Science.gov

Sample records for age 9-10 years

  1. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  2. Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 910 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Kontos, Emily Zobel; Ryff, Carol D.; Ayanian, John Z.; Albert, Michelle A.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Year-to-year decreases in smoking in the US have been observed only sporadically in recent years, which suggest a need for intensified efforts to identify those at risk for persistent smoking. To address this need, we examined the association between a variety of psychosocial stressors and smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 910 years among adults in the United States (N=4938, ages 2574). Methods Using information provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Stressors related to relationships, finances, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, neighborhood, discrimination, and past-year family problems were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results High stress at both assessments was associated with greater odds of persistent smoking for stressors related to relationships, finances, work, perceived inequality, past-year family problems, and a summary score. Among respondents who were smokers at baseline, high stress at both time-points for relationship stress, perceived inequality, and past-year family problems was associated with nearly double the odds of failure to quit. Conclusions Interventions to address psychosocial stress may be important components within smoking cessation efforts. PMID:23860953

  3. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. PMID:26093070

  4. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 910 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Paula; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Jones, Andrew; Harvey, Ian; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedn

    2011-01-01

    Objective Poor diet in childhood increases risk of obesity but the relationship between access to food and childrens food choice is underexplored. We determined relationships between distance to and density of food outlets on childrens food choice. Design Children (n 1721) aged 910 years who participated in a cross-sectional study from a sample of state and private schools across urban and rural areas. Food consumption was reported using a short validated FFQ. A Geographic Information System was used to determine proximity to local food outlets. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine associations between food consumption and distance to and density of local food outlets. Setting Norfolk, England. Subjects Boys (n 754) and girls (n 967) aged 910 years. Results The impact of distance to or density of food outlets on food choice was small after adjustment. Living further away from a supermarket increased portions of fruit (011 portions/week per 1 km increase in distance to nearest supermarket, P<005) and vegetables (011 portions/week, P<005) consumed. Living closer to convenience stores was also associated with an increased consumption of crisps, chocolate and white bread. Density of supermarkets was associated with both an increase in vegetable intake (031 portions/week, P<005) and unhealthy foods. Conclusions Distance to and density of food outlets are both associated with childrens food choice, although the impact appears to be small and the relationship is complex. However, the effects of individual foods combined could be important, particularly as even small differences in intake can impact on body weight over time. PMID:20082745

  5. Physical Education Studies (Years 9 & 10): Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This guide provides an outline of possible course content for a 2-year physical education studies program during years 9 and 10. Teachers will need to supplement the ideas and materials presented in the guide with ideas and information of their own, using the guide as a starting point and resource for developing their own programs. Most of the

  6. The effect of a novel video game on stroke knowledge of 910 year old low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Hecht, Mindy F.; DeSorbo, Alexandra L.; Huq, Saima; Noble, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Improving actionable stroke knowledge of a witness or bystander, which in some cases are children, may improve response to an acute stroke event. Methods We used a quasi-experimental pretest (PT) post-test design to evaluate actionable stroke knowledge of 210 children aged 910 years in response to a single 15-minute exposure to a stroke education video game conducted in the school computer lab. Following immediate post-testing (IP) we provided remote password-protected online video game access, and encouraged children play at their leisure from home. An unannounced delayed post-test (DP) occurred seven weeks later. Results Two hundred ten children completed PT, 205 completed IP, while 198 completed DP. 156 (74%) children had home Internet access, and 41 (26%), mostly girls, played the video game remotely. There was significant improvement of stroke symptom composite scores, calling 911 and all individual stroke knowledge items, including a distractor across the testing sequence (p<0.05). Children who played the video game remotely demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of one symptom (sudden imbalance) compared to children who did not (p<0.05), although overall composite scores showed no difference. Conclusions Stroke education video games may represent novel means for improving and sustaining actionable stroke knowledge of children. PMID:24481976

  7. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM 625.9...

  8. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM 625.9...

  9. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  10. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  11. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  12. Reducing depression in 9-10 year old children in low SES schools: a longitudinal universal randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare M; Nesa, Monique

    2013-12-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOP-PTS) is an innovative curriculum-based mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. The program is aimed at preventing depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in middle primary school children aged 9-10 years. Students from 22 low SES primary schools (N = 910) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline, post-test, 6 months and 18 months. The intervention group received the program implemented by teachers and the control group received their regular Health Education curriculum. Students completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, and attribution style. At risk students were further assessed with the computerised Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Parents reported on their children's externalising and internalising problems at home. Children in the intervention condition reported a significant pre-post reduction in depressive symptoms, and there was a significant pre-post reduction in parent-reported emotional difficulties which was maintained at 6 month follow-up; no changes were evident in the control group. Both groups showed significant improvements in child-reported anxiety and attribution style, and significant improvements in parent-reported pro-social behaviours. For both groups, there were no significant post-baseline changes in incidence and recovery rates for depression, anxiety, or internalising symptoms. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has the potential to treat depressive symptomatology in the immediate term but the effects were not sustained. There is also evidence of improved emotional resilience up to 6 months following the program. Further follow-up to investigate longer term effects is needed. PMID:24185214

  13. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  14. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 910 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or attachment that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 910 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common favourite pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a Bull Breed dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the childs favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and other pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. Pit Bull or cross and Bull Breed dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a Pit Bull or cross than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the common childhood phenomenon of growing up with pets. PMID:23668544

  15. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume II. Volunteerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on volunteerism presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Volunteers in the 1990s"

  16. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second

  17. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.

  18. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume III. Family/Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.

  19. Prevention of internalizing disorders in 910 year old children: efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 910 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776

  20. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to a 10-week school-based football intervention for 9-10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, P; Hansen, P R; Nielsen, C M; Larsen, M N; Randers, M B; Manniche, V; Hansen, L; Dvorak, J; Bangsbo, J

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the cardiac effects of a 10-week football training intervention for school children aged 9-10 years using comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography as a part of a larger ongoing study. A total of 97 pupils from four school classes were cluster-randomized into a control group that maintained their usual activities (CON; two classes, n = 51, 21 boys and 30 girls) and a football training group that performed an additional 3 40 min of small-sided football training per week (FT; two classes, n = 46, 23 boys and 23 girls). No baseline differences were observed in age, body composition, or echocardiographic variables between FT and CON. After the 10-week intervention, left ventricular posterior wall diameter was increased in FT compared with CON [0.4 0.7 vs -0.1 0.6 ( SD) mm; P < 0.01] as was the interventricular septum thickness (0.2 0.7 vs -0.2 0.8 mm; P < 0.001). Global isovolumetric relaxation time increased more in FT than in CON (3.8 10.4 vs -0.9 6.6 ms, P < 0.05) while the change in ventricular systolic ejection fraction tended to be higher (1.4 8.0 vs -1.1 5.5%; P = 0.08). No changes were observed in resting heart rate or blood pressure. In conclusion, a short-term, school-based intervention comprising small-sided football sessions resulted in significant structural and functional cardiac adaptations in pre-adolescent children. PMID:24944128

  1. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school. Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK.

  2. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 910 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 910 years in 20067) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (?7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (?32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (?813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 89 am, 35 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  3. Constraints on the formation of anhydrite at L Vent, East Pacific Rise 9-10N from Sr isotopes, Sr concentrations, and 210Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Yao, H.; Peng, X.

    2009-12-01

    Sr isotope composition and Sr concentration of anhydrites sampled systematically from a black smoker chimney from L vent on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) exhibit an unexpected positive relationship between 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentration. This may imply that the end-member hydrothermal fluid, which mixed with seawater, may have Sr concentrations lower than that of seawater. Based on the 210Pb age data, we suggest that the formation of the L vent was related to the 1991 eruption event, and that the early formed anhydrite in the sulfide chimney resulted from mixing of seawater with a vapor-phase hydrothermal fluid discharging at this site. We suggest that anhydrite in sulfide chimneys can provide useful information about the evolution of the hydrothermal fluid chemistry following a volcanic eruption/diking event in the 9-10N region of the EPR.

  4. Exercise Capacity and Selected Physiological Factors by Ancestry and Residential Altitude: Cross-Sectional Studies of 910-Year-Old Children in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Nafstad, Per; Wu, Tianyi; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bianba, Sveinung Bernsten, Lars Bo Andersen, Hein Stegum, Ouzhuluobu, Per Nafstad, Tianyi Wu, and Espen Bjertness. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitudeCross-sectional studies of 910-year-old children in Tibet. High Alt Med Biol. 15:162169, 2014.Aim: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300?m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700?m). Methods: A total of 430 910-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300?m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700?m) participated in two cross-sectional studies. The maximal power output (Wmax) was assessed using an ergometer cycle. Results: Lhasa Tibetan children had a 20% higher maximal power output (watts/kg) than Tingri Tibetan and 4% higher than Lhasa Han Chinese. Maximal heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. Conclusions: The superior exercise capacity in native Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700?m demonstrated a better exercise capacity than residents at a higher altitude of 4300?m when measured at their respective residential altitudes. Such altitude- or ancestry-related difference could not be fully attributed to the physiological factors measured. PMID:24836751

  5. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  6. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  7. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  8. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  9. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  10. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  11. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  12. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  13. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and

  14. Atmospheric reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Miet, Killian; Albinet, Alexandre; Budzinski, Hlne; Villenave, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The probably carcinogenic compound 9,10-anthraquinone is mainly existing in the atmosphere in the particulate phase and is often detected and measured among other oxygenated PAHs in atmospheric samples. Its fate, once released or formed in the atmosphere, still remains unknown. In this work, heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes of 9,10-anthraquinone were investigated with ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The study of 9,10-anthraquinone adsorbed on silica particles showed no reactivity with O3 and NO2. On the other hand, the reaction with OH radicals was observed and led to the formation of 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, another oxidation product recognized as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This study showed that reactions with ozone and nitrogen dioxide are unlikely to contribute to atmospheric degradation of 9,10-anthraquinone, whereas reactions with OH radicals could be involved in 9,10-anthraquinone degradation processes, even if such reaction is probably very slow under ambient conditions. PMID:24875864

  15. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.10 Other....

  16. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.10 Other....

  17. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.10 Other....

  18. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.10 Other....

  19. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.10 Other....

  20. Contraception at age 35 years and older.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, C

    1998-12-01

    About 85% of all births in the US occur to women under 35 years of age. According to the US National Survey of Family Growth, women aged 35-39 years expect to have an additional 0.3 births while those 40-44 years anticipate only 0.1 additional births. Thus, there is a need to protect women age 35 years and over from unwanted pregnancy until menopause occurs. Sterilization continues to be the most common choice for married women older than 30 years. The IUD may be an excellent alternative to sterilization. Oral contraceptive (OC) use declines in women over 35 years because of concerns about increased cardiovascular risk. However, new studies have indicated myocardial risk in older women is mainly limited to women with other cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, the OC-related benefits of protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, reduced menstrual blood loss, and increased bone density are especially important to women over 35 years. Since it is impossible to diagnose menopause within the pill-free week, OC users should stop the pill for a month at around 50 years of age to allow accurate follicle-stimulating hormone measurement. PMID:9917950

  1. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and

  2. [Changes of body mass components and body constitution in boys 7-17 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I A; Tambovtseva, R V; Panasiuk, T V

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal studies of boys aged 7-17 years were performed to trace the dynamics of growth processes, indices of endomorphism, mesomorphism and ectomorphism according to type of body build. The indices of somatotype stability, proposed by the authors, depending on the age and body build, are discussed. It is shown that the least variable are the boys of asthenoid and digestive types of body build, while those belonging to muscular and thoraco-muscular types undergo changes most frequently. At the age of 9-10 years the somatotype variability is the greatest. By the age of 15-17 years the proportion of the boys belonging to asthenoid-thoracal type is increased, that is characterized by a deceleration of skeletal muscles development and an increase in the ectomorphism index. PMID:12741117

  3. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29?506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P?=?0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  4. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (56, 78, 910, 1112, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  5. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Girls 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePLUS

    2 to 20 years: Girls NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mother’s Stature Date Age Father’s Stature Weight Stature BMI* AGE (YEARS) in cm 160 62 155 60 150 58 145 56 140 S 54 ...

  6. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePLUS

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  7. The first report of a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) ?-thalassemia mutation in a Turkish patient.

    PubMed

    Unal, Sule; Chui, David H K; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Okur, Hamza; Oymak, Yesim; Gumruk, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in Turkey, we report a thalassemic patient with a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) genotype. Currently, the patient is 3 years and 2 months old and received an initial transfusion at the age of 18 months. After being alloimmunized following this transfusion, he required frequent transfusions, every week to every other week. Although alloimmunization was controlled after methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis and rituximab, the transfusion requirements continued related to hypersplenism. Subsequent to splenectomy, transfusion requirements disappeared with average hemoglobin (Hb) levels around 11.0 g/dL. The mother underwent prenatal diagnosis (PND) when she became pregnant for the third time; this revealed a heterozygous codons 9/10 fetus. PMID:25572182

  8. Association of Birth Parameters with Refractive Status in a Sample of Caucasian Children Aged 417 Years

    PubMed Central

    Akova-Budak, Berna; K?van, Serta Argun; Olcays, Osman Okan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the association of birth parameters with refractive status in different age groups of Caucasian children. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 564 eyes of 282 children aged 4 to 17 years. All children underwent complete ophthalmologic examination. The children were divided into three groups according to their refractive status (emmetropia,myopia, and hyperopia), ages (47, 8-9, 1012, and 1317), and appropriateness for gestational age, respectively. Results. The mean age of the children was 9.2 2.8 (age range 417 years). The mean spheric equivalent was +0.3 1.7 (range: (?10.0)(+10.0) diopters). The mean birth weight and gestational age were 2681.1 930.8 grams (7505000 grams) and 37.2 3.7 weeks (2542 weeks). According to multinominal logistic regression analysis, children with myopia were more likely to have higher birth weights than emmetropic children (OR: 1.0, 95% CI: 1.0001.001, and P = 0.028). The hypermetropes were found to be significantly small for gestational age between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusion. Birth weight and appropriateness for gestational age as birth parameters may have an impact on development of all types of refractive errors. The hypermetropic children tended to be small for gestational age. PMID:25949820

  9. 9,10-Diarylanthracenes as stable electrochemiluminescent emitters in water.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Palani; Schmittel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Two hydrophilic diarylanthracenes, explicitly 9,10-bis(N-methylimidazolium-3-propoxyphenyl)anthracene (DAA1) and 9,10-bis(N-methylimidazolium-3-propoxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl)anthracene (DAA2), are synthesized and fully characterized. Both are found to be soluble in aqueous medium and to exhibit optical properties similar to those of the parent 9,10-diphenylanthracene, whose solubility is virtually negligible in water. The detailed analysis of their photochemical stability as well as electrochemical and electrochemiluminescent properties reveals that the sterically highly shielded anthracene DAA2 shows inertness toward reactions with singlet oxygen and OH(-) ions during photo- and electrochemical initiation and stable ECL emission in aqueous medium. PMID:22950444

  10. Placental measurements associated with intelligence quotient at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Misra, D P; Salafia, C M; Charles, A K; Miller, R K

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesized that placental villous branching that is measured by disk chorionic plate expansion and disk thickness is correlated with factors also involved in regulation of branching growth of other fetal viscera (e.g. lung, kidney) including neuronal dendrites, and thus may be associated with variation in childhood intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ at age 7 years was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Placental measures [placental weight (g), thickness (mm), chorionic plate surface diameters (cm), area (cm2), shape, and cord length and cord eccentricity] were independent variables in regression analyses of age 7-year IQ in 12,926 singleton term live born infants with complete placental data. Analyses were stratified on gender with adjustment for socioeconomic status, race, parity, gestational age, exact age at testing and centered parental ages. After adjustment for covariates, placental measurements were independently associated with IQ at age 7 years but results varied by gender. Chorionic plate diameters were only associated with higher IQ in girls. Placental thickness was positively associated with higher IQ for boys and girls. We have previously shown that placental measures affect age 7-year body mass index and diastolic blood pressure. Here we demonstrate that specific measures, placental chorionic plate diameters in girls and disk thickness, independent of gender, are correlated with age 7-year IQ. Further exploration of the possible interaction of these factors on the placental villous arborization reflected by the chorionic plate expansion and placental thickness that correlate with age 7-year IQ, as well as other age 7 somatic features as previously addressed, is indicated. PMID:25102009

  11. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age

  12. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ? 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ? 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ? 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ? 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ? 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 1642 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ? 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI.

  13. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingling; Li, Feng; Wang, Junli; Shen, Lixiao; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA. Results In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 14.69–419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g). All of the children were divided into three groups, 1–2 years (12–24 months), 2–3 years (24–36 months), 3–4 years (36–48 months), with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g), 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g), 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g), respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1–2 years, 2–3 years and 3–4 years (P = 0.016). In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1–2 years and children aged 3–4 years (P = 0.007). A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005) in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed. Conclusion Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years), and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4 years and adults. PMID:26950440

  14. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  15. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  16. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  17. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  18. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  19. Surgical mortality in patients more than 80 years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan-Kheil, A M; Khan, H N

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Patients aged >80 years account for a considerable proportion of the population admitted to hospital under general surgeons. We aimed to establish the prevalence of mortality in patients aged >80 years who underwent emergency general, vascular and urological surgery within a 13-month period at a large teaching hospital in the UK. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis was carried out of all patients aged ?80 years admitted on acute on-call emergency under general, vascular or urological surgeons. Patient demographics (including comorbidities and sex) were recorded. American Society of Anesthesiologists scores were reviewed from anaesthetic records. The outcome measure was 30-day mortality for those who had undergone emergency general, vascular or urological surgery. Results A total of 4,069 patients were admitted under general, vascular and urological surgeons during the study period. Of these patients, 521 were aged >80 years. Sixty-three patients underwent emergency surgery and 12 died <30 days after surgery (mortality = 19%). The most common procedure was laparotomy (20 cases). The most common co-morbidity was cardiac disease, which included hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and hypercholesterolemia. A considerable proportion of patients also had malignant disease and arthritis. Conclusions The present study suggests that emergency surgery should not be denied to subjects aged >80 years based on age alone. Mortality varies according to the type of emergency procedure. Mortality was highest after laparotomy and vascular surgery whereas, for more routine procedures such as hernia repair and abscess drainage, survival was almost 100% after 30 days. PMID:26672811

  20. Molecular gears: Structures of (9,10-triptyceno) crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Sachleben, R.A.; Gakh, A.A.; Bunick, G.J.

    1999-05-01

    The incorporation of 9,10-triptycene unit in a crown ether is examined from a structural perspective. Insertion of a triptycene group into 18-crown-6 stretches the crown into an ellipse, as seen in structures presented here of 9,10-triptyceno-22-crown-6 and its thallium complex. Symmetric addition of two triptycene groups into 18-crown-6 results in the sterically congested bis(9,10-triptyceno)-26-crown-6, whose crown cavity is filled with the {pi}-clouds of two arene groups. The larger bis(9,10-triptyceno)-32-crown-8 is more sterically relaxed. The structures of these bis(triptyceno)crown ether molecules are the first with two triptycene groups simultaneously linked through their 9 and 10 positions, thereby forming a simple molecular gearing mechanism. The compound 9,10-triptyceno-22-crown-6 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 10.7962(7), b = 15.826(3), c = 31.147(5) {angstrom}, V = 5321.8(12) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 8; its complex with TlNO{sub 3} crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 8.1884(14), b = 19.552(2), c = 20,575(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 97.062(8){degree}, V = 3269.2(9) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4; bis(9,10-triptyceno)-26-crown-6 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P{bar 1} with a = 8.6488(11), b = 10,7718(12), c = 12.3324(12) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 111.58(1), {beta} = 100.55(1), {gamma} = 106.43(1){degree}, V = 970.3(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 1; and bis(9,10-triptyceno)-32-crown-8 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna2{sub 1} with a = 20.186(3), b = 8.558(2), c = 25.623(2) {angstrom}, V = 4426.2(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4.

  1. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  2. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  3. Crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Zaitseva, Natalia; Payne, Steve; Shah, Kanai S.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we report on the crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Crystals of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) were grown by the solution growth technique as well as the vertical Bridgman method. In case of the solution growth technique, several organic solvents were investigated including heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and p-xylene. The largest crystals of the highest quality were obtained from toluene and xylene. In the case of vertical Bridgman, evacuated silica ampoules were used to grow large single crystals of DPA. Crystals grown by this method exhibit excellent scintillation properties. Radioluminescence spectra of DPA crystals exhibit a broad emission band peaking at 475 nm. DPA crystals show high light yields of up to 20,000 ph/MeV and a fast scintillation decay of less than 20 ns. Fast neutron detection was achieved using a 252Cf source.

  4. 2,3-Diethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Allouchi, Hassan; Bravic, Georges; Lahrahar, Nacer; Desvergne, Jean Pierre; Bouas-Laurent, Henri

    2008-11-01

    Anthraquinone derivatives form an important class of dyes and are also known for their medicinal properties. Recently, 2,3-disubstituted anthraquinones have been shown unexpectedly to jellify various organic solvents. No information on the packing mode of these derivatives was known. Here, the first X-ray structure of a 2,3-disubstituted anthraquinone is reported, namely 2,3-diethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone, C(18)H(16)O(4). The merit of this study lies in the observation of significant differences between the packing in 9,10-anthraquinone, which displays a herring-bone arrangement, and that in the title 2,3-diethoxy derivative, in which the molecules lie on parallel crystallographic morror planes separated by a distance of 3.4081 (1) A, reminiscent of the graphite layer architecture. PMID:18989093

  5. Vitrectomy in patients over 90 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Tetsuya; Ide, Tomoyuki; Chikuda, Makoto; Machida, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate vitrectomy procedures performed in patients over 90 years of age at the Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital (Koshigaya, Japan). Patients and methods Vitrectomies were performed in nine eyes of nine patients who were over 90 years of age between May 2010 and March 2015. Factors such as the underlying vitreoretinal disease, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), surgical time, postoperative body position, need for a second surgery, systemic disease, and intraoperative changes in systemic conditions have been evaluated. Results The most common cause of the underlying vitreoretinal disease was vitreous hemorrhage derived from age-related macular degeneration and posterior dislocation of the lens secondary to a posterior capsular rupture (two cases each). The mean values for the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA were 2.15 preoperatively and 1.46 postoperatively (P=0.020, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mean surgical time was 109 minutes. Prone position was needed in two cases, and no second surgeries were needed. The most common cause of systemic disease was hypertension, which was found in six cases. Transient hypertension was found in two cases during surgery, and these patients were treated using intravenous calcium blocker injections. Conclusion Patients over 90 years of age who underwent vitrectomy procedures did not have serious problems, except transient hypertension during surgery. The BCVA significantly improved. These results indicated that vitrectomies could be performed successfully in patients over 90 years of age. PMID:26869759

  6. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  7. Liver transplantation in patients over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bjro, K; Hckerstedt, K; Ericzon, B G; Friman, S; Hjortrup, A; Keiding, S; Schrumpf, E; Duraj, F; Olausson, M; Mkisalo, H; Bergan, A; Kirkegaard, P

    2000-01-01

    Liver transplantation was previously only offered to patients under 60 years of age. We have analyzed the outcome after acceptance on the waiting list and after liver transplantation of patients over 60 years old. A total of 150 patients over 60 years old were listed for a first liver transplantation during 1990-1998. The annual number increased throughout the period. Primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and acute hepatic failure were the most frequent diagnoses. A total of 119 patients received a first liver allograft. The patient 1-year survival was 75% and 3-year survival 62%, which was not significantly lower (P = 0.21) than that of the younger patients. When correcting for year of transplantation, the survival was, however, moderately but significantly lower than among the younger patients. Survival among those > 65 years (n = 38) did not differ from that of patients 60-65 years of age (n = 81). We conclude that an increasing number of patients over 60 years old can be listed for liver transplantation and receive a liver allograft with highly satisfying results. PMID:11111989

  8. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age].

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine; de Boer, Menko Jan

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by female patients themselves and by their doctors. Women with ACS have relatively more pain in the neck, back and shoulders with concomitant vaso-vegetative symptoms, feelings of anxiety, fatigue, and dyspnoea in comparison with the classical chest pain syndrome that is more prevalent in men. At a younger age smoking and a positive family history are stronger risk factors for ACS in women than in men, and the use of oral contraceptives further elevates their risk. PMID:21939573

  9. Mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 40 years and older

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-05

    Currently, age-specific recommendations for screening mammograms in asymptomatic women that have been developed by professional, voluntary, and governmental organizations differ. While there is strong epidemiologic evidence that mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 50 years or older reduces breast cancer mortality, the evidence for mortality reduction is not as clear for women aged 40 to 49 years. However, as described in this report, findings of further mortality and survival follow-up of subjects in earlier studies, as well as observations from more recent studies, suggest reductions in mortality and better survival in younger women as well. While mammography is currently the most effective method for detecting early breast cancers, some breast cancers may develop during the intervals between screening mammograms. The costs of mammographic screening also require consideration in the process of making national screening recommendations.

  10. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  11. Rejuvenating immunity: "anti-aging drug today" eight years later.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2015-08-14

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding "a turning point" in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  12. Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

    2009-03-01

    Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development. PMID:19209081

  13. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  14. Transition moment directions in 9,10-anthraquinones. Symmetrical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrvold, Bernt O.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens; Thulstrup, Erik W.

    1986-05-01

    Linear dichroism (LD) absorption spectra of 9,10-anthraquinone and a number of derivatives of C 2v symmetry have been recorded using specially produced thick stretched polyenthylene sheets as an anisotropic solvent. The spectra were recorded in the infrared region, which provided very precise information on the relevant properties of the solute orientation distribution. Similarly, absorption spectra were recorded in the visible-ultraviolet region which made a separation of the spectrum into contributions from different excited electronic state symmetries possible. This allows a detailed discussion of transition moment directions and the spectral assignment of the electronic transitions.

  15. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, Mara Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martnez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabin; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis. PMID:11856454

  16. A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene from Dendrobium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ningdong; Yang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene,1,5-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) was isolated and identified from the whole plants of Dendrobium moniliforme, as well as 24 known compounds including hircinol (2), (2R(*),3S(*))-3-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-phenanthro[4,3-b]furan-5,11-diol (3), diospyrosin (4), aloifol I (5), moscatilin (6), 3,4'-dihydroxy-3',4,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (7), gigantol (8), 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (9), longicornuol A (10), N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (11), paprazine (12), N-trans-feruloyl 3'-O-methyldopamine (13), moupinamide (14), dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (15), dihydrosinapyl dihydro-p-coumarate (16), 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (17), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), vanillin (19), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (20), vanillic acid (21), protocatechuic acid (22), (+)-syringaresinol (23), ?-sitosterol (24) and daucosterol (25). Compounds 3, 4, 13, 16, 17 and 20 were isolated from the Dendrobium genus for the first time, and compounds 2, 5, 7, 9-12, 14, 15, 18, 21 and 22 were originally obtained from D. moniliforme. PMID:26132274

  17. NIA's Intervention Testing Program at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Warner, Huber R

    2015-01-01

    The previous 20 years of basic research on aging has identified a large number of genes and gene products whose expression can be manipulated in a variety of ways to increase the healthy life span of animal models such as yeast, nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. In an overt attempt to capitalize on this information, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) began a program in 2003 to identify nutritional and pharmaceutical interventions that could be safely employed to extend the healthy life span of mice. This program is called the Intervention Testing Program (ITP), and this article briefly describes the development of this initiative and some of the early success achieved during its first 10 years (2004-2014) of operation. PMID:25726185

  18. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flvio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  19. Fungal oxidation of (+-)-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene: formation of diastereomeric benzo(a)pyrene 9,10-diol 7,8-epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cerniglia, C.E.; Gibson, D.T.

    1980-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans oxidized (+-) trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)-pyrene to a complex mixture of metabolites which were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Two of the metabolites were identified as (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..,9..cap alpha..,10..beta..-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene and (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..,9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene. A third product gave absorption and mass spectra consistent with a diol-epoxide structure. Hydrolysis of this compound gave (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..,9..beta..,10..cap alpha..-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene as the major identifiable product with a minor unidentified tetraol. Synthetic (+-)-9..cap alpha..,10..beta..-dihydroxy-7..beta..,8..beta..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene gave the same hydrolysis products and had the same retention time on high-pressure liquid chromatography as did the fungal metabolite. The trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene recovered at the end of the experiment showed no optical activity, indicating that both enantiomers were metabolized by the fungus. The results suggest that C. elegans oxidized (+-)-trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene to diastereomeric benzo(a)pyrene 9,10-diol 7,8-epoxides.

  20. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  1. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engstrm, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  2. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  3. Developing movement efficiency between 7 and 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bosga-Stork, Ida Maria; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek R, G J

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the movement efficiency of typically developing children between 7 and 9 years of age by scrutinizing their movement amplitudes and frequencies as they settled into a loop-writing task in which both parameters were prescribed. It was hypothesized that during the first three grades at primary school children would show increasing efficiency in exploiting the inverse relationship between movement amplitude and frequency when adjusting their movement errors. Whereas a clear developmental trend showed increasing efficiency with respect to the way in which the primary school children met the amplitude constraints, a more variable pattern was found for the age-dependent adjustments to the frequency requirements. At the level of parameter-error corrections from one cycle to the next, a marginal developmental trend was observed. Results are discussed in terms of contrasting effects between educational targets and movement-efficiency principles. PMID:24496875

  4. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  5. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. [Myocardial infarction in patients aged 70 years and over].

