmental factors. Generalized estimation equation

Melody Oliver; Philip J. Schluter; Grant M. Schofield; Janis Paterson

2011-01-01

328

Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

2012-08-31

329

Mental Health Outcomes of Cocaine-Exposed Children at 6 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess 6-year-old cocaine- and noncocaine-exposed children's mental health outcomes controlling for potential confounders. Methods The sample consisted of 322 children (169 cocaine exposed (CE) and 153 noncocaine exposed (NCE)) enrolled in a longitudinal study since birth. At age 6, children were assessed for mental health symptoms using the Dominic Interactive (DI), a child self-report measure, and the Child

Teresa J. Linares; Lynn T. Singer; H. Lester Kirchner; Elizabeth J. Short; Meeyoung O. Min; Patrick Hussey; Sonia Minnes

2006-01-01

330

Importance of heart failure with preserved systolic function in patients ?65 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common syndrome among the elderly, there is a relative paucity of population-based data, particularly regarding CHF with normal systolic left ventricular function. A total of 4,842 independent living, community-dwelling subjects aged 66 to 103 years received questionnaires on medical history, family history, personal habits, physical activity, and socioeconomic status, confirmation of preexisting cardiovascular

Dalane W Kitzman; Julius M Gardin; John S Gottdiener; Alice Arnold; Robin Boineau; Gerald Aurigemma; Emily K Marino; Mary Lyles; Mary Cushman; Paul L Enright

2001-01-01

331

Risk Factors for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women Under the Age of 45 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the etiologic profile of triple-negative breast cancer (negative for estrogen receptor\\/progesterone receptor\\/human epidermal growth factor), a breast cancer subtype associated with high mortality and inadequate therapeutic options. We undertook this study to assess the risk for triple-negative breast cancer among women 45 years of age and younger in relation to demographic\\/lifestyle factors, reproductive history, and oral

Jessica M. Dolle; Janet R. Daling; Emily White; Louise A. Brinton; David R. Doody; Peggy L. Porter; Kathleen E. Malone

332

Investigating Health and Diabetes Perceptions Among Hmong American Children, 9–18 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

After immigrating to the United States (US), obesity and diabetes have increased among the Hmong. Therefore, this study investigated\\u000a how Hmong children perceive health and diabetes risk so that appropriate interventions may be planned. Hmong children (N = 335), ages 9–18 years participated in this study. A survey used Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) as the theoretical framework\\u000a and silhouette drawing instrument. Heights and

Urvashi Mulasi-Pokhriyal; Chery Smith

2011-01-01

333

Percentile values for flexibility tests in youths aged 6 to 17 years: Influence of weight status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of weight status on flexibility performance in Spanish youths (1475 boys and 1237 girls) aged 6–17 years, and to provide percentile values for two flexibility tests. Flexibility was assessed by the sit-and-reach and shoulder stretch tests. Participants were categorized as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Girls had significantly

José Castro-Piñero; María José Girela-Rejón; José Luis González-Montesinos; Jesús Mora; Julio Conde-Caveda; Michael Sjöström; Jonatan R. Ruiz

2011-01-01

334

Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8–16 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8–16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one

Nili Steinberg; Itzhak Siev-ner; Smadar Peleg; Gali Dar; Youssef Masharawi; Aviva Zeev; Israel Hershkovitz

2012-01-01

335

Factors associated with HIV testing among sexually active South African youth aged 15–24 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV infection is high among South African youth but most report being unaware of their HIV status. We explored the correlates of HIV testing using data from youth aged 15–24 years old who reported being sexually experienced during a national survey conducted in South Africa in 2003 (N=7665). Among sexually experienced youth, 32.7% of females and 17.7% of males reported

C. MacPhail; A. Pettifor; W. Moyo; H. Rees

2009-01-01

336

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy and Child Weight at AgeYears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the importance of pregnancy weight gain as a predictor of overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] >85th percentile)\\u000a in offspring at ageyears and if its influence varies by maternal BMI. Methods Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 208 mother-child pairs from an earlier observational\\u000a cohort study on postpartum weight retention. Results In the

Christine M. Olson; Myla S. Strawderman; Barbara A. Dennison

2009-01-01

337

Stage and delay in breast cancer diagnosis by race, socioeconomic status, age and year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on 23,567 Non-Hispanic White, 2,539 Black, and 2,380 Hispanic breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1977 and 1985 was used to evaluate the risk of late stage diagnosis and long duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis in relation to ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age and year of diagnosis. All data were collected by the University of Southern California Cancer Surveillance Program,

JL Richardson; B Langholz; L Bernstein; C Burciaga; K Danley; RK Ross

1992-01-01

338

Delayed weekend sleep pattern in German infants and children aged 0–6 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, parents of pre-school children (0–6 years) answered an online questionnaire (444 girls, 447 boys). Children's bedtimes are earlier before weekdays and later before weekend days, and this difference becomes greater with age suggesting an increasing social jet lag at an early developmental stage. Half of the children have a sleep-onset latency of 15 min or shorter. When asked

Christoph Randler; Isabel Fontius; Christian Vollmer

2012-01-01

339

Markers of insulin resistance in day and shift workers aged 30-59 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine relationships between shift work and markers (metabolic abnormalities) of insulin resistance (IR). Methods. A cross-sectional study of 2,824 day and 826 shift workers. All the subjects were male blue-collar workers aged 30-59 years. Four IR markers [(1) hypertension (systolic blood pressure 𔓄 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ⃆ mmHg or under treatment for hypertension); (2) hyperglycemia (fasting

Teruo Nagaya; Hideyo Yoshida; Hidekatsu Takahashi; Makoto Kawai

2002-01-01

340

Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of\\u000a depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6--14\\u000a years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in\\u000a this regard. The purpose of this study was twofold. Using data from the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey,\\u000a it sought: (1) to identify

Lise Bergeron; Jean-Pierre Valla; Nicole Smolla; Geneviève Piché; Claude Berthiaume; Marie St.-Georges

2007-01-01

341

Neurocognitive functioning in children diagnosed with diabetes before age 10 years.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine scores on tests of neurocognitive functioning in children diagnosed with diabetes before age 10 years and to determine the association of age of diagnosis, duration of diabetes, subtle hypoglycemia, severe hypoglycemia, and history of hypoglycemic seizures with these neurocognitive test scores. Fifty-five of 62 eligible patients with a mean age of 7.9 +/- 1.6 years followed in our center were given the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery, Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Finger Tapping, Grooved Pegboard, and Verbal Selective Reminding tests to evaluate the following domains: memory/attention, visual-perceptual, broad cognitive function, academic achievement, and fine motor speed/coordination. Fifteen age-matched siblings served as controls. Twenty-seven subjects were less than 5 years of age when diagnosed with diabetes, the mean age at diagnosis was 4.5 +/- 2.1 years of age, and mean diabetes duration was 2.6 +/- 2.0 years. Eighteen patients had a history of severe hypoglycemia, eight of whom had hypoglycemic seizures. The mean HbA1c was 7.8 +/- 1.1% for the year prior to testing. Our results showed that the overall mean scores for the extensive neurocognitive battery were within the normal range and were comparable to the scores of the age-matched sibling controls. Age of diagnosis and duration of diabetes did not relate to neurocognitive test results. Mean HbA1c had a negative association with some tests of memory/attention (p < 0.03-0.04) and academic achievement (p < 0.005-0.03), while number of blood glucose levels less than mg/dL had a positive association with memory/attention (p < 0.004-0.04), verbal comprehension (p < 0.03) and academic achievement (p < 0.018-0.05). There was no association of neurocognitive test scores with severe hypoglycemia, but subjects with history of hypoglycemic seizures had a decrease in scores on tests assessing memory skills (p < 0.03) including short term memory and memory for words. These data suggest that overall neurocognitive test scores were within the normal range and comparable to controls. However, specific aspects of neurocognitive functioning may be adversely affected by having had a hypoglycemic seizure, but not by episodes of severe hypoglycemia without seizure. Lower HbA1c and an increase in the number of blood glucose levels less than 70 mg/ dL (subtle hypoglycemia) which were associated with higher scores in some domains of academic achievement and memory suggests that stable glycemia may influence cognitive abilities and/or that successful diabetes management requires cognitive skills. Strategies to diminish the risk of seizures with hypoglycemia should be investigated. PMID:10232707

Kaufman, F R; Epport, K; Engilman, R; Halvorson, M

342

Evaluation of pacemaker pulse generator and patient longevity in patients aged 1 day to 20 years.  

PubMed

The longevity of pediatric patients requiring pacemakers and the survival rates of the implanted generators were evaluated. From January 1970 to December 1985, 96 patients aged 1 day to 20 years underwent 162 pulse generator implantation procedures. Indication for initial implantation was surgically induced heart block in 52 patients, sick sinus syndrome in 20, congenital complete heart block with symptoms of low cardiac output in 19 and tachydysrhythmia control in 5. Modal age at initial implantation was less than 1 year; median age was 5 years. During this period 90 generators were removed from service: 49 (54%) because of generator failure, 22 (24%) because the patient died, 12 (13%) because of elective upgrade at the time of lead failure or cardiac surgery, 5 (6%) because of generator pocket infection and 2 (2%) because of manufacturer's recall. Pulse generators were separated into 4 groups based upon generator technology. Group I (n = 16) were asynchronous units with mercury-zinc batteries; group II (n = 18) were single-chamber demand units with mercury-zinc batteries; group III (n = 14) were single-chamber demand units with rechargeable batteries; and group IV (n = 114) were single- or dual-chamber demand units with lithium batteries. Patient survival rate was 84% at 6 months and 70% by 109 months. There was no further decrease to the end of the study period. Six-month generator survival rate was 82% for all groups, mostly a reflection of patient deaths.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3825943

Serwer, G A; Mericle, J M

1987-04-01

343

Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic.

Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

2001-01-01

344

[High blood presure for people aged more than 60 years in the distrct of Sousse].  

PubMed

High blood pressure (HBP) is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors all over the world. We conducted a prospective study including 600 elderly people aged more than 60 years in the district of Sousse. The mean age of our patients was 69 +/- 7.1 years with a ratio of 1.3 (340 females and 260 males). The prevalence of HBP was at 69.3%, diabetes 23% and obesity 24.2%. It is important to note that in 31% of cases HBP was newly diagnosed during our investigation. In 51.7% of patients with known hypertension there was evidence of non compliance to treatment and uncontrolled PB. It is obvious that HBP is a major health problem in our country and that inadequate control of hypertension is a potential source for cardiovascular problems. Our findings emphasize the need for implementing an educational program as well as sensitization compaigns targeting people, particularly those aged more than 60 years. PMID:15822468

Laouani Kechrid, Chadia; Hmouda, Hassen; Ben Naceur, Mohamed Haykel; Ghannem, Hassen; Toumi, Sarra; Ajmi, Fradj

2004-11-01

345

Dental radiography after age 25 years, amalgam fillings and tumours of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of diagnostic dental radiography and amalgam fillings as risk factors for tumours of the central nervous system (CNS). This population-based case-control study included subjects aged 25-74 years, living in the catchment area of the Neurosurgery Department of Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden. A total of 192 cases of glioma, 99 cases of meningioma and 42 cases of acoustic neurinoma were identified between 1987 and 1990. A control group of 343 subjects was matched on age, gender and parish. Information about dental exposure was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and from dental records. For those who had a dental radiography at least once a year after age 25 years, a relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-4.3) was seen for meningioma, while for other subgroups of CNS tumours the relative risk was close to unity. No association was observed between the number of amalgam fillings and CNS tumours. In conclusion, there was no clear evidence that dental radiography or amalgam fillings is related to the development of tumours of the CNS. PMID:9813721

Rodvall, Y; Ahlbom, A; Pershagen, G; Nylander, M; Spännare, B

1998-07-01

346

Quality of care for Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities under the age of 65 years.  

PubMed

Social Security Disability Insurance provides cash benefits to disabled workers and certain others under the age of 65 years. These individuals become eligible for Medicare 24 months after Social Security Disability Insurance cash benefits start. In 2001, 13.9% of Medicare's approximately 40 million beneficiaries were adults under the age of 65 years with disabilities, and they generated 15% of total program costs. Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities under the age of 65 years are much more likely than elderly beneficiaries to be minority race and ethnicity, impoverished, and to report fair or poor health. They are clinically diverse, with 53.4% reporting mental health conditions. Although Medicare provides essential coverage of acute medical services and selected rehabilitative and long-term care services, by law, Medicare does not reimburse important items and services essential to daily living for many people with disabilities, including mobility aids for use outside the home, physical and occupational therapy to maintain functioning or prevent declines, as well as personal assistance services. This gap represents a fundamental, structural quality problem for persons with disabilities. Surveys suggest that most Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities are generally satisfied with their standard medical services, but they report problems at much higher rates than elderly beneficiaries. Reforming Medicare to meet pressing needs of beneficiaries with disabilities will likely require statutory changes. PMID:20528520

Iezzoni, Lisa I

2006-06-01

347

Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children  

PubMed Central

The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

2013-01-01

348

Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters--Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population.

El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Tuma, Mazin; El-Hennawy, Hany; AbdulRahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Asim, Mohammad; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

2013-01-01

349

Pre-natal exposures to cocaine and alcohol and physical growth patterns to age 8 years  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and two primarily African American/Caribbean children (classified by maternal report and infant meconium as 38 heavier, 74 lighter and 89 not cocaine-exposed) were measured repeatedly from birth to age 8 years to assess whether there is an independent effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on physical growth patterns. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome identifiable at birth were excluded. At birth, cocaine and alcohol exposures were significantly and independently associated with lower weight, length and head circumference in cross-sectional multiple regression analyses. The relationship over time of pre-natal exposures to weight, height, and head circumference was then examined by multiple linear regression using mixed linear models including covariates: child’s gestational age, gender, ethnicity, age at assessment, current caregiver, birth mother’s use of alcohol, marijuana and tobacco during the pregnancy and pre-pregnancy weight (for child’s weight) and height (for child’s height and head circumference). The cocaine effects did not persist beyond infancy in piecewise linear mixed models, but a significant and independent negative effect of pre-natal alcohol exposure persisted for weight, height, and head circumference. Catch-up growth in cocaine-exposed infants occurred primarily by 6 months of age for all growth parameters, with some small fluctuations in growth rates in the preschool age range but no detectable differences between heavier versus unexposed nor lighter versus unexposed thereafter.

Lumeng, Julie C.; Cabral, Howard J.; Gannon, Katherine; Heeren, Timothy; Frank, Deborah A.

2007-01-01

350

Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.  

PubMed

We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity. PMID:19913844

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

2009-11-14

351

Study Of Reaction Mechanisms For {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn Systems Around The Coulomb Barrier  

SciTech Connect

The reactions {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn have been studied at energies around the Coulomb barrier in order to better understand the role played by the halo features on the reaction dynamics. Preliminary results on such studies will be reported in this paper.

Scuderi, V.; Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Rizzo, F.; Torresi, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Acosta, L.; Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Borge, M. J. G.; Sanchez, E. M. R.; Tengblad, O.; Vidal, A. M. [Insto. de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Fraile, L. M.; Jeppesen, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

2010-04-26

352

A Teacher's Guide to Folksinging: A Mini-Elective for Students in Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help meet the needs of nonmusic-major students in grade 9, 10, 11, and 12, this teacher's guide offers guidelines for a course to stimulate students' interest and involvement in folksinging. Guidelines are provided on the role of the teacher, methods of instruction, and suggested time allotments. Brief descriptions and comments on some typical…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

353

Study Of Reaction Mechanisms For 9,10,11Be+64Zn Systems Around The Coulomb Barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactions 9,10,11Be+64Zn have been studied at energies around the Coulomb barrier in order to better understand the role played by the halo features on the reaction dynamics. Preliminary results on such studies will be reported in this paper.

Scuderi, V.; di Pietro, A.; Acosta, L.; Amorini, F.; Borge, M. J. G.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Fraile, L. M.; Gòmez-Camacho, J.; Jeppesen, H.; Lattuada, M.; Martel, I.; Milin, M.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Sanchez, E. M. R.; Scalia, G.; Tengblad, O.; Torresi, D.; Vidal, A. M.; Zadro, M.

2010-04-01

354

High-pressure phase diagrams of methane + 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and methane + 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium data on the methane + 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) mixture at (294, 323, 373, and 423) K and on the methane + 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene mixture at (423 and 463) K are reported. The data have been obtained with a high-pressure cell and an infrared adsorption method previously described.

Tobaly, P.; Marteau, P.; Ruffier-Meray, V.

1999-12-01

355

Comparative Methylation of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-Anthraquinone: Chemoselectivity in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study has shown that methylation of 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1) with methyl tosylate is highly dependent upon reaction conditions. When the reaction is carried out by a simple heating of the reaction mixture without solvent it yields dimethyl product in a nearly quantitative yield and refluxing the same mixture of reactants in…

Sereda, Grigori A.