    PubMed

    Dutoit, A; Mahieu, G; Petit, A; Cabaret, P; Jacquemart, T; Rihani, R; Graux, P; Cornaert, P; Croccel, L

    1990-09-01

    109 subjects aged 70 years (58 women, 51 men; average age 77 years) were hospitalized in the CICU (Cardiology Intensive Care Unit) over the period stretching from 1984 to 1986. The average length of stay in the CICU was 1 week, completed by an average stay of 5 days in the cardiology department. 100 per cent of the patients were followed up. Of the clinical parameters made evident by this study, the authors note that hypertension was the predominant risk factor (52.2 per cent); a history of coronary disease was noted in 60.5 per cent; 26.6 per cent of the patients were hospitalized before the 6th hour, chest pain being typical in 78 per cent versus painless in 11 per cent of patients; topographically, the infarction was anterior in 55 per cent, posterior in 40.4 per cent, and around the circumference in 4.6 per cent of cases; 80.8 per cent of the infarctions were transmural versus 19.2 per cent of infarctions without the Q wave--the latter accounted for a higher hospital mortality rate (38 per cent versus 27.3 per cent). The main complications were disturbances in rhythm (60.6 per cent) and LVI (56.9 per cent). Complications on the form of infections were noted in 15.6 per cent. Apart from the usual indicators of severity (cardiogenic shock, VF, LVI), infarction of the RV and AF had a serious effect on the prognosis. latrogenic disease accounted for 18.9 per cent. From the point of view of prognosis, hospital mortality was 30 per cent; mortality after one year was 44 per cent and 47.7 per cent after 2 years (in a group of 76 subjects).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2264704

  7. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ?4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.276.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, ? = 0.74) between parent report of their childs usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  8. Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 4564 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Anderson, Lynda A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Eugene, Nola; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of setting the stage for this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a life-course perspective is presented to assist in understanding the importance of cancer prevention for adults in midlife, a period roughly spanning 20 years between ages 45 and 64 years. Drawing on disciplinary perspectives from the social sciences and public health, several life-course themes are delineated in this article: how specific life transitions present unique opportunities for interventions to inform policy and practice that can improve population health outcomes; how interventions can be focused on those at particular life stages or on the entire life course; and how the onset and progression of chronic conditions such as cancer are dependent on a complex interplay of critical and sensitive periods, and trajectory and accumulation processes. A translational research framework is applied to help promote the movement of applied public health interventions for cancer prevention into practice. Also explored are differences that can affect people at midlife relative to other age cohorts. Specifically, cancer-related risks and care networks are examined, with examples of public health strategies that can be applied to cancer prevention and control. As a conclusion, select methodologic issues and next steps for advancing research and practice are identified. PMID:24512925

  9. Central adiposity in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 7-10 years.

    PubMed

    de Assis, M A A; Rolland-Cachera, M F; de Vasconcelos, F A G; Bellisle, F; Conde, W; Calvo, M C M; Luna, M E P; Ireton, M J; Grosseman, S

    2007-04-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a measure of central adiposity related to elevated risk factor levels in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to describe WC percentiles in 7- to 10-year-old Brazilian children and to compare frequencies of obesity and overweight as defined by BMI and frequencies of excess and at risk of abdominal adiposity as defined by WC to the corresponding age and sex data from British references. A representative sample of 2919 schoolchildren of the city of Florianopolis (southern Brazil) was examined. Smoothed WC percentiles were derived using the least mean square method. Frequencies of overweight and obesity and of excess and at risk of abdominal adiposity were assessed using the 91st and 98th centiles of the British references as cut-off points. WC increased with age in both boys and girls, with higher values for boys at every age and percentile level. Nutritional status categories of children assessed by the 91st and 98th British BMI and WC centiles showed moderate agreement (weighted kappa = 0.58). Overweight was more frequent in Brazilian than British children: 15.1 % of girls and 20.1 % of boys were above the 91st percentile of the 1990 BMI for age British references. About one-quarter (22.0 % of girls and 26.9 % of boys) exceeded the 91st percentile of WC British references. The present data could be used to compare WC in children in other populations and may serve as a baseline for future studies of temporal trends in WC in Brazil. PMID:17349095

  10. Regio- and stereospecific oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene by naphthalene dioxygenase: structure and absolute stereochemistry of metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene was examined with mutant and recombinant strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (NCIB 9816.4. Salicylate-induced cells of P. putida strain 9816/11 and isopropylthiogalactopyranoside-induced cells of Escherichia coli JM109(DE3)(pDTG141) oxidized 9,10-dihydroanthracene to (+)-cis-1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,9,10-tetrahydroanthracene (> 95% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess) as the major product. 9-Hydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracene (< 5% relative yield) was a minor product formed by both organisms. The same cells oxidized 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to (+)-cis-(3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4,9,10-tetrahydrophenanthrene (70% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess) and (+)-(S)-9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (30% relative yield). The major reaction catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase with 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene was stereospecific dihydroxylation in which both of the previously undescribed cis-diene diols were of R configuration at the benzylic center adjacent to the bridgehead carbon atom. The results suggest that for benzocylic substrates, the location of benzylic carbons influences the type of reaction(s) catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase. PMID:8795226

  11. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. [Bladder neoplasms in patients under 40 years of age].

    PubMed

    Peinado Ibarra, F; Fernndez-Arjona, M; Gmez Sancha, F; Teba Del Pino, F; Fernndez Borrell, A; Romero, J C; Arellano, R; Rabadn, M; Pereira, I

    1997-05-01

    The incidence, presentation and clinical evolution of vesical tumours diagnosed in our Centre over the last 10 years (1986-1995) in patients under forty are examined. This retrospective study included 19 of the 643 neoplasias treated during that period; 7 of these in patients under 30 and 12 in patients over 31. Haematuria was the most frequent reason for visiting the Centre. At the time of diagnosis, all cases were surface tumours and none progressed to the infiltrant stage. Tumours in patients over 30 are characterised by a higher histological grade and greater relapse rate versus those in patients under 30. Therefore, age may be a favourable prognostic factor in patients under 30 versus the older group who follow a course more similar to the remainder of usual patients. Diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasias should be just the same as for tumours in older patients. PMID:9412172

  13. Relationship between age and elite marathon race time in world single age records from 5 to 93 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were (i) to investigate the relationship between elite marathon race times and age in 1-year intervals by using the world single age records in marathon running from 5 to 93years and (ii) to evaluate the sex difference in elite marathon running performance with advancing age. Methods World single age records in marathon running in 1-year intervals for women and men were analysed regarding changes across age for both men and women using linear and non-linear regression analyses for each age for women and men. Results The relationship between elite marathon race time and age was non-linear (i.e. polynomial regression 4th degree) for women and men. The curve was U-shaped where performance improved from 5 to ~20years. From 5years to ~15years, boys and girls performed very similar. Between ~20 and ~35years, performance was quite linear, but started to decrease at the age of ~35years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference increased non-linearly (i.e. polynomial regression 7th degree) from 5 to ~20years, remained unchanged at ~20min from ~20 to ~50years and increased thereafter. The sex difference was lowest (7.5%, 10.5min) at the age of 49years. Conclusion Elite marathon race times improved from 5 to ~20years, remained linear between ~20 and ~35years, and started to increase at the age of ~35years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference in elite marathon race time increased non-linearly and was lowest at the age of ~49years. PMID:25120915

  14. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within-pair difference in physical fitness was also predictive of within-pair difference in lateral ventricle size. There was a weak independent effect of self-reported physical activity. Conclusion Leg power predicts both cognitive ageing and global brain structure, despite controlling for common genetics and early life environment shared by twins. Interventions targeted to improve leg power in the long term may help reach a universal goal of healthy cognitive ageing. PMID:26551663

  15. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less

  16. A comparative analysis of the health status of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica: Are there differences across municipalities?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Since 1990, the number of older men (60+ years) in Jamaica has increased to in excess of 100 000, while there are 30 000 men aged 73+ years. This is despite the fact that men have higher mortality and morbidity rates than women and seek medical treatment less frequently than women. There exists, however, a dearth in literature regarding this phenomenon and, therefore, this study has endeavoured to reduce this gap. Objectives The aims of this study were to, (1) model the health status of men aged 60–72 years in Jamaica, (2) model the health status of men aged 73+ years in Jamaica and (3) examine the disparity in health status of the two groups in order to ascertain the factors that influence the good health status of elderly men. Method A sample of 1432 men aged 60+ years were extracted from a survey of 25 018 Jamaicans. Secondly, a sub-sample of 633 men aged 73+ years was extracted from the 1432 men aged over 60. The data from which those samples were extracted is called the Jamaica survey of living conditions (JSLC). The JSLC began in 1988 from a model of the World Bank's Living conditions survey and is a nationally cross-sectional probability sample. The current study used descriptive statistics to provide background information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and logistic regressions were utilised to examine the factors that predict good health of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica. Results The average age of the sample of men aged 60+ years was 71.14 years (SD = 5.64 years) and 78.5 years for the sample of men aged 73+ years (SD = 7.97 years). Approximately 63% of men aged 60–72 years indicated that their health was good compared to 53.3% for men aged 73+ years. Rural men recorded the least health status across the age cohorts. With regard to predictors of good health, the same factors were found to determine approximately 27% of the variability in good health. Ownership of health insurance was found to be the most influential predictor of good health and positive affective psychological condition the least significant predictor of good health for men aged 73+ years and second to last of five factors for older men. Conclusion The highest self-reported good health was indicated by men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years who dwelled in towns other than Kingston, the capital. The least good health was experienced by rural men. For older men, health insurance coverage does not indicate preventative health, but preparation for curative ill-health.

  17. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    PubMed

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences. PMID:26485784

  18. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Fo, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA?+?idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1% (95% CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5% (95% CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  19. [Epilepsy in the third age: seizures presenting after the age of 60 years (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Terzano, M G; Mancia, D; Di Giovanni, T; Zacchetti, O; Gemignani, F; Lechi, A

    1979-01-01

    In a group of 400 epileptic inpatients of the Neurological Clinic of Parma, 82 were over 60 years of age. Only 59 of them presented fits for the first time after the 60th year of age and in 78% of these, a definite anatomical damage could be demonstrated (neuroradiological investigations). One half of the epileptic syndromes with known etiology were thought to be related to cerebrovascular disease, but only few cases followed a stroke with persistent neurological symptoms. Intracranial space-occupying lesions were found to be the cause of epilepsy in 17% of cases. Partial epileptic seizures, secondarily generalized seizures, clinical signs of neurological damage, slow focal changes in the E.E.G. were the main features of this group of patients. In 22% of cases, miscellaneous causes were found: head injuries, exogenous intoxications due to accidental or iatrogenic ingestion, or alcoholic abuse. Relatively frequent were the seizures appearing in the course of degenerative or slow viruses induced encephalopathies. In 22% no demonstrable cause was found. Adequate follow-up may help us to discover etiological factors which at present are not obvious, but some form of idiopathic epilepsy with onset in this age range cannot be definitively ruled out. Only in 15% of cases interictal E.E.G. changes consisted in specific generalized or focal paroxysmal discharges (spikes, polyspikes, polyspike-and-wave). In about half of the cases the interictal E.E.G. failed to provide valuable informations, but an ictal E.E.G. could be obtained in 13 cases out of 59. PMID:549218

  20. Normative Monocular Visual Acuity for Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Charts in Emmetropic Children 5 12 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Miller, Joseph M.; Harvey, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 252 Native American (Tohono Oodham) children 5 years through 12 years of age. Based on cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia ? 0.25 diopter (D) spherical equivalent, hyperopia ? 1.00 D spherical equivalent, and astigmatism ? 0.50 D in both eyes). Methods Monocular visual acuity was tested at 4 m, using one ETDRS chart for the right eye (RE), and another for the left eye (LE). Main Outcome Measure Visual acuity was scored as the total number of letters correctly identified, by naming or by matching to letters on a lap card, and as the smallest letter size for which the child identified 3 of 5 letters correctly. Results Visual acuity results did not differ for the RE vs the LE, so data are reported for the RE only. Mean visual acuity for the 5-year-old group (0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) [20/29]) was significantly worse than for 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds (0.05 logMAR [20/22] or better at each age). The lower 95% prediction limit for determining if a child has visual acuity within the normal range was 0.38 (20/48) for 5-year-olds and 0.30 (20/40) for 612-year-olds, which was reduced to 0.32 (20/42) for 5-year-olds and 0.21 (20/32) for 612-year-olds when recalculated with outlying data points removed. Mean interocular acuity difference did not vary by age, averaging less than 1 logMAR line at each age, with a lower 95% prediction limit of 0.17 log unit (1.7 logMAR lines) across all ages. Conclusion For monocular visual acuity based on ETDRS charts to be in the normal range, it must be better than 20/50 for 5-year-olds and better than 20/40 for 612-year-olds. Normal interocular acuity difference includes values of less than 2 logMAR lines. Normative ETDRS visual acuity values are not as good as norms reported for adults, suggesting that a childs visual acuity results should be compared with norms based on data from children, not with adult norms. PMID:19427702

  1. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health...

  2. Excessive crying at 3 months of age and behavioural problems at 4 years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3 months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3 months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4 years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  3. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There

  4. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,

  5. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  6. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  7. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  8. 702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-07-22

    This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

  9. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult

  10. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19

  11. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  12. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to

  13. Short-Term Outcomes of Hip Fractures in Patients Aged 90 Years Old and Over Receiving Surgical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Hsuan-Chih; Li, Yi-Ju; Lee, Wei-Jing; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The knowledge about short-term outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing surgery for hip fracture in Asian is limited. Methods The patients with hip fractures who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty and open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) for management during the period from 2008 to 2012 were identified and their medical record was retrospectively reviewed. Results During the study period, a total of 101 patients underwent surgery for management of hip fractures, and the age of patients ranged from 90 to 96 years. The sites of hip fracture were intertrochanteric (n = 57, 56.4%) and the neck of the femur (n = 44, 43.6%). Most of the patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists scores of 3(n = 55) or 4 (in 44 patients). 80.2% (n = 81) underwent the operation within one day after admission; however, there were 13 patients (12.9%) that underwent surgery 48 or more hours later. ORIF and hemiarthroplasty were performed for 63 (62.4%) and 38 (37.6%) patients, respectively. Overall, the 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 9.9% (10/101) and 17.3% (13/75), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the 30-day mortality was significantly associated only with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Odds ratio, 11.13, 95% confidence interval, 1.275–97.881, P = .029). Conclusions The short-term outcome of surgical management for Asian nonagenarians with hip fractures is favorable in selected patients. PMID:25978368

  14. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  15. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and

  16. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload

  17. Reasons for visiting Polish primary care practices by patients aged 18-44 years: the largest emigrating age group.

    PubMed

    Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Ewelina Gowin, Ewelina Gowin; Michalak, Michal; Bryl, Nadia; Mehl, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    Over 3% of the entire Polish population migrate for a job within the European Union, most are aged 18-44 years. The main destinations are Germany, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Immigration is connected with the use of many public services, including healthcare services. Assuming Polish immigrants require medical consultations in the countries they reside in, the authors have analysed the reasons for patients' visits to general practitioners (GPs) in Poland in order to predict possible reasons why Polish patients living abroad may make appointments with GPs in other countries. Data from 22,769 visits to GP practices between June 2005 and May 2006 by Polish patients aged 18-44 years were collected electronically. Age was categorised into three groups (18-24, 25-4 and 35-44 years) and the reason for the visit was categorised according to the ICD 10 coding system. Among the 12,535 patients registered with GPs, 73.1% of women and 68.6% of men required consultations during the year the study was conducted. The highest percentage of visits was recorded for women aged 35-44 years, while men of the same age were the least likely to visit a GP. The mean number of visits per patient ranged from 1.89 for men aged 25-34 years to 3.11 for women aged 35-44 years. The means were similar for 18- to 24-year-old men and women. Women aged 35-44 years had a higher mean number of visits compared with women aged 18-4 years, whereas the opposite was true for men. The analysis of reasons for visits within the age groups indicated that the percentage of appointments for respiratory problems and general and unspecified problems dropped by more than half from the 18-24-year-olds to the 35-44-years-olds, while visits for musculosceletal, cardiovascular, and mental and behavioural problems increased by a factor of four. The presented results intend to enable healthcare services meet Polish immigrants' healthcare needs. PMID:19402840

  18. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Vlkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  19. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ. PMID:22281686

  20. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in

  1. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  2. Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 910 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. Purpose To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n?=?1472, 42.9% male) were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES) intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013. Results 83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.69 (1.21,2.37)) and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62)) were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99)), participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94)) and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94)) were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Conclusions A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours and there was evidence of clustering of screen viewing and unhealthy dietary behaviours. Sub-groups at greatest risk may be targeted for intervention. PMID:24923793

  3. [Male aged 31 years with polyneuropathy, prostration, and hypogonadism].

    PubMed

    Del Ro Prado, Antonio F; Reza Albarrn, Alfredo A; Gmez Prez, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 31 year-old male patient, who presented polyneuropathy, symmetrical, ascending, and progressive, that led to prostration of eight months duration, accompanied by hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, and the presence of multiple erythematous nodules on the skin. The MRI showed hypointense lesions in the vertebrae T-6 and L-4 with sclerotic appearance. The bone marrow biopsy reported the presence of 12% plasma cells with A. restriction, supporting monoclonal gammopathy (plasmocytoma). PMID:25946537

  4. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  5. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  6. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  7. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  8. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.L.; Chang, M.N.; Chabala, J.C.; Chiu, S.H.; Eline, D.; Hucker, H.B.; Sweeney, B.M.; White, S.D.; Arison, B.H.; Smith, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone.

  9. Speech Defects in Children Aged 7 Years: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Neville R.; Peckham, Catherine; Sheridan, Mary

    1973-01-01

    A series of screening procedures applied on a national scale by doctors, teachers, and health visitors showed that between 10% and 13% of British 7-year-old children born in one week in 1958 were reported as having an appreciable degree of speech impairment. Between 1% and 2% had a marked speech defect though hearing normally. This latter group of speech-defective children were more often male and of poor family background, and more were born towards the end of a long family. They were often at a disadvantage educationally and had more clumsiness and defects of vision and visuomotor co-ordination than the rest of the sample. The methods used for screening provided a reliable guide in the selection of children who require further investigation. PMID:4685316

  10. Incidental prostate cancer in transurethral resection of prostate specimens in men aged up to 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Marlon; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Perera, Nayomi; Bolton, Damien; Clouston, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The identification of prostate cancer (PC) is important in men aged ≤ 65 years. We examined complete transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) specimens to quantify the incidence and nature of PC in men aged ≤ 65 years. Methods A prospective multi-institutional database included TURP specimens. The cohort was stratified into two groups according to age. For men aged ≤ 65 years, the entire specimen was submitted for histological analysis, while the TURP specimens from men aged > 65 years were sampled following standard guidelines. Results A total of 923 men were included, with 224 in the younger group. PC was identified in 13.4% in men aged ≤ 65 years, compared with 28.7% the older group. The younger group had a lower proportion of Gleason score ≥ 7 (30% compared with 40%) and higher rates of pT1a (57% compared with 43%). In men aged ≤ 65 years with cancer, tumor was identified in one block in 15 of 30 cases (50%). Following diagnosis, 4/30 underwent radical prostatectomy, 5/30 underwent curative radiotherapy, 10/30 androgen deprivation, and 1/30 received palliative radiotherapy. Conclusion Incidental PC in men aged ≤ 65 years is not uncommon. Our results suggest that TURP specimens in men aged ≤ 65 years should be completely assessed. Underidentification of cancer may occur as a result of increasing use of laser prostatectomy and the consequent loss of tissue for pathological examination. PMID:27014658

  11. Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11–13 and 15–17 years. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. Subjects: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11–13 or 15–17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. Measurements: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. Results: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15–17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15–17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15–17 years old. Conclusions: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11–13 and 15–17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11–13 and 15–17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength. PMID:14608433

  12. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  14. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes...

  15. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes...

  16. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  17. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was

  18. Employee Burnout: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Age or Years of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Shapard, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between age or years of experience and employee burnout by performing a meta-analysis on research studies that present findings on relationships between employee burnout and age or years of experience. The problem has practical significance in that the appropriateness of approaches to addressing employee

  19. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  20. Outcome at 7 Years of Children Diagnosed with Autism at Age 2: Predictive Validity of Assessments Conducted at 2 and 3 Years of Age and Pattern of Symptom Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony; Taylor, Emma; Drew, Auriol; Cockerill, Helen; Brown, Jo-Anne; Baird, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the predictive validity of symptom severity, cognitive and language measures taken at ages 2 and 3 years to outcome at age 7 in a sample of children diagnosed with autism at age 2. Method: Twenty-six children diagnosed with autism at age 2 were re-assessed at ages 3 and 7 years. At each age symptom severity, cognitive and

  1. Flexibility of older adults aged 55-86 years and the influence of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; McDonald, Matthew W; Little, Robert M D; Paterson, Donald H

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55-86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, 71 9 years; 231 women, 72 8 years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes. PMID:23862064

  2. Crystal structure of 9,10-bis-(1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-9,10-di-hydro-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Lee, Semin; Bertke, Jeffery A; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structure of the well-studied 9,10-bis-(1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-9,10-di-hydro-anthracene mol-ecule, C20H12S4, (I), also known as exTTF, is reported. The mol-ecular structure of (I) consists of a di-hydro-anthracene moiety with two 1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene substituents. This is a saddle-shaped mol-ecule, which inter-acts with a close neighbor through various ?-? and C-H?? contacts to form a 'dimer'. These 'dimers' inter-act through a series of C-H?S and C-H?? contacts to construct a complex three-dimensional extended structure. PMID:26870408

  3. Crystal structure of 9,10-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-9,10-dihydroanthracene

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yi; Lee, Semin; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the well-studied 9,10-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-9,10-dihydroanthracene molecule, C20H12S4, (I), also known as exTTF, is reported. The molecular structure of (I) consists of a dihydroanthracene moiety with two 1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene substituents. This is a saddle-shaped molecule, which interacts with a close neighbor through various ?? and CH?? contacts to form a dimer. These dimers interact through a series of CH?S and CH?? contacts to construct a complex three-dimensional extended structure. PMID:26870408

  4. Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Jerry F

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult predictors of favorable overall outcome included good peer social adjustment, an absence of troubled parental discipline, and an absence of immature defensive behaviors when angry. However, young adult factors were more predictive of outcomes in middle age than in early old age, as predictor effect sizes decreased between the first follow-up and the second follow-up 16 years later. Findings support the possibility of both favorable and unfavorable changes in the second half of life that may diminish the impact of some young adult characteristics and family environments on adjustment in early old age. PMID:23855185

  5. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the childs first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the at risk range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

  6. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. PMID:24164982

  7. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well

  8. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  9. Dysmobility syndrome and mortality risk in US men and women age 50 years and older1

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dysmobility syndrome was recently proposed as an approach to evaluate the musculoskeletal health of older persons, but data linking this syndrome to adverse outcomes are currently lacking. The present study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)19992002 to assess the relationship between dysmobility and mortality in adults age 50 and older by age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Methods Dysmobility was defined as three or more of the following: high body fat, osteoporosis, low muscle mass, low muscle strength, slow gait speed, or falling risk. Body composition and bone density were assessed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Gait speed was measured via a timed walk, muscle strength via isokinetic knee extension, and fall risk via self-reported balance problems in the past year. Hazards ratios (HR) for mortality were calculated with Cox proportional hazards models. Results Twenty-two percent of adults age 50+ years had dysmobility in 19992002. Mortality risk by dysmobility varied significantly by age (pinteraction=0.001). HRs for those aged 5069 years were 3.63 (95% CI 2.69, 4.90) and 2.59 (95% CI 1.82, 3.69), respectively, before and after adjusting for all confounders, compared with 1.46 (95% CI 1.07, 1.99) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.89, 1.69) for those aged 70+ years. The relationship was significant when examined by sex or race/ethnicity within age group for most subgroups. Conclusions Dysmobility was associated with increased mortality risk in adults age 50 years and older, with risk being higher in those age 5069 years than in those age 70+ years. PMID:25297891

  10. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 1549 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 1519y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 1519 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditionsundernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemiaconsidering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

  11. ?S-conotoxin GVIIIB potently and selectively blocks ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sean B; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Olivera, Baldomero M; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-08-15

    Although acetylcholine is widely utilized in vertebrate nervous systems, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), including the ?9?10 subtype, also are expressed in a wide variety of non-neuronal cells. These cell types include cochlear hair cells, adrenal chromaffin cells and immune cells. ?9?10 nAChRs present in these cells may respectively play roles in protection from noise-induced hearing loss, response to stress and neuroprotection. Despite these critical functions, there are few available selective ligands to confirm mechanistic hypothesis regarding the role of ?9?10 nAChRs. Conus, has been a rich source of ligands for receptors and ion channels. Here, we identified Conus geographus venom as a lead source for a novel ?9?10 antagonist. The active component was isolated and the encoding gene cloned. The peptide signal sequence and cysteine arrangement had the signature of the ?-conotoxin superfamily. Previously isolated ?-conotoxin GVIIIA, also from Conus geographus, targets the 5-HT3 receptor. In contrast, ?S-GVIIIB blocked the ?9?10 nAChR with an IC50 of 9.8 nM, yet was inactive at the 5-HT3 receptor. Pharmacological characterization of ?S-GVIIIB shows that it is over 100-fold selective for the ?9?10 nAChR compared to other nAChR subtypes. Thus, the S-superfamily represents a novel conotoxin scaffold for flexibly targeting a variety of receptor subtypes. Functional competition studies utilized distinct off-rate kinetics of conotoxins to identify the ?10/?9 nAChR interface as the site of ?S-GVIIIB binding; this adds to the importance of the (+) face of the ?10 rather than the (+) face of the ?9 nAChR subunit as critical to binding of ?9?10-targeted conotoxins. PMID:26074268

  12. Molecular interaction of ?-conotoxin RgIA with the rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Azam, Layla; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zouridakis, Marios; Giastas, Petros; Tzartos, Socrates J; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-05-01

    The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was first identified in the auditory system, where it mediates synaptic transmission between efferent olivocochlear cholinergic fibers and cochlea hair cells. This receptor gained further attention due to its potential role in chronic pain and breast and lung cancers. We previously showed that ?-conotoxin (?-CTx) RgIA, one of the few ?9?10 selective ligands identified to date, is 300-fold less potent on human versus rat ?9?10 nAChR. This species difference was conferred by only one residue in the (-), rather than (+), binding region of the ?9 subunit. In light of this unexpected discovery, we sought to determine other interacting residues with ?-CTx RgIA. A previous molecular modeling study, based on the structure of the homologous molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein, predicted that RgIA interacts with three residues on the ?9(+) face and two residues on the ?10(-) face of the ?9?10 nAChR. However, mutations of these residues had little or no effect on toxin block of the ?9?10 nAChR. In contrast, mutations of homologous residues in the opposing nAChR subunits (?10 ?197, P200 and ?9 T61, D121) resulted in 19- to 1700-fold loss of toxin activity. Based on the crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human ?9 nAChR, we modeled the rat ?9?10 ECD and its complexes with ?-CTx RgIA and acetylcholine. Our data support the interaction of ?-CTx RgIA at the ?10/?9 rather than the ?9/?10 nAChR subunit interface, and may facilitate the development of selective ligands with therapeutic potential. PMID:25740413

  13. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Felicia W.; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  14. Age Changes in Nonverbal Decoding Skills: Evidence for Increasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaulo, Bella M.; Rosenthal, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Middle class children and adults (n=632) from eight age levels (mean ages 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 33 years) were tested with the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (the PONS test) to measure accuracy in decoding nonverbal cues. The prediction that nonverbal skills would increasingly differentiate over ages was confirmed. (RH)

  15. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as

  16. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  17. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  18. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related

  19. Three Years of the New Minimum Drinking Age Law: The Search for the "Spillover Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.; Watson, Zarus E. P.

    Raising the legal drinking age nationally was designed to decrease highway deaths, but it has not seemed to have affected the drinking behavior of 18-20 year old college students. In August of 1995, the Louisiana legislature raised the legal minimum drinking age to 21. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a change in legal

  20. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  1. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important

  2. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were

  3. C-Functionalized, air- and water-stable 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracenes: efficient blue to red emitting luminophores.