2005-01-01

356

Patterns of linear growth and skeletal maturation from birth to 18 years of age in overweight young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To estimate differences in skeletal maturity and stature from birth to age 18 years between individuals who are overweight vs normal weight in young adulthood.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Weight, length and height, and relative skeletal age (skeletal—chronological age) were assessed annually from birth to age 18 years in 521 subjects (255 women) in the Fels Longitudinal Study who were overweight or obese

W Johnson; S D Stovitz; A C Choh; S A Czerwinski; B Towne; E W Demerath

2012-01-01

357

Cognitive Function at 3 Years of Age after Fetal Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Fetal exposure of animals to antiepileptic drugs at doses lower than those required to produce congenital malformations can produce cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, but cognitive effects of fetal exposure of humans to antiepileptic drugs are uncertain. METHODS Between 1999 and 2004, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy who were taking a single antiepileptic agent (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) in a prospective, observational, multicenter study in the United States and the United Kingdom. The primary analysis is a comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 6 years after exposure to different antiepileptic drugs in utero. This report focuses on a planned interim analysis of cognitive outcomes in 309 children at 3 years of age. RESULTS At 3 years of age, children who had been exposed to valproate in utero had significantly lower IQ scores than those who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs. After adjustment for maternal IQ, maternal age, antiepileptic-drug dose, gestational age at birth, and maternal preconception use of folate, the mean IQ was 101 for children exposed to lamotrigine, 99 for those exposed to phenytoin, 98 for those exposed to carbamazepine, and 92 for those exposed to valproate. On average, children exposed to valproate had an IQ score 9 points lower than the score of those exposed to lamotrigine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 14.6; P = 0.009), 7 points lower than the score of those exposed to phenytoin (95% CI, 0.2 to 14.0; P = 0.04), and 6 points lower than the score of those exposed to carbamazepine (95% CI, 0.6 to 12.0; P = 0.04). The association between valproate use and IQ was dose dependent. Children’s IQs were significantly related to maternal IQs among children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or phenytoin but not among those exposed to valproate. CONCLUSIONS In utero exposure to valproate, as compared with other commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is associated with an increased risk of impaired cognitive function at 3 years of age. This finding supports a recommendation that valproate not be used as a first-choice drug in women of childbearing potential.

Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Combs-Cantrell, Deborah T.; Cohen, Morris; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

2009-01-01

358

Clinical performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools in women aged 67 years and older  

PubMed Central

Summary Clinical performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools was studied in women aged 67 years and older. Weight was as accurate as two of the tools to detect low bone density. Discriminatory ability was slightly better for the OST risk tool, which is based only on age and weight. Introduction Screening performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools has not been tested in a large, population-based US cohort. Methods We conducted a diagnostic accuracy analysis of the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and individual risk factors (age, weight or prior fracture) to identify low central (hip and lumbar spine) bone mineral density (BMD) in 7779 US women aged 67 years and older participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Results The OST had the greatest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC 0.76, 95% CI 0.74, 0.77). Weight had an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.72, 0.75), which was ?AUC values for the ORAI, SCORE, age or prior fracture. Using cut points from the development papers, the risk tools had sensitivities ?85% and specificities ?48%. When new cut points were set to achieve a likelihood ratio of negative 0.1–0.2, the tools ruled out fewer than 1/4 of women without low central BMD. Conclusions Weight identified low central BMD as accurately as the ORAI and SCORE. The risk tools would be unlikely to show an advantage over simple weight cut points in an osteoporosis screening protocol for elderly women.

Gourlay, M. L.; Powers, J. M.; Lui, L.-Y.; Ensrud, K. E.

2008-01-01

359

Athlete's bradycardia as an embolising disorder? Symptomatic arrhythmias in patients aged less than 50 years.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and sixty consecutive patients less than 50 years of age (mean 38 years) referred for long term electrocardiographic recording were evaluated retrospectively. Significant cardiac arrhythmias were detected in 51 of 107 (48%) patients examined because of syncope or dizzy spells or both. Of 39 patients examined for cardiac complaints or presumed complex arrhythmias, 15 (38%) had significant arrhythmias. Of 14 patients examined because of otherwise unexplained strokes, nine had slow sinus rates. Of these, one patient had recently undertaken moderately intensive athletic activity and four had been undertaking vigorous athletic activities for several years. All of the 12 active athletes who were followed up on account of syncope or dizzy spells were free of symptoms after reducing their athletic activities. The cardiac rhythm returned to normal in four out of five who underwent repeat long term electrocardiographic recording. It is suggested that vigorous athletic activity in subjects of 30-50 years of age may transform the adaptative bradycardia of the athlete into a condition similar to the embolising sick sinus syndrome.

Abdon, N J; Landin, K; Johansson, B W

1984-01-01

360

Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.  

PubMed

Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

2011-08-01

361

Immunogenicity and safety of ZOSTAVAX® approaching expiry potency in individuals aged >=50 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Age is a major risk factor for herpes zoster (HZ) and its potential long-term complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Due to the significant burden of HZ and PHN on patients' quality of life, it is vital that effective and well-tolerated vaccines are available to prevent HZ in older adults. ZOSTAVAX® vaccine was developed to prevent HZ and PHN in individuals ?50 years (y) of age, and its clinical efficacy and safety have been demonstrated. Aims and Methods: This phase 4, open-label, multicenter study was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of ZOSTAVAX (refrigerator-stable formulation) given within 6 mo of its expiry date in individuals ?50 y of age. The geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) from pre-vaccination to 4 weeks post-vaccination in varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody titers was calculated. An acceptable antibody response was defined as a lower 95% confidence interval (CI) of GMFR >1.4. solicited and unsolicited injection-site reactions and systemic adverse events were recorded. Results: The GMFR in VZV antibody titers was 3.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 3.8), satisfying the criterion for an acceptable VZV antibody response to ZOSTAVAX (minimum requirement: 1.4 GMFR). An acceptable rise in VZV antibody titers was observed in individuals of 50–59 y of age (GMFR 3.9; 95% CI: 2.9, 5.1) and in those ?60 y of age (GMFR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.9, 3.2). ZOSTAVAX was well tolerated; no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: ZOSTAVAX elicits an acceptable immune response in immunocompetent individuals ?50 y of age when stored as directed and administered during the 6 mo prior to expiration.

Arnou, Robert; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stephane

2011-01-01

362

Physicians' attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography in women 40 to 49 years of age  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography, breast self-examination, and breast awareness in women aged 40 to 49 at average risk of breast cancer. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, both in Toronto, Ont. Participants Family medicine residents, fellows, and staff physicians at 2 academic family practice health centres affiliated with the University of Toronto (n = 95). Main outcome measures Physicians’ answers to questions about offering screening mammography and promoting breast self-examination and breast awareness. Results Fifty-two completed surveys were returned (response rate 55%). Less than half of all surveyed family physicians (46%) routinely offered screening mammography to women aged 40 to 49 who were at average risk of breast cancer. Although 40% of physicians did not think breast cancer screening was necessary for women aged 40 to 49, 62% indicated that they would offer screening if their patients requested it. Physicians’ reasons not to offer screening included no evidence of decreasing breast cancer deaths (63%), grade A recommendation to screen women starting at age 50 and not at age 40 (25%), and the harms of screening outweighing the benefits (19%). Physicians’ reasons to offer screening included patient request (55%), personal clinical practice experience or mentors’ recommendations (27%), and guideline recommendations (18%). Breast self-examination was not recommended by most physicians (74%), yet most encouraged women to practise breast awareness (81%). Conclusion Many women at average risk of breast cancer are not being offered the opportunity to discuss and initiate mammographic screening before 50 years of age. While breast-self examination is not recommended, most physicians promote breast awareness.

Smith, Patricia; Hum, Susan; Kakzanov, Vered; Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Heisey, Ruth

2012-01-01

363

Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years (aged 0-4 years).  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that young children spend excessive time being sedentary. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviours and health indicators during the early years (ages 0-4 years). Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework, this review aimed to present the best available evidence on the threshold of sedentary behaviour associated with healthy measures of adiposity, bone health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardiometabolic health indicators in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Online databases, personal libraries, and government documents were searched for relevant studies. Studies that included an intervention (or experimental) group or prospective analysis were included. Twenty-one unique studies, representing 23 papers and 22 417 participants, met inclusion criteria; 7 studies included information on infants, 13 on toddlers, and 10 on preschoolers. Of these, 11, 6, and 8 studies reported data on adiposity, psychosocial health, and cognitive development, respectively. No included study reported on motor skill development, bone, or cardiometabolic health indicators. In conclusion, this review found low- to moderate-quality evidence to suggest that increased television viewing is associated with unfavourable measures of adiposity and decreased scores on measures of psychosocial health and cognitive development. No evidence existed to indicate that television viewing is beneficial for improving psychosocial health or cognitive development. In several instances a dose-response relationship was evident between increased time spent watching television and decreased psychosocial health or cognitive development. This work may be used as evidence to inform public health guidelines. (PROSPERO registration: CRD4011001280.). PMID:22765839

LeBlanc, Allana G; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

2012-08-01

364

Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years in Greece: the GYTS project  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in Greece are limited. We examined the prevalence of smoking among middle-school students in Greece using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was implemented in Greece during the academic year 2004 – 2005 by the University of Thessaly and the National School of Public Health. Data were collected using the GYTS self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was distributed by specifically trained field workers to a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13–15 years (through randomly selected schools and classes), randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sample design. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results About one third of the students 32.1% (29.4 – 35.0) reported that they had tried tobacco in the past, while 16.2% (14.3 – 18.4) reported being current users of tobacco products. In addition, 1 in 4 of ever smokers reported that they began smoking before the age of 10 years old. Almost 1 in 5 never smokers reported being susceptible to initiate smoking in the next year and about 89.8% (88.3 – 91.1) of the respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes and 94.1% (93.2 – 94.9) in public places. Finally, a strikingly high number of students 95% (89.5 – 97.7) reported that they were able to buy their own cigarettes without restrictions. Conclusion The results of the GYTS show that the prevalence of smoking in middle-school children is alarmingly high in Greece. Smoking among young people constitutes a significant problem that is destined to worsen in the absence of any comprehensive efforts focused on strict anti-smoking legislation, policies and tobacco control interventions targeting children at a young age.

Kyrlesi, Athina; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Warren, Charles W; Kremastinou, Jeni; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Jones, Nathan R; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2007-01-01

365

Clinical Characteristics of Optic Neuritis in Koreans Greater than 50 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report clinical characteristics of optic neuritis (ON) in Koreans >50 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with ON between January 2000 and December 2009. We obtained the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Goldmann perimetry, relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), and color function tests as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients who were in the acute stage of the disorder. Results Nine eyes in eight patients were included. The mean age of patients at presentation was 60.5 years (range, 53 to 71 years). Six patients were female, and two were male. There was one patient with bilateral ON. The mean BCVA at presentation was 20 / 400 (no light perception-20 / 70). Eight eyes (89%) complained of pain with eye movement. Six eyes (66%) had disc edema. Central scotoma was the most common field defect. All eyes had color abnormalities. Five eyes in four patients showed abnormalities of the involved optic nerves on MRI. The patients were followed for a mean of 11.3 months (range, 2 to 34 months). All of the patients recovered to a BCVA of 20 / 40 or better within 2 months. On the last follow-up, the mean BCVA was 20 / 20 (20 / 40 to 20 / 16). Four eyes showed remnant central scotoma. One eye had remnant RAPD, and two eyes had mild color abnormalities. Conclusions Although ON is uncommon in elderly patients, it can develop in patients >50 years of age, and clinical features of optic neuritis in elderly patients are similar to those of younger patients.

Choi, Jin; Chang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk

2012-01-01

366

Meta-analysis of optimal risk stratification in patients >65 years of age.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis evaluated the optimal noninvasive strategy for cardiac risk assessment of patients >65 years of age with known or suspected coronary artery disease using the available literature. Patients >65 years of age constitute a growing proportion of the population and have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but an optimal strategy to predict the risk of cardiac events in this group is unknown. A systematic search of MEDLINE was performed for cohort studies of ?100 patients >65 years old with ?12 months of follow-up that reported cardiac death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction after any of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), stress echocardiography, or exercise tolerance testing (ETT) for known or suspected coronary artery disease. Pooled annualized event rates were calculated for each technique. Summary odds ratios (ORs) between normal and abnormal test results were calculated using a random-effects model. Seventeen studies (MPI 7, stress echocardiography 7, ETT 3) in 13,304 patients (mean age 75.5 years) were included. Abnormal compared to normal stress MPI (OR 11.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.5 to 18.7) and stress echocardiography (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.6 to 3.9) accurately stratified risk in patients. However, patients with abnormal and normal ETT results had similar cardiac event rates (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.8 to 11.5). In conclusion, stress imaging with MPI or stress echocardiography effectively stratified risk in patients, whereas ETT alone did not. PMID:22795509

Rai, Mridula; Baker, William Leslie; Parker, Matthew Wayne; Heller, Gary Vashon

2012-07-13

367

Motor and Cognitive Outcomes Through Three Years Of Age In Children Exposed To Prenatal Methamphetamine  

PubMed Central

Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. The impact of prenatal MA exposure on development in childhood is unknown. Objective To examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on motor and cognitive development in children at 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Design/Methods IDEAL enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at four sites (Tulsa OK, Des Moines IA, Los Angeles CA, and Honolulu HI). MA subjects (n=204) were identified by self-report or GC/MS confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Comparison subjects (n=208) were matched (race, birth weight, maternal education, type of insurance), denied amphetamine use, and had a negative meconium screen. Both groups included prenatal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, but excluded use of opiates, lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine or cocaine only. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2) were administered to the infants at the 1 and 3 year visits. This analysis includes a subsample (n=350) of the IDEAL study with completed 1 and/or 3 year visits (n= 330 and 281, respectively). At each annual visit we also conducted the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) as a general evaluation of mental and motor development. The BSID-II analysis includes a subsample (n=356) of the IDEAL study with completed 1, 2, and/or 3 year visits (n= 331, 288, and 278 respectively). GLM analysis conducted on the PDMS-2 and BSID-II examined the effects of MA exposure and heavy MA exposure (?3 days of use/week), with and without covariates. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine the effects of MA exposure on changes in motor and cognitive performance over time. Results Heavy MA exposure was associated with significantly lower grasping scores than some and no use at 1 year (P = 0.018). In longitudinal analysis, lower grasping scores associated with any MA exposure and heavy exposure persisted to 3 years. There were no effects of MA exposure, including heavy exposure, on the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) or Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at any or across age. Conclusions There were no differences in cognition as assessed by the BSID-II between the groups. There was a subtle MA exposure effect on fine motor performance at 1 year with the poorest performance observed in the most heavily exposed children. By 3 years, no differences in fine motor performance were observed. These findings suggest MA exposure has modest motor effects at 1 year that are mostly resolved by 3 years.

Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Haning, William; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

2010-01-01

368

A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Model of Physical Activity from Ages 12-17 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Despite serious public health implications of decreased physical activity during adolescence, few longitudinal studies have been conducted to determine the trajectory and important correlates of physical activity change during this period. Purpose This study examined change in physical activity from ages 12-17 years, and the influences of personal, family, peer, and demographic factors on activity patterns. Methods Data were from 371 youth. The sample was 50.1% female; 76% White, 12% African American, 4% Hispanic, 2% Asian, 2% American Indian, and 4% other or mixed races. Mean age was 12.05 years (SD = 1.63) at Time 1. Multivariate latent growth curve modeling (LGM), a cohort-sequential design, and a multiple-group design by gender were employed. Results Youth physical activity declined significantly from ages 12-17. Boys had higher initial levels of physical activity than girls. Efficacy to overcome barriers, physically active friends, and friend social support all played roles in reducing the decline in physical activity. Early maturing boys, while more physically active initially, experienced a greater decline in physical activity compared to later-maturing boys. Conclusions These findings encourage further research on the etiology and development of youth physical activity using procedures such as LGM, to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with youth physical activity decline.

Duncan, Susan C.; Duncan, Terry E.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

2009-01-01

369

Optical absorption and dispersion analysis of nanocrystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride film prepared by dip coating and its optoelectronic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High uniform and good adhesion of nanocrystalline films of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) were successfully deposited by dip coating technique. The surface morphology characteristic of the film was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray diffraction patterns of PTCDA film is characterized by a single wide peak along (102) orientation. The absorption spectrum of the film shows an intense band in the UV region followed by Q-band in the visible region. The onset optical and transport energy gaps were found to be 1.76 and 3.16eV, respectively. The dispersion parameters and the ratio of free carrier concentration to the effective mass were also estimated. The photovoltaic characteristics of the device based PTCDA under illumination of 100mW/cm2 were also considered.

Farag, A. A. M.; Fadel, M.

2013-02-01

370

Involvement of an aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C3) in redox cycling of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone leading to apoptosis in human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone found in diesel exhaust particles, is considered to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through its redox cycling. Here, we show that 9,10-PQ evokes apoptosis in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and its apoptotic signaling includes ROS generation and caspase activation. The 9,10-PQ-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by ROS scavengers, indicating that intracellular ROS generation is responsible

Toshiyuki Matsunaga; Marina Arakaki; Tetsuro Kamiya; Satoshi Endo; Ossama El-Kabbani; Akira Hara

2009-01-01

371

Behavioral Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children at Age 8 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence of behavioral problems and symptomatology suggestive of Autism and Asperger’s disorders at age 8 years among extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1 kg) children, born 1992 through 1995. Method Parent reports of the behavior of 219 ELBW (mean birth weight, 810 g; gestational age 26 weeks) were compared with 176 normal birth weight children of similar maternal sociodemographic status, sex, and age. Behavior was assessed via the Child Symptom Inventory that includes both Symptom Severity Scores and scores meeting DSM-IV criteria for disorders. Results ELBW compared with normal birth weight children had significantly higher mean Symptom Severity Scores for the inattentive, hyperactive, and combined types of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (all p < .001) as well as higher scores for Generalized Anxiety (p < .01) and Autistic (p < .001) and Asperger’s (p < .01) disorders. When DSM-IV criteria were considered, ELBW children also had significantly higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder of the inattentive (10% vs 3%, p < .01) and combined (5% vs 0.6%, p < .05) types. Conclusions Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, mainly the inattentive type is prevalent among ELBW children. Our findings of an increase in symptoms pertaining to Autistic and Asperger’s disorders at school age agree with recent reports of others during early childhood. Early identification and intervention for these problems might improve child functioning and ameliorate parent and child distress.

Hack, Maureen; Taylor, Hudson G.; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Drotar, Dennis; Klein, Nancy

2011-01-01

372

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII): One Day's Food Intake Data for Low-Income Women 19-50 Years of Age and Their Children 1 to 5 Years of Age, 1985. Documentation for Data Set.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The documentation contains 1-day dietary intakes by 2,120 low-income women 19 to 50 years of age and their 1,314 children 1 to 5 years of age collected in a personal interview from April through June 1985 as part of the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes b...