    PubMed

    Reus, Christian; Weidlich, Sabine; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2013-08-28

    9,10-Dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) provides a versatile scaffold for the development of boron-doped organic luminophores. Symmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are obtained through the condensation of 4-bromo-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene or 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene with BBr3 in hexane. Unsymmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are formed via an electrophilic solvent activation reaction if the synthesis is carried out in o-xylene. Mechanistic insight has been achieved by in situ NMR spectroscopy, which revealed C-halogenated 1,2-bis(dibromoboryl)benzenes to be the key intermediates. Treatment of the primary 9,10-dibromo-DBAs with MesMgBr yields air- and water-stable C-halogenated 9,10-dimesityl-DBAs (2-Br-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,6-Br2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3-Cl2-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3,6,7-Cl4-DBA(Mes)2). Subsequent Stille-type C-C-coupling reactions give access to corresponding phenyl, 2-thienyl, and p-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl derivatives, which act as highly emissive donor-acceptor dyads or donor-acceptor-donor triads both in solution and in the solid state. 2-Thienyl was chosen as a model substituent to show that already a variation of the number and/or the positional distribution of the donor groups suffices to tune the emission wavelength of the resulting benchtop stable compounds from 469 nm (blue) to 540 nm (green). A further shift of the fluorescence maximum to 594 nm (red) can be achieved by switching from 2-thienyl to p-aminophenyl groups. A comparison of the optoelectronic properties of selected C-substituted DBA(Mes)2 derivatives with those of the isostructural anthracene analogues unveiled the following: (i) The DBA core is a much better electron acceptor. (ii) The emission colors of DBAs fall in the visible range of the spectrum (blue to orange), while anthracenes emit exclusively in the near-ultraviolet to blue wavelength regime. (iii) DBAs show significantly higher solid-state quantum yields. PMID:23899377

  4. Cost Effectiveness of HIV Screening in Patients Over 55 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Gillian D.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Holodniy, Mark; Owens, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although HIV infection is more prevalent in people <45, a significant number of infections occur in older individuals. Recent guidelines recommend HIV screening of patients aged 1364. The cost-effectiveness of HIV screening patients aged 5575 years is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To examine the costs and benefits of HIV screening in patients aged 5575 years. DESIGN Markov model. DATA Derived from the literature. TARGET POPULATION Patients aged 5575 with unknown HIV status. TIME HORIZON Lifetime. PERSPECTIVE Societal. INTERVENTIONS HIV screening program for patients aged 5575 years compared to current practice. OUTCOME MEASURES Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, incremental cost-effectiveness. RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS For a 65-year-old patient, HIV screening using traditional counseling costs $55,440/QALY compared with current practice when the prevalence of HIV was 0.5% and they did not have a sexual partner-at-risk. In sexually-active patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $30,020/QALY. At a prevalence of 0.1%, HIV screening cost <$60,000/QALY for patients <75 years old with a partner-at-risk if less costly streamlined counseling is used. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening depended on HIV prevalence, age of the patient, counseling costs, and whether the patient was sexually active. Sensitivity analyses with other variables did not change our results substantially. LIMITATIONS Uncertainty regarding effects of age on HAART toxicity, efficacy, and AIDS mortality. Sensitivity analyses exploring these variables did not qualitatively affect our results. CONCLUSIONS If the tested population has a prevalence of ?0.1%, HIV screening in individuals between 5575 years old reaches conventional levels of cost-effectiveness when counseling is streamlined and if the screened patient has a partner at risk. HIV screening of patients with advanced age is economically attractive in many circumstances. PMID:18559840

  5. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  6. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mntyl, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common. PMID:25545698

  7. Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Subdimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Method Data were collected from 6,328 mother–child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Results Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. Conclusions The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. PMID:23972698

  8. Pneumonectomy for lung cancer over the age of 75 years: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Zuin, Andrea; Marulli, Giuseppe; Breda, Cristiano; Bulf, Renato; Schiavon, Marco; Rebusso, Alessandro; Di Chiara, Francesco; Rea, Federico

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the outcome in elderly patients (>75 years) submitted to pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Records of 40 elderly patients, who underwent pneumonectomy at our Institution from 1990 to 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. This group was compared with 289 younger patients submitted to pneumonectomy in the same period. In the older group median age was 77 years (range 75-84 years), 16 were right-side procedures. In the younger group median age was 62 years (range 24-74 years), 114 were right-sided procedures. The overall mortality rate was 7.5% and 6.2% in the older and younger groups, respectively (P=0.75); morbidity rate was 35.1% and 17.7% (P=0.01) and five-year survival rate was 32% and 30%, respectively (P=0.85). Right-sided procedures (P=0.0006) were associated with higher risk of mortality and age over 75 years (P=0.01) with increased risk of morbidity; pathological stage was the only predictor of five-year survival. Pneumonectomy appears to be justified even in patients older than 75 years, because short- and long-term outcomes can be acceptable and comparable with those of younger patients. Advanced age alone does not justify denying curative resection of lung cancer, but right-sided procedures require a careful pre- and postoperative approach. PMID:20308265

  9. Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenosides is a low molecular weight substance found in ginseng as one of the active ingredients. Ginsenosides, like other herbal medicines, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions including neuroprotective effects. The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is one of numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that exists as a heteropentameric form in auditory hair cells of the cochlea. In this study, we report the effects of ginsenosides on rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with acetylcholine evoked inward currents (IACh) in oocytes heterologously expressing the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Ginsenosides blocked IACh in order of potency of Rg3> Rb2> CK>Re = Rg2> Rf>Rc> Rb1> Rg1 with reversible manners, and the blocking effect of Rg3 on IACh was same after pre-application than co-application of Rg3. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Rg3 was 39.6 4.9 m. Rg3-induced IACh inhibition was not affected by acetylcholine concentration and was independent of membrane holding potential. Although the inhibitory effect of Rg3 on IACh was abolished in oocytes expressing ?9 subunit alone, indicating that the presence of ?10 subunit might be required for Rg3-induced regulations of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity. These results indicate that ?10 subunit of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor might play an important role in Rg3-induced regulation of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. PMID:23649337

  10. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. PMID:26690809

  11. Age-associated differences on structural brain MRI in nondemented individuals from 71 to 103 years.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixuan; Wen, Wei; Jiang, Jiyang; Crawford, John D; Reppermund, Simone; Levitan, Charlene; Slavin, Melissa J; Kochan, Nicole A; Richmond, Robyn L; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-04-01

    Successful brain aging in the oldest old (≥90 years) is underexplored. This study examined cross-sectional brain morphological differences from 8th to 11th decades of life in nondemented individuals by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Two hundred seventy-seven nondemented community-dwelling participants (71-103 years) from Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and Sydney Centenarian Study comprised the sample, including a subsample of 160 cognitively high-functioning elders. Relationships between age and magnetic resonance imaging-derived measurements were studied using general linear models; and structural profiles of the ≥90 years were delineated. In full sample and the subsample, significant linear negative relationship of gray matter with age was found, with the greatest age effects in the medial temporal lobe and parietal and occipital cortices. This pattern was further confirmed by comparing directly the ≥90 years to the 71-89 years groups. Significant quadratic age effects on total white matter and white matter hyperintensities were observed. Our study demonstrated heterogeneous differences across brain regions between the oldest old and young old, with an emphasis on hippocampus, temporoposterior cortex, and white matter hyperintensities. PMID:26973107

  12. Patients aged over 75 years enrolled in Phase I clinical trials: the Gustave Roussy experience.

    PubMed

    Helissey, Carole; Biondani, Pamela; Roquet, Florian; Lanoy, Emilie; Mir, Olivier; Varga, Andrea; Massard, Christophe; Gazzah, Anas; Ribrag, Vincent; Bahleda, Ratislav; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Angevin, Eric; Deutsch, Eric; Soria, Jean-Charles; Hollebecque, Antoine

    2016-02-15

    Although a third of all cancers are diagnosed after the age of 75, only 9% of elderly people are recruited in clinical trials, because of fear of the risk of toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare the tolerance and efficacy observed in Phase I trials among patients aged over 75 years with that observed in younger patients. Patients treated from 2007 to 2012 at Institut Gustave Roussy in Phase I trials were included. The conditional Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the occurrence of AE and overall survival in a subpopulation of elderly people (EP, aged >75 years) matched with patients aged <75 years (YP) according to the same Phase I protocol and the same Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) prognostic score. Among the 32 EP and the 158 YP, 63% and 61% experienced Grade 3-4 AEs and dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 6% and 11% in each group respectively. Age over 75 years was neither associated with a greater risk of high toxicity (HR=0.90 [CI95%, 0.47-1.70], p = 0.74) nor of death (HR=0.86; CI95%: 0.38-1.93; p = 0.71). Age over 75 years had no impact on the occurrence of either high toxicity or of death. PMID:26370299

  13. Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

  14. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jrn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 59 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 19811985 to 20012005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 59 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 59 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 09 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidentsespecially in children aged 59 years. PMID:26744840

  15. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  16. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  17. North Atlantic circulation and reservoir age changes over the past 41,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Joseph V.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2013-07-01

    on the timing of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes during the last deglaciation are fundamental to understanding the climate's rapid response to insolation forcing. However, uncertainty about high-latitude North Atlantic (HLNA) radiocarbon reservoir ages has previously precluded robust age model development for this critical region. HLNA reservoir ages also serve as a proxy for AMOC strength. We present regionally averaged HLNA reservoir ages for 0 to 41 thousand years before the present (kyr BP) based on over 500 radiocarbon dates from 33 North Atlantic cores. An early deglacial increase to >1000 14C yr reservoir ages between 18.5 and 16.5 kyr BP suggests reduced AMOC before peak Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) ice-rafted debris (IRD). A rapid decrease in reservoir ages coincident with the IRD maximum at 16 kyr BP indicates strong stratification of the upper water column caused by massive freshwater release.

  18. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  19. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had

  20. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students

  1. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N=243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3years of life for social and academic competence through age 32years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity

  2. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart

  3. Ten Year Follow-Up of Gap Balanced, Rotating Platform Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients Under 60 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason H; Barnett, Steven L; Patel, Jay J; Nassif, Nader A; Cummings, Dennis J; Gorab, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    68 patients (91 primary total knee arthroplasties) were evaluated at a mean 10-year, minimum 5year follow up in patients younger than sixty years of age utilizing the gap balanced, rotating platform design. Follow up assessment included implant survivorship, adverse events, x-rays, Knee Society rating system and clinical evaluation. Three revisions were performed with only one for aseptic loosening at 45months. Two manipulations were performed in the early postoperative period. Survivorship of the rotating platform, gap balanced knee was 96.7% using surgical revision for any reason and 98.9% using aseptic loosening as endpoints. The rotating platform design using the gap balancing technique in young patients had excellent survivorship at 10-year mean follow up. PMID:26297690

  4. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 38 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Ris, P; Moreno, L A; Molnr, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 38-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  5. [Bolsa Famlia: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flvia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nvea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paran. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Famlia Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly. PMID:24897200

  6. 15 CFR 9.10 - Coordination with State and local programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination with State and local... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.10 Coordination with State and local programs. The Department of Commerce will establish and maintain an...

  7. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Suchmore » cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.« less

  8. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic GenM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  9. Preparation and Evaluation of a Series of Alpha-Hydroxy Ethers from 9,10-Epoxystearates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several novel alpha-hydroxy ethers were synthesized by treatment of isobutyl 9,10-epoxystearate with a number of aliphatic alcohols in the presence of acid catalyst in good overall yield from oleic acid. The materials low temperature behavior was analyzed through cloud point and pour point determi...

  10. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  11. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  12. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  13. Photoreduction of 2-methyl-1-nitro-9,10-anthraquinone in the presence of 1-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Henry; Grner, Helmut

    2008-11-01

    The photoreactions of 1-nitro-9,10-anthraquinone (N1) and 2-methyl-1-nitro-9,10-anthraquinone (N2) were studied in benzene and acetonitrile in the presence of 1-phenylethanol. For N2, a short-lived 10 ns transient observed upon flash photolysis is attributed to a triplet state, which can be intercepted by 1-phenylethanol to form a monohydro radical of N2 and a spectroscopically not detectable donor-derived radical. The decay of radicals yields the corresponding nitroso compound and eventually 1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (A2) as photoproduct. The final reduction step requires participation of the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. The yield of radicals and the quantum yield (Phi(NH(2))) of conversion to A2 are small in inert solvents and increase with the donor concentration, approaching Phi(NH(2)) = 0.2. No triplet state was observed in the flash photolysis of N1, but a N1-derived radical and 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone (A1) as final products were found. Various mechanistic aspects of complete photoreduction of nitroarenes to aminoarenes are discussed. PMID:18958321

  14. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  15. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

  16. Prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors and treatment among women aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J K; Spangler, J G; Celestino, F S

    2000-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective review to evaluate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of 389 women aged 50 years or older at risk for osteoporosis in a large primary care practice. Records randomly selected from a computerized database were reviewed for drug history, age, height, weight, and osteoporosis-related diagnoses, symptoms, and risk factors. Among the 389 women, 255 (65.5%) were receiving bone-preserving treatment (247 estrogen replacement exclusively). Most (70.4%) were white, with an average age of 61 years, and an average of 3.3 risk factors for osteoporosis. Risk factors were postmenopausal status 94%, age 65 years or older 53%, hysterectomy 39%, cigarette smoking 33%, and physical inactivity 30%. By logistic regression, the only positive predictor of antiresorptive therapy was hysterectomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-4.14). Negative predictors were physical inactivity (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.71), rheumatoid arthritis (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79), and age 65 years and older (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86). Controlling for age, women with four or more risk factors were 62% less likely to be receiving antiresorptive treatment (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64) than those with fewer risk factors. PMID:10772371

  17. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%), rotavirus (18.1%) and norovirus (13.7%). The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%). V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%), while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21345186

  18. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  19. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading

  20. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  1. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (19591962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) IIII (19711994), and NHANES 19992008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 20052008 it had reversed and was ?0.33 years lower (95% CI?=??0.54, ?0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend?age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  2. Towards a Complete Census of Bright z~9-10 Galaxies from the CANDELS Program: The Volume Density and Physical Properties of Ultra-Bright Galaxies at z~9-10 and Possible Evidence for a Steepening of the UV LF to z>8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard John

    2015-08-01

    Over the last few years, enormous progress has been made in the study of galaxies at very high redshifts, thanks to the extraordinary capabilities of the HST WFC3/IR camera, the Spitzer/IRAC instrument, and both ultra-deep and wide areas programs. Already, more than 800 probable galaxies are known at z>~6, and now the current frontier is clearly at z>~9-10. While a good fraction of the interest over the last few years has been on ultra-faint galaxies at z~9-10, the discovery of a small number of ultra-bright galaxies at z~9-10 in late 2013 was initially surprising and has been equally noteworthy. In this presentation, I summarize what we have learned about the physical properties of these rare z~9-10 objects, from a search + HST follow-up program over the full CANDELS program, a measurement of their UV colors using deep Spitzer/IRAC data, and a quantification of their physical sizes. I also remark on some possible evidence for a steeper UV LF at z~9-10 by comparing the volume density of this bright population with the volume density of fainter z~9-10 galaxies.

  3. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5?mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4?oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ?2?hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72?hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value?=?0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (?16?hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ?70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%. PMID:23868556

  4. A two-centre study on facial morphology in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Bartzela, T N; Katsaros, C; Bronkhorst, E M; Rizell, S; Halazonetis, D; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare craniofacial morphology and soft tissue profiles in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate at 9 years of age, treated in two European cleft centres with delayed hard palate closure but different treatment protocols. The cephalometric data of 83 consecutively treated patients were compared (Gothenburg, N=44; Nijmegen, N=39). In total, 18 hard tissue and 10 soft tissue landmarks were digitized by one operator. To determine the intra-observer reliability 20 cephalograms were digitized twice with a monthly interval. Paired t-test, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression models were applied for statistical analysis. Hard and soft tissue data were superimposed using the Generalized Procrustes Analysis. In Nijmegen, the maxilla was protrusive for hard and soft tissue values (P=0.001, P=0.030, respectively) and the maxillary incisors were retroclined (P<0.001), influencing the nasolabial angle, which was increased in comparison with Gothenburg (P=0.004). In conclusion, both centres showed a favourable craniofacial form at 9-10 years of age, although there were significant differences in the maxillary prominence, the incisor inclination and soft tissue cephalometric values. Follow-up of these patients until facial growth has ceased, may elucidate components for outcome improvement. PMID:21474284

  5. Sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Lorrie; MacKay, Andrea P; Brown, Kathryn; Harrier, Sara; Ventura, Stephanie J; Kann, Laura; Rangel, Maria; Berman, Stuart; Dittus, Patricia; Liddon, Nicole; Markowitz, Lauri; Sternberg, Maya; Weinstock, Hillard; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Ryan, George

    2009-07-17

    This report presents data for 2002-2007 concerning the sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. Data were compiled from the National Vital Statistics System and multiple surveys and surveillance systems that monitor sexual and reproductive health outcomes into a single reference report that makes this information more easily accessible to policy makers, researchers, and program providers who are working to improve the reproductive health of young persons in the United States. The report addresses three primary topics: 1) current levels of risk behavior and health outcomes; 2) disparities by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and geographic residence; and 3) trends over time. The data presented in this report indicate that many young persons in the United States engage in sexual risk behavior and experience negative reproductive health outcomes. In 2004, approximately 745,000 pregnancies occurred among U.S. females aged <20 years. In 2006, approximately 22,000 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years in 33 states were living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and approximately 1 million adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years were reported to have chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. One-quarter of females aged 15-19 years and 45% of those aged 20-24 years had evidence of infection with human papillomavirus during 2003-2004, and approximately 105,000 females aged 10--24 years visited a hospital emergency department (ED) for a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004-2006. Although risks tend to increase with age, persons in the youngest age group (youths aged 10--14 years) also are affected. For example, among persons aged 10-14 years, 16,000 females became pregnant in 2004, nearly 18,000 males and females were reported to have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 2006, and 27,500 females visited a hospital ED because of a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004-2006. Noticeable disparities exist in the sexual and reproductive health of young persons in the United States. For example, pregnancy rates for female Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adolescents aged 15-19 years are much higher (132.8 and 128.0 per 1,000 population) than their non-Hispanic white peers (45.2 per 1,000 population). Non-Hispanic black young persons are more likely to be affected by AIDS: for example, black female adolescents aged 15-19 years were more likely to be living with AIDS (49.6 per 100,000 population) than Hispanic (12.2 per 100,000 population), American Indian/Alaska Native (2.6 per 100,000 population), non-Hispanic white (2.5 per 100,000 population) and Asian/Pacific Islander (1.3 per 100,000 population) adolescents. In 2006, among young persons aged 10-24 years, rates for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were highest among non-Hispanic blacks for all age groups. The southern states tend to have the highest rates of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including early pregnancy and STDs. Although the majority of negative outcomes have been declining for the past decade, the most recent data suggest that progress might be slowing, and certain negative sexual health outcomes are increasing. For example, birth rates among adolescents aged 15-19 years decreased annually during 1991-2005 but increased during 2005-2007, from 40.5 live births per 1,000 females in 2005 to 42.5 in 2007 (preliminary data). The annual rate of AIDS diagnoses reported among males aged 15-19 years has nearly doubled in the past 10 years, from 1.3 cases per 100,000 population in 1997 to 2.5 cases in 2006. Similarly, after decreasing for >20 years, gonorrhea infection rates among adolescents and young adults have leveled off or had modest fluctuations (e.g., rates among males aged 15-19 years ranged from 285.7 cases per 100,000 population in 2002 to 250.2 cases per 100,000 population in 2004 and then increased to 275.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2006), and rates for syphilis have been increasing (e.g., rates among females aged 15-19 years increased fro

  6. U.S. Health spending by age, selected years through 2004.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Micah; Catlin, Aaron; Lassman, David; Cylus, Jonathan; Heffler, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines variations in health spending by children, working-age adults, and seniors for selected years between 1987 and 2004. Seniors spent far more per person than children or working-age adults, but the relative gap between the age groups has not changed much since 1987 except for those age eighty-five and older. Since the inception of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, the proportion of children's health spending financed by public sources has increased, while the share paid for out of pocket has decreased. The future age-mix is expected to have a major impact on nursing home spending growth while minimally affecting overall Medicare spending growth. PMID:17986478

  7. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bgels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  8. Cementless total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis in patients aged 55 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Eskelinen, Antti; Paavolainen, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Background Cemented total hip arthroplasty has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with osteoarthritis. We analyzed survival rates of the most common cementless designs used in this age group in Finland. Patients and methods Inclusion criteria permitted 10,310 replacements (8 designs) performed in patients aged 55 years or older to be selected for evaluation. The risk of revision of each of the 8 implants was compared with that of a group comprising 3 cemented designs as the reference (9,549 replacements). Survival analyses were performed overall and separately for 3 age cohorts: 55–64 years (6,781 replacements), 65–74 years (8,821 replacements), and 75 years or older (4,257 replacements). Results In all patients aged 55 years or more, the Bi-Metric stem had a higher survival rate for aseptic loosening at 15 years than the cemented reference group: 96% (95% CI: 94–98) vs. 91% (CI: 90–92). However, the 15-year survival rates of the Bi-Metric/Press-Fit Universal (71% (CI: 67–75)) and the Anatomic Mesh/Harris-Galante II (72% (CI: 67–78)) total hip replacements were lower than that of the reference group (86% (CI: 84–87)). Information was scarce for patients aged 75 years or more. Interpretation Cementless proximal porous-coated stems are a good option for elderly patients. Even though biological fixation is a reliable fixation method in THA, polyethylene wear and osteolysis remain a serious problem for cementless cup designs with unplugged screw holes and low-quality liners. PMID:20180718

  9. Early Child Care and Adiposity at Ages 1 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Sara E.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Haines, Jess; Finkelstein, Jonathan; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The majority of infants in the United States are in non-parental child care, yet little is known about the effect of child care on development of obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between child care attendance from birth to 6 months and adiposity at 1 and 3 years of age. METHODS We studied 1138 children from a prospective cohort of pregnant women and their offspring. The main exposure was time in child care from birth to 6 months of age, overall and by type of care: (1) child care center; (2) someone else’s home; and (3) child’s own home by nonparent. The main outcomes were weight-for-length (WFL) z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age. RESULTS A total of 649 (57%) infants attended child care; 17% were cared for in a center, 27% in someone else’s home, and 21% in their own home by a nonparent. After adjustment for confounders, overall time in child care was associated with an increased WFL z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age but not skinfold thicknesses. Center and own home care were not associated with the outcomes, but care in someone else’s home was associated with an increase in both the 1- and 3-year outcomes. CONCLUSION Child care in the first 6 months of life, especially in someone else’s home, was associated with an increased WFL z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age. PMID:19651579

  10. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

  11. Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18 PMID:22828268

  12. H2D(+) observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Brnken, Sandra; Sipil, Olli; Chambers, Edward T; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E; Kami?ski, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Stutzki, Jrgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-11

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H(+)) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D(+) and para-H2D(+), have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D(+) is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D(+) emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H(+) work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D(+) clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years. PMID:25409140

  13. H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brnken, Sandra; Sipil, Olli; Chambers, Edward T.; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E.; Kami?ski, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M.; Stutzki, Jrgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H+) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D+ and para-H2D+, have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D+ is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D+ emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H+ work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D+ clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years.

  14. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  15. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  16. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  17. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (≥ 40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ≥ 40 years (n = 405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: < 30 y; II: 30–34 y; III: 35–39 y). Results: Pregnant women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ≥ 40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ≥ 40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ≥ 40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  18. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Outcomes in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia/Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients Aged ?70Years.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Karamjeet S; Brunstein, Claudio; DeFor, Todd; Bejanyan, Nelli; Arora, Mukta; Warlick, Erica; Weisdorf, Daniel; Ustun, Celalettin

    2016-02-01

    The maximum age of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) has been moving up over time. However, the availability of a suitable HLA-matched sibling donor may limit access of this patient population to alloHCT. We retrospectively investigated the outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) after reduced-intensity conditioning regimens in patients aged?70years with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) between 2010 and 2014. During this period 70 patients with AML/MDS were referred to our center for alloHCT consideration. Twenty-two patients (33%) received alloHCT: 10 UCBT, 9 HLA full-matched sibling donor transplantation, 2 haploidentical alloHCT, and 1 unrelated donor alloHCT. In UCBT, cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 20% and 30% at 2years, respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day+100 and chronic GVHD at 2years was 10%. Seven patients had viral reactivation/infections. Rates of overall survival and disease-free survival were 60% and 50% at 2years, respectively. Moreover, these outcomes seemed to be similar to that of patients aged 60 to 69years receiving UCBT (n=60) and patients aged?70years receiving HLA full-matched sibling donor transplantation (n=9). These results suggest that UCBT is feasible in selected AML/MDS patients aged ?70years. In fact, UCBT shortens the required time for an unrelated donor search and thus increases the chance of proceeding with alloHCT, which might contribute to higher rates of alloHCT in the referral group. Outcomes of UCBT are promising; however, larger studies with a longer follow-up are needed. PMID:26415559

  19. Screening for refractive errors at age 1 year: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Traynar, M J; Walker, C; Wilson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Cycloplegic refraction of 1-year-old children is technically possible and is acceptable to mothers as a method for screening children for visual defects. The range of refractions found in a sample of 186 1-year-old children is reported. Prediction of which children are significantly at risk for squint and/or amblyopia is possible on the basis of refractions at age 1 year according to the criteria selected for an 'abnormal' refraction. Bilateral hypermetropia and/or astigmatism or anisometropia at age 1 year was significantly (P less than 1 in 10 000) associated with a child eventually being found to have squint or amblyopia. Both the age of screening and criteria of abnormality will probably need modification. +2.50 or more D hypermetropia in any one meridian of either eye at age 1 year was even more significantly (P = 0.000 000 05%) associated with squint and/or amblyopia. The possibility that meridional hypermetropia could be the basic defect in squint and amblyopia is discussed. PMID:435441

  20. Changes of olfactory abilities in relation to age: odor identification in more than 1400 people aged 4 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, A; Schriever, V A; Gudziol, V; Hummel, C; Hhner, A; Iannilli, E; Sinding, C; Aziz, M; Seo, H S; Negoias, S; Hummel, T

    2015-08-01

    The currently presented large dataset (n = 1,422) consists of results that have been assembled over the last 8 years at science fairs using the 16-item odor identification part of the "Sniffin' Sticks". In this context, the focus was on olfactory function in children; in addition before testing, we asked participants to rate their olfactory abilities and the patency of the nasal airways. We reinvestigated some simple questions, e.g., differences in olfactory odor identification abilities in relation to age, sex, self-ratings of olfactory function and nasal patency. Three major results evolved: first, consistent with previously published reports, we found that identification scores of the youngest and the oldest participants were lower than the scores obtained by people aged 20-60. Second, we observed an age-related increase in the olfactory abilities of children. Moreover, the self-assessed olfactory abilities were related to actual performance in the smell test, but only in adults, and self-assessed nasal patency was not related to the "Sniffin' Sticks" identification score. PMID:25238811

  1. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940–1989

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people’s services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about ‘all age’ or ‘old age’ services and inform decision-making on future mental health services. PMID:26191440

  2. Children of birth weight less than 1000 g: changing outcome between ages 2 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, W H; Ford, G W; Rickards, A L; Lissenden, J V; Ryan, M M

    1987-02-01

    Of 55 consecutive long-term survivors of birth weight 500 to 999 g, complete psychologic and pediatric data were available for 54 children at 2 years corrected age and for 50 at age at least 5 1/2 years. At the latter age, 60% (30 of 50) were not impaired, 10% (five of 50) had severe sensorineural or intellectual impairments, 10% (five of 50) had mild to moderately impairment, and 20% (10 of 50) had minor neurobehavioural abnormalities. Sensorineural deafness in one child and bilateral blindness in one remained stable over time, but of six children with spastic cerebral palsy at 2 years, only three retained this diagnosis at 5 1/2 years. The mean Mental Developmental Index (MDI) on the Bayley Scales at 2 years was 91.1, significantly below the test mean; by 5 1/2 years the mean full scale of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI) was 101.8. The MDI correlated highly with the full-scale WPPSI (r = 0.7), but for individual children it was not always an accurate predictor of 5-year ability. Between 2 and 5 1/2 years there was a substantial reordering within four categories of impairment: findings in 27 children were improved, four were judged to become more severely impaired over time, and 19 did not change. We conclude that our 2-year assessment often underrated the potential of the children as expressed at 5 1/2 years, and that 2 years is too early for reliable classification of children of birth weight 500 to 999 g. PMID:2433422

  3. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infants hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the childs neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

  4. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening in US Seniors Ages 76-84 Years.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Shapiro, Jean A; Kobrin, Sarah; Nadel, Marion R; Zapka, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends patient-physician discussions about the appropriateness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among adults ages 76-84 years who have never been screened. In this study, we used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine patterns of CRC screening and provider recommendation among seniors ages 76-84 years, and made some comparisons to younger adults. Nationally-representative samples of 1379 adults ages 76-84 years and 8797 adults ages 50-75 years responded to questions about CRC screening status, receipt of provider recommendation, and discussion of test options; 22.7% (95% CI 20.1-25.3) of seniors ages 76-84 had never been tested for CRC and therefore were not up-to-date with guidelines; 3.9% (95% CI 2.0-7.6) of these individuals reported a recent provider recommendation for screening. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of never having been tested was significantly greater for seniors of other/multiple race or Hispanic ethnicity; with high school or less education; without private health insurance coverage; who had ? 1 doctor visit in the past year; without recent screening for breast, cervical, or prostate cancer; with no or unknown CRC family history; or with ? 1 chronic disease. Among the minority of respondents ages 50-75 and 76-84 reporting a provider recommendation, 73.2% indicated that the provider recommended particular tests, which was overwhelmingly colonoscopy (? 89 %). Nearly one-quarter of adults 76-84 have never been screened for CRC, and rates of provider recommendation in this group are very low. Greater attention to informed CRC screening discussions with screening-eligible seniors is needed. PMID:25716518

  6. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  7. Abnormal sensory reactivity in preterm infants during the first year correlates with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Chorna, Olena; Solomon, Jessica E; Slaughter, James C; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensory experience is the basis for learning in infancy. In older children, abnormal sensory reactivity is associated with behavioural and developmental disorders. We hypothesised that in preterm infants, abnormal sensory reactivity during infancy would be associated with perinatal characteristics and correlate with 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of infants with birth weight ≤1500 g using the Test of Sensory Function in Infants (TSFI) in the first year. Infants with gestational age ≤30 weeks were tested with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID III) at 24 months. Results Of the 72 participants evaluated at 4–12 months corrected age (median 8 months), 59 (82%) had a least one TSFI score concerning for abnormal sensory reactivity. Lower gestational age was associated with abnormal reactivity to deep pressure and vestibular stimulation (p<0.001). Poor ocular-motor control predicted worse cognitive and motor scores in early childhood (OR 16.7; p=0.004), but was tightly correlated to the presence of severe white matter injury. Poor adaptive motor function in response to tactile stimuli predicted worse BSID III motor (p=0.01) and language scores (p=0.04) at 2 years, even after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Abnormal sensory reactivity is common in preterm infants; is associated with immaturity at birth, severe white matter injury and lower primary caregiver education; and predicts neurodevelopmental delays. Early identification of abnormal sensory reactivity of very preterm infants may promote parental support and education and may facilitate improved neurodevelopment. PMID:25053637

  8. Subergorgiaols A-L, 9,10-secosteroids from the South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia rubra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Ping; Cao, Fei; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Min; Liu, Hai-Juan; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Twelve new 9,10-secosteroids designated as subergorgiaols A-L (1-12), along with four known analogues (13-16), were isolated from the gorgonian Subergorgia rubra collected from the South China Sea. Their planar structures and the relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by a dimolybdenum tetraacetate [Mo2(AcO)4] induced circular dichroism (ICD) procedure and the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-12 represent the first series of 9,10-secosteroids characterized with a hydroxy group at C-8, which are 8-OH derivatives of astrogorgiadiols/calicoferols. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against the cervical carcinoma cell line (CaSki) with an IC50 value of 2.4 ?M, and 6 showed toxicity toward brine shrimp Artemia salina with an LC50 value of 2.0 ?M. PMID:25528195

  9. Mediated oxygen reduction at a glassy carbon electrode modified with riboflavin and 9,10-anthraquinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manisankar, Paramasivam; Gomathi, Anandhan

    The electrocatalytic ability for oxygen reduction of a glassy carbon electrode modified with riboflavin and 9,10-anthraquinones (AQNE) is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry techniques. The stability of the modified electrodes is investigated in both acidic and neutral media. The influence of pH on the shift in the oxygen reduction potential and the enhancement in peak current leads to the selection of pH 7.0 as the optimum working value. Combined mediation of 9,10-anthraquinones and riboflavin results in overpotentials that are 592-729 mV lower than that for a plain glassy carbon electrode for reduction of O 2 to H 2O 2. The involvement of two electrons in oxygen reduction is confirmed from chronocoulometric and hydrodynamic voltammetric studies. The heterogeneous rate constants, mass specific current (MSC) and the diffusion coefficients are determined by rotating disc voltammetry.