1985-01-01

373

Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years  

PubMed Central

Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a ‘mini-ice age’ with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times.

Balazik, Matthew T.; Garman, Greg C.; Fine, Michael L.; Hager, Christian H.; McIninch, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

374

Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

2013-02-18

375

Utilization of home telemonitoring in patients 75 years of age and over with complex heart failure.  

PubMed

We conducted a chart review on all patients who had received home telemonitoring after an admission for heart failure at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. During a 5 year period (2005-2009) a total of 645 patients had home monitoring. A total of 594 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study and were divided into two groups: Group 1 (<75 years of age) contained 350 patients and Group 2 (?75 years of age) contained 244 patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in the mean duration of follow-up by the telemonitoring team: it was 126.5 days in Group 1 and 125.4 days in Group 2 (P = 0.89). There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of times that titration of diuretic medications occurred, the number of times that titration of cardiac medications occurred, the number of interventions for abnormal vital signs or the number of times that patients were called by the telemonitoring staff. Emergency room visits, hospitalizations and the number of deaths were also not different between two groups. Thus in the telemonitoring programme, the pattern of usage by older patients was similar to that of the younger ones. Based on the present study, the elderly do not require more resources nor do they require them for longer. PMID:23390212

Lemay, Geneviève; Azad, Nahid; Struthers, Christine

2013-02-06

376

Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and Child Behavior at Age 6-7 Years  

PubMed Central

Background: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 6–7 years of age in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposure—both specific to PAH—in the same cohort. Methods: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 6–7 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 6–7 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. Results: In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m3) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ? 0.05). Conclusion: These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior.

Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

2012-01-01

377

Differences in voriconazole trough plasma concentrations per oral dosages between children younger and older than 3 years of age.  

PubMed

The relationship between trough plasma concentrations and daily doses of voriconazole was retrospectively analyzed in < or = 18-year-old children because optimal oral voriconazole dosages for children, especially <2 years of age, is unknown. We demonstrated that the relationship changed around the age of 3 years, and that children <3 years of age required higher optimal daily doses with greater variations compared with those for older children, resulting in complicated optimal dose adjustments. Therefore, plasma concentration monitoring and individual dose adjustments are recommended for optimal and less toxic voriconazole treatments, especially for <3-year-old children, although additional studies are needed to validate this approach. PMID:20146339

Shima, Haruko; Miharu, Masashi; Osumi, Tomoo; Takahashi, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

2010-07-01

378

The determinants of sexual intercourse before age 16 years among rural Jamaican adolescents.  

PubMed

Individual and family factors have been hypothesized to influence adolescent sexual behavior, but the extent to which this is true for adolescents in Jamaica as a whole and for those in rural areas in particular, has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to identify individual and family factors associated with initiation of sexual activity before the age of 16 among rural adolescents in Jamaica. We analyzed data for 469 sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the rural parish of Hanover. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict independent influences of these factors. The mean age at sexual debut was 11 years for boys and 15 years for girls. Early adolescent sexual activity was associated with liberal attitudes about negative sexual outcomes (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.34-2.87) and first sexual partner not being a steady boyfriend or girlfriend (OR = 4.19, 95%CI = 1.62-10.84). Female gender (OR = 0.16, 95%CI = 0.07-0.36) and older age at time of survey were protective (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.32-0.52). Girls who were early starters were more likely to have been initiated by partners who were not steady boyfriends. They also reported liberal attitude towards negative sexual outcomes. Boys were mainly influenced by liberal attitude towards negative sexual outcomes. Being older was protective for both genders. Considering the high rates of HIV and adolescent pregnancy in this population, reproductive health programs that attempt to delay age at first sex should begin early in primary school before adolescents become sexually active. PMID:17450311

Ekundayo, Olaniyi J; Dodson-Stallworth, Joana; Roofe, Michele; Aban, Inmaculada B; Bachmann, Laura H; Kempf, Mirjam C; Ehiri, John; Jolly, Pauline E

2007-04-09

379

Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.  

PubMed

Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

2013-02-20

380

Global causes of diarrheal disease mortality in children <5 years of age: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5-13 pathogens, p<0·0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000-295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000-146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000-113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000-76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world. PMID:24023773

Lanata, Claudio F; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Olascoaga, Ana C; Torres, Carla X; Aryee, Martin J; Black, Robert E

2013-09-04

381

Age-dependant prevalence of endoparasites in young dogs and cats up to one year of age.  

PubMed

The results of parasitological examination of faecal samples from 1,206 cats and 2,319 dogs of known age up to one year were analysed. Eggs of Toxocara canis were detected in dogs for the first time at the beginning of the 3rd week, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. at the beginning of the 4th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (52.5 %) were demonstrated in the 12th week, I. canis (30.0 %) in the 15th week, I. ohioensis complex (44.0 %) in the 6th week, Isospora spp. (50.0 %) in the 7th week and T. canis (22.2 %) in the 4th week p.p. Co-infections with Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (28.0 %), T. canis + Isospora spp. 16.0 %) and T. canis + Giardia spp. (12.0 %) were mainly seen in the 6th week p.p. In cats, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. were seen from the 3rd week and eggs of Toxocara cati from the 5th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (66.7 %) were demonstrated in the 11th week, Isospora spp. (33.3 %) and I. felis (33.3 %) in the 15th week, I. rivolta (10.3 %) in the 10th week and T. cati (11.4 %) in the 8th week p.p. Co-infections with T. cati + Isospora spp. (9.1 %) were found in the 5th week, Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (8.2 %) in the 12th week and T. cati + Giardia spp. (2.5 %) in the 22nd week p.p. PMID:23779224

Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

2013-08-01

382

Spirometric standard of healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function test of various types are utilized clinically and epidemiologically to measures the functional status of the lung and to asses the diseases. Spirometric standard for healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years is conducted in National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH). This is cross sectional study is establish normal value of lung functions for Bangladeshi adult. Total of 995 (628 males & 367 females) healthy adults were selected to obtain lung function values; from a healthy adult those who attended in the hospital as a patients attended and healthy stuff of NIDCH. A computerized spirometer was used to measure lung volume and flows in a standard way. The best of the three reading was taken as the correct value. Anthropometric parameters including age, weight and height were recorded appropriately and body mass index was calculated. The statistical package for the social science (SPSS-10.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The pulmonary function data was separated by sex and classified on the basis of height weight age and body surface area. The mean and standard deviation was calculated for every such variable. The lung function variable shows a linear positive correlation with height, weight and age. Force vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) increase in height. Males show higher values for lung function variables than female. Stepwise regression analysis was done using age, height and weight, BMI as independent variable strong correlation was found between lung function values and independent variables. Height shows the highest correlation. The regression equation for lung function variables was determined for males and females considering height as independent variable. Lung function values of Bangladeshi adult were significantly lower than Nigerian, British and American result but nearly similar to Indian result. Nomogram was constructed in relation to height for males and females. PMID:23416817

Khuda, K M; Sultana, R; Bari, M R; Islam, R; Erfan, M A

2013-01-01

383

Computer Skills and Internet Use in Adults Aged 50-74 Years: Influence of Hearing Difficulties  

PubMed Central

Background The use of personal computers (PCs) and the Internet to provide health care information and interventions has increased substantially over the past decade. Yet the effectiveness of such an approach is highly dependent upon whether the target population has both access and the skill set required to use this technology. This is particularly relevant in the delivery of hearing health care because most people with hearing loss are over 50 years (average age for initial hearing aid fitting is 74 years). Although PC skill and Internet use by demographic factors have been examined previously, data do not currently exist that examine the effects of hearing difficulties on PC skill or Internet use in older adults. Objective To explore the effect that hearing difficulty has on PC skill and Internet use in an opportunistic sample of adults aged 50-74 years. Methods Postal questionnaires about hearing difficulty, PC skill, and Internet use (n=3629) were distributed to adults aged 50-74 years through three family physician practices in Nottingham, United Kingdom. A subsample of 84 respondents completed a second detailed questionnaire on confidence in using a keyboard, mouse, and track pad. Summed scores were termed the “PC confidence index.” The PC confidence index was used to verify the PC skill categories in the postal questionnaire (ie, never used a computer, beginner, and competent). Results The postal questionnaire response rate was 36.78% (1298/3529) and 95.15% (1235/1298) of these contained complete information. There was a significant between-category difference for PC skill by PC confidence index (P<.001), thus verifying the three-category PC skill scale. PC and Internet use was greater in the younger respondents (50-62 years) than in the older respondents (63-74 years). The younger group’s PC and Internet use was 81.0% and 60.9%, respectively; the older group’s PC and Internet use was 54.0% and 29.8%, respectively. Those with slight hearing difficulties in the older group had significantly greater odds of PC use compared to those with no hearing difficulties (odds ratio [OR]=1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.30, P=.02). Those with moderate+ hearing difficulties had lower odds of PC use compared with those with no hearing difficulties, both overall (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.87, P=.008) and in the younger group (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.86, P=.008). Similar results were demonstrated for Internet use by age group (older: OR=1.57, 95% CI 0.99-2.47, P=.05; younger: OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.62, P=.001). Conclusions Hearing health care is of particular relevance to older adults because of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss. Our data show that older adults experiencing slight hearing difficulty have increased odds of greater PC skill and Internet use than those reporting no difficulty. These findings suggest that PC and Internet delivery of hearing screening, information, and intervention is feasible for people between 50-74 years who have hearing loss, but who would not typically present to an audiologist.

Clark, Daniel P A; Kang, Sujin; Ferguson, Melanie A

2012-01-01

384

C-Reactive protein and lipid parameters in older persons aged 80 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Aims of the study were 1) to investigate the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) with lipid (i.e. total, LDL, and HDL\\u000a cholesterol, triglycerides) concentrations, and to evaluate their predictive value for mortality in very old subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in a prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Participants. Data are from 336 community-dwelling subjects aged ?80 years old enrolled in the “Invecchiamento

Matteo Cesari; G. Onder; V. Zamboni; E. Capoluongo; A. Russo; R. Bernabei; M. Pahor; F. Landi

2009-01-01

385

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

Ju, Yo-El S

2013-01-21

386

Aripiprazole for irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years.  

PubMed

Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6-17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119

Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J

2010-09-29

387

Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort  

PubMed Central

de Moura DR, Costa JC, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Matijasevich A, Halpern R, Dumith S, Karam S, Barros FC. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 211–221. Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay.

de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Aluisio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

2010-01-01

388

Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

2010-01-22

389

9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals...age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age...chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

2013-01-01

390

Identification and the Development of Competence: A 44Year Longitudinal Study From Late Adolescence to Late Middle Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of defense mechanisms in the development of planful competence (J. A. Clausen, 1993) was studied over a period of 44 years in participants from the Oakland Growth Study, who are part of the Intergenerational Studies of the Institute of Human Development. Planful competence was assessed on 4 occasions, from late adolescence (ages 15–18) to late middle age (age

Phebe Cramer

2008-01-01

391

The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34 years aged Lithuanian population: 18-year incidence study based on prospective databases  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian males and females during 1991 - 2008 Methods A contact system with general practitioners covering 100% of the 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian population was the primary data source. Reports from regional endocrinologists and statistical note-marks of State patient insurance fund served as secondary sources for case ascertainment. Results The average age-standardized incidence rate was 8.30 per 100,000 persons per year (95% Poisson distribution confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.71) during 1991 - 2008 and was statistically significantly higher among males (10.44 per 100,000 persons per year, 95% CI 9.82-11.10) in comparison with females (6.10 per 100,000, 95% CI 5.62-6.62). Male/female rate ratio was 1.71 (95% CI 1.63-1.80). Results of the linear 1991 - 2008 regression model showed that the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly over the time (r = -0.215, p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data demonstrated the male predominance in primary incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged population in Lithuania. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly during 1991-2008.

2011-01-01

392

Near 10-year and longer periods modulate circadians: intersecting anti-aging and chronoastrobiological research.  

PubMed

Biological cycles with relatively long and some unusual periods in the range of the half-week, the half-year, years, or decades are being discovered. Their prior neglect constituted a confounder in aging and much other research, which then"flew blind" concerning the uncertainties associated with these cycles when they are not assessed. The resolution of more about 10-year and other cycles, some reported herein, replaces the admission of complete unpredictability, implied by using the label "secularity." Heretofore unaccounted-for variability becomes predictable insofar as it proves to be rhythmic and is mapped systematically to serve as a battery of useful reference values. About 10-year cycles in urinary 17-ketosteroid excretion and in heart rate and its variability, among others, are aligned with cycles of similar length in mortality from myocardial infarction. Associations accumulate between cycles of natural physical time structures, chronomes such as the 10.5-year (circadecennian) Schwabe and the 21-year (circavigintunennian) Hale cycles of solar activity, and chronomes in biota. There are about 50-year (circasemicentennian) cycles in mortality from stroke in Minnesota and in the Czech Republic and also in human morphology at birth, the latter result reducing the likelihood that these cycles are purely human made. Associations among large populations warrant long-term systematic coordinated sampling of natural physical and biological variables of interest for the design of countermeasures against already documented elevated risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other catastrophic diseases, notably in elderly adults. New findings will be introduced against the background of the documented value of mapping rhythms in medicine and gerontology. In both these fields, rhythms promise the seeming paradox of better care for less. PMID:11341244

Halgberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Watanabe, Y; Otsuka, K; Fiser, B; Siegelova, J; Mazankova, V; Maggioni, C; Sothern, R B; Katinas, G S; Syutkina, E V; Burioka, N; Schwrtzkopff, O

2001-05-01

393

Sensitization to hen's egg at the age of twelve months is predictive for allergic sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens at the age of three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specific predictors for atopic sensitization in early infancy are prerequisites for preventive intervention studies. Objective: To identify predictors of allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens in infancy, 1314 children in five German cities were followed up from birth (1990) to the age of 3 years. Methods: BLOOD samples were taken from cord blood and at follow-up visits at the ages

Renate Nickel; Michael Kulig; Johannes Forster; Renate Bergmann; Carl Peter Bauer; Susanne Lau; Irene Guggenmoos-Holzmann; Ulrich Wahn

1997-01-01

394

Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

DiNucci, James M.

395

Clinical manifestations and etiology of renal stones in children less than 14 years age.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis is one of the commonest problems in pediatric nephrology. Prevalence of urolithiasis in pediatric patients is increasing. The purpose was to properly diagnose and treat with the special attention to the risk factors. This study is case-series and was performed on 100 pediatric patients for evaluation of clinical manifestation and etiology of renal stone in Qom. Hundred Children, fewer than 14 years old with mean age of 3.32 years, were included (54% male). Etiology of urolithiasis in 5% was unclear. Metabolic disorders found in patients were mainly: Hypocitraturia in 54, hyperoxaluria in 14, hyperuricosuria in 25, cystinuria in 6, hypercalciuria in 28 and phosphaturia in 8 patients. The main clinical presentation was fever, pain, irritability, dysuria and hematuria. Family history of urolithiasis was found in 23% of patients and 54% presented with urinary tract infection (UTI). We conclude that majority of patients were symptomatic and hypocitraturia was the commenest risk factor among others. PMID:20061721

Sepahi, Mohsen Akhavan; Heidari, Akram; Shajari, Ahmad

2010-01-01

396

Evidence-based portion sizes for children aged 1-4 years.  

PubMed

Existing guidelines on how to feed preschool children have left parents and carers unsure about how to offer a diet that will provide their young children with adequate nutrition but prevent excess weight gain. The consequences of malnutrition, such as iron deficiency anaemia and obesity, remain prevalent in this age group and giving parents more specific guidance will help address this. The evidence-based portion sizes from the Infant & Toddler Forum for 1-4-year-old-children have been calculated to meet, but not exceed, their energy requirements and provide all their nutrients, with the exception of vitamin D for which they need a daily supplement. These portion size ranges can be used as serving guides by parents, carers and staff in early years settings. Their use will both reassure parents who worry their preschool children are not eating enough and will help address excess energy intake by toddlers, which is the main cause of obesity. PMID:23724763

More, Judy

2013-05-01

397

Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors. PMID:20688641

Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

2010-04-01

398

Outcome of Psychogeriatric Intervention in an Old-Age Home: A 3 Years Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychogeriatrics and especially psychiatric services in nursing and old-age homes are sorely lacking in research. Four years ago we developed and implemented a model for service delivery for old-age homes within our hospitals' catchment area. In the first year of operation 48 of 373 residents (13%) were evaluated and treated by a psychogeriatrician. The aim of the present study was

Marnina Swartz; T. Martin; M. Martin; A. Elizur; Yoram Barak

1999-01-01

399

Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age

Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

2006-01-01

400

Is gluten challenge really necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in children younger than age 2 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: In the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), gluten challenge is recommended for children under the age of 2 years at initial biopsy. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of gluten challenge in this group of children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included children aged 2 years or younger who were analysed for possible CD and

Victorien M Wolters; Cissy van de Nadort; Susan AM Gerritsen; CM Frank Kneepkens; Fiebo JW Ten Kate; Caroline FM Gijsbers; Joachim J Schweizer; Peter GJ Nikkels; Marc A Benninga; Roderick HJ Houwen

2009-01-01

401

Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

Lichota, Malgorzata

2008-01-01

402

Age Standardization of Death Rates: Implementation of the Year 2000 Standard. National Vital Statistic Report. Volume 47, Number 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the rationale for and implications of the implementation of a new population standard for the age standardization (age adjustment) of death rates. The new standard is based on the year 2000 population and beginning with data year 199...