  10. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs. PMID:24700381

  11. Complexation and fluorescence behavior of 9,10-bis[bis(beta-hydroxyethyl)aminomethyl]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Kubo, K; Sakurai, T; Mori, A

    1999-08-23

    9,10-Bis[bis(beta-hydroxyethyl)aminomethyl]anthracene (1) showed weak emission, suggesting that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from amine group to excited anthracene occur. The PET fluoroionophore (1) was found to display unique photophysical properties in the presence of the guest metal cations in H(2)OCH(3)OH (1:1, v/v). Complexation of 1 with guest metal cations increased the fluorescence intensity. PMID:18967696

  12. Fluorescent PET probes based on perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetraesters.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Rajeev K; Knorr, Gergely; Westerveld, Nick; Jager, Wolter F

    2016-01-27

    Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetraester-based fluorescent PET probes with aniline receptors attached either at the peri- or the bay-positions have been synthesized. By attaching aniline receptors at the bay position, pH-sensitive "light-up" probes, with fluorescence quantum yields ΦF > 0.75 and fluorescent enhancements FE > 500 in ethanol, have been obtained. PMID:26740333

  13. Work Satisfaction and Retirement Plans of Orthopaedic Surgeons 50 Years of Age and Older

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jeffrey; Watkins-Castillo, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Retirement age and practice patterns before retirement are important for making accurate workforce predictions for orthopaedic surgeons. A survey of orthopaedic surgeons 50 years of age and older therefore was conducted by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in cooperation with the Association of American Medical Colleges Center for Workforce Studies. The survey focused on three questions: (1) At what age do orthopaedic surgeons retire? (2) Do they stop working abruptly or do they work part time before retirement? (3) What are the major factors that determine when an orthopaedic surgeon retires? According to the survey, the median retirement age for orthopaedic surgeons was 65 years. Nineteen percent of orthopaedic surgeons worked part time before retirement. Decreasing reimbursement and increasing malpractice costs were consistently cited as factors that strongly influenced retirement plans. Career satisfaction was high and was the strongest factor that kept the respondents in the workforce. The option to work part time would have the most impact on keeping orthopaedic surgeons working past the age of 65 years. Level of Evidence: Level IV Economic and Decision Analyses. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196399

  14. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  15. Photochemical Conversion of Phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazoles into ?-Expanded Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Skonieczny, Kamil; Gryko, Daniel T

    2015-06-01

    We discovered that phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazoles bearing a 2-halogenoaryl substituent at position 2 undergo swift photochemically driven direct arylation, leading to barely known phenanthro[9',10':4,5]imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridines. The reaction is high-yielding, and it does not require any sensitizer or base. The discovered process is tolerant of a variety of substituents present both at positions 1 and 2; i.e., strongly electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents are tolerated as well as various heterocyclic units. Steric hindrance does not affect this process. The evidence gathered here indicates that SRN1 mechanism is operating in this case with the formation of radical anion as a critical step, followed by heterolytic cleavage of a carbon-halogen bond. Also TfO groups were shown to undergo cyclization, which allows the use of salicylaldehydes in the construction of heterocyclic systems. Efficiency of this photochemically driven direct arylation has been demonstrated by the synthesis of two systems possessing 13 and 17 conjugated rings, respectively. Phenanthro[9',10':4,5]imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridines are blue-emitters, and they exhibit strong fluorescence in solution and in the solid state in direct contrast to their precursors. PMID:25938658

  16. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study

    PubMed Central

    Hfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Womens higher level of social development at onset is associated with a better medium-term functional and social outcome. Prodromal schizophrenia and depression are equal in length and diagnostically distinguishable only after the onset of positive symptoms. The sex difference in age at onset, invariable across cultures and ethnicities, is explained by a protective effect of oestrogen, which down-regulates D2 receptors. A higher genetic load antagonizes this effect. Long-term symptom-related illness course exhibits a plateau after three years, the positive symptom dimension after two years, the depressive and the negative dimensions do so after three to five years. The most prevalent symptom is depressive mood. Male first episodes are more frequent and more severe in the first half of life, female ones in the second half. Aetiological conclusions will be drawn. PMID:26110118

  17. Operative treatment of developmental hip dysplasia in children aged over 8 years.

    PubMed

    Ok, In-Young; Kim, Seok-Jung; Ok, Ji-Hoon

    2007-07-01

    Nine patients aged over 8 years with developmental dislocation of the hip were treated by an open reduction, femoral shortening and varus derotation osteotomy with or without a Chiari osteotomy. The mean age of the patients was 11.1 years (range 8-17 years), and the mean follow-up period was 7.1 years (range 1-13 years). The left hip was involved in four cases: the right in three and two cases were bilateral. One hip redislocated. The remaining patients recovered nearly full movement of the affected hip. Five out of eight patients had a normal gait without limping or pain. Two others limped secondary to a leg-length discrepancy, which was corrected with leg equalization. The remaining patient had an improvement of her preoperative limp and was pain-free. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain good hip function after open reduction of a developmentally dislocated hip, even after the age of 8 years. PMID:17527102

  18. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-06-22

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Women's higher level of social development at onset is associated with a better medium-term functional and social outcome. Prodromal schizophrenia and depression are equal in length and diagnostically distinguishable only after the onset of positive symptoms. The sex difference in age at onset, invariable across cultures and ethnicities, is explained by a protective effect of oestrogen, which down-regulates D2 receptors. A higher genetic load antagonizes this effect. Long-term symptom-related illness course exhibits a plateau after three years, the positive symptom dimension after two years, the depressive and the negative dimensions do so after three to five years. The most prevalent symptom is depressive mood. Male first episodes are more frequent and more severe in the first half of life, female ones in the second half. Aetiological conclusions will be drawn. PMID:26110118

  19. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  20. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  1. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  2. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  3. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  4. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus

  5. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to

  6. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a

  7. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  9. Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Saayman, Gert

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fatal injuries in children has been reported to be highest among children aged 1 to 4 years. Major causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, falls, and intentional or inflicted injury (such as nonaccidental injury syndrome). This study reviewed the profile of children (under 5 years of age) who had been admitted to a large urban medicolegal mortuary (in Pretoria, the capital city of South Africa), after having suffered fatal head injuries. This study was conducted over a 5-year period (from January 2004 through December 2008), and a total of 107 cases were identified for inclusion. These cases constituted nearly a fifth of admissions in this age group. The male-to-female ratio was 56%:44%, and the peak age of injury was less than 1 year. Most head injuries were sustained in road traffic accidents (70%) followed by falls (10%) and other types of blunt force injuries (9%). Only 1 case of nonaccidental injury syndrome (child abuse) was found. The great majority of deaths were deemed to have been accidental in nature (91%) with 6 (6%) homicides. Urgent review pertaining to the use of child restraint devices and the safety of pedestrians is required, and the institution of childhood injury registers could aid in reducing childhood fatalities in South Africa. PMID:25072811

  10. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  11. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants

  12. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  13. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  14. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the

  15. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153

  17. Prediction of amblyopia and squint by means of refraction at age 1 year.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R. M.; Walker, C.; Wilson, J. M.; Arnold, P. E.; Dally, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this series amblyopia, uncorrectable by spectacles and occlusion, was highly likely (48%) if a child had +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia at age 1 year. 45% of children with this refraction also had a squint. All those who remained with severely defective acuity in spite of treatment had either +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia or 4 or more dioptres of meridional myopia at age 1 year. These children were identifiable in the 3.7% of the population at age 1 year who showed high refractive errors. Squint as such was not so accurately predictable. Of those children with squint 71% had less than +3.50 dioptres of meridional hypermetropia at age 1 year--an incidence of 4.4% of the population. Apart from two 'congenital myopes' only 16% of these had residual amblyopia after treatment, and their last known acuity was never less than 6/12. Astigmatism in infancy or later is not significantly associated with squint or amblyopia. PMID:3947594

  18. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])

  19. Review of 125 Children 6 Years of Age and under Who Were Sexually Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mian, Marcellina; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a chart review of 125 children referred in 1981-1983 because of sexual abuse. Among findings were that 60 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. Of the preschoolers, 72.5 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. At school age there was a reversal with 73 percent of 6-year-olds being abused by extrafamilial offenders.

  20. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the

  1. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats ...

  2. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  3. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  4. Nonfatal scald-related burns among adults aged >/=65 years--United States, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-09-18

    Scalds, which are burns attributed to hot liquids or steam, account for 33%-58% of all patients hospitalized for burns in the United States. Adults aged >/=65 years have a worse prognosis than younger patients after scald burns because of age-related factors and comorbid medical conditions, and they are subject to more extensive medical treatment than younger adults. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for nonfatal scald burns among U.S. adults aged >/=65 years and describe their characteristics, CDC analyzed ED visit data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for 2001-2006. This report summarizes the results, which indicated that adults aged =65 years made an estimated 51,700 initial visits to EDs for nonfatal scald burns during 2001-2006, for an average of 8,620 visits per year and an estimated average annual rate of 23.8 visits per 100,000 population. Two thirds of visits were made by women. Most (76%) of the nonfatal scald injuries occurred at home; 42% were associated with hot food and 30% with hot water or steam. The findings in this report highlight the need for effective scald-prevention programs targeted to older persons. PMID:19763074

  5. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which

  6. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  7. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45years, females aged 27 to 45years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs and patients beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  8. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  9. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

  10. Changes in astigmatism between the ages of 1 and 4 years: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, M.; Fabian, G.; Sjstrand, J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in astigmatism during development were studied in 299 infants with astigmatism as they grew from 1 to 4 years of age. All consecutive cases of 1-year-old infants with an astigmatism of 1.0 D or more in at least one eye found at an ophthalmic screening survey were selected for follow-up. The cycloplegic refraction was longitudinally followed at yearly intervals. During development there was no decrease in the degree of hypermetropia, but there was a significant decrease in the incidence and amount of astigmatism during the test period. The most pronounced decrease in magnitude and incidence of astigmatism occurred between the first and second year of life. The majority of astigmatic eyes of the 1-year-old infants had a horizontal curvature greater than the vertical (plus cylinder axis of 180 degrees), and no changes of the axis of the astigmatism were noted during the following years. PMID:3349015

  11. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engstrm, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  12. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21?years of age.

    PubMed

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21?years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the "High-DLS" group gained approximately 12?years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the "Low-DLS" group's daily living skills improved 3-4?years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2?years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20?h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:25922445

  13. Number word use in toddlerhood is associated with number recall performance at seven years of age.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20-26 months and started to produce the number words 1-10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  14. Number Word Use in Toddlerhood Is Associated with Number Recall Performance at Seven Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 2026 months and started to produce the number words 110 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  15. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (P<0.001) and all three respiratory symptoms (P<0.001) after adjusting for smoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  16. Dietary fluoride intake of children aged 3-7 years in remote areas of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuckpaiwong, S; Nakornchai, S; Surarit, R; Soo-ampon, S

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure dietary fluoride intake in children aged 3-7 years, to correlate dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water for use in schools and to estimate fluoride gained from the daily diet. Fifty food samples were collected in 45 schools under the jurisdiction of the Border Patrol Police Department. The schools were sampled by multiple stratified cluster random sampling. The food samples were weighed, then measured for fluoride content by a microdiffusion method. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary fluoride in each age group was compared by Student's t test. Analysis for the relationship between dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water was done using Kendall's tau-b. Our results showed that the mean of dietary fluoride in lunch was 0.08 +/- 0.1 ppm. There were no differences when comparing dietary fluoride between different regions of Thailand (p = 0.07). No correlation was found between dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water used in different schools (r(tau) = 0.017, p = 0.85). The daily dietary fluoride intake in children aged 3-6 years was 0.002-0.004 mgF/kg bw/day, in children aged 7 years was 0.003-0.004 mgF/kg bw/day in boys and 0.002-0.004 mgF/kg bw/day in girls. PMID:11289025

  17. Clinical presentation in patients more than 80 years of age at the start of peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Keita; Inoue, Tsutomu; Kojima, Eriko; Sato, Takahiko; Tsuda, Masahiro; Kikuta, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Takane, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    The age of new dialysis patients is rapidly increasing. In the present study, we examined clinical presentation in new peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients 80 years of age or older at our hospital. Data were collected from the records of patients newly starting continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) therapy between January 2005 and July 2010. During that period, 11 patients 80 years of age or older (average age: 83.1 +/- 3.8 years) were introduced to PD therapy. The reason for dialysis was hypertensive nephrosclerosis in 8 patients, and chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and an unknown primary disease in 1 patient each; there were no cases of diabetic nephropathy. At dialysis start, average serum creatinine was 6.1 +/- 1.4 mg/dL, arterial wall calcification was found by computed tomography or chest radiography in 10 of 11 patients (90.9%), and aortic or mitral valve calcification, or both, was found by echocardiography in 3 patients (27.3%). By the end of January 2011, 8 patients had died. Average survival after the start of PD was 31.9 +/- 22.3 months. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis, a cause less often seen in younger patients, was the most common primary disease among our elderly dialysis patients. As we previously reported, vascular and valvular calcification are important factors for determining prognosis; however, no significant relationships were observed in the present study, probably because almost all the patients had such calcifications. PMID:22073833

  18. Laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair on patients over 75 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this prospective study, we aimed at comparing the laparoscopic and conventional open inguinal hernia repair procedures in the population over 75 years of age. Materials and methods: The medical data of 108 patients over 75 years of age who presented with inguinal hernia and underwent surgical treatment between July 2008 and December 2012 in Safa Hospital, General Surgery Department were prospectively recorded. Results: The mean age of patients in the open procedure group (n=75) and in the laparoscopic group (n=33) was 82 and 81 years, respectively. The mean American Society of Anaesthesiologists score was 2-7 in the open group and 2-4 in the laparoscopic group (P<0.005). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to perioperative complications. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Similar to the outcome of open procedure, laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair can safely be performed without an increase in morbidity and mortality in the advanced age population. PMID:26309692

  19. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  20. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  1. Estimated Effect of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Examiner-Rated Behavior at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Mansoor, Elana; Johnson, Arnise L.; McCoy, Clyde B.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to increased child behavior difficulties in some studies but not others. Objective The primary aim was to estimate the relationship between in utero cocaine exposure and child behavioral functioning at age 7 years with ratings made by blinded examiners during a structured testing session. A second aim was to examine whether caregiver drug use and psychological problems might mediate suspected relationships between prenatal cocaine exposure and aspects of examiner-rated behavior. Methods 407 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 195 non-exposed) participating in the longitudinal Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study (MPCS) were rated with regard to their behavior during a neuropsychological assessment conducted at age 7 years. Raters were trained research psychometricians blinded to drug exposure. Individual behavioral items were summarized and the cocaine-behavior relationship was estimated within the context of latent variable modeling, using Mplus software. Results Two latent variables, Behavioral Regulation and Sociability, were derived via exploratory latent structure analysis with promax rotation. Prenatal cocaine exposure, statistically controlling for child sex, test age, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, was associated with Behavioral Regulation (estimated slope = -0.25; 95% CI = -0.48, -0.02; p = 0.04) but not Sociability (estimated slope = -0.03; 95% CI = -0.26, 0.20; p = 0.79). Neither postnatal drug use by caregivers nor the severity of their psychological problems at age 5 follow-up predicted levels of child Behavioral Regulation or Sociability at age 7 years (p>0.10). Conclusions Examiner ratings of child behavior at age 7 revealed less optimal behavioral regulation for prenatally cocaine-exposed compared to non-exposed children, in contrast with what had been previously found from parent-report data. This evidence highlights the potential value of trained observers in assessing behavioral outcomes of children exposed in utero to drugs and other toxicants. PMID:21640292

  2. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Golley, Rebecca K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brazionis, Laima; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Lynch, John W

    2012-07-01

    Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years. PMID:22810299

  4. Environmental Exposure to Metals and Children's Growth to Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grandr, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Vahter, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 20012009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were ?0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.60, ?0.06) for high (?95th percentile) arsenic exposure and ?0.57 kg (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (?5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were ?0.50 cm (95% CI: ?1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and ?1.6 cm (95% CI: ?2.4, ?0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (?0.67 kg, 95% CI: ?0.82, ?0.53) and height (?1.3 cm, 95% CI: ?1.7, ?0.89). PMID:23676282

  5. Prevalence of Obesity and Extreme Obesity in Children Aged Three to Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Lo MD, Joan C.; Maring, Benjamin; Chandra, Malini; Daniels, Stephen R.; Sinaiko, Alan; Daley, Matthew F.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Kharbanda, Elyse O.; Parker, Emily D.; Adams, Kenneth F.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Magid, David J.; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Greenspan, Louise C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood adiposity may have significant later health effects. This study examines the prevalence and recognition of obesity and severe obesity among preschool-aged children. Methods The electronic medical record was used to examine body mass index (BMI), height, sex and race/ethnicity in 42,559 children aged 3-5 years between 2007-2010. Normal or underweight (BMI<85th percentile); overweight (BMI 85th-94th percentile); obesity (BMI?95th percentile); and severe obesity (BMI?1.295th percentile) were classified using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Provider recognition of elevated BMI was examined for obese children aged 5 years. Results Among 42,559 children, 12.4% of boys and 10.0% of girls had BMI ?95th percentile. The prevalence was highest among Hispanics (18.2% boys, 15.2% girls), followed by blacks (12.4% boys, 12.7% girls). A positive trend existed between increasing BMI category and median height percentile, with obesity rates highest in the highest height quintile. The prevalence of severe obesity was 1.6% overall and somewhat higher for boys compared to girls (1.9% versus 1.4%, p<0.01). By race/ethnicity, the highest prevalence of severe obesity was seen in Hispanic boys (3.3%). Among those aged 5 years, 77.9% of obese children had provider diagnosis of obesity or elevated BMI, increasing to 89.0% for the subset with severe obesity. Conclusions Obesity and severe obesity are evident as early as age 3-5 years, with race/ethnic trends similar to older children. This study underscores the need for continued recognition and contextualization of early childhood obesity in order to develop effective strategies for early weight management. PMID:23677690

  6. Association between umbilical cord glucocorticoids and blood pressure at age 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Andrew, Ruth; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and 'programs' hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11?-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Methods Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11?-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. Results At age 3 years, each unit increase in the F/E ratio was associated with a 1.6 mm Hg increase in systolic BP (95% CI 0.0 to 3.1). The F/E ratio was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or birth weight for gestational age z-score. Conclusion A higher F/E ratio in umbilical venous cord blood, likely reflecting reduced placental 11?-HSD2 activity, was associated with higher systolic blood pressure at age 3 years. Our data suggest that increased fetal exposure to active maternal glucocorticoids may program later systolic blood pressure. PMID:18755017

  7. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  8. Reproducing ten years of road ageing--accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik; Arm, Maria; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Reuse of industrial aggregates is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This paper proposes a laboratory method for accelerated ageing of steel slag, to predict environmental and technical properties, starting from fresh slag. Ageing processes in a 10-year old asphalt road with steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type in the subbase were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leaching tests. Samples from the road centre and the pavement edge were compared with each other and with samples of fresh slag. It was found that slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas the road centre material was nearly identical to fresh slag, in spite of an accessible particle structure. Batches of moisturized road centre material exposed to oxygen, nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2) were used for accelerated ageing. Time (7-14 days), temperature (20-40 degrees C) and initial slag moisture content (8-20%) were varied to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. After ageing, water was added to assess leaching of metals and macroelements. 12% moisture, CO2 and seven days at 40 degrees C gave the lowest pH value. This also reproduced the observed ageing effect for Ca, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ca (decreased leaching) and for V, Si, and Al (increased leaching). However, ageing effects on SO4, DOC and Cr were not reproduced. PMID:19539979

  9. Association of Birth Weight With Asthma-Related Outcomes at Age 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R.; Weiss, Scott T.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2006-01-01

    Summary. Background: Although lower birth weight associated with prematurity raises the risk of asthma in childhood, few prospective studies have examined higher birth weight, and few have separated the two components of birth weight, fetal growth and length of gestation. Objective. To examine the associations of fetal growth and length of gestation with asthma-related outcomes by age 2 years. Methods. We studied 1,372 infants and toddlers born after 34 weeks gestation in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant mothers and their children. The main outcome measures were parent report of (1) any wheezing (or whistling in the chest) from birth to age 2 years, (2) recurrent wheezing during the first 2 years of life, and (3) doctors diagnosis of asthma, wheeze or reactive airwaydisease (asthma) by age 2. We calculated gestational age from the last menstrual period or ultrasound examination, and determined birth weight for gestational age z-value (fetal growth) using US national reference data. Results. Infants mean birth weight was 3,527 (SD, 517; range, 1,5595,528) grams. By age 2 years, 34% of children had any wheezing, 14% had recurrent wheezing, and 16% had doctor-diagnosed asthma. After adjusting for several parent, child, and household characteristics in logistic regression models, we found that infants with birth weight ?4,000 g were not more likely to have any wheezing (odds ratio (OR), 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.34) or doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.31) than infants with birth weight 3,5003,999 g. In models examining length of gestation and fetal growth separately, neither the highest nor the lowest groups of either predictor were associated with the three outcomes. Boys had a higher incidence of asthma-related outcomes than girls, and exposure to passive smoking, parental history of asthma, and exposure to older siblings were all associated with greater risk of recurrent wheeze or asthma-related outcomes at age 2 years. Conclusion. Although male sex, exposure to smoking, parental history of asthma, and exposure to older siblingswere associated with increased riskof wheezing and asthma-related outcomes in this prospective study of children born after 34 weeks gestation, fetal growth and length of gestation were not. PMID:16703577

  10. Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years--Baghdad, Iraq, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, Iraq's parliament ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which obligates participants to establish tobacco use monitoring, surveillance, and evaluation systems. Lack of data on adolescent tobacco use in Iraq led the Ministry of Health (MOH) to conduct the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Baghdad in 2008. GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13--15 years that is self-administered in classes in selected schools. As in most Middle East countries, tobacco use in Iraq takes the form of cigarettes and shisha. Based on GYTS results, 7.4% of students aged 13--15 years reported having ever smoked cigarettes, 12.9% had ever smoked shisha, 3.2% currently smoked cigarettes, and 6.3% currently smoked shisha. Among never smokers aged 13--15 years, 13.0% reported they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking in the next year. Future declines in adolescent tobacco use in Iraq (and Baghdad) could be enhanced by expanding existing tobacco control programs to include prevention and cessation of the use of cigarettes and shisha, implementing measures that discourage adolescents who have never smoked from initiating tobacco use, expanding legislation to ban exposure to secondhand smoke in all indoor workplaces, and enacting legislation banning pro-tobacco advertising and sponsorship. PMID:19343010

  11. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ?30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  12. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65–100 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-01-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS). We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion. Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65–100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  13. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100?years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmsthl, Slve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgrd, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100?years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  14. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kap?on, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 age (years) + 0.55 workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 age (years) + 0.48 workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not. PMID:26683975

  15. Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index Scores at Age 18 Predict Alcohol Dependence Diagnoses Seven Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Aliev, Fazil; Viken, Richard; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) is widely used to assess adolescent drinking-related problems. We asked how well RAPI, administered in late adolescence, predicts alcohol diagnoses at age 25 in a 7-year follow-up. Methods At age 18, a population-based sample of Finnish twins completed RAPI by postal questionnaire; 597 (300 male) twins, from pairs discordant and concordant for age 18 RAPI scores, were interviewed at age 25 with the SSAGA, yielding DSM-IIIR diagnoses. Polychoric correlations between RAPI and alcohol diagnoses and symptoms, the area under the response operator characteristic (ROC) curve, and the odds ratio of outcome diagnosis per unit change in adolescent RAPI were analysed. Twin pairs discordant for both adolescent RAPI and adult diagnoses permitted within-family replications for the full sample and separately by sex. Results Nearly half the interviewed twins met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependency (46.2%) or abuse (1.5%). Age 18 RAPI scores significantly correlated with diagnoses (0.52) and symptom counts (0.55). ROC analysis found a 74% probability that adolescent RAPI scores will be higher among those with an alcohol diagnosis at age 25 than for those without. The odds ratio of outcome alcohol diagnosis per unit increase in adolescent 18 RAPI exceeded 10.0. Within-family comparisons of 117 twin pairs discordant for both age 18 RAPI and age 25 alcohol diagnoses replicated the between-family associations. In both between-family and within-family analyses, RAPI was more predictive of alcohol diagnoses among females. Conclusions Our results offer evidence, including that from informative comparisons of co-twins discordant for both predictor and outcome, that RAPI scores in late adolescence robustly predict alcohol diagnoses in early adulthood. Accordingly, our results also provide new evidence that one pathway to problem drinking in early adulthood is a direct one from problem drinking in adolescence. PMID:21323682

  16. Intercorrelation of Electronic, Structural, and Morphological Properties in Nanorods of 2,3,9,10-Tetrafluoropentacene.

    PubMed

    Savu, Sabine-A; Sonstrm, Andrea; Bula, Rafael; Bettinger, Holger F; Chass, Thomas; Casu, M Benedetta

    2015-09-01

    We evidence the intercorrelation of electronic, structural, and morphological properties in nanorods of a substituted fluorine-based pentacene, 2,3,9,10-tetrafluoropentacene, deposited on gold single crystals by using photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations. Our investigations show changes in the XPS spectroscopy lines, and NEXAFS features correlate with the specific structure of the assemblies and their morphology. Consequently, the chemical structure affects not only the molecular electronic structure and the way the molecules assemble in a film but also the film morphology leading to specific thin film electronic properties. PMID:26287576

  17. Probing solute{endash}solvent electrostatic interactions: Rotational diffusion studies of 9,10-disubstituted anthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, R.S.; Konitsky, W.M.; Waldeck, D.H.; Chang, Y.J.; Castner, E.W., Jr.

    1997-05-01

    The rotational diffusion of 9,10-disubstituted anthracenes is studied in various solvents. By systematic variation of the anthracene functionalities the influence of the electrostatic properties of the solute on the solute{endash}solvent frictional coupling is investigated. These studies explore the range of validity of continuum based dielectric friction models for describing the frictional coupling. It is found that a continuum model of the solvent with an extended charge distribution for the solute is adequate in unassociated solvents, but does not adequately describe the friction in the associated solvent, benzyl alcohol. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity. PMID:26429780

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine when administered to healthy Japanese adults aged ?50 years

    PubMed Central

    Shiramoto, Masanari; Irie, Shin; Juergens, Christine; Yamaji, Masako; Tamai, Satoshi; Aizawa, Masakazu; Belanger, Todd; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2014-01-01

    This open-label study was designed to assess immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) when administered to Japanese adults aged ?50 years not previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and to compare this Japanese study population with similar study populations in the United States (US; 5064 years age group) and European Union (EU; ?65 years age group). Functional antibody immune responses were measured by opsonophagocytic activity assays. Immune responses in both Japanese age groups showed significant pre/postvaccination fold rises for each serotype. In the Japanese 5064 years age group, immune responses for the majority of serotypes were significantly lower than in the ?65 years Japanese age group and generally lower than in the 5064 years age group in the US study. Immune responses in the Japanese ?65 years age group were significantly higher for the majority of serotypes compared with the ?65 years age group in the EU study. The safety profiles across age groups and studies were generally similar. In conclusion, PCV13 elicited robust immune responses in the Japanese study population. The unanticipated higher immune responses observed in the older age group in the Japanese study are of interest and of potential benefit given the higher incidence of pneumococcal disease in older adults. PCV13 was well tolerated and safe. PMID:25424792

  20. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  1. Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, In Hyeok; Jung, Ki Jin; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ?50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p?=?0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p?age (p?=?0.002) was the only significant factor associated with the presence of back pain. Musculoskeletal pain was not affected by or associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected body part in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years after adjusting for the degree of osteoarthritis. PMID:25288023

  2. Obesity and Survival to Age 85 Years without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Seguin, Rebecca; Bell, Christina L.; Gass, Margery; Manini, Todd M.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Context The impact of obesity on late-age survival without disease or disability in women is unknown. Objective To investigate if higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affects womens survival to age 85 years without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. Design, Setting, Participants Examination of 36,611 women from the Womens Health Initiative who could have reached age 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US Clinical Centers from October 1993December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Mutually-exclusive classifications: 1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (healthy); 2) survived with ?1 major chronic disease at baseline, but without new disease or disability (prevalent diseased); 3) survived and developed ?1 major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (incident diseased); 4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (disabled); and 5) did not survive (died). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range: 6681). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19%, 15%, 23%, 18%, and 25%, respectively. Compared to normal-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before age 85 years. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to normal-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mobility disability was 1.6 (1.51.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.93.6), 6.6 (5.48.1), and 6.7 (4.89.2), for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference >88 centimeters was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. Conclusions Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before age 85 years in older women. PMID:24217806

  3. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada-Del Cid, Nancy C; Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Ordoez-Rivas, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric ocular trauma is common and the leading cause of non congenital unilateral blindness. The information in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this case series is to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age who visited Hospital Dr. Rodolfo Robles Valverde in Guatemala City in 2010. In this study 119 patients were included. School-aged (7-9 years) male gender was the most affected. Closed globe injury was the commonest. The most frequent objects causing the lesions were: wooden objects, toys and chemicals. Trauma occurred most frequently at home. Twenty one of the patients were surgically intervened. Education and prevention programs for pediatric ocular trauma are necessary. PMID:26294157

  4. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25922262

  5. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  6. Statin Use and the Five-year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) with the 5-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Population-based cohort study. Methods Setting Beaver Dam, Wisconsin Study population Participants included persons 53 to 96 years of age at examination in 1998 to 2000 (n=2962), of whom 2204 participated in a follow-up 5 years later. Observation procedures Standardized procedures were used for physical examinations, blood collection, and questionnaire administration. AMD was determined by grading images of the posterior pole using a standard protocol. Standard univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Main outcome measures Incident early and late AMD and progressed AMD Results There were 1347 and 1638 persons not using statins and 339 and 429 using statins at the 1998-2000 examination at risk of early and late AMD, respectively. The unadjusted 5-year incidence of early and late AMD, respectively, was 5.9% and 1.8% in those not using statins and 6.8% and 2.3% in those using statins. While controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and multivitamin use, a history of statin use was not associated with the 5-year incidence of early AMD (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71 to 1.91, p=0.55), progression of AMD (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.78, p=0.51) or incidence of late AMD (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.69. p=0.53). Conclusion These findings do not show an association between statin use and the incidence or progression of AMD over a 5-year period. PMID:17475196

  7. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Celina, Mathias C.; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  8. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  9. A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball

    PubMed Central

    Schorer, Jrg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term relative age effect due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear constant year effects in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745

  10. Health-risk behaviors among persons aged 12-21 years--United States, 1992.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    Health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems (e.g., injuries and sexually transmitted diseases) or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease and cancer). This report uses national data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), conducted as part of the 1992 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to examine the prevalence of selected self-reported health-risk behaviors among persons aged 12-21 years. PMID:8145713

  11. Baseline characterization of patients aged 70 years and above with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuta, Makoto; Morizono, Shusuke; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the baseline profiles of patients aged 70 years and above with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A series of 127 consecutive patients with HCC were enrolled between 2000 and 2004, and none of them had been diagnosed as having HCC previously. Baseline profiles, including parameters of hepatic function such as serum transaminase and prothrombin time [PT (% activity)] were compared between patients aged ?70 and <70 years. RESULTS: Patients ?70 years old showed significantly lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.04) and alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.01), and significantly higher PTs (P = 0.04) and platelet counts (P = 0.02). Concomitantly, among ?70-year-old patients, HCC was more common in non-cirrhotics, whereas among patients <70 years old, HCC was more common in cirrhotics. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number or size of tumors. CONCLUSION: Older HCC patients showed less inflammation and better preservation of hepatic function, indicating that not only cirrhotic patients but also non-cirrhotic patients should be considered as a high-risk group among the elderly. PMID:16437725

  12. Mapping Region-Specific Longitudinal Cortical Surface Expansion from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex develops rapidly and dynamically in the first 2 years of life. It has been shown that cortical surface expansion from term infant to adult is highly nonuniform in a cross-sectional study. However, little is known about the longitudinal cortical surface expansion during early postnatal stages. In this article, we generate the first longitudinal surface-based atlases of human cortical structures at 0, 1, and 2 years of age from 73 healthy subjects. On the basis of the surface-based atlases, we study the longitudinal cortical surface expansion in the first 2 years of life and find that cortical surface expansion is age related and region specific. In the first year, cortical surface expands dramatically, with an average expansion of 1.80 times. In particular, regions of superior and medial temporal, superior parietal, medial orbitofrontal, lateral anterior prefrontal, occipital cortices, and postcentral gyrus expand relatively larger than other regions. In the second year, cortical surface still expands substantially, with an average expansion of 1.20 times. In particular, regions of superior and middle frontal, orbitofrontal, inferior temporal, inferior parietal, and superior parietal cortices expand relatively larger than other regions. These region-specific patterns of cortical surface expansion are related to cognitive and functional development at these stages. PMID:22923087

  13. Patellar tendon or hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Tarun; Nagraj, Raghu; Kumar, Malhar N; Chandy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury consists of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring graft. Satisfactory results have been reported so far in the younger age group. Dilemma arises regarding the suitability of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. This retrospective analyses the outcome of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. Materials and Methods: 55 patients aged 50 years and above presented to our institution with symptomatic ACL tear and were managed with arthroscopic reconstruction with patellar tendon/hamstring graft. 22 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with bone- patellar tendon-bone graft and the remaining 33 with a hamstring graft. Evaluation of functional outcome was performed using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scoring in the preoperative period, at the end of 1 year and at the final followup. Radiographic evaluation was performed using the Kellgren–Lawrence grading system. Results: The mean preoperative IKDC score was 39.7 ± 3.3. At the end of 1-year following the operation, the mean IKDC score was 73.6 ± 4.9 and at the final followup was 67.8 ± 7.7. The mean preoperative Lysholm score was 40.4 ± 10.3. At the end of 1-year following the intervention, the mean Lysholm score was 89.7 ± 2.1 and at final followup was 85.3 ± 2.5. Overall, 14 out of 42 patients who underwent radiographic assessment showed progression of osteoarthritis changes at the final followup after the intervention. Conclusion: In our study, there was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and Lysholm scores following the intervention. There was a slight deterioration in the scores at the final followup but the overall rate of satisfaction was still high and most of the patients were able to do their routine chores and light exercises suitable for their age group. Around one-third of patients show progression of radiographic changes in the postoperative period and this requires long term evaluation. PMID:26806968

  14. Pre-natal exposures to cocaine and alcohol and physical growth patterns to age 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Cabral, Howard J.; Gannon, Katherine; Heeren, Timothy; Frank, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and two primarily African American/Caribbean children (classified by maternal report and infant meconium as 38 heavier, 74 lighter and 89 not cocaine-exposed) were measured repeatedly from birth to age 8 years to assess whether there is an independent effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on physical growth patterns. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome identifiable at birth were excluded. At birth, cocaine and alcohol exposures were significantly and independently associated with lower weight, length and head circumference in cross-sectional multiple regression analyses. The relationship over time of pre-natal exposures to weight, height, and head circumference was then examined by multiple linear regression using mixed linear models including covariates: child’s gestational age, gender, ethnicity, age at assessment, current caregiver, birth mother’s use of alcohol, marijuana and tobacco during the pregnancy and pre-pregnancy weight (for child’s weight) and height (for child’s height and head circumference). The cocaine effects did not persist beyond infancy in piecewise linear mixed models, but a significant and independent negative effect of pre-natal alcohol exposure persisted for weight, height, and head circumference. Catch-up growth in cocaine-exposed infants occurred primarily by 6 months of age for all growth parameters, with some small fluctuations in growth rates in the preschool age range but no detectable differences between heavier versus unexposed nor lighter versus unexposed thereafter. PMID:17412558

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age MattersInsights from a 4-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Tuma, Mazin; El-Hennawy, Hany; AbdulRahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Asim, Mohammad; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population. PMID:23983630

  16. Individual differences in cognitive ability at age 20 predict pulmonary function 35 years later

    PubMed Central

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Kremen, William S; Grant, Michael D; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J; Jacobson, Kristen C; Franz, Carol E

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor pulmonary function is associated with mortality and age-related diseases, and can affect cognitive performance. However, extant longitudinal studies indicate that early cognitive ability also affects later pulmonary function. Despite the multifaceted nature of pulmonary function, most longitudinal studies were limited to a single index of pulmonary function: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). In this study, we examined whether early adult cognitive ability predicted five different indices of pulmonary function in mid-life. Methods Mixed modelling tested the association between young adult general cognitive ability (mean age=20), measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), and mid-life pulmonary function (mean age=55), in 1019 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Pulmonary function was indexed by per cent predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%p), FEV1%p, maximum forced expiratory flow (FEFmax%p), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV%p), and by the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC), an index of lung obstruction. Results After adjusting for smoking, pulmonary disease, occupation, income and education, age 20 AFQT was significantly (p<0.05) associated with mid-life FVC%p (β=0.10), FEV1%p (β=0.13), FEFmax%p (β=0.13), and MVV%p (β=0.13), but was not significantly associated with FEV1/FVC (β=0.03, p=0.34). Conclusions Early adult cognitive ability is a predictor of multiple indices of aging-related pulmonary function 35 years later, including lung volume, airflow and ventilator capacity. Cognitive deficits associated with impaired aging-related lung function may, thus, be partly pre-existing. However, results also highlight that early life risk factors may be differentially related to different metrics of later-life pulmonary health. PMID:25273357

  17. [Age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates for selected countries: latest available years].