H. M. Rosenberg R. N. Anderson

1998-01-01

403

Relation Between Health Status and Cognitive Functioning: A 6Year Follow-Up of the Maastricht Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether physical and psychological functioning can predict 6-year cognitive decline in older adults. A group of 669 participants aged 60 to 81 years was recruited from a longitudinal study (the Maastricht Aging Study). Physical functioning was measured in terms of perceived health and instrumental activities of daily living. Psychological functioning or mood

Susan A. H. van Hooren; Susanne A. M. Valentijn; Hans Bosma; Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds; Martin P. J. van Boxtel; Jelle Jolles

2005-01-01

404

Adenoidectomy versus chemoprophylaxis and placebo for recurrent acute otitis media in children aged under 2 years: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of adenoidectomy compared with long term chemoprophylaxis and placebo in the prevention of recurrent acute otitis media in children aged between 10 months and 2 years. Design Randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Setting Oulu University Hospital, a tertiary centre in Finland. Participants 180 children aged 10 months to 2 years with recurrent acute otitis media.

Petri Koivunen; Matti Uhari; Jukka Luotonen; Aila Kristo; Risto Raski; Tytti Pokka; Olli-Pekka Alho

2004-01-01

405

Constructing an index of physical fitness age for Japanese elderly based on 7-year longitudinal data: sex differences in estimated physical fitness age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardized method for assessing the physical fitness of elderly adults has not yet been established. In this study, we\\u000a developed an index of physical fitness age (fitness age score, FAS) for older Japanese adults and investigated sex differences\\u000a based on the estimated FAS. Healthy elderly adults (52 men, 70 women) who underwent physical fitness tests once yearly for\\u000a 7 years

Misaka Kimura; Chinatsu Mizuta; Yosuke Yamada; Yasuko Okayama; Eitaro Nakamura

406

Total shoulder replacement for osteoarthritis in patients 80 years of age and older.  

PubMed

This study was performed to review the safety and outcome of total shoulder replacements in patients who are > or = 80 years of age. A total of 50 total shoulder replacements in 44 patients at a mean age of 82 years (80 to 89) were studied. Their health and shoulder status, the operation and post-operative course were analysed, including pain, movement, patient satisfaction, medical and surgical complications, radiographs, the need for revision surgery, and implant and patient survival. A total of 27 patients had an ASA classification of III or IV and medical abnormalities were common. Of the 13 shoulders with bony deficiency of the glenoid, nine required grafting. The duration of hospital stay was prolonged and blood transfusions were common. There were no peri-operative deaths. The mean follow-up was for 5.5 years (2 to 12). Pain was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) and movement improved in active elevation and both external and internal rotation (p < 0.001). Using the Neer scale for assessing outcome, 40 (80%) shoulders had an excellent or satisfactory result. There were medical or surgical complications in 17 cases. Four shoulders developed radiological evidence of loosened glenoid components, and three of these had a poor outcome. Three other shoulders required revision, two for instability. By the time of this review 39 of the patients had died from unrelated causes at a mean of 7.5 years (0.8 to 16.4) after surgery. Total shoulder replacement is a relatively effective treatment in this elderly group of patients. However, there is a requirement for more intense patient care in the peri-operative period, and non-fatal medical or surgical complications are common. Most of these elderly patients will have a comfortable functional shoulder for the rest of their lives. PMID:20595116

Foruria, A M; Sperling, J W; Ankem, H K; Oh, L S; Cofield, R H

2010-07-01

407

Patients with type 2 diabetes aged 35–64 years at four primary health care centres in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the prevalence of known diabetes, and complications of type 2 diabetes, among subjects aged 35–64 years, in relation to socio-economic factors and gender at four primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Stockholm County, Sweden. A total of 685 diabetic subjects aged 35–64 years of age were identified in primary care by diagnosis using electronic patient records. Data

Per Eric Wändell; Catharina Gåfvels

2004-01-01

408

Oxygen saturation in healthy children aged 5 to 16 years residing in Huayllay, Peru at 4340?m.  

PubMed

Hypoxemia is a major life-threatening complication of childhood pneumonia. The threshold points for hypoxemia vary with altitude. However, few published data describe that normal range of variation. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of normal mean Sao(2) levels and an approximate cutoff point to define hypoxemia for clinical purposes above 4300 meters above sea level (masl). Children aged 5 to 16 yr were examined during primary care visits at the Huayllay Health Center. Huayllay is a rural community located at 4340?m in the province of Pasco in the Peruvian Andes. We collected basic sociodemographic data and evaluated three outcomes: arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) with a pulse oximeter, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Comparisons of main outcomes among age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, and 15-16 yr) and sex were performed using linear regression models. The correlation of Sao(2) with heart rate and respiration rate was established by Pearson's correlation test. We evaluated 583 children, of whom 386 were included in the study. The average age was 10.3 yr; 55.7% were female. The average Sao(2), heart rate, and respiratory rate were 85.7% (95% CI: 85.2-86.2), 80.4/min (95% CI: 79.0-81.9), and 19.9/min (95% CI: 19.6-20.2), respectively. Sao(2) increased with age (p?age group. At 4300?m, the reference values for hypoxemia may be 14.2% lower than at sea level. This difference must be considered when diagnosing hypoxemia or deciding oxygen supplementation at high altitude. Other studies are needed to determine whether this reference value is appropriate for clinical use. PMID:21452970

Schult, Sandra; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos

2011-01-01

409

Age-specific prevalence of epstein-barr virus infection among individuals aged 6-19 years in the United States and factors affecting its acquisition.  

PubMed

Background.?Data on the age-specific prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are relevant for determining when to administer a prophylactic vaccine. Comparison of demographic groups could identify factors associated with its acquisition. Methods.?The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) examine a representative sample of the US population. Serum specimens from NHANES participants 6-19 years old were tested for EBV antibody by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A random portion was also tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Prevalence estimates and risk-factor comparisons used demographic data and sampling weights in logistic regression models. Results.?Serum specimens collected between 2003 and 2010 from 9338 individuals participating in NHANES were tested. The concordance between EIA and IFA findings was 96.7%. The overall age-adjusted EBV antibody prevalence declined from 72% in 2003-2004 to 65% in 2009-2010 (P = .027). The prevalence in 2009-2010 by age group was as follows: 6-8 years, 50%; 9-11 years, 55%; 12-14 years, 59%; 15-17 years, 69%; and 18-19 years, 89%. Within each race/ethnicity group, younger age, health insurance coverage, higher household income, and education level were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of EBV antibody. Conclusions.?The EBV antibody prevalence declined in US individuals aged 6-19 years from 2003-2004 to 2009-2010, mainly because of the decrease among non-Hispanic white participants. The declining antibody prevalence over time and the consistently high observed prevalence among participants aged 12-19 years support broad use of EBV vaccine before 12 years of age. PMID:23868878

Balfour, Henry H; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Sliman, Joseph A; Knight, Jennifer A; Schmeling, David O; Thomas, William

2013-07-18

410

Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6-8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.

Pearce, Mark S.; James, Peter W.; Franco-Villoria, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Jones, Angela R.; Basterfield, Laura; Drewett, Robert F.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Adamson, Ashley J.

2013-01-01

411

Oxidation and Wear of 100-Mrad Cross-linked Polyethylene Shelf-aged for 30 Years  

PubMed Central

Some previous studies suggest that aging influences wear and oxidatively degraded nonsterilized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibits decreased wear resistance. We therefore asked whether shelf-aging storage conditions influenced degradation and wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE. We examined oxidation and wear of 100-Mrad gamma-irradiated UHMWPE (100-Mrad polyethylene) cups shelf-aged for 30 years without (n = 2) or with (n = 2) packages. The oxidation index of the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene surface (4) was higher than that of the packaged one (2.7). The packaged 100-Mrad polyethylene cup exhibited a high wear resistance with a steady wear rate of 0.5 mg/106 cycles. In contrast, the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene exhibited an extremely high initial wear rate of 187.9 mg/106 cycles over the first 0.25 × 106 cycles with a subsequently reduced wear rate of 5 mg/106 cycles after 5 × 106 cycles. Packaging over long periods inhibits surface oxidation and maintains the wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE cups.

Oonishi, Hironobu; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Kyomoto, Masayuki

2008-01-01

412

[Cerebrovascular diseases in patients aged 15 to 40 years: neuropathological findings in 47 cases].  

PubMed

Cerebrovascular diseases in patients between 15 and 40 years old are not a frequent subject in Latin-American literature, especially when focusing on neuropathology. We analyzed 47 brains from necropsies performed from 1987 to 1997 and selected on a basis of age and the presence of vascular pathology. From the 47 analyzed brains, 26 belonged to females (55.3%). When distributed among age groups, 12.8% (n=6) affected patients from 15 to 20 yo, 51,1% (n=24) from 21 to 30 yo, 36,2% (n=17) from 31 to 40 yo. The underlying diseases were: cardiac and haemathologic (19.2%), pregnancy complications (12.76%), infections, diseases of blood vessels and neurological (10.1% each) amongst others. The neuropathological abnormalities included cerebral and/or cerebellar herniation (16%), cerebral edema (13.8%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (10%), recent cerebral infarction (9%), intraparenchymatous hemorrhage (8.14%), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (3%) and other events such as Sneddon syndrome and Lupus vasculitis. These findings express that the cerebrovascular phenomena in this age group are unique and closely related with the underlying disease. PMID:11733838

Maggio, E M; Montemór-Netto, M R; Gasparetto, E L; Reis-Filho, J S; Tironi, F A; Torres, L F

2001-12-01

413

Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6years?  