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    Age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates for selected countries are reported. This statistics was prepared by Yamaguchi and Bando of Population Information Division, Institute of Population Problems of Japan, from UN Demographic Yearbook, 1985. It should serve as good research material for comparative analysis, for it shows some recent drastic changes in fertility rates in some parts of the world. The countries are listed by major regions following UN method. Total fertility rates are calculated with total female population aged 15 to 49 as the denominator. Fertility rates are listed for only those countries which have at least 100 births in that particular year. If age-specific column births were below 30, then the fertility rate is marked with a special symbol. The last table shows changes in total fertility rates among selected nations from 1950 to 1984. Neither Africa nor South America is represented in this table. Some drawbacks concerning the statistical data include methods and rates of birth registration, handling of causes of death before registration and/or within 24 hours of births, method of defining maternal age, etc. Fertility rates are based on the data collected at birth registration, not at birth. Hence high fertility rate at ages 45-49 may represent a high registration rate rather than a high birth rate. Mothers' age distribution for legitimate births differs from that for illegitimate births. More mothers' ages are unknown in cases of illegitimate births. Urban/rural fertility rates are influences by each country's definition of the terms and by the use of census data or dynamic statistics. PMID:12155026

  18. Motor planning between 4 and 7 years of age: changes linked to executive functions.

    PubMed

    Pennequin, Valrie; Sorel, Olivier; Fontaine, Roger

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we adopted the conceptual frameworks of Miyake et al. (2000) (organization of executive functions) and Sergeant (2000) (linking executive function to motor behaviour) to assess developmental changes in executive functions and motor behaviour, using a planning task with a sample of 4-7-years old children. More precisely, the aim of the study was to characterize the development of motor response planning between the ages of 4 and 7 as a measure of the integration of multiple executive function processes, namely inhibition, shifting and working memory, and to gain insight into the concurrent developmental contributions of these processes. Participants were divided into two groups: group 1 was composed of 24 children aged 4-5 years and group 2 was composed of 20 children aged 6-7 years. Each participant took tests for shifting, inhibition, working memory and motor planning (the egg-planning task). Our results suggest that the egg-planning task requires the inhibition of a pre-potent but inappropriate response, and to a lesser extent the manipulation of working memory strategies. These results are discussed in relation to the development of each executive function component. PMID:20678848

  19. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  20. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  1. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  2. Quality of life in stroke survivors under the sixty years of age.

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Mirjana; Sinanovi?, Osman; Smajlovi?, Dzevdet

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life six months after stroke in survivors under sixty years of age, to determine which life activities was the most affected, as well as to correlate the neurological insufficiency and the quality of life. It monitored 200 stroke survivors under sixty years of age treated at the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla. Average age was 51,83 years (+/-7,02). The ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 77,5% stroke survivors, cerebral hemorrhage in 15%, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 7,5%. Five stroke survivors suffered hemiplegia (2,5%), 24 (12%) experienced moderate consequences and 143 (71,5%) had mild consequences. No neurological deficit had 28 (14%) stroke survivors. Six months after the onset of disease all stroke survivors have been followed-up and evaluated about quality of life by filling in a modified questionnaire: Questionnaire on Quality of Life after Stroke (2). The questionnaire contained 20 questions covering four fields of life: Working Ability, Home Activity, Family Relations and Leisure Activities. Six months after the onset of stroke a worse quality of life in comparison to the period before the disease was noted in 172 (86%) stroke survivors, the unchanged in 19 (9,5%) and better in 9 (4,5%). The most affected is the field "Leisure Activities", followed by "Family Relations", "Home Activity", and the least affected is "Work Ability". The neurological deficit significantly correlates to the "Home Activities" and "Leisure Activities". PMID:17848152

  3. Serum deprivation alters lipid profile in HN9.10e embryonic hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Lazzarini, Andrea; Lazzarini, Remo; Floridi, Emanuela; Cataldi, Samuela; Floridi, Alessandro; Albi, Elisabetta

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the mechanism of apoptosis is important to improve the use of stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules involved in the regulation of cell fate. In HN9.10e embryonic hippocampal cells, serum deprivation induces apoptosis preceded by sphingomyelinase activation and raise of ceramide levels. Increasing evidence indicates that individual ceramide species regulated by specific pathways in distinct subcellular compartments might carry out distinct cellular functions, but the ceramides species involved in embryonic hippocampal cell death induced by growth factor deprivation are unknown. In the present paper, by using the UFLC-MS/MS methodology, we have investigated the effect of serum deprivation on the lipid profile in HN9.10e cells. At 48h of serum deprivation, we detected a decrease in cholesterol and increase in sphingosine-1-phoshate 18:1, phosphatidylcholine 18:1 18:0, sphingomyelin 18:1 16:0 and in ceramides 18:1 16:0; we also found an increase in saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio in sphingomyelin. We hypothesize that the rearrangement of sphingo- and glycerolipids with increase of saturated fatty acids in serum-deprivated, neural cells might represent a cellular response aimed at holding cholesterol inside the cells. PMID:25556686

  4. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the strength of association between age, gender, ethnicity, family history of disease and refractive error and the risk of developing glaucoma or ARM? Clinical Need A routine eye exam serves a primary, secondary, and tertiary care role. In a primary care role, it allows contact with a doctor who can provide advice about eye care, which may reduce the incidence of eye disease and injury. In a secondary care role, it can via a case finding approach, diagnose persons with degenerative eye diseases such as glaucoma and or AMD, and lead to earlier treatment to slow the progression of the disease. Finally in a tertiary care role, it provides ongoing monitoring and treatment to those with diseases associated with vision loss. Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve, which causes gradual loss of peripheral (side) vision, and in advanced disease states loss of central vision. Blindness may results if glaucoma is not diagnosed and managed. The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) ranges from 1.1% to 3.0% in Western populations, and from 4.2% to 8.8% in populations of African descent. It is estimated up to 50% of people with glaucoma are aware that they have the disease. In Canada, glaucoma disease is the second leading cause of blindness in people aged 50 years and older. Tonometry, inspection of the optic disc and perimetry are used concurrently by physicians and optometrists to make the diagnosis of glaucoma. In general, the evidence shows that treating people with increased IOP only, increased IOP and clinical signs of early glaucoma or with normal-tension glaucoma can reduce the progression of disease. Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is a degenerative disease of the macula, which is a part of the retina. Damage to the macula causes loss of central vision affecting the ability to read, recognize faces and to move about freely. ARM can be divided into an early- stage (early ARM) and a late-stage (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The prevalence of AMD increases with increasing age. It is estimated that 1% of people 55 years of age, 5% aged 75 to 84 years and 15% 80 years of age and older have AMD. ARM can be diagnosed during fundoscopy (ophthalmoscopy) which is a visual inspection of the retina by a physician or optometrist, or from a photograph of the retina. There is no cure or prevention for ARM. Likewise, there is currently no treatment to restore vision lost due to AMD. However, there are treatments to delay the progression of the disease and further loss of vision. The Technology A periodic oculo-visual assessment is defined “as an examination of the eye and vision system rendered primarily to determine if a patient has a simple refractive error (visual acuity assessment) including myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, anisometropia or astigmatism.” This service includes a history of the presenting complaint, past medical history, visual acuity examination, ocular mobility examination, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, ophthalmoscopy, and tonometry (measurement of IOP) and is completed by either a physician or an optometrist. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, INAHTA and the Cochrane Library. The search was limited to English-language articles with human subjects, published from January 2000 to March 2006. In addition, a search was conducted for published guidelines, health technology assessments, and policy decisions. Bibliographies of references of relevant papers were searched for additional references that may have been missed in the computerized database search. Studies including participants 20 years and older, population-based prospective cohort studies, population-based cross-sectional studies when prospective cohort studies were unavailable or insufficient and studies determining and reporting the strength of association or risk- specific prevalence or incidence rates of either age, gender, ethnicity, refractive error or family history of disease and the risk of developing glaucoma or AMD were included in the review. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to summarize the overall quality of the body of evidence. Summary of Findings A total of 498 citations for the period January 2000 through February 2006 were retrieved and an additional 313 were identified when the search was expanded to include articles published between 1990 and 1999. An additional 6 articles were obtained from bibliographies of relevant articles. Of these, 36 articles were retrieved for further evaluation. Upon review, 1 meta-analysis and 15 population-based epidemiological studies were accepted for this review Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Age Six cross-sectional studies and 1 prospective cohort study contributed data on the association between age and PAOG. From the data it can be concluded that the prevalence and 4-year incidence of POAG increases with increasing age. The odds of having POAG are statistically significantly greater for people 50 years of age and older relative to those 40 to 49 years of age. There is an estimated 7% per year incremental odds of having POAG in persons 40 years of age and older, and 10% per year in persons 49 years of age and older. POAG is undiagnosed in up to 50% of the population. The quality of the evidence is moderate. Gender Five cross-sectional studies evaluated the association between gender and POAG. Consistency in estimates is lacking among studies and because of this the association between gender and prevalent POAG is inconclusive. The quality of the evidence is very low. Ethnicity Only 1 cross-sectional study compared the prevalence rates of POAG between black and white participants. These data suggest that prevalent glaucoma is statistically significantly greater in a black population 50 years of age and older compared with a white population of similar age. There is an overall 4-fold increase in prevalent POAG in a black population compared with a white population. This increase may be due to a confounding variable not accounted for in the analysis. The quality of the evidence is low. Refractive Error Four cross-sectional studies assessed the association of myopia and POAG. These data suggest an association between myopia defined as a spherical equivalent of -1.00D or worse and prevalent POAG. However, there is inconsistency in results regarding the statistical significance of the association between myopia when defined as a spherical equivalent of -0.5D. The quality of the evidence is very low. Family History of POAG Three cross-sectional studies investigated the association between family history of glaucoma and prevalent POAG. These data suggest a 2.5 to 3.0 fold increase in the odds having POAG in persons with a family history (any first-degree relative) of POAG. The quality of the evidence is moderate. Age-Related Maculopathy Age Four cohort studies evaluated the association between age and early ARM and AMD. After 55 years of age, the incidence of both early ARM and AMD increases with increasing age. Progression to AMD occurs in up to 12% of persons with early ARM. The quality of the evidence is low Gender Four cohort studies evaluated the association between gender and early ARM and AMD. Gender differences in incident early ARM and incident AMD are not supported from these data. The quality of the evidence is lows. Ethnicity One meta-analysis and 2 cross-sectional studies reported the ethnic-specific prevalence rates of ARM. The data suggests that the prevalence of early ARM is higher in a white population compared with a black population. The data suggest that the ethnic-specific differences in the prevalence of AMD remain inconclusive. Refractive Error Two cohort studies investigated the association between refractive error and the development of incident early ARM and AMD. The quality of the evidence is very low. Family History Two cross-sectional studies evaluated the association of family history and early ARM and AMD. Data from one study supports an association between a positive family history of AMD and having AMD. The results of the study indicate an almost 4-fold increase in the odds of any AMD in a person with a family history of AMD. The quality of the evidence, as based on the GRADE criteria is moderate. Economic Analysis The prevalence of glaucoma is estimated at 1 to 3% for a Caucasian population and 4.2 to 8.8% for a black population. The incidence of glaucoma is estimated at 0.5 to 2.5% per year in the literature. The percentage of people who go blind per year as a result of glaucoma is approximately 0.55%. The total population of Ontarians aged 50 to 64 years is estimated at 2.6 million based on the April 2006 Ontario Ministry of Finance population estimates. The range of utilization for a major eye examination in 2006/07 for this age group is estimated at 567,690 to 669,125, were coverage for major eye exams extended to this age group. This would represent a net increase in utilization of approximately 440,116 to 541,551. The percentage of Ontario population categorized as black and/or those with a family history of glaucoma was approximately 20%. Therefore, the estimated range of utilization for a major eye examination in 2006/07 for this sub-population is estimated at 113,538 - 138,727 (20% of the estimated range of utilization in total population of 50-64 year olds in Ontario), were coverage for major eye exams extended to this sub-group. This would represent a net increase in utilization of approximately 88,023 to 108,310 within this sub-group. Costs The total cost of a major eye examination by a physician is $42.15, as per the 2006 Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services.(1) The total difference between the treatments of early-stage versus late-stage glaucoma was estimated at $167. The total cost per recipient was estimated at $891/person. Current Ontario Policy As of November 1, 2004 persons between 20 years and 64 years of age are eligible for an insured eye examination once every year if they have any of the following medical conditions: diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus. Persons between 20 to 64 years of age who do not have diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus may be eligible for an annual eye examination if they have a valid “request for major eye examination” form completed by a physician (other than that who completed the eye exam) or a nurse practitioner working in a collaborative practice. Persons 20-64 years of age who are in receipt of social assistance and who do not have one of the 8 medical conditions listed above are eligible to receive an eye exam once every 2 years as a non-OHIP government funded service. Persons 19 years of age or younger and 65 years of age or older may receive an insured eye exam once every year. Considerations for Policy Development As of July 17, 2006 there were 1,402 practicing optometrists in Ontario. As of December 31, 2005 there were 404 practicing ophthalmologists in Ontario. It is unknown how many third party payers now cover routine eye exams for person between the ages of 20 and 64 years of age in Ontario. PMID:23074485

  5. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  6. Cognitive Function at 3 Years of Age after Fetal Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Combs-Cantrell, Deborah T.; Cohen, Morris; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal exposure of animals to antiepileptic drugs at doses lower than those required to produce congenital malformations can produce cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, but cognitive effects of fetal exposure of humans to antiepileptic drugs are uncertain. METHODS Between 1999 and 2004, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy who were taking a single antiepileptic agent (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) in a prospective, observational, multicenter study in the United States and the United Kingdom. The primary analysis is a comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 6 years after exposure to different antiepileptic drugs in utero. This report focuses on a planned interim analysis of cognitive outcomes in 309 children at 3 years of age. RESULTS At 3 years of age, children who had been exposed to valproate in utero had significantly lower IQ scores than those who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs. After adjustment for maternal IQ, maternal age, antiepileptic-drug dose, gestational age at birth, and maternal preconception use of folate, the mean IQ was 101 for children exposed to lamotrigine, 99 for those exposed to phenytoin, 98 for those exposed to carbamazepine, and 92 for those exposed to valproate. On average, children exposed to valproate had an IQ score 9 points lower than the score of those exposed to lamotrigine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 14.6; P = 0.009), 7 points lower than the score of those exposed to phenytoin (95% CI, 0.2 to 14.0; P = 0.04), and 6 points lower than the score of those exposed to carbamazepine (95% CI, 0.6 to 12.0; P = 0.04). The association between valproate use and IQ was dose dependent. Childrens IQs were significantly related to maternal IQs among children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or phenytoin but not among those exposed to valproate. CONCLUSIONS In utero exposure to valproate, as compared with other commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is associated with an increased risk of impaired cognitive function at 3 years of age. This finding supports a recommendation that valproate not be used as a first-choice drug in women of childbearing potential. PMID:19369666

  7. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity. PMID:19913844

  8. Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant

  9. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  10. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  11. Suicide trends among persons aged 10-24 years--United States, 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Erin M; Annest, Joseph L; Simon, Thomas R; Luo, Feijun; Dahlberg, Linda L

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and accounted for 5,178 deaths in this age group in 2012. Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning (including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. Previous reports have noted that trends in suicide rates vary by mechanism and by age group in the United States, with increasing rates of suffocation suicides among young persons. To test whether this increase is continuing and to determine whether it varies by demographic subgroups among persons aged 10-24 years, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data for the period 1994-2012. Trends in suicide rates were examined by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and mechanism of suicide. Results of the analysis indicated that, during 1994-2012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic subgroups during this period. Clinicians, hotline staff and others who work with young persons need to be aware of current trends in suffocation suicides in this group so that they can accurately assess risk and educate families. Media coverage of suicide incidents and clusters should follow established guidelines to avoid exacerbating risk for "suicide contagion" among vulnerable young persons.* Suicide contagion is a process by which exposure to the suicide or suicidal behavior of one or more persons influences others who are already vulnerable and thinking about suicide to attempt or die by suicide. Early prevention strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of young persons developing suicidal thoughts and behavior. PMID:25742379

  12. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  13. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

  14. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in childrens intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  15. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Izabela; Oleśniewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; Sołtysik, Mariusz; Błaszczuk, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders. Material and methods In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied. Results The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. Conclusion The respondents’ sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result. PMID:26170646

  16. Head injury from falls in children younger than 6?years of age

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, P; Trefan, L; Houston, R; Hughes, J; Pearson, G; Edwards, R J; Hyde, P; Maconochie, I; Parslow, R C; Kemp, A M

    2015-01-01

    The risk of serious head injury (HI) from a fall in a young child is ill defined. The relationship between the object fallen from and prevalence of intracranial injury (ICI) or skull fracture is described. Method Cross-sectional study of HIs from falls in children (<6?years) admitted to UK hospitals, analysed according to the object fallen from and associated Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or alert, voice, pain, unresponsive (AVPU) and CT scan results. Results Of 1775 cases ascertained (median age 18?months, 54.7% boys), 87% (1552) had a GCS=15/AVPU=alert. 19.3% (342) had a CT scan: 32% (110/342) were abnormal; equivalent to 5.9% of the overall population, 16.9% (58) had isolated skull fractures and 13.7% (47) had ICI (49% (23/47) had an associated skull fracture). The prevalence of ICI increased with neurological compromise; however, 12% of children with a GCS=15/AVPU=alert had ICI. When compared to falls from standing, falls from a person's arms (233 children (mean age 1?year)) had a significant relative OR for a skull fracture/ICI of 6.94 (95% CI 3.54 to 13.6), falls from a building (eg, window or attic) (mean age 3?years) OR 6.84 (95% CI 2.65 to 17.6) and from an infant or child product (mean age 21?months) OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.36 to 5.65). Conclusions Most HIs from a fall in these children admitted to hospital were minor. Infants, dropped from a carer's arms, those who fell from infant products, a window, wall or from an attic had the greatest chance of ICI or skull fracture. These data inform prevention and the assessment of the likelihood of serious injury when the object fallen from is known. PMID:26297697

  17. Small for gestational age, term babies, in the first six years of life.

    PubMed

    Grantham-McGregor, S M

    1998-01-01

    The cognitive development and behaviour in the first six years of life of small for gestational age (SGA) babies born at term are reviewed. Differences in sample selection and confounding factors associated with socio-economic background, perinatal complications and biased follow-up make the interpretation of results and the comparison of studies difficult. Studies of infants (< 12 months) generally do not show any differences between SGA babies and controls. One study, carried out in Brazil and including comprehensive data on socio-economic background, parental literacy and infant stimulation, showed that low birth weight (LBW) babies were more vulnerable to effects of the environment than normal birth weight (NBW) babies, thus illustrating the importance of looking for interactions between covariates, rather than controlling for them. Deficits begin to appear in the second year of life, but are mainly found in high-risk subgroups. In all three studies of SGA children tested at 3 years of age, the SGA children had lower scores than NBW controls. SGA children tested between 4 and 7 years had generally lower scores than NBW, but differences were smaller and sometimes did no longer reach statistically significant levels. Some recommendations are made for future studies. PMID:9511021

  18. Cohort study of peanut and tree nut sensitisation by age of 4 years.

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, S. M.; Stevens, M.; Matthews, S.; Ridout, S.; Twiselton, R.; Hide, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to peanuts and tree nuts in all children born during one year in one geographical area. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with structured review at ages 1, 2, and 4 years. SETTING: All children born on the Isle of Wight between January 1989 and February 1990. SUBJECTS: Of 1456 children originally included, 1218 were reviewed at age 4 years. Of these, 1981 had skin prick tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive skin test results, clinical atopic disease, and risk factors for the development of atopy. RESULTS: 15 of 1218 (1.2%) children were sensitised to peanuts or tree nuts (13 to peanuts). Six had had allergic reactions to peanuts (0.5% of the population), one to hazelnuts, and one to cashew nuts; three had had anaphylactic reactions. Seven children had positive skin test results or detectable IgE to peanuts without clinical symptoms. Two children who reacted to peanut in infancy had lost their sensitivity by 4 years. Family history of atopy, allergy to egg (odds ratio 9.9, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 47.9, and eczema (7.3, 2.1 to 26.1) were important predictors for peanut allergy. CONCLUSIONS: IgE mediated allergy to peanuts is common in early childhood. In many the allergy persists but a minority may develop tolerance. PMID:8789974

  19. Outcome of patients with osteosarcoma over 40 years of age: Is angiogenesis a marker of survival?

    PubMed Central

    Ek, Eugene TH; Ojaimi, Joseline; Kitagawa, Yasuyuki; Choong, Peter FM

    2006-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma predominantly afflicts young people in their second and third decades of life. When osteosarcoma arises in patients older than 40 years, the prognosis is usually poorer compared to their younger counterparts. Although the clinical, histopathologic features and prognostic indicators are well defined for young patients, much less is known about affected adults. The purpose of this study is to describe our institution's experience with the management of osteosarcoma in patients greater than 40 years and also evaluate, by immunohistochemical analysis, the prognostic significance of microvessel density, as a marker of intratumoural angiogenesis. Methods A retrospective clinicopathological analysis was performed on 11 patients over the age of 40 years that were treated at our institution between 1996 and 2004. Archival pre-treatment biopsy tissue was retrieved for immunohistochemical staining against two endothelial cell markers (CD31 and CD34) and also against VEGF. Angiogenesis was assessed by determining the intratumoural microvessel density (MVD) and the degree of VEGF expression in these specimens. This was correlated with patient outcome in terms of local recurrence, metastasis and death. Histological results were also compared to a group of patients less than 40 years of age. Results Of the 11 patients, 9 were male and 2 were female and the mean age was 58 years (range, 4285). In 7 patients, osteosarcoma arose secondarily from Paget's disease of the bone. The most common site involved was the humerus (7) followed by the femur (2) then pelvis (1) and ulna (1). At the time of diagnosis, 4 patients had metastatic disease. Preoperative chemotherapy was given to 4 patients, with a good response in 3 patients. Six patients underwent limb-sparing surgery, 4 had amputations and 1 was treated with radiotherapy alone. The mean follow up time was 31.5 months (range, 881). At this time, 4 patients (36%) had developed lung metastases and 5 patients (46%) had died. Overall survival was 54.5%. Intratumoural MVD was higher in patients over 40 years, although not statistically significant (p = 0.111, CD31; p = 0.134, CD34). VEGF was uniformly expressed in all sections, however no relationship was found between the degree of expression and patient age. Conclusion The prognosis for older patients with osteosarcoma is generally poor. Initial presentation is commonly associated with metastatic disease and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is often avoided because of its side effects. Increased intratumoural vascularity may contribute to the poorer prognosis in these patients, however further studies are needed. PMID:16551370

  20. Assessment of Dental Age of Children Aged 3.5 to 16.9 Years Using Demirjian’s Method: A Meta-Analysis Based on 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jin; Lou, Xintian; Xie, Liming; Yu, Dedong; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    Background A method for assessing dental maturity in different populations was first developed in 1973 by Demirjian and has been widely used and accepted since then. While the accuracy for evaluating dental age using Demirjian’s method compared to children’s chronological age has been extensively studied in recent years, the results currently available remain controversial and ambiguous. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before July 12th, 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian’s method for estimating chronological age in children. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 26 studies with a total of 11,499 children (5,301 boys and 6,198 girls) aged 3.5 to 16.9 years. Overall, we found that Demirjian’s method overestimated dental age by 0.35 (4.2 months) and 0.39 (4.68 months) years in males and females, respectively. A subgroup analysis by age revealed that boys and girls between the ages of 5 to 14 were given a dental age estimate that was significantly more advanced than their chronological age. Differences between underestimated dental ages and actual chronological ages were lower for male and female 15- and 16-year-old subgroups, though a significant difference was found in the 16-year-old subgroup. Conclusions Demirjian’s method’s overestimation of actual chronological tooth age reveals the need for population-specific standards to better estimate the rate of human dental maturation. PMID:24367690

  1. Changes in human blood pressure with season, age and solar cycles: A 26-year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portela, Ana; Northrup, Gordon; Halberg, Franz; Cornlissen, Germaine; Wendt, Hans; Melby, James C.; Haus, Erhard

    1996-12-01

    The record was studied of a 71-year-old, diurnally active (0700 2200 hours) male psychiatrist (G.N.) who self-measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPS and BPD) mostly but not exclusively on Sunday mornings, from 1969 to 1994. A large about-yearly change was revealed which increased with age and was accompanied by a decreasing trend in the yearly rhythm-adjusted mean (MESOR; P<0.01). According to conventional criteria that specify only upper limits of acceptability, G.N. was hypertensive in summer and normotensive in other seasons. Since changes in both MESOR and circannual amplitude occurred, a systematic surveillance of BP is the chronobiological recommendation.

  2. Differential changes and interactions of autonomic functioning and sleep architecture before and after 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, C C H

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesize that the time when age-related changes in autonomic functioning and in sleep structure occur are different and that autonomic functioning modulates sleep architecture differently before and after 50 years of age. Sixty-eight healthy subjects (aged 20 to 79 years old, 49 of them women) were enrolled. Correlation analysis revealed that wake after sleep onset, the absolute and relative value of stage 1 (S1; S1%), and relative value of stage 2 (S2) were positively correlated with age; however, sleep efficiency, stage 3 (S3), S3%, and rapid-eye-movement latency (REML) were negatively correlated with age. Significant degenerations of sleep during normal aging were occurred after 50 years of age; however, significant declines of autonomic activity were showed before 50 years of age. Before 50 years of age, vagal function during sleep was negatively correlated with arousal index; however, after 50 years of age, it was positively correlated with S1 and S1%. In addition, sympathetic activity during wake stage was positively related to S2% only after 50 years of age. Our results imply that the age-related changes in autonomic functioning decline promptly as individuals leave the younger part of their adult life span and that age-related changes in sleep slowly develop as individuals enter the older part of their adult life span. Furthermore, while various aspects of sleep architecture are modulated by both the sympathetic and vagal nervous systems during adult life span, the sleep quality is mainly correlated with the sympathetic division after 50 years of age. PMID:26728397

  3. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  4. A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Model of Physical Activity from Ages 12-17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Susan C.; Duncan, Terry E.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite serious public health implications of decreased physical activity during adolescence, few longitudinal studies have been conducted to determine the trajectory and important correlates of physical activity change during this period. Purpose This study examined change in physical activity from ages 12-17 years, and the influences of personal, family, peer, and demographic factors on activity patterns. Methods Data were from 371 youth. The sample was 50.1% female; 76% White, 12% African American, 4% Hispanic, 2% Asian, 2% American Indian, and 4% other or mixed races. Mean age was 12.05 years (SD = 1.63) at Time 1. Multivariate latent growth curve modeling (LGM), a cohort-sequential design, and a multiple-group design by gender were employed. Results Youth physical activity declined significantly from ages 12-17. Boys had higher initial levels of physical activity than girls. Efficacy to overcome barriers, physically active friends, and friend social support all played roles in reducing the decline in physical activity. Early maturing boys, while more physically active initially, experienced a greater decline in physical activity compared to later-maturing boys. Conclusions These findings encourage further research on the etiology and development of youth physical activity using procedures such as LGM, to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with youth physical activity decline. PMID:17291173

  5. Fontan Completion for Younger than 3 Years of Age: Outcome in Patients with Functional Single Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Bezuska, Laurynas; Lebetkevicius, Virgilijus; Lankutis, Kestutis; Sudikiene, Rita; Sirvydis, Vytautas Jonas; Tarutis, Virgilijus

    2015-12-01

    Most single ventricle patients undergo Fontan procedure earlier in current era. However, optimal timing of Fontan completion after an intermediate staging surgery is controversial. We present children who had Fontan surgeries younger than 3years of age comparing the data with older patients. Between 2000 and 2013, 45 patients with functional single ventricle underwent extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) using GORE-TEX() conduit at a single institution. Children were divided into group A (age<36months; n=15) and group B (age?36months; n=30), and retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 2.9 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-4.4]years. There were two hospital deaths and one late death (all in group B, p=0.286). One TCPC was taken down in group A. The median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 90(IQR 46-140)h and 21(IQR 16-33)days for group A versus 65(IQR 45-115)h and 29 (IQR 20.8-38.5)days for group B, respectively (p=0.322 and p=0.057). Ventricular ejection fraction and GORE-TEX() conduit size were similar in both groups. The time of chest drain stay was significantly lower in group A (median 12days, IQR 7-22) than in group B (22days, IQR 16-32.5) (p=0.014). Extracardiac TCPC can be performed earlier with good intermediate results. Earlier Fontan procedure might be advantageous for reducing chest drains stay. PMID:26104382

  6. Prevalence of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in Children Less Than One Year of Age Referred for Polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Ho, Alice W; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Kirk, Valerie; Buchhalter, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in patients less than one year of age referred for polysomnogram (PSG), to quantify the number of IEDs and characterize sleep stage(s) during which IEDs occur, and to relate the reason for PSG referral and IED frequency. This was a retrospective cohort study of children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies. Fifty study participants had sufficient EEG data, and 49 were included in the study analysis. We identified an IED prevalence rate of 28% over the 2-year study period. The mean number (Standard Deviation; SD) of IEDs per hour of total sleep time was 0.4 (1.2). IEDs occurred most frequently in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stages 2 and 3 of sleep. The most common reason for PSG referral in this patient cohort was for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (42/50). We concluded that patients less than 12 months of age referred for PSG may have abnormal brain activity. The relationship of that activity to PSG findings is unclear. This study offers a systematic process of identifying IEDs that should prompt referral to a neurologist for further evaluation. PMID:26173350

  7. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001

  8. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Herv; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  9. Good results with cemented total hip arthroplasty in patients between 40 and 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    de Kam, Daniël C J; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Veth, René P H

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip arthroplasties in young patients have lower long-term survival rates than in older patients. We evaluated the use of a unique treatment protocol in patients aged between 40 and 50 years. In all cases we used a cemented THA, and for acetabular deficiencies we also used impacted bone grafts together with a cemented cup. Methods In 140 consecutive patients who were between 40 and 50 years of age at index surgery, 168 cemented total hip prostheses were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 10 (2–19) years. Acetabular deficiencies were reconstructed with wire meshes and impacted bone grafts with a cemented cup (70 hips). During follow-up, 18 patients died (27 hips); in this group 3 hips (3 patients) had been revised. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. In all surviving patients, clinical assessment was performed with hip-score questions and all radiographs were evaluated. Results All clinical questionnaires showed an improved clinical hip score. 29 hips (17%) were revised after a mean of 8 (0.3–18) years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a survival of 88% (95% CI: 82–94) after 10 years with revision of either component for any reason. Survival with endpoint revision for aseptic loosening of either component was 94% (95% CI: 90–99) after 10 years. Interpretation Cemented implants in young patients have satisfying long-term results. Reconstruction of acetabular deficiencies with impacted bone grafts show promising results. PMID:20367411

  10. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  11. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea. PMID:26751798

  12. New lubricants from vegetable oil: cyclic acetals of methyl 9,10-dihydroxystearate.

    PubMed

    Filley, Jonathan

    2005-03-01

    Potential new lubricants and fuel lubricity enhancers have been prepared from methyl 9,10-dihydroxystearate and long chain aldehydes to form the corresponding cyclic acetals. These materials are oils down to low temperatures, as compared to symmetric ketals derived from the same diol, which are waxes at room temperature. The acetals form in an equilibrium reaction (Keq approximately 60) which suggests they will be stable as fuel additives. The viscosities of the new oils are close to those predicted for normal paraffins with the same number of non-hydrogen atoms, but the acetal structure has subtle effects on viscosity as compared to branched alkanes. Acetals with long alkyl branches maintain higher viscosity on a molecular weight basis compared to branched alkanes. The qualitative relationship between branch length and viscosity is discussed. These acetals are potential candidates for novel biobased lubricants. PMID:15501661

  13. Solubilities of p-quinone and 9,10-anthraquinone in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D.

    1997-05-01

    Equilibrium solubilities of p-quinone (1,4-benzoquinone) and 9,10-anthraquinone at 35 C and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about (85--300) bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with a high-pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The solubility results, along with those reported in the literature for 1,4-naphthoquinone, are correlated with a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. The ability of a supercritical fluid to separate a multicomponent mixture is unique, since it utilizes the salient features of both distillation and liquid extraction. The solubility of a solute in a supercritical fluid is the most important thermophysical property that has to be determined and modeled for an efficient design of any extraction based on supercritical solvents.

  14. DNA-binding abilities of bisguanylhydrazones of anthracene-9,10-dicarboxaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Foye, W O; Karnik, P S; Sengupta, S K

    1986-04-01

    DNA-binding strengths of three anthracene-9,10-dicarboxaldehyde hydrazones were examined by spectral shifts of the drug-DNA combinations, spectral titration by Scatchard plots, elevation of DNA melting temperature during complexation and comparison of spectral shifts in the presence of DNA's having variable base contents. Dissociation of the DNA-complexes was also observed. The results showed a strong degree of binding by the three compounds. They did not exhibit noticeable base-pair specificity, but both associated with and dissociated rapidly from DNA. Scatchard plots for DNA association indicated two types of binding; the stronger was most likely due to intercalation of the planar anthracene ring into the DNA double helix. No direct correlation can be drawn between the observed anti-cancer activities and DNA binding affinities of these compounds in vitro. PMID:2453195

  15. Identifying Hail Signatures in Satellite Imagery from the 9-10 August 2011 Severe Weather Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Rachel L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Cole, Tony A.; Bell, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms can produce large hail that causes property damage, livestock fatalities, and crop failure. However, detailed storm surveys of hail damage conducted by the National Weather Service (NWS) are not required. Current gaps also exist between Storm Prediction Center (SPC) hail damage estimates and crop-insurance payouts. NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to support NWS damage assessments, particularly to crops during the growing season. The two-day severe weather event across western Nebraska and central Kansas during 9-10 August 2011 offers a case study for investigating hail damage signatures by examining changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery. By analyzing hail damage swaths in satellite imagery, potential economic losses due to crop damage can be quantified and further improve the estimation of weather impacts on agriculture without significantly increasing manpower requirements.

  16. The physical maps for sequencing human chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20 and X.

    PubMed

    Bentley, D R; Deloukas, P; Dunham, A; French, L; Gregory, S G; Humphray, S J; Mungall, A J; Ross, M T; Carter, N P; Dunham, I; Scott, C E; Ashcroft, K J; Atkinson, A L; Aubin, K; Beare, D M; Bethel, G; Brady, N; Brook, J C; Burford, D C; Burrill, W D; Burrows, C; Butler, A P; Carder, C; Catanese, J J; Clee, C M; Clegg, S M; Cobley, V; Coffey, A J; Cole, C G; Collins, J E; Conquer, J S; Cooper, R A; Culley, K M; Dawson, E; Dearden, F L; Durbin, R M; de Jong, P J; Dhami, P D; Earthrowl, M E; Edwards, C A; Evans, R S; Gillson, C J; Ghori, J; Green, L; Gwilliam, R; Halls, K S; Hammond, S; Harper, G L; Heathcott, R W; Holden, J L; Holloway, E; Hopkins, B L; Howard, P J; Howell, G R; Huckle, E J; Hughes, J; Hunt, P J; Hunt, S E; Izmajlowicz, M; Jones, C A; Joseph, S S; Laird, G; Langford, C F; Lehvaslaiho, M H; Leversha, M A; McCann, O T; McDonald, L M; McDowall, J; Maslen, G L; Mistry, D; Moschonas, N K; Neocleous, V; Pearson, D M; Phillips, K J; Porter, K M; Prathalingam, S R; Ramsey, Y H; Ranby, S A; Rice, C M; Rogers, J; Rogers, L J; Sarafidou, T; Scott, D J; Sharp, G J; Shaw-Smith, C J; Smink, L J; Soderlund, C; Sotheran, E C; Steingruber, H E; Sulston, J E; Taylor, A; Taylor, R G; Thorpe, A A; Tinsley, E; Warry, G L; Whittaker, A; Whittaker, P; Williams, S H; Wilmer, T E; Wooster, R; Wright, C L

    2001-02-15

    We constructed maps for eight chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, X and (previously) 22), representing one-third of the genome, by building landmark maps, isolating bacterial clones and assembling contigs. By this approach, we could establish the long-range organization of the maps early in the project, and all contig extension, gap closure and problem-solving was simplified by containment within local regions. The maps currently represent more than 94% of the euchromatic (gene-containing) regions of these chromosomes in 176 contigs, and contain 96% of the chromosome-specific markers in the human gene map. By measuring the remaining gaps, we can assess chromosome length and coverage in sequenced clones. PMID:11237015

  17. Herbicidin Congeners, Undecose Nucleosides from an Organic Extract of Streptomyces sp. L-9-10

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Four new undecose nucleosides (herbicidin congeners), three known herbicidins, and 9-(?-d-arabinofuranosyl)hypoxanthine (Ara-H) were isolated from the organic extract of a fermentation culture of Streptomyces sp. L-9-10 using proton NMR-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. These structures included 2?-O-demethylherbicidin F (1), 9?-deoxy-8?,8?-dihydroxyherbicidin B (2), 9?-deoxy-8?-oxoherbicidin B (2a), and the 8?-epimer of herbicidin B (3). This is the first detailed assignment of proton and carbon chemical shifts for herbicidins A, B, and F. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cancer chemopreventive potential based on inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activity. PMID:24533857

  18. Volume change during thermal [4 + 4] cycloaddition of [2.2] (9,10)anthracenophane.

    PubMed

    Slepetz, Brad; Kertesz, Miklos

    2013-09-18

    We show that the reaction path connecting the tethered bi(anthracene-9,10-dimethylene) and its photodimer proceeds stepwise via a diradicaloid transition state where one ?-bond is made before a second. The newly found transition state (TS) has a smaller molecular volume than either the reactant or the product giving an atomistic explanation to the recently found pressure catalyzed barrier lowering and rate enhancement. The density functional methods used include long-range contributions as required in a system where the dispersion interactions are significant. We discuss this transformation in the context of the diamond-to-graphite transition owing to the similarity of ?-bond breakage into a delocalized ?-system. We also comment on the controversy surrounding the equilibrium geometries of photoisomerized cyclophanes, concluding that D2h symmetry in the photoisomer of the title molecule is a transition structure connecting a pair of degenerate ground state D2 geometries. PMID:23927407

  19. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A deficiency and anthropometric markers. Living in rural areas is a determining factor for the families health status. PMID:26398874

  20. Preliminary Hydrothermal Heat Flow Measurements at the 9-10 N East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramondenc, P.; Germanovich, L. N.; von Damm, K. L.; Lowell, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    The March 2004 expedition at 9-10 N East Pacific Rise, part of the RIDGE 2000 program, allowed amongst other things to pursue the monitoring and sampling of a number of vents after the volcanic eruptions that occurred in 1991/2. Earlier observations have shown that the chemical composition and the temperature have not yet stabilized at many of the vents. This expedition also gave us the opportunity to test an experimental device to estimate the velocity of diffuse flow and heat transport at a couple of vents. These experiments represent the first such attempts to measure these parameters for the 9-10 N hydrothermal system. The idea was to focus the fluid flow through an opening and videotape the motion of particles composing the fluid. Though crude, this method should provide an upper estimate of the fluid velocity and the mass flux of the underlying upflow zone. This operation was also done at the same vents just with a scale maintained close to the flow. This approach yields a lower estimate of the velocity. These tests were run on three dives achieved with the deep submergence vehicle Alvin (dives # 3987, 3990 and 3992, respectively at M-vent, TICA-vent, Bio9, Bio9' and Bio9''). Typical results obtained for the total heat flux ranged from Q = 10^5 W to Q = 10^7 W. This experience has provided insight into a new design based on the temperature measurement at different regions in the stream. We hope to develop this new device in the coming months and deploy it in 2005.

  1. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years.

    PubMed

    Trilling, David E

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties. PMID:26790001

  2. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years

    PubMed Central

    Trilling, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto’s physical properties. PMID:26790001

  3. Total knee arthroplasty in patients 90 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Belmar, C J; Barth, P; Lonner, J H; Lotke, P A

    1999-12-01

    With increasing longevity, more patients older than age 90 now are becoming candidates for total knee arthroplasty. This article reviews our experience with the perioperative morbidity and early outcomes in 12 patients older than age 90, undergoing 15 total knee surgeries. Postoperative Knee Society clinical and functional scores showed excellent outcomes, and the quality of life is enhanced. There were no significant surgical complications; however, there were several nonsurgical complications, including mental confusion (3), urinary retention (3), atrial fibrillation (2), atrial flutter (1), and gallstone retention and gastrointestinal bleed (1). Most of these complications stemmed directly from the preoperative medical condition. These are predictive and therefore may be recognized early and treated aggressively. Total knee surgery can be performed safely in patients older than 90 years old with excellent pain relief and enhanced quality of life. The surgeon should be aware of the patient's past medical history because this predisposes to postoperative morbidity. PMID:10614879

  4. Empathic Responsivity at 3 Years of Age in a Sample of Cocaine-exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Colder, Craig D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cocaine and behavioral and physiological responsiveness during an empathy task at three years of age. Participants were 216 mother-infant dyads (116 cocaine exposed-CE, 100 nonexposed-NCE) recruited at birth. Measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained during baseline and during a task designed to elicit empathy (exposure to infant crying). When the effects of prenatal cocaine use were examined in the context of polydrug use, results of model testing indicated that lower gestational age, prenatal exposure to cocaine and postnatal exposure to alcohol were each associated with a reduced suppression of RSA during the empathy task. These findings provide additional support for an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and dysregulation during early childhood during affect-eliciting environmental challenges. PMID:24444666

  5. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1,407–1,507 m, 1,479–1,597 m, 1,423–1,654 m, and 1,433–1,666 m in 9- to 12-year-old boys and 1,262–1,362 m, 1,329–1,434 m, 1,392–1,501 m, and 1,415–1,526 m in 9- to 12-year-old girls correspond to a “medium” fitness level (i.e., P40 to P60) in this population. Conclusions The observed differences in physical fitness development between boys and girls illustrate that age- and sex-specific maturational processes might have an impact on the fitness status of healthy children. Our statistical analyses revealed linear (e.g., lower-extremity muscular power) and curvilinear (e.g., agility) models of fitness improvement with age which is indicative of timed and capacity-specific fitness development pattern during childhood. Lastly, the provided age- and sex-specific percentile values can be used by coaches for talent identification and by teachers for rating/grading of children’s motor performance. PMID:26544848

  6. Cognitive deficits at age 22 years associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to mercury has been associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment. The present study aims to determine the extent to which methylmercury-associated cognitive deficits persist into adult age. In a Faroese birth cohort originally formed in 1986-1987 (N=1,022), prenatal methylmercury exposure was assessed in terms of the mercury concentration in cord blood and maternal hair. Clinical examinations of 847 cohort members at age 22 years were carried out in 2008-2009 using a panel of neuropsychological tests that reflected major functional domains. Subjects with neurological and psychiatric diagnoses were excluded from the data analysis, thus leaving 814 subjects. Multiple regression analysis included covariates previously identified for adjustment. Deficits in Boston Naming Test (BNT) and other tests of verbal performance were significantly associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration. Deficits were also present in all other tests applied, although most were not statistically significant. Structural equation models were developed to ascertain the possible differences in vulnerability of specific functional domains and the overall association with general intelligence. In models for individual domains, all of them showed negative associations, with crystallized intelligence being highly significant. A hierarchical model for general intelligence based on all domains again showed a highly significant negative association with the exposure, with an approximate deficit that corresponds to about 2.2 IQ points at a 10-fold increased prenatal methylmercury exposure. Thus, although the cognitive deficits observed were smaller than at examinations at younger ages, maternal diets with contaminated seafood were associated with adverse effects in this birth cohort at age 22 years. The deficits affected major domains of brain functions as well as general intelligence. Thus, prenatal exposure to this marine contaminant appears to cause permanent adverse effects on cognition. PMID:26109549

  7. Physical Activity and Mental Well-being in a Cohort Aged 60–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Black, Stephanie V.; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Kathryn R.; Brage, Soren; Kuh, Diana; Stafford, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although evidence suggests physical activity (PA) may be associated with mental well-being at older ages, it is unclear whether some types of PA are more important than others. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations of monitored total PA under free-living conditions, self-reported leisure-time PA (LTPA), and walking for pleasure with mental well-being at age 60–64 years. Methods Data on 930 (47%) men and 1,046 (53%) women from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development collected in 2006–2011 at age 60–64 were used in 2013–2014 to test the associations of PA (PA energy expenditure and time spent in different intensities of activity assessed using combined heart rate and acceleration monitors worn for 5 days, self-reported LTPA, and walking for pleasure) with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS; range, 14–70). Results In linear regression models adjusted for gender, long-term limiting illness, smoking, employment, socioeconomic position, personality, and prior PA, those who walked for >1 hour/week had mean WEMWBS scores 1.47 (95% CI=0.60, 2.34) points higher than those who reported no walking. Those who participated in LTPA at least five times/month had WEMWBS scores 1.25 (95% CI=0.34, 2.16) points higher than those who did not engage in LTPA. There were no statistically significant associations between free-living PA and WEMWBS scores. Conclusions In adults aged 60–64 years, participation in self-selected activities such as LTPA and walking are positively related to mental well-being, whereas total levels of free-living PA are not. PMID:26070782

  8. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2015-01-01

    Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 5059 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.635.8) and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 6069 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.334.2). Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users), and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is important to educate clinicians about sexual risk behaviors in the older age group and to design preventive interventions specifically designed for older adults. PMID:25960684

  9. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

  10. Management of Idiopathic Clubfoot by Ponseti Technique in Children Presenting After One Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Jilani, Latif Zafar; Abbas, Mazhar; Zahid, Mohammad; Asif, Naiyer

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of the Ponseti technique in the management of idiopathic congenital clubfoot in patients older than 1year of age. A total of 19 patients with 28 clubfeet (16 males [84.2%], 3 females [15.8%]) were included in the present study. The mean age at presentation was 2.7 (range 1 to 3.5) years. The results of treatment using the Ponseti technique were evaluated using the Pirani and Dimeglio scoring systems. The mean precorrection total Pirani score was 4.84 (range 3.5 to 5.5) and the mean precorrection Dimeglio score was 12.96 (range 10 to 14). The mean postcorrection total Pirani score was 0.55(range 0 to 1), and the mean postcorrection Dimeglio score was 2.32 (range 2 to 3). These differences were statistically significant (p < .001 and p < .001, respectively). In 92.8% of the feet, satisfactory correction of the deformity was achieved. The mean number of casts applied was 8 (range 5 to 12). All but 1 (3.6%) of the clubfeet required tenotomy to achieve correction. The mean follow-up duration was 2.7 (range 1.5 to 3.5) years. We have concluded that the Ponseti technique is an effective method for the management of idiopathic congenital clubfoot, even in toddlers. PMID:25128311

  11. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

  12. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females. PMID:25748440

  13. [The year 2000: one billion couples of child-bearing age].

    PubMed

    Lintong, L J

    1988-04-01

    Out of 1 billion couples there are only 124 million who use modern and effective contraceptives. World abortions number 33 million/year. 250 million sexually active women of child-bearing age in developing countries outside China do not use modern and effective contraceptives. Fertility control costs on the average US$2.5 billion a year in each developing country, 20% of which is assistance from developed countries. Expanding the family planning service to the 250 million sexually active child-bearing aged women costs an additional U.S. $5 billion yearly. A family planning accessibility survey was conducted by the Population Crisis Committee. PCC divided the countries into 2 categories: Developed and developing countries. The 110 countries (15 developed and 95 developing) covered 96% of the world population. The survey placed the countries in 5 classes according to accessibility levels: Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor. The developed countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, service to the poor and minorities, sex education in the schools, and family planning information and advertisement. The developing countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, performance of service and distribution, public information and education, private sector participation, government finance and policies. Of the 15 developed countries, 43% were excellent, 22% good, 24% fair, and 2% poor. Of the 95 developing countries, 5 were excellent, 10 good, 16 fair, and 64 either poor or very poor countries in respect to family planning accessibility. In the face of a population explosion in the year 2000, many countries lack of government support for family planning programs. After 30 years of world effort in population control, half of the world population still has no effective family planning services. PMID:12343749

  14. Breastfeeding and risk of overweight and obesity at nine-years of age.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Whether breastfeeding is protective against the development of childhood overweight and obesity remains the subject of considerable debate. Although a number of meta-analyses and syntheses of the literature have concluded that the greater preponderance of evidence indicates that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity, these findings are by no means conclusive. The present study used data from the Growing Up in Ireland study to examine the relationship between retrospectively recalled breastfeeding data and contemporaneously measured weight status for 7798 children at nine-years of age controlling for a wide range of variables including; socio-demographic factors, the child's own lifestyle-related behaviours, and parental BMI. The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that being breastfed for between 13 and 25 weeks was associated with a 38 percent (p < 0.05) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine-years of age, while being breastfed for 26 weeks or more was associated with a 51 percent (p < 0.01) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine-years of age. Moreover, results pointed towards a dose-response patterning in the data for those breastfed in excess of 4 weeks. Possible mechanisms conveying this health benefit include slower patterns of growth among breastfed children, which it is believed, are largely attributable to differences in the composition of human breast milk compared with synthesised formula. The suggestion that the choice of infant feeding method has important implications for health and development is tantalising as it identifies a modifiable health behaviour that is amenable to intervention in primary health care settings and has the potential to improve the health of the population. PMID:22560796

  15. Evaluation of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in Canadians 40 years of age or more.

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, D W; Bjornson, G J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the side effects and immune responses after three serial doses of a new inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in people 40 years of age or more. DESIGN: Open, noncomparative trial. SETTING: A hospital, a regional laboratory and public health units in British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of 64 healthy adults aged 40 to 61 years who were seronegative for hepatitis A virus (HAV). All were staff or associates of the health facilities. Exclusion criteria included elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels, a history of liver disease and recent travel to areas of high risk for HAV infection. INTERVENTION: A formalin-inactivated, alum-adsorbed vaccine containing 720 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) units of antigen from HAV strain HM175 per 1.0-mL dose was injected intramuscularly into the delgoid area. The second and third doses were given 1 and 6 months later respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A detailed diary of any adverse effects for 3 days after each dose. HAV antibody levels in blood samples taken before and 30 days after each dose. RESULTS: All subjects completed the planned series of vaccinations and blood tests; symptom diaries were returned after 190 (99%) of 192 vaccinations. Local symptoms, most often soreness, were reported after 46% of the vaccinations but were mild and usually resolved within 24 hours. A temperature of more than 38.0 degrees C was never reported. Seroconversion occurred in all cases after the two primary doses, and the subjects were still seropositive at 6 months. After the booster dose the geometric mean titre was 2380 mIU/mL, all values being 200 mIU/mL or greater. CONCLUSION: In healthy adults 40 years of age or more the HAV vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. Final antibody levels were much higher than reported in people passively immunized against HAV with immune serum globulin. PMID:8431816

  16. Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lanata, Claudio F.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Olascoaga, Ana C.; Torres, Carla X.; Aryee, Martin J.; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5–13 pathogens, p<0·0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000–295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000–146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000–113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000–76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world. PMID:24023773

  17. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

  18. Performance trends in master freestyle swimmers aged 25-89years at the FINA World Championships from 1986 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Knig, Stefan; Rosemann, Thomas; Rst, Christoph A

    2016-02-01

    Performance trends in elite freestyle swimmers are well known, but not for master freestyle swimmers. We investigated trends in participation, performance, and sex difference in performance of 65,584 freestyle master swimmers from 25-29 to 85-89years competing in FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. The men-to-women ratio was calculated for each age group, and the trend across age groups was analyzed using single linear regression analysis. Trends in performance changes were investigated using a mixed-effects regression model with sex, distance, and calendar year as fixed variables. Participation increased in women and men in older age groups (i.e., 40years and older). Women and men improved race times across years in all age groups and distances. For age groups 25-29 to 75-79years, women were slower than men, but not for age groups 80-84 to 85-89years. In 50, 100, and 200m, women reduced the sex difference from 1986 to 2014 in age groups 30-34 to 75-79years. In 400m, women reduced the gap to men across time in age groups 40-44, 45-49, and 55-59years. In 800m, sex difference became reduced across time in age groups 55-59 and 70-74years. In summary, participation increased from 1986 to 2014 in women and men in older age groups, women and men improved across time performance in all distances, and women were not slower compared to men in age groups 80-84 to 85-89years. We expect a continuous trend in increasing participation and improved performance in master freestyle swimmers. PMID:26833033

  19. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-01-01

    de Moura DR, Costa JC, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Matijasevich A, Halpern R, Dumith S, Karam S, Barros FC. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 211–221. Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay. PMID:20415750

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-El S

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

  1. Effectiveness of skin cancer screening for individuals age 14 to 34 years.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Schmitt J; Seidler A; Heinisch G; Sebastian G

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND:  Approximately 15 % of all cases of melanoma are diagnosed before age 35 years. In Germany, individuals ≥ 35 years are eligible for the national skin cancer screening program. The effectiveness of a population-based skin cancer screening in general and in particular for young adults is unclear.OBJECTIVES:  Assessment of the effectiveness of a skin cancer screening program and of risk factors for detection of a melanoma/atypical nevus in the setting of a screening for the age group 14 to 34 years.METHODS:  A total of 12,187 individuals age 14 to 34 years were screened in Saxony for skin cancer by a dermatologist in the program "Haut-Check 14-34 Jahre" of the AOK PLUS, a large German health insurance, between January and July 2009. Demographic, clinical and histopathological data and UV-exposure data were collected from each participant. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for the detection of a (histopathologically confirmed) melanoma or atypical nevus.RESULTS:  2.8 % of the eligible individuals participated in the skin cancer screening program with women being more likely to do so. In 1 072 individuals (8.8 %) screening included at least one excision of a skin lesion leading to the diagnosis of melanoma in two participants, melanoma in situ in four persons, and atypical nevus in 641 persons. Use of tanning beds, higher age, number of nevi, and previous cutaneous excision were independent risk factors for the detection of a melanoma or atypical nevus.CONCLUSIONS:  In 5.5 % of all cases skin cancer screening resulted in the excision of a malignant or atypical melanocytic lesion. It remains unclear what proportion of these cases would have been detected in routine care. The rate of excisions per newly diagnosed melanoma was 179 : 1. Further investigations are necessary to explore the reasons for this low diagnostic specificity. This study highlights the possibilities and limitations of routine data to evaluate screening programs and indicates the need to collect additional information on healthcare utilization behaviour.