PubMed

The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83years to 6.17years (M=5.42years, SD=3.58months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6months later following the intervention, and then again at 18months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. PMID:23186610

Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

2012-11-24

414

Symbolic Number: The Integration of Magnitude and Spatial Representations in Children Aged 6 to 8 Years  

PubMed Central

The process of learning symbolic Arabic digits in early childhood requires that magnitude and spatial information integrates with the concept of symbolic digits. Previous research has separately investigated the development of automatic access to magnitude and spatial information from symbolic digits. However, developmental trajectories of symbolic number knowledge cannot be fully understood when considering components in isolation. In view of this, we have synthesized the existing lines of research and tested the use of both magnitude and spatial information with the same sample of British children in Years 1, 2, and 3 (6–8?years of age). The physical judgment task of the numerical Stroop paradigm demonstrated that automatic access to magnitude was present from Year 1 and the distance effect signaled that a refined processing of numerical information had developed. Additionally, a parity judgment task showed that the onset of the spatial–numerical association of response codes effect occurs in Year 2. These findings uncover the developmental timeline of how magnitude and spatial representations integrate with symbolic number knowledge during early learning of Arabic digits and resolve inconsistencies between previous developmental and experimental research lines.

White, Sonia L. J.; Szucs, Denes; Soltesz, Fruzsina

2012-01-01

415

Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with atrophy in Alzheimer's and aging over 2 years.  

PubMed

We sought to describe change in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness over 2 years in those with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and nondemented aging and assess the relationship of CR fitness with cognitive decline, brain atrophy, and dementia progression. Individuals with early-stage AD (n = 37) and without dementia (n = 53) attended clinical evaluations, cognitive and exercise tests, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 2 years later. CR fitness was lower in those with AD over the study period. Lower baseline CR fitness was associated with progression of dementia severity in AD. Declining CR fitness over 2 years was associated with brain atrophy in AD, especially in the parahippocampus. In nondemented participants, there was a trend for lower baseline fitness to be related to cognitive decline. Both lower baseline CR fitness and declining CR fitness over 2 years were associated with regional brain atrophy. We conclude that CR fitness is chronically reduced in those with AD. Further, in those with AD, CR fitness is associated with progression of dementia severity and brain atrophy in AD, suggesting a link between progression of dementia severity and cardiorespiratory health. PMID:21531480

Vidoni, Eric D; Honea, Robyn A; Billinger, Sandra A; Swerdlow, Russell H; Burns, Jeffrey M

2011-05-04

416

Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age  

PubMed Central

This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents’ observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children’s language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children’s outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available.

Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

2011-01-01

417

Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age.  

PubMed

This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents' observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children's language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children's outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available. PMID:20420353

Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

2010-04-01

418

Acute ethanol toxicity from ingesting mouthwash in children younger than 6-years of age.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to analyze reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) of suspected overingestion of ethanol from mouthrinses by children younger than 6 years of age between 1989 and 1994. Annual incidence rates of reported ethanol exposures attributed to mouthrinses were calculated. Lethal and toxic amounts of several mouthrinses were calculated using peak blood ethanol concentrations of 500 and 50 mg per 100 mL, respectively. In 1994, there were 2937 calls reported by poison control centers related to ethanol-containing mouthrinses, an estimated incidence of 168 reported exposures per 100,000 children younger than 6 years of age. A 15-kg child who ingests 212 mL (7.2 oz.) of Listerine (26.9% ethanol) ingests 57 mL (1.9 oz.) of ethanol, which is potentially lethal. Approximately one-tenth that amount of ethanol can produce a toxic reaction. Physicians, dentists, and other health care providers should inform parents of the dangers associated with accidental ingestion of mouthrinse and encourage them to keep mouthrinse out of the reach of children. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require readily visible warning labels and child-resistant caps for containers with potentially toxic volumes of ethanol. The American Dental Association (ADA) should re-evaluate its acceptance criteria for advertising cosmetic mouthrinses in its publications and consider including child-resistant caps and warning labeling. PMID:9348605

Shulman, J D; Wells, L M

419

Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.  

PubMed

This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. ?(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account. PMID:22733677

Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

2012-06-01

420

Swimming Pool Drownings Among US Residents Aged 5-24 Years: Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities  

PubMed Central

Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995–1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools.

Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher

2006-01-01

421

Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.  

PubMed

In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Degli Atti, Marta Luisa Ciofi; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

2011-08-26

422

Familial history of cancer and leukemia in children younger than 2 years of age in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of a familial history of cancer (FHC) to the development of leukemia in children below 2 years of age. This is a national hospital-based case-control study of children 0-24 months of age recruited from 15 Brazilian hospitals from several regions providing oncological care and local general hospitals. Participants' FHC antecedents were obtained through face-to-face interviews with the mothers of cases and controls using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted (adj.) odds ratios (OR), and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI), of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after adjustment for selected variables. FHC antecedents were obtained from 178 ALL, 51 AML, and 428 controls. FHC in second-degree relatives (grandparents, uncles, cousins) showed an adj. OR=1.66 (95% CI 1.12-2.45) for ALL. Antecedents of two or more relatives with cancer showed a statistically significant two-fold higher risk of either ALL or AML. Paternal, and joint paternal and maternal antecedents of cancer also showed statistically significant higher adj. OR, respectively: 1.80 and 1.89 for ALL, and 2.34 and 3.23 for AML. Hematological malignancies among second-degree relatives showed an adj. OR=3.48 (95% CI 1.72-7.09) for ALL. According to the anatomic site, antecedents of leukemia/lymphoma among case relatives, compared with the control ones, showed an OR=2.98 (95% CI 1.52-5.82) for ALL, whereas stomach cancer antecedents showed an OR=3.55 (95% CI 1.02-12.39) for AML. The observed results support the hypothesis that FHC antecedents are associated with leukemogenesis in children below 2 years of age. PMID:22926509

Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Koifman, Sérgio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

2013-03-01

423

Trajectories of changes over twelve years in the health status of Canadians from late middle age.  

PubMed

Aging in a given individual can be characterized by the number of deficits (symptoms, signs, laboratory abnormalities, disabilities) that they accumulate. The number of accumulated deficits, more than their nature, well characterizes health status in individuals - the proportion of deficits present in an individual to deficits considered is known as a frailty index. While on average deficits accumulate with age, individual trajectories in the number of deficits is highly dynamic. Transitions in the number of deficits over a fixed time interval can be represented by the Poisson law, with the Poisson mean dependent on the deficit numbers at baseline. Here we present an extension of the model to make possible predictions for any given time period. Using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey of people aged 55 and over (n=4330), followed during 7cycles being the baseline and 6cycles of follow-up every 2years, we found that the transition in the number of deficits during any time period can be approximated using a time dependent Poisson distribution with the Poisson mean tending to decelerate over time, according to square-root-of-time kinetics characteristic for stochastic processes (e.g. diffusion, Brownian motion ) while the probability of death shows a pattern of time acceleration with a high degree of precision, "explaining" over 98% of variance. The model predicts a variety of changes in health status including the possibility of health improvement indicating the repair/remodeling abilities of the organism. The model is valuable for estimating how changes in health can influence mortality across the life course from late middle age. PMID:22790020

Mitnitski, A; Song, X; Rockwood, K

2012-07-09

424

Emotional Functioning at age 7 years is Associated with C-Reactive Protein in Middle Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Objective Few have considered whether and how child emotional functioning is associated with inflammation later in life. Therefore, we examined whether child emotional functioning at age 7 is associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of systemic inflammation, in middle adulthood. Methods We studied adult offspring (mean age=42.2 years) of participants in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a national cohort of pregnant women enrolled between 1959 and 1966. Three measures of child emotional functioning were derived from psychologist ratings of child behavior at age 7: inappropriate self regulation (ISR), distress proneness, and behavioral inhibition. Multiple linear regression models were fit to investigate the association between childhood emotional functioning and adulthood CRP, and also to evaluate potential mediators of this association. Model n’s ranged from 400-379 depending on covariates included and missing data on those covariates. Results Children with high ISR and distress proneness at age 7 had significantly higher CRP as adults (ISR b=0.86, SE=0.28, p=0.002; distress proneness b=1.23, SE=0.57, p=0.03). In contrast, children with high levels of behavioral inhibition had lower CRP as adults (b= ?0.58, SE=0.38, p=0.04). Further, there was evidence that associations of ISR and distress proneness with CRP may be mediated in part by adulthood body mass index (Sobel significance tests of mediation: ISR p=0.003; distress proneness p=0.07). Conclusions Findings suggest that poor childhood emotional functioning is associated with inflammation in adulthood. These results suggest a potential childhood origin of adult inflammatory risk.

Appleton, Allison A.; Buka, Stephen L.; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Loucks, Eric B.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

2011-01-01

425