  2. Aripiprazole for irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2010-09-29

    Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6-17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119

  3. Changes in refraction between the ages of 1 and 3 1/2 years.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Barr, A

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of the changes in refraction as a sample of 148 children grew between the ages of 1 and 3 1/2 years. There was no decrease in hypermetropia, but there was a significant decrease in the incidence of astigmatism. Study of the changes in the refraction in the horizontal and vertical meridia of individual eyes gave clear evidence of a trend towards emmetropia if the initial refraction in either meridian was myopic or less than +2.50 D. Above that level the refraction became more or less hypermetropic. PMID:465408

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yo-El S.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50 years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

  5. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141

  6. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age

  7. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine

  8. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  9. Short Sleep Duration in the First Years of Life and Obesity/Overweight at Age 4 Years: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Halal, Camila S.E.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D.; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Fernando C.; Nunes, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether short sleep duration from the first year of life influenced weight at an early age. Study design During 2004, children born in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a cohort study. Sleeping habits during the previous 2 weeks were assessed, and the children were weighed and measured at 1-, 2-, and 4-year follow-ups. Overweight and obesity at 4 years were defined according to World Health Organization z-scores for body mass index for age. Short sleep duration was defined as fewer than 10 hours of sleep per night at any follow-up. Results Out of the 4263 live births, 4231 were recruited. The prevalence of short sleep duration at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age was 10.1%. At 4 years of age, 201 children were obese (5.3%), and 302 (8%) were overweight. Among short sleepers, the prevalence ratio for overweight/obesity after adjusting for maternal and children's characteristics was 1.32 (1.03; 1.70). Conclusions Children who slept for fewer than 10 hours per night at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age were more likely to be overweight or obese at 4 years of age, despite their sociodemographic and sleep characteristics. PMID:26541426

  10. Evidence-based portion sizes for children aged 1-4 years.

    PubMed

    More, Judy

    2013-05-01

    Existing guidelines on how to feed preschool children have left parents and carers unsure about how to offer a diet that will provide their young children with adequate nutrition but prevent excess weight gain. The consequences of malnutrition, such as iron deficiency anaemia and obesity, remain prevalent in this age group and giving parents more specific guidance will help address this. The evidence-based portion sizes from the Infant & Toddler Forum for 1-4-year-old-children have been calculated to meet, but not exceed, their energy requirements and provide all their nutrients, with the exception of vitamin D for which they need a daily supplement. These portion size ranges can be used as serving guides by parents, carers and staff in early years settings. Their use will both reassure parents who worry their preschool children are not eating enough and will help address excess energy intake by toddlers, which is the main cause of obesity. PMID:23724763

  11. Dementia after age 75: survival in different severity stages and years of life lost.

    PubMed

    Rizzuto, Debora; Bellocco, Rino; Kivipelto, Miia; Clerici, Francesca; Wimo, Anders; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2012-09-01

    Dementia is a known predictor of mortality, but little is known about disease duration. We therefore aimed to investigate the impact of dementia on survival by estimating years lived with the disease, in total and in different severity stages, and by comparing dementia to other major chronic disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). During a 7.4-year follow-up of the Kungsholmen project, 371 incident dementia cases of the 1,307 dementia-free persons, aged 75+ at baseline, were clinically diagnosed (DSM-III-R criteria). Diagnoses of cancer and CVD were obtained from the national Stockholm Inpatient Registry System, active since 1969. Disease duration, hazard ratio (HR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL) were derived from Kaplan-Meier survival estimation, the Cox model, and standard life-table analysis, respectively. Dementia was a significant predictor of mortality (HR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.47-1.92) after adjustment for several covariates including comorbidity, accounting for 16% of all deaths. The mean (?SD) survival time after dementia diagnosis was 4.1 (?2.6) years, and more than 2 years were spent in moderate (14-month) and severe (12-month) stages. Women with dementia lived longer than men, as they survived longer in the severe stage (2.1 vs. 0.5 years among 75-84-year-old women compared to coetaneous men). The PYLL were 3.4 for dementia, 3.6 for CVD, and 4.4 for cancer. We found a similar impact of dementia and CVD on survival, but following diagnosis, persons with dementia, and especially women, spent half of their remaining lives in the severe disabling stages of the disease. PMID:22299618

  12. Oxidation and wear of 100-Mrad cross-linked polyethylene shelf-aged for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Masuda, Shingo

    2008-02-01

    Some previous studies suggest that aging influences wear and oxidatively degraded nonsterilized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibits decreased wear resistance. We therefore asked whether shelf-aging storage conditions influenced degradation and wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE. We examined oxidation and wear of 100-Mrad gamma-irradiated UHMWPE (100-Mrad polyethylene) cups shelf-aged for 30 years without (n=2) or with (n=2) packages. The oxidation index of the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene surface (4) was higher than that of the packaged one (2.7). The packaged 100-Mrad polyethylene cup exhibited a high wear resistance with a steady wear rate of 0.5 mg/10(6) cycles. In contrast, the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene exhibited an extremely high initial wear rate of 187.9 mg/10(6) cycles over the first 0.25 x 10(6) cycles with a subsequently reduced wear rate of 5 mg/10(6) cycles after 5 x 10(6) cycles. Packaging over long periods inhibits surface oxidation and maintains the wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE cups. PMID:18196416

  13. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. PMID:26428662

  14. Stability of P50 auditory sensory gating during sleep from infancy to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sharon K; Gillow, Sabreena J; Ross, Randal G

    2015-03-01

    The stability of cerebral inhibition was assessed across early childhood using a paired-click auditory sensory gating paradigm. The P50 ERP was measured during REM (or its infant analogue, active sleep) and NREM sleep in 14 children at approximately 3 months of age and again at approximately 4 years of age. Evoked response amplitudes, latencies, and the S2/S1 ratio of the amplitudes of the evoked responses were compared between the two visits. Significant reliability was found for the S2/S1 ratio (r = .73, p = .003) during REM but not non REM sleep (r = -.05, p = .88). A significant stimulus number by sleep stage interaction (F(1,12) = 17.1, p = .001) demonstrated that the response to the second stimulus decreased during REM but not NREM sleep. These findings suggest that this measure is stable during REM sleep across early childhood, is not affected by age, and is sleep-state dependent. P50 sensory gating is a biomarker which, if used properly, may provide a mechanism to further explore changes in the developing brain or may help with early screening for psychiatric illness vulnerability. PMID:25596494

  15. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Mark S.; James, Peter W.; Franco-Villoria, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Jones, Angela R.; Basterfield, Laura; Drewett, Robert F.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults. PMID:24089678

  16. Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients over 80 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kihwan; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Chang Hyeun; Ban, Seung Pil; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kim, Beom Joon; Bang, Jae Seung; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Boram; Jeong, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke in patients over 80 years of age. Materials and Methods The records of 156 acute stroke patients aged over 80 years who were considered as candidates for EVT were analyzed. Fifty-six patients (35.9%, EVT group) underwent EVT and 100 patients (64.1%, non-EVT group) did not. Outcomes, in terms of functional outcomes and rates of symptomatic hemorrhage, in-hospital morbidity and mortality, were compared between groups. Each comparison was adjusted for age, time from onset, initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results More patients in the EVT group achieved good outcomes (mRS score of 0-2) at 3 months (35.7% vs. 11.0%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.779 [95% confidence interval 1.972-11.579], p = 0.001) and 12 months (35.7% vs. 14.0%, adjusted OR 3.705 [1.574-8.722], p = 0.003) after stroke. During admission, rates of hospital-acquired infection including pneumonia (12.5% vs. 29.0%, adjusted OR 0.262 [0.098-0.703], p = 0.008) and urinary tract infection (16.0% vs. 34.0%, adjusted OR 0.256 [0.099-0.657], p = 0.005) were significantly lower in the EVT group. More symptomatic hemorrhages (10.7% vs. 2.0%, adjusted OR 6.859 [1.139-41.317], p = 0.036) occurred in the EVT group, but no significant difference was observed in in-hospital mortality rate (12.5% vs. 8.0%, adjusted OR 1.380 [0.408-4.664], p = 0.604). Conclusion EVT improved functional outcome and reduced the risk of hospital-acquired infections in acute stroke patients over 80 years of age without increasing the risk of in-hospital mortality, although symptomatic hemorrhage occurred more frequently after EVT. PMID:26523252

  17. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  18. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.597.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.231.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.597.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.625.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  19. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (?2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: ? = ?3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: ? = ?3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect childrens IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  20. Vision and visual disability in the daily life of a representative population sample aged 82 years.

    PubMed

    Bergman, B; Sjstrand, J

    1992-02-01

    A representative population sample (n = 203) aged 82 years was studied to determine the prevalence of impaired vision and visual disability in a cohort previously investigated at the age of 70 years. Visual impairments and disabilities were generally most marked among the non-ambulatory subjects. In the ambulatory group (n = 160) 54% had VA greater than 0.8 and 8% VA less than 0.3. Near vision was also markedly better in this group. About 90% of the ambulatory cases could read J2 or better, read books and watch TV. Statistical analysis showed no sex difference with respect to visual ability for ambulatory subjects. Subjects with a wide range of distance VA were able to read J1 and J2, whereas only one ambulatory patient with J4 or worse had a distance VA above 0.3. To watch TV and manage most of the everyday activities a distance VA of 0.4-0.5 was required. To read newspapers and books a near vision of J2 was needed and for the telephone book J1 was needed. Improvements of near vision obtained by a change of own glasses were small. Hobby and household work proved less dependent on vision. The subjects showed a fairly realistic view of their visual capability, and distance VA was a valuable predictor of visual ability and disability. PMID:1557973

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  2. Swimming Pool Drownings Among US Residents Aged 524 Years: Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (19951998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools. PMID:16507730

  3. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  4. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Using Grafts From Donors Older Than the Age of 80Years.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, A V; Alvarez, M J; Mndez, C S M; Villegas, M T; MGraneroa, K; Becerra, A; Dominguez, M; Raya, A M; Exposito, M; Surez, Y F

    2015-11-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study between 2002 and 2014 to compare liver transplantation outcomes between recipients of grafts from donors older than and younger than the age of 80 years. Numerical variables were compared with the Student t test when their distribution was normal and the Mann-Whitney test when it was not, whereas categorical variables were compared with Pearson chi-squared test or Fisher test, as appropriate; P< .05 was considered significant. The study included 312 patients with organs from donors younger than 80 years of age and 17 with organs from older donors. The 2 recipient groups did not significantly differ in weight, height, gender, body mass index (BMI), CHILD or MELD score, intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital stay, need for intraoperative hemoderivatives, postreperfusion syndrome, biliary or vascular complications, ischemic cholangiopathy, number of repeat surgeries, graft rejection, retransplantation, or survival at 6 months. Although earlier studies considered livers from elderly donors to be suboptimal, our results support the proposition that octogenarian donors can be an excellent source of liver grafts. PMID:26680060

  5. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  6. Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Čelakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Vaněčková, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen–associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:24891679

  7. Quantifying health aspects of passive smoking in British children aged 5-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to estimate the dose-response relations of height and respiratory symptoms to passive smoking in children aged 5-11 years. DESIGN--The study was an analysis of existing observational studies, comprising three samples: English representative; English inner city; Scottish representative. SETTING--Primary schools (children aged 5-11 years). PARTICIPANTS--The study population included 5002 English children from the representative sample (69.1% of total eligible), 2903 English inner city children (42.0%), and 3319 representative Scottish children (75.6%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--No significant relation was found between child's height and total parental smoking in the home. Relative risk for persistent wheeze on exposure to 20 cigarettes per day was 1.35, compared to no exposure. Risk of at least one respiratory condition attributable to passive smoking reached 8.1% in white English inner city children. CONCLUSIONS--The relation of child's height to passive smoking was not substantiated. The risk of respiratory conditions resulting from passive smoking, although small, is not negligible. PMID:1757759

  8. Spread of hepatitis E virus among different-aged pigs: two-year survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jaw-Ching; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Tsai, Wen-Hsuan; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Sheen, I-Jane; Lin, Chen-Chun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2002-04-01

    Swine are reservoirs of hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, a 2-year survey of HEV in feces and sera of swine was conducted to determine if: 1) HEV has circulated among pigs for some time in Taiwan; 2) the spread of HEV among different-aged pigs; and 3) there exists HEV strains possibly imported through trading. From 1998-2000, 521 serum samples and 54 fecal specimens from pigs were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. None of the 11 pigs in suckling stage (< 2 months) were serum HEV RNA positive. The highest viremia rate (4.5%) was in pigs of 2 months age, followed by 1.2% and 1.8% in pigs of growing (3-4 months) and finishing stages (5-6 months), and none in pigs older than 6 months. Viremia showed little variation in different years and areas. None of the 20 fecal samples from pigs in suckling stage were HEV RNA positive, whereas 9% of the 34 samples from pigs in growing or finishing stages were positive. Most swine HEV isolates in Taiwan clustered within the genotype 4, whereas the three HEV isolates cloned from pigs imported recently from the U.S. belonged to the genotype 3 HEV in the U.S. The results suggest that HEV may infect pigs at an early growing stage and spread unnoticed among pigs and possibly across countries through trading. PMID:11857526

  9. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  10. Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ≤ 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

    2014-05-16

    In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ≤29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ≤29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

  11. AB027. Testosterone deficiency of testosterone replacement therapy Mongolian men aged over 40 years old

    PubMed Central

    Naidan, Nansalmaa; Rivaad, Oyun-Erdene; Janlav, Munkhtsetseg; Muukhai, Namsrai

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Early detection of testosterone deficiency in middle aged and aging male improves their quality of life and prevents testosterone relating disorders. There is not enough evidence based study related testosterone deficiency syndrome and erectile dysfunction in Mongolia. Purpose of our study is investigating TDS and erectile dysfunction among men over 40 years old. We conducted questionnaires of AMS (Aging Male Symptom) scale and erectile function levels and forms of sexual function by IIEF-5 score. And we studied the relation of erectile dysfunction. To determine to testosterone deficiency by serum level of total testosterone less sensitive than free testosterone. To detect the testosterone deficiency syndrome in aging males with erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 309 males over 40 years of age enrolled this study. An approval of the Ethical Committee of MOH was obtained. Each participant was assigned to either an erectile dysfunction (ED) group or a control group depending on results of the IIEF-5 questionnaire. The ED group was further divided into three groups (moderate, severe and very severe) based on a level of ED. The total testosterone (TT) levels were determined in blood serum, using a competitive ELISA analytical system and free testosterone (FT) calculated as described by Vermeulen. Test samples were collected between 8:00-11:00 am. The biochemical diagnosis of TDS was based on ISSAM guidelines, particularly, if TT was ?3.46 ng/mL or free testosterone FT was ?0.072 ng/mL. Results ED of moderate, severe and very severe levels were diagnosed in 199 (64.41%) out of 309 participants. There was an inverse association between an erectile function and age (r=?0.380, P<0.01). The average TT was 5.752.316 ng/mL and FT was 0.0910.0084 ng/mL. Compared to the ED group, the control group had a higher TT level: 5.64401.177 ng/mL and 5.8122.316 ng/mL respectively. In the control group the FT level was 0.0610.0084 ng/mL whereas it was 0.0410.0076 ng/mL in the ED group. Late onset hypogonadism detection by using calculated free testosterone was three times higher when using total testosterone. Testosterone replacement therapy improved erectile function, aging and reducing waist circumference and maintain testosterone in biological level. Conclusions Our study showed that most of aging males had a moderate to very severe ED (64.55%). The level of TT (5.6441.177 ng/mL) and FT (0.0410.0036 ng/mL) was significantly lower in ED patients (P<0.05). The testosterone deficiency syndrome was detected in 24.27% of the ED group.

  12. Photocatalytic oxygenation of 10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine by O? with manganese porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Ohkubo, Kei; Goldberg, David P; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-08-14

    Photocatalytic oxygenation of 10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine (AcrH2) by dioxygen (O2) with a manganese porphyrin [(P)Mn(III): 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)porphinatomanganese(III) hydroxide [(TMP)Mn(III)(OH)] (1) or 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinatomanganese(III) acetate [(TPFPP)Mn(III)(CH3COO)] (2)] occurred to yield 10-methyl-(9,10H)-acridone (Acr?O) in an oxygen-saturated benzonitrile (PhCN) solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactivity of (P)Mn(III) in the presence of O2 is in proportion to concentrations of AcrH2 or O2 with the maximum turnover numbers of 17 and 6 for 1 and 2, respectively. The quantum yield with 1 was determined to be 0.14%. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were observed with KIE = 22 for 1 and KIE = 6 for 2, indicating that hydrogen-atom transfer from AcrH2 is involved in the rate-determining step of the photocatalytic reaction. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements are consistent with photoexcitation of (P)Mn(III), resulting in intersystem crossing from a tripquintet excited state to a tripseptet excited state. A mechanism is proposed where the tripseptet excited state reacts with O2 to produce a putative (P)Mn(IV) superoxo complex. Hydrogen-atom transfer from AcrH2 to (P)Mn(IV)(O2(-)) generating a hydroperoxo complex (P)Mn(IV)(OOH) and AcrH() is likely the rate-determining step, in competition with back electron transfer to regenerate the ground state (P)Mn(III) and O2. The subsequent reductive O-O bond cleavage by AcrH() may occur rapidly inside of the reaction cage to produce (P)Mn(V)(O) and AcrH(OH), followed by the oxidation of AcrH(OH) by (P)Mn(V)(O) to yield Acr?O with regeneration of (P)Mn(III). PMID:25079061

  13. Photocatalytic Oxygenation of 10-Methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine by O2 with Manganese Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxygenation of 10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine (AcrH2) by dioxygen (O2) with a manganese porphyrin [(P)MnIII: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)porphinatomanganese(III) hydroxide [(TMP)MnIII(OH)] (1) or 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinatomanganese(III) acetate [(TPFPP)MnIII(CH3COO)] (2)] occurred to yield 10-methyl-(9,10H)-acridone (Acr=O) in an oxygen-saturated benzonitrile (PhCN) solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactivity of (P)MnIII in the presence of O2 is in proportion to concentrations of AcrH2 or O2 with the maximum turnover numbers of 17 and 6 for 1 and 2, respectively. The quantum yield with 1 was determined to be 0.14%. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were observed with KIE = 22 for 1 and KIE = 6 for 2, indicating that hydrogen-atom transfer from AcrH2 is involved in the rate-determining step of the photocatalytic reaction. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements are consistent with photoexcitation of (P)MnIII, resulting in intersystem crossing from a tripquintet excited state to a tripseptet excited state. A mechanism is proposed where the tripseptet excited state reacts with O2 to produce a putative (P)MnIV superoxo complex. Hydrogen-atom transfer from AcrH2 to (P)MnIV(O2) generating a hydroperoxo complex (P)MnIV(OOH) and AcrH is likely the rate-determining step, in competition with back electron transfer to regenerate the ground state (P)MnIII and O2. The subsequent reductive OO bond cleavage by AcrH may occur rapidly inside of the reaction cage to produce (P)MnV(O) and AcrH(OH), followed by the oxidation of AcrH(OH) by (P)MnV(O) to yield Acr=O with regeneration of (P)MnIII. PMID:25079061

  14. Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.

    PubMed

    Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

    2011-10-26

    In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

  15. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ?1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ?1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ?1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

  16. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. PMID:26257031

  17. A Randomized Trial of Atropine versus Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the visual acuity outcome at 15 years of age for children younger than 7 years when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomly assigned to patching (a minimum of 6 hours a day) or atropine eye drops (1% - one drop daily) for 6 months. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator. Two years after enrollment, an unselected subgroup of 188 children were enrolled into long-term follow-up. Main outcome measure Visual acuity at age 15 years with the electronic ETDRS© test in amblyopic and fellow eyes. Results Mean amblyopic-eye acuity, measured in 147 subjects, at age 15 years was 0.14 logMAR (approximately 20/25); 60% of amblyopic eyes were 20/25 or better and 33% 20/20 or better. Mean interocular acuity difference (IOD) at age 15 years was 0.21 logMAR (2.1 lines); 48% of subjects had an IOD of (2 or more lines and 71% had an IOD of 1 or more lines). Treatment (other than spectacles) was prescribed for 9 subjects (6%) between age 10 and 15 years. Mean IOD was similar at 10 and 15 years of age (2.0 and 2.1 logMAR lines, P=0.39). Better visual acuity at age 15 years was achieved in those who were <5 years old at the time of entry into the randomized trial (mean logMAR=0.09) compared with those who were 5 to <7 years old (mean logMAR=0.18, P<0.001). Comparing subgroups based on original treatment with atropine or patching, there were no significant differences in amblyopic- and fellow-eye visual acuities at age 15 years (P= 0.44 and 0.43, respectively). Conclusion At age 15 years most children treated for moderate amblyopia when <7 years old have good visual acuity, although mild residual amblyopia is common. The outcome is similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. The results indicate that improvement occurring with amblyopia treatment is maintained until at least age 15 years. Application to Clinical Practice Most children treated with patching and atropine eye drops for amblyopia when <7 years old have good visual acuity at age 15 years. Trial Registry Name Amblyopia Treatment Study: Occlusion versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Registration Number NCT00000170 URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000170 PMID:24789375

  18. Operative Management of Elbow UCL Insufficiency in Adolescent Athletes Age 18 Years and Younger

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kristofer J.; Rebolledo, Brian J.; Weeks, Kenneth; Dines, David M.; Dines, Joshua S.; Altchek, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) insufficiency of the elbow has drastically increased in the adolescent population over the last decade due to widespread participation in overhead athletics. Previous reports suggest clinical outcomes in teenage athletes are inferior to results in higher-level adult athletes. We hypothesized that UCL reconstruction using the docking technique would result in improved outcomes in this age group. Methods: 46 adolescent athletes (mean age 17 years, range 12-18 years) underwent UCL reconstruction using the docking technique. The majority of patients were baseball players; there were three gymnasts and three javelin throwers. Retrospective review revealed each patient had a history and physical exam consistent with UCL injury along with advanced imaging demonstrating corresponding UCL pathology (24 distal tears, 22 proximal tears). Patients were evaluated at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively based on their ability to return to athletic activity. Clinical outcomes were classified using the Conway Scale, the Andrews-Timmerman Score, and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Score. Results: At most recent follow-up, 89% (41/46) of patients had excellent results using the Conway Scale. There was one good, two fair and two poor results. One fair result was noted in a revision case and the two poor results occurred in patients who had concomitant capitellar OCD lesions. UCL tear location did not affect clinical outcome. There were four postoperative complications in four patients (two gymnasts and two javelin throwers) who developed ulnar neuritis following reconstruction. The average Andrews-Timmerman Score was 86.7 and the mean KJOC score was 88. Conclusion: The docking technique results in favorable clinical outcomes in adolescent athletes with UCL insufficiency at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Overall, results were better than previously published reports in this age group and this may be attributed to technique specific factors. Patients with concomitant intraarticular pathology should be counseled preopreratively that they may experience inferior clinical outcomes. Additionally, gymnasts and javelin throwers may be at increased risk for postoperative complications due to increased stress on the medial elbow.

  19. Tolerability of Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years and Older

    SciTech Connect

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Clark, Jeffrey; Willett, Christopher G.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of treatment deviations during combined modality therapy for rectal cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of consecutively treated patients with rectal cancer aged 75 years and older treated with combined modality therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2002 to 2007. The primary endpoint was the rate of treatment deviation, defined as a treatment break, dose reduction, early discontinuation of therapy, or hospitalization during combined modality therapy. Patient comorbidity was rated using the validated Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 Test (ACE-27) comorbidity index. Fisher's exact test and the Mantel-Haenszel trend test were used to identify predictors of treatment tolerability. Results: Thirty-six eligible patients had a median age of 79.0 years (range, 75-87 years); 53% (19/36) had no or mild comorbidity and 47% (17/36) had moderate or severe comorbidity. In all, 58% of patients (21/36) were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and 33% (12/36) with postoperative CRT. Although 92% patients (33/36) completed the planned radiotherapy (RT) dose, 25% (9/36) required an RT-treatment break, 11% (4/36) were hospitalized, and 33% (12/36) had a dose reduction, break, or discontinuation of concurrent chemotherapy. In all, 39% of patients (14/36) completed {>=}4 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, and 17% (6/36) completed therapy without a treatment deviation. More patients with no to mild comorbidity completed treatment than did patients with moderate to severe comorbidity (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.66). The rate of deviation did not differ between patients who had preoperative or postoperative CRT (19% vs. 17%, p = 1.0). Conclusions: The majority of elderly patients with rectal cancer in this series required early termination of treatment, treatment interruptions, or dose reductions. These data suggest that further intensification of combined modality therapy for rectal cancer should be performed with caution in elderly patients, who require aggressive supportive care to complete treatment.

  20. Numerical Simulation of the 9-10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, U. S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big Thompson 1976 storm event, conceptual models have been developed to explain the unusually high precipitation efficiency. In this study, the Black Hills storm is simulated using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Simulations with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initializations and different grid structures are presented. The conceptual models of storm structure proposed by previous studies are examined in light of the present simulations. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous initialization results capture the intense nature of the storm, but the inhomogeneous simulation produced a precipitation pattern closer to the observed pattern. The simulations point to stationary tilted updrafts, with precipitation falling out to the rear as the preferred storm structure. Experiments with different grid structures point to the importance of removing the lateral boundaries far from the region of activity. Overall, simulation performance in capturing the observed behavior of the storm system was enhanced by use of inhomogeneous initialization.

  1. Polyether precursors of molecular recognition systems based on the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcis?o, Anna; Cirocka, Anna; Zarzecza?ska, Dorota; Niedzia?kowski, Pawe?; Nakonieczna, Sandra; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel polyether derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was synthesized and characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, acid-base titration and complexometric titration. The results were compared with 1-NEt2AQ and 1-NHEtAQ - model compounds of alkylaminoanthraquinones. Acetonitrile and methanol were used as solvents for determination of spectroscopic and acid-base properties. Complexometric titrations were carried out exclusively in acetonitrile. Spectral characteristic of these compounds strongly depends on pH. Addition of acid causes the decrease of absorption intensity and in some cases also a shift of the visible range band. The weakest base is the compound (2), and the strongest - compound (1), both in methanol and acetonitrile solution. The introduction of an additional substituent in the position 8 of the anthraquinone compound increases its basicity. The presence of metal ions causes changes in intensity of absorption (decrease for compounds (2) and (3) and increase with bathochromic shift for (1) and (4)). For the determination of the coordination properties aluminum (III) ions were chosen. The highest complex stability constant with Al (III) ions is observed for compound (1), and the weakest for compound (3). The elongation of the polyether chain decreases the stability of the complex formed.

  2. Polyether precursors of molecular recognition systems based on the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety.

    PubMed

    Wcis?o, Anna; Cirocka, Anna; Zarzecza?ska, Dorota; Niedzia?kowski, Pawe?; Nakonieczna, Sandra; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2015-02-25

    A series of novel polyether derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was synthesized and characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, acid-base titration and complexometric titration. The results were compared with 1-NEt2AQ and 1-NHEtAQ--model compounds of alkylaminoanthraquinones. Acetonitrile and methanol were used as solvents for determination of spectroscopic and acid-base properties. Complexometric titrations were carried out exclusively in acetonitrile. Spectral characteristic of these compounds strongly depends on pH. Addition of acid causes the decrease of absorption intensity and in some cases also a shift of the visible range band. The weakest base is the compound (2), and the strongest--compound (1), both in methanol and acetonitrile solution. The introduction of an additional substituent in the position 8 of the anthraquinone compound increases its basicity. The presence of metal ions causes changes in intensity of absorption (decrease for compounds (2) and (3) and increase with bathochromic shift for (1) and (4)). For the determination of the coordination properties aluminum (III) ions were chosen. The highest complex stability constant with Al (III) ions is observed for compound (1), and the weakest for compound (3). The elongation of the polyether chain decreases the stability of the complex formed. PMID:25282027

  3. Infrasound observed in the Czech Republic during convective storms 9 - 10 July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindelarova, Tereza; Skripnikova, Katerina; Chum, Jaroslav; Lastovicka, Jan; Base, Jiri; Mosna, Zbysek

    2013-04-01

    An experimental array has been built at the observatory Panska Ves, Czech Republic (5031' N 1434' E). It is equipped with three differential microbarographs (type ISGM03). The sensors are arranged in an equilateral triangle; the distance between sensors is approximately 200 m. Using this array, we studied infrasound phenomena related with intense convective storms on 9-10 July 2011. In the studied frequency range 0.1-4 Hz, we observed phenomena of short duration related to lightning activity and also signals that persisted tens of seconds. The latter type of infrasound signals is the object of the current study. Azimuth of arrival of the signals corresponded well with position of convective storms towards the observatory and changed as convective storms were travelling across the Czech Republic from the south west to the north east. Apparent velocity often exceeded 340 m/s (considered as the local speed of sound); it means the signals arrived under some elevation angle (up to 40). The azimuth of arrival showed higher variability at the beginning of the event; we repeatedly observed gradual variations in azimuth up to the change of 90. The azimuth of arrival was more stable after 02 UT on 10 July 2011.

  4. Paramagnetic complexes of 9,10-anthraquinone on zeolite surfaces and their thermal transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fionov, A. V.; Nekhaev, A. I.; Shchapin, I. Yu.; Maksimov, A. L.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of one-electron transfer sites on the surface of H-ZSM-5, H-Y, H-mordenite, and H-? zeolites was measured by EPR using 9,10-antrhraquinone as a probe. It has been found that the hyperfine structure from four protons typical for one-centered complexes of anthraquinone with one acidic site was observed in the EPR spectra after anthraquinone interaction with a zeolite surface in the temperature range of 373 to 423 K. It has been established that an elevated temperature of 473 K promoted the decomposition of the adsorbed anthraquinone and the disappearance of the hyperfine structure. It has been shown that the thermal instability of anthraquinone adsorbed on zeolites changed in the series H-? > H-Y > H-ZSM-5 H-mordenite; the coke-forming ability of zeolites with regard to n-decane at 443 K changed in a similar manner. It has been established that the presence of air promoted coke-forming processes upon interaction between n-decane and zeolites.

  5. Exclusively Linear Diffusion of 9,10-Dithioanthracene on an Isotropic Cu(111) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ki-Young

    2005-03-01

    One-dimensional diffusion of adsorbates is a common feature of anisotropic surfaces such as the (110) and (211) cuts of an fcc crystal. The technologically-relevant lowest energy (111) surfaces of coinage metals have sixfold symmetry in the top layer and, hence, generally allow diffusion of adsorbates along more than one direction. Here, we report on the diffusion of individual 9,10-dithioanthracene (DTA) molecules on Cu(111). DTA adsorbs with the aromatic system lying flat on the substrate and with both sulfur atoms anchored at hollow sites of the substrate. In variable-temperature STM studies, we find that it diffuses exclusively in the direction in which it aromatic moiety happened to adsorb. We neither find rotation of the molecule in the surface plane nor diffusion perpendicular to the aromatic axis of the molecule. We investigated the dynamics of the one-dimensional diffusion of DTA and find an energy barrier of 114 meV. DTA molecules form well-ordered molecular rows. By temperature dependent measurements of the spontaneous abstraction of DTA molecules from such row, we could determine that the intermolecular attraction is 40 meV in addition to the diffusion barrier of the isolated molecule. At higher coverage, DTA forms square islands of (3,-1,3,4) symmetry on Cu(111).

  6. Solvatochromism of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone: An electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-01-14

    Solvent effects play a vital role in various chemical, physical, and biological processes. To gain a fundamental understanding of the solute-solvent interactions and their implications on the energy level re-ordering and structure, UV-VIS absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory calculation studies on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in different solvents of diverse solvent polarity has been carried out. The solvatochromic analysis of the absorption spectra of PQ in protic dipolar solvents suggests that the longest (1n-?{sup 1}*; S{sub 1} state) and the shorter (1?-?{sup 1}*; S{sub 2} state) wavelength band undergoes a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively. It also indicates that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in the differential solvation of the S{sub 2} state relative to the ground state. Raman excitation profiles of PQ (4001800 cm{sup ?1}) in various solvents followed their corresponding absorption spectra therefore the enhancements on resonant excitation are from single-state rather than mixed states. The hyperchromism of the longer wavelength band is attributed to intensity borrowing from the nearby allowed electronic transition through vibronic coupling. Computational calculation with C{sub 2?} symmetry constraint on the S{sub 2} state resulted in an imaginary frequency along the low-frequency out-of-plane torsional modes involving the C=O site and therefore, we hypothesize that this mode could be involved in the vibronic coupling.

  7. Characterization of the Role of β-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase in Macular Pigment Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Babino, Darwin; Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M Airanthi K; Kiser, Philip D; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation. PMID:26307071

  8. The Effects of Prenatal Cocaine on Language Development at 10 years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Weishampel, Paul; Satayathum, Sudtida; Min, Meeyoung O.; Nelson, Suchitra; Singer, Lynn T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the long term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the language development of 10-year-old children utilizing a prospective design, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Participants Children exposed to cocaine in utero (PCE; n=175) and non-exposed children (NCE; n=175) were followed prospectively to 10 years of age and were compared on language subscales of the Test of Language Development- Intermediate 3rd Edition (TOLD-I:3) and phonological processing as measured by the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Methods Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), linear regression, and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationship of prenatal cocaine exposure to language development, while controlling for confounders. Results After controlling for confounding variables, prenatal cocaine effects were observed for specific aspects of language including syntax (Sentence Combining subtest of the TOLD-I:3, p=0.001), semantics (Malopropism subtest of the TOLD-I:3, p=0.05) and phonological processing (Phonological Awareness subscale, p=0.01). The caregiver factors of vocabulary, HOME, and psychological symptoms also had consistent effects on language subtests and phonological processing scores. Children with PCE who experienced foster or adoptive care had enhanced language development compared to those living with birth mothers or in relative care. Cocaine exposed girls had lower scores on the phonological awareness subscale of the CTOPP than non-exposed girls. Conclusions PCE has subtle effects on specific aspects of language development and phonological processing at age 10, even after controlling for confounding variables. Environmental factors (i.e., postnatal lead exposure, home environment, and caregiver vocabulary and psychological symptoms) also impact language skills at 10 years. Adoptive or foster care appears to enrich PCE childrens linguistic environment and protects children against language delay in the PCE sample. PMID:20600843

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ?30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ?CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ?CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ?CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ?50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  10. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and Child Behavior at Age 67 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 67 years of age in the Columbia Center for Childrens Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposureboth specific to PAHin the same cohort. Methods: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 67 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 67 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. Results: In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m3) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ? 0.05). Conclusion: These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior. PMID:22440811

  11. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Gracely, Edward; Tran, Mary; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6%) of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7%) of the 628 control children (p = 0.1). Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4) months versus 23.6 (3.1) months (P = 0.6). Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4). The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes. PMID:22690192

  12. Age-related differences in peak handgrip strength between wrestlers and nonathletes during the developmental years.

    PubMed

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Dipla, Konstantina; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Tsiakaras, Nikos; Sotiriadis, Sotiris

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the development of peak handgrip strength from childhood to adulthood in wrestlers (n = 122) and nonathlete controls (n = 122). The effect of hand preference on handgrip strength and the relationship of anthropometrical characteristics with handgrip strength in wrestlers and controls were also evaluated. Participants were assigned into age groups: children, young adolescents, late adolescents, and adults. Body height and mass, hand dimensions (length, span, and width), and absolute handgrip (in kilograms) were measured. Handgrip strength was similar in wrestlers and controls in the younger age groups (i.e., in children and young adolescents), whereas late adolescent and adult wrestlers exhibited significantly greater peak handgrip strength (p < 0.05) than their control peers. Nonathletes older than 15 years demonstrated an approximately 10% greater peak handgrip strength (p < 0.05) with their preferred hand compared with the nonpreferred hand. In contrast, late adolescent and adult wrestlers exhibited similar handgrip strength with both hands. Peak handgrip strength exhibited a significant linear correlation with all the anthropometric measures examined; however, a higher percentage in the variation in peak handgrip strength was explained by body height and hand length than the other anthropometric variables in both groups. In conclusion, wrestlers exhibit a sport-specific pattern of handgrip strength changes during the developmental years. Body height and hand length exhibited the strongest correlations with handgrip strength during the developmental years in wrestlers and in controls. The training adaptations of wrestling resulted in symmetrical handgrip strength development in both hands at late adolescence and adulthood. These data serve to provide a descriptive profile of handgrip strength in wrestlers, to assist both coaches and health professionals for talent selection and/or development of training programs for performance enhancement and rehabilitation. PMID:22525478

  13. Prevention of overweight and obesity in children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; McCargar, Linda

    2009-08-01

    Although obesity was rarely observed among children 30 years ago, it is now evident among Canadian children of all ages. Currently, 15.2% of 2- to 5-year-old children are overweight, whereas 6.3% are obese. Limited data suggest that poor dietary and physical activity patterns are increasing obesity risk among these young children. Body weight and lifestyle behaviours are known to track from childhood to adulthood, thereby increasing the risk for obesity and other chronic diseases later in life. Intrauterine life, infancy, and the preschool years may all include critical periods that program the long-term regulation of energy balance, and therefore obesity-prevention strategies should be initiated in utero and continue throughout childhood and adolescence. Although single-strategy obesity-prevention initiatives have had limited success, programs that target multiple behaviours may help reduce body weight and body fat among young children. Parental involvement is key to the success of obesity-prevention programs at a young age, as parents have primary control over their children's food and activity environments. Accordingly, parental obesity is the best predictor of childhood obesity. Parents should be encouraged to teach and role model healthy lifestyle behaviours for their young children. Health professionals can also be involved in obesity prevention, as they are ideally placed to identify young children at risk for obesity. By calculating and plotting the body mass index for all children, and initiating obesity-prevention strategies in utero, health professionals can help curb the rise in overweight and obesity among young children. PMID:19767789

  14. Normal values and standard deviations for pupil diameter and interpupillary distance in subjects aged 1 month to 19 years.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, Colleen; Howland, Howard C

    2002-05-01

    Normal values of pupil diameters and interpupillary distances (PDs) were measured in a population of 1311 subjects (in 4294 visits) ranging from 1 month of age to slightly over 19 years of age. Subjects in this study were recruited from birth announcements in a local newspaper for a developmental vision project. Pupil sizes were measured photographically when the corneas were illuminated by 15.9 +/- 0.5 lux ambient illumination (i.e. under mesopic conditions). Interpupillary distance was measured with an interocular distance rule while the subject fixated an object at 0.66 m distance. These PD measurements were corrected for systematic measurement errors and to an infinite viewing distance using radii of ocular rotation based on age-dependent axial lengths. Means and S.D. were calculated for age, pupil diameter and PD for each 1-year group of male and female subjects. The second order regression equation for average pupil size as a function of age was determined: [males pupil diameter (in mm) = 5.83 +/- 0.181*age in years - 0053*age in years2, r2 = 0.897; female pupil diameter = 5.40 + 0.285*age in years - 0.0109*age in years2, r2 = 0.945]. The dierence between male and female pupil sizes (mean male - female = 0.13 mm) was marginally not significant (p < 0.054). The average corrected PDs as a function of age were found to approximate another second-order regression equation: (males PD = 43.36 + 1.663*age in years - 0.034*age in years2, r2 = 0.986; females PD = 41.76 + 1.891 *age in years - 0.052*age in years2, r2 = 0.986). Male PD was wider than female PD by an average of 1.58 mm (p < 0.0003). As expected, the results of this study were similar to a preliminary investigation conducted by Thunyalukul et al. [Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37 (1996) S731] on a portion of the present data set, and also very similar to data from another study of comparable racial composition using a different measurement method [Pryor, Pediatrics 44 (1969) 973]. It was concluded that pupil diameter and PD increase more gradually than axial length of the eye in the first few years of life. The normal values and S.D. for both pupil size and PD determined in this study have important clinical implications as well as applications in the optical industry. PMID:12090630

  15. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-01-01

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures. PMID:26845417

  16. [Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon).

    PubMed

    Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, Andr

    2010-10-01

    The strategies recently implemented in Gabon have been effective in improving immunization coverage. These include, in particular, the integration of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in primary health care centers, the integration of immunization outside of EPI, immunization by peripheral health centers according to pre-set advanced strategies, and awareness and catch-up campaigns. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted from 1 October 2007 through 30 January 2008, throughout public- and private-sector health care centers in the town of Libreville. In the public sector, where health care is free, the study took place at the largest health facility in the country, the Hospital Center of Libreville (HCL), at Estuary Mlen Hospital (on the outskirts of Libreville), at Nkembo Hospital, which houses the EPI offices, and the 5 Maternal and Child Health centers (MCH) where vaccine monitoring is done. Monitoring in the private sector covered only the three largest clinics, where vaccine monitoring is done, all of which agreed to participate. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or guardian accompanying the child, a semi-structured interview according to a standardised questionnaire was conducted to collect socioeconomic and demographic data, including age, sex, recruitment site, place of residence, number of siblings, parental origin, ethnicity of head of household, type of family (couple or single parent), mother's age, level of education, employment and socio-economic status, as determined by the head of household's monthly income (in three categories: 1) low income, at or below the minimum wage, set at 80 000 FCFA (120 euros); 2) average income, from more than 80 000 FCFA to 300 000 FCFA (458 euros); and 3) high income over 300 000 FCFA. After the interview, the child's vaccination booklet was carefully examined to identify the types of antigen, number of doses administered, age at vaccination, and the regularity of the monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Gurin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) Results: The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.013.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the public sector, 74.5%. The measles vaccination rate in the private sector was 82.5% compared w

  17. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional body mass leads to higher overall load, with disproportional impact on the midfoot area and longitudinal foot arch showing characteristic foot loading patterns. Already the feet of one and two year old children are significantly affected. Childhood overweight and obesity is not compensated by the musculoskeletal system. To avoid excessive foot loading with potential risk of discomfort or pain in childhood, prevention strategies should be developed and validated for children with a high body mass index and functional changes in the midfoot area. The presented plantar pressure values could additionally serve as reference data to identify suspicious foot loading patterns in children. PMID:26914211

  18. Relationship between body size and habitat complexity preference in age-0 and -1 year winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus.

    PubMed

    Pappal, A L; Rountree, R A; MacDonald, D G

    2012-07-01

    The interaction between body size, habitat complexity and interstice width on habitat preference of age-0 and -1 year Pseudopleuronectes americanus was examined using continuous remote video observation. The habitat choices of juvenile P. americanus were recorded over a 6 h period in tanks with four treatments: bare sand, sand with low complexity cobble, sand with intermediate complexity cobble and sand with high complexity cobble. Both age-0 and -1 year fish preferred cobble to bare sand. Within cobble treatments, age-0 year fish preferred intermediate complexity cobble, with a 1.59 ratio of interstitial space to body width. The largest age-1 year fish (123-130 mm standard length, L(S) ) preferred low complexity cobble. While a significant preference was not detected, medium age-1 year fish (83-88 mm L(S) ) tended to select low complexity cobble, whereas small age-1 year fish (73-82 mm L(S) ) tended to select low and intermediate cobble, with an interstitial space to body width ratio of 1.05. For medium and large age-1 year fish, there was an increased selection of low complexity cobble, corresponding to larger interstitial space to body size ratios. This study indicates that juvenile P. americanus prefer complex habitat to unstructured habitat and that this preference is mediated by a relationship between fish body size and the size of structure interstices. These results contribute to the growing body of knowledge of complex habitat selection and drivers of habitat choice in flatfishes. PMID:22747815

  19. Correlation between tea consumption and prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Yang, J; Zhu, X S; Li, S C; Ho, P C

    2016-01-01

    By a cross-sectional epidemiology study, we attempted to correlate the consumption of tea and/or health supplements, living habits and socio-demographic factors to the prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents. Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face by clinical research assistants. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure at least 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at least 90  mmHg or self-reported history/treatment for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among the whole investigated population (N=1184, 58.27% females) was 49.73% and the prevalence increased to 66.47% in the sub-population aged ⩾60 years. High risk of hypertension was associated with age ⩾60 years (odds ratio (OR): 4.15-4.19, P<0.01), obesity (body mass index >25 kg m(-2), OR: 2.10-2.11, P<0.01), family history of hypertension (OR: 2.69-2.76, P<0.01), diabetes history (OR: 2.29-2.33, P<0.01), hyperlipidemia history (OR: 1.79-1.80, P<0.01), male (OR: 1.56-1.59, P<0.01) and coffee intake (OR: 1.44-1.46, P<0.05). In contrast, drinking green tea at least 150 ml per week was associated with lower hypertension risk (OR: 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.91, P<0.05). Drinking combination of green tea and British tea was associated with higher reduction in the risk of hypertension (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39-0.85, P<0.05). This cross-sectional study suggests that consumption of tea, especially green tea and British tea, was associated with lowering the risk of hypertension. On the other hand, consumption of coffee could be a risk factor of hypertension. These findings may provide useful information for health promotion to reduce risk of hypertension and warrant further study to confirm and elucidate such association. PMID:26016594

  20. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, In S; Barros, Alusio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-05-01

    Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay. PMID:20415750

  1. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  2. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Ro Province, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejn, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Ro Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Ro Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-caf au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Caf au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in primary health care settings. PMID:25208116

  3. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  4. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

  5. What distinguishes autism spectrum disorders from other developmental disorders before the age of four years?

    PubMed

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Ulsted Srensen, Ester; Nemec, Gerda; Jrgensen, Meta

    2005-03-01

    The increasing recognition of the benefits of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) stresses the importance of early identification of children who might benefit from those programs. However, in the early years of life it may be difficult to distinguish children with ASD from children with other developmental disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify behavioural patterns that could facilitate this differentiation. Prior to diagnostic assessment, 2- and 3-year-old children (n=30), all referred to a clinic for "possible autism", were observed in a semi-structured play interaction, and their parents were interviewed about the children's early development from 0 to 24 months. Following diagnostic assessment, the 17 children fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria for ASD were compared to the 13 children diagnosed with other developmental disorders (outside the autism spectrum). On the basis of parent reports only a few distinguishing signs of ASD were found before 24 months of age. On the basis of professional observations in a semi-structured play interaction several distinguishing signs were found for the 2- and 3-year-olds; smiles in response, responds to name, follows pointing, looks to "read" faces, initiates requesting verbal and nonverbal behaviours, and functional play. PMID:15793685

  6. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred

  7. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  8. Poisonings with Suicidal Intent Aged 0–21 Years Reported to Poison Centers 2003–12

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Sophia; Hendry, Phyllis; Lynch, Sean; Kalynych, Colleen J.; Aldridge, Petra; Kraemer, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies explore the clinical features of youth suicide by poisoning. The use of both social and clinical features of self-poisoning with suicidal intent could be helpful in enhancing existing and creating new prevention strategies. We sought to characterize self-poisonings with suicide intent in ages 0 to 21 years reported to three regional poison control centers from 2003–2012. Methods This study was a blinded retrospective review of intentional self-poisonings by those age 21 or younger captured by the Poison Information Control Network. Age, sex, substance(s) used, medical outcome, management site, clinical effects, and therapies were described using counts and percentages and analyzed using chi-square tests. We analyzed the medical outcome ranging from no effect to death using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Serious medical outcome was defined as death or major outcome. Results We analyzed a total of 29,737 cases. The majority were females (20,945;70.5%), of whom 274 (1.3%) were pregnant. Most cases were 15–18 year olds (15,520;52.2%). Many experienced no effects (9,068;30.5%) or minor medical outcomes (8,612;29%). Males had more serious medical outcomes (p<0.0001), but females were more likely to be admitted to a critical care unit (p<0.0001). There were 17 deaths (0.06%), most in males (10;p=0.008). Of the 52 substances reported in the death cases, 12 (23.1%) were analgesics. In eight (47.1%) of the deaths, over two substances were used. Overall, drowsiness/lethargy (7,097;19.3%) and single-dose charcoal (8,815;16.3%) were frequently reported. Nearly 20% were admitted to critical care units (5,727;19.3%) and 28.7% went to psychiatric facilities (8,523). Of those admitted to hospitals (8,203), nearly 70% (5,727) required critical care units. Almost half <10 years old were evaluated and released (43;47.2%). Of the 114 reported substances for this population, 22.8% involved psychotropic medications, 15.8% analgesics, and 14% Attention Deficit-Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) medications. Analgesics (13,539;33.6%) were the most common medication category used by all age groups. Typically only one substance (20,549;69.1%) was used. Conclusion Undiagnosed ADHD may be a potential underlying cause for self-harming behaviors in the very young. Gender-specific suicide prevention strategies may be more effective at identifying those at risk than traditional measures alone. Further study into admitting practices by emergency physicians is needed to understand the difference in critical care admission rates based on gender. Once identified to be at-risk for suicidal behavior, access to analgesics and psychotropics should be monitored by care-givers especially in those between the ages of 15–18. PMID:26265960

  9. Longitudinal Volumetric Brain Changes in Autism Spectrum Disorder Ages 6–35 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an eight-year period. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample were most often due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole-brain volume showed increased volumes in young children with autism and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an eight-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. PMID:25381736

  10. Prevalence and correlates of sexual partner concurrency among Australian gay men aged 18-39years.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical models predict higher rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in populations with higher rates of concurrent sexual partnerships. Although gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high rates of HIV/STIs, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sexual concurrency in these populations. This paper reports findings from a national community-based survey of 1,034 Australian gay-identified men aged 18-39years, who gave detailed information about their sexual partners over the past 12months. In all, 237 (23%) reported two or more concurrent sexual partners. For their most recent period of concurrency, 44% reported three or more partners and 66% reported unprotected sex with one or more of their partners. A multivariate logistic regression found sexual concurrency was significantly more likely among men on higher incomes (P=0.02), who first had anal sex at a relatively young age (P=0.03), and who reported a large number of partners in the past 12months (P<0.001). Age, education, HIV status, and other sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables were not significant correlates. However, men who reported sexual concurrency were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an STI in the past 12months (P=0.04). Findings from this study suggest sexual concurrency is common among younger Australian gay men. With many of these men not always using condoms, health agencies should consider the potential impact of concurrency on HIV/STI epidemics among gay men and other MSM. PMID:24057932

  11. Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 3741 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (3741 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.21.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.62.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (3741 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue. PMID:23589812

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Patterns in Girls Weight Concerns and Body Dissatisfaction from Ages 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Markey, Charlotte N.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of girls weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. PMID:12655629

  13. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  14. Performance as a function of shooting style in basketball players under 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arias, Jos L

    2012-04-01

    Shooting style in basketball refers to the height adopted by a player in holding the ball, specifically the height of the hand and the ball with regard to the line of sight before the final extension of the elbow during a shot. The literature differentiates between a high and a low style. This study analyzed shooting frequency in young boys as a function of style and which shooting style had the highest accuracy and success in real games. Participants were 81 boys from eight basketball teams, aged 9-11 years. The sample consisted of 5,740 standard shots in 56 games. The design was nomotethic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The results indicated that low style predominated over the high style, although overall accuracy and efficacy were better using the high style. Various strategies and practical considerations are suggested for teachers and coaches to focus on teaching the high style. PMID:22755449

  15. Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

  16. Skin infections in young people (aged 14-18 years): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2014-06-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature specific to young people aged 14-18 years is therefore timely. Integrative review using the methods described by Whittemore and Knafl was undertaken. Electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases were searched for English-language articles published after 1990. Twenty primary studies were included and the findings are reported here. Data analysis revealed factors influencing skin infections in young people may be host-, transmission-, or pathogen-specific. Strategies to address host and transmission factors may be effective in controlling skin infection rates in young people. PMID:23945044

  17. Parametric body shape model of standing children aged 3-11 years.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Keon; Reed, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    A statistical body shape model (SBSM) for children was developed for generating a child body shape with desired anthropometric parameters. A standardised template mesh was fit to whole-body laser scan data from 137 children aged 3-11 years. The mesh coordinates along with a set of surface landmarks and 27 manually measured anthropometric variables were analysed using principal component (PC) analysis. PC scores were associated with anthropometric predictors such as stature, body mass index (BMI) and ratio of erect sitting height to stature (SHS) using a regression model. When the original scan data were compared with the predictions of the SBSM using each subject's stature, BMI and SHS, the mean absolute error was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm, and 95th percentile error was 24.0 ± 18.5 mm. The model, publicly available online, will have utility for a wide range of applications. Practitioner Summary: A statistical body shape model for children helps to account for inter-individual variability in body shapes as well as anthropometric dimensions. This parametric modelling approach is useful for reliable prediction of the body shape of a specific child with a few given predictors such as stature, body mass index and age. PMID:25933223

  18. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population. PMID:26276364

  19. Assessing seasonal variations and age patterns in mortality during the first year of life in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rumisha, S F; Smith, T; Abdulla, S; Masanja, H; Vounatsou, P

    2013-04-01

    Lack of birth and death registries in most of developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa led to the establishment of Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) sites which monitor large population cohorts within defined geographical areas. DSS collects longitudinal data on migration, births, deaths and their causes via verbal autopsies. DSS data provide an opportunity to monitor many health indicators including mortality trends. Mortality rates in Sub-Sahara Africa show seasonal patterns due to high infant and child malaria-related mortality which is influenced by seasonal features present in environmental and climatic factors. However, it is unclear whether seasonal patterns differ by age in the first few months of life. This study provides an overview of approaches to assess, capture and detect seasonality peaks and patterns in mortality using the infant mortality data from the Rufiji DSS, Tanzania. Seasonality was best captured using Bayesian negative binomial models with time and cycle dependent seasonal parameters and autoregressive temporal error terms. Seasonal patterns are similar among different age groups during infancy and timing of their mortality peaks do not differ. Seasonality in mortality rates with two peaks per year is pronounced which corresponds to rainy seasons. Understanding of these trends is important for public health preparedness. PMID:23247213

  20. Response inhibition difficulties in preterm children aged 9-12 years: Relations with emotion and behavior.

    PubMed

    Rveillon, Morgane; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Hppi, Petra S; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies with children have demonstrated inhibition difficulties associated with prematurity, but the question of potentially catching up with a delay in inhibition processes before adolescence still remains. Moreover, preterm adolescents are more at risk than their term-born peers for presenting behavioral problems such as emotional difficulties and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition to examining response inhibition, this study addressed, for the first time, the impact of an emotional context on response inhibition abilities and its relation to behavioral problems in late school-aged preterm children. Fifty-eight preterm children aged 9-12years were compared with 61 controls on two versions of a stop-signal task, the Delay Frustration Task, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed general difficulties in inhibiting a response, rather than a specific impact of emotional context in preterm children. Compared with controls, these children exhibited more and longer button presses in a delay situation, as well as faster go reaction times associated with lower probability of inhibition in the stop-signal tasks. These difficulties reflected impulsivity and were associated with higher hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems. Additionally, intrauterine growth restriction was found to be an additional perinatal risk factor for hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. These findings suggest that remaining inhibition difficulties in the preterm population at preadolescence could reveal increasing behavioral issues. PMID:25569693

  1. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  2. Standards for Children's Height at Ages 2-9 Years Allowing for Height of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, J. M.; Goldstein, H.; Whitehouse, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Charts are presented which give centile standards for boys' and girls' heights at ages 2 to 9 when parents' height is allowed for. Mid-parent height is used (i.e. the average of father's and mother's height). A comparison is made with results from the existing `parent-unknown' British standard charts. A child at the 3rd centile on the parent-unknown charts is (i) at the 20th centile on the new charts if his parents are small enough to average 3rd centile for adults, (ii) at about the 1st centile if his parents average the 97th centile. Conversely a child with 97th centile parents has only to be at the 25th centile for the population in the parent-unknown charts to be at the conventional 3rd centile limit of normal when parental height is allowed for. Thus the new standards result in considerably increased precision. Examples are given of normal boys with small parents who plotted outside the 3rd centile on the conventional charts but inside on the present charts. The differential diagnosis of genetic small stature is made considerably more straightforward by the use of these charts. The correlation coefficients are given at successive ages, from 1 month to 9 years, for child's supine length or height with mid-parent height and for mother-daughter, mother-son, father-daughter, and father-son relationships. PMID:5491878

  3. Adiponectin and Leptin Trajectories in Mexican-American Children from Birth to 9 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Vitaly; Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Dav, Veronica; Tyler, Kristin; Vedar, Michelle; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines), over childhood. Subjects and Design Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. Results Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 02, 25, and 59-year periods increased for both leptin (r?=?0.06, 0.31 and 0.62) and adiponectin (r?=?0.25, 0.41 and 0.46). Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable]) and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]). While leptin groups were most separated over the 29-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR?=?1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L). Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR?=?1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A). Conclusion Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to be further explored. PMID:24205046

  4. Different indices of fetal growth predict bone size and volumetric density at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Mahon, Pamela A; Robinson, Sian M; Nisbet, Corrine E; Javaid, M Kassim; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Arden, Nigel K; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated previously that higher birth weight is associated with greater peak and later-life bone mineral content and that maternal body build, diet, and lifestyle influence prenatal bone mineral accrual. To examine prenatal influences on bone health further, we related ultrasound measures of fetal growth to childhood bone size and density. We derived Z-scores for fetal femur length and abdominal circumference and conditional growth velocity from 19 to 34 weeks' gestation from ultrasound measurements in participants in the Southampton Women's Survey. A total of 380 of the offspring underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 4 years [whole body minus head bone area (BA), bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and estimated volumetric BMD (vBMD)]. Volumetric bone mineral density was estimated using BMC adjusted for BA, height, and weight. A higher velocity of 19- to 34-week fetal femur growth was strongly associated with greater childhood skeletal size (BA: r = 0.30, p < .0001) but not with volumetric density (vBMD: r = 0.03, p = .51). Conversely, a higher velocity of 19- to 34-week fetal abdominal growth was associated with greater childhood volumetric density (vBMD: r = 0.15, p = .004) but not with skeletal size (BA: r = 0.06, p = .21). Both fetal measurements were positively associated with BMC and aBMD, indices influenced by both size and density. The velocity of fetal femur length growth from 19 to 34 weeks' gestation predicted childhood skeletal size at age 4 years, whereas the velocity of abdominal growth (a measure of liver volume and adiposity) predicted volumetric density. These results suggest a discordance between influences on skeletal size and volumetric density. PMID:20437610

  5. Closed-Loop Insulin Therapy Improves Glycemic Control in Children Aged <7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Andrew; Corcia, Liat; Safer, Jason; Agus, Michael S.D.; Einis, Sara; Steil, Garry M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the possibility of improving nocturnal glycemic control as well as meal glycemic response using closed-loop therapy in children aged <7 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a randomized controlled crossover trial comparing closed-loop with standard open-loop insulin pump therapy performed in an inpatient clinical research center. Ten subjects aged <7 years with type 1 diabetes for >6 months treated with insulin pump therapy were studied. Closed-loop therapy and standard open-loop therapy were compared from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. on 2 consecutive days. The primary outcome was plasma glucose time in range (110200 mg/dL) during the night (10:00 p.m.8:00 a.m.). Secondary outcomes included peak postprandial glucose levels, incidence of hypoglycemia, degree of hyperglycemia, and prelunch glucose levels. RESULTS A trend toward a higher mean nocturnal time within target range was noted for closed- versus open-loop therapy, although not reaching statistical significance (5.3 vs. 3.2 h, P = 0.12). There was no difference in peak postprandial glucose or number of episodes of hypoglycemia. There was significant improvement in time spent >300 mg/dL overnight with closed-loop therapy (0.18 vs. 1.3 h, P = 0.035) and the total area under the curve of glucose >200 mg/dL (P = 0.049). Closed-loop therapy returned prelunch blood glucose closer to target (189 vs. 273 mg/dL on open loop, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery decreases the severity of overnight hyperglycemia without increasing the incidence of hypoglycemia. The therapy is better able to reestablish target glucose levels in advance of a subsequent meal. Younger children with type 1 diabetes may reap significant benefits from closed-loop therapy. PMID:23033237

  6. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andra Dmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assuno, Maria Ceclia Formoso; Gonalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.642.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.867.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.428.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  7. Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50–70 years

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, S U; Torres, S J; Nowson, C A; Tilbrook, A J; Turner, A I

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25 kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35 kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500 h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired. PMID:24867909

  8. Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 1219 Years of Age: NHANES (19992008)

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Diaz-Ramirez, Ledif Grisell; Balmes, John R.; Pinney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. Objectives: We investigated childrens PFC serum concentrations and their associations with asthma-related outcomes. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum concentrations of eight PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), with self-reported lifetime asthma, recent wheezing, and current asthma using data from participants 1219 years of age from the 19992000 and 20032008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, PFOA was associated with higher odds of ever having received a diagnosis of asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39 for a doubling in PFOA], whereas for PFOS there were inverse relationships with both asthma and wheezing (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.04, and OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.02, respectively). The associations were attenuated after accounting for sampling weights. No associations were seen between the other PFCs and any outcome. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study provides some evidence for associations between exposure to PFCs and asthma-related outcomes in children. The evidence is inconsistent, however, and prospective studies are needed. Citation: Humblet O, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Balmes JR, Pinney SM, Hiatt RA. 2014. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 1219 years of age: NHANES (19992008). Environ Health Perspect 122:11291133;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606 PMID:24905661

  9. Viral etiologies of lower respiratory tract infections among Egyptian children under five years of age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are responsible for a considerable number of deaths among children, particularly in developing countries. In Egypt and the Middle East region, there is a lack of data regarding the viral causes of LRTI. In this study, we aimed to identify the relative prevalence of various respiratory viruses that contribute to LRTIs in young children. Although, nucleic acid-based methods have gained importance as a sensitive tool to determine the viral infections, their use is limited because of their prohibitive cost in low-income countries. Therefore, we applied three different laboratory methods, and presented the different virus prevalence patterns detected by each method. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal aspirate samples, demographic data and, clinical data from 450 children under five years of age who presented with LRTI at Abou El Reesh hospital in Cairo during a one-year period. To identify the viral causes of the LRTI we used direct fluorescence assay, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-RT-PCR), and shell vial culture. We tested for eight major respiratory viruses. Results Two hundred sixty-nine patients (59.9%) had a viral infection, among which 10.8% had a co-infection with two or more viruses. By all three methods, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most predominant, and parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2), influenza B virus (FLUBV) were the least predominant. Other viral prevalence patterns differed according to the detection method used. The distribution of various viruses among different age groups and seasonal distribution of the viruses were also determined. Conclusions RSV and human adenovirus were the most common respiratory viruses detected by rt-RT-PCR. Co-infections were found to be frequent among children and the vast majority of co-infections were detected by nucleic acid-based detection assays. PMID:23237512

  10. Longitudinal volumetric brain changes in autism spectrum disorder ages 6-35 years.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Prigge, Molly B D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cariello, Annahir N; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an 8-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans, and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. PMID:25381736

  11. 2,5,6,9,10-Pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDOHs): a new class of HBCD transformation products.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Zindel, Daniel; Schweizer, W Bernd; Lienemann, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDOHs) are potential environmental transformation products of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). They are also potential stage one metabolites of biological HBCD transformations. Herein, we present analytical evidence that PBCDOHs are also constituents of technical HBCDs and flame-proofed polystyrenes (FP-PSs). PBCDOHs are possibly formed during the synthesis of technical HBCD, presumably during the bromination of cyclododecatrienes in aqueous isobutanol together with isobutoxypentabromocyclododecanes (iBPBCDs), which have been identified in these materials recently. Of the 64 stereoisomers possible, eight pairs of enantiomers, named ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-PBCDOHs were separated with a combination of normal-, reversed- and chiral-phase LC. Crystal structure analysis revealed the stereochemistry of the ?-PBCDOH pair of enantiomers, which was assigned to (1S,2S,5R,6S,9S,10R)-2,5,6,9,10-pentabromocyclododecanol and its enantiomer. Mass spectrometric data are in accordance with the expected isotope patterns. On a C(18)-RP-column, the polar PBCDOHs eluted before the HBCD and iBPBCD classes of compounds. PBCDOHs were also found in FP-PS materials. The stereoisomer patterns varied considerably in these materials like those of HBCDs and iBPBCDs. Expanded polystyrenes were rich in late-eluting stereoisomers, similar to technical HBCD mixtures. Extruded polystyrenes contained more of the polar, faster-eluting isomers. The presented chromatographic and analytical methods allow a stereoisomer-specific search for PBCDOHs in biota samples, which might have experienced metabolic HBCD transformation reactions. Besides this potential source, it has to be recognized that PBCDOHs are by-products in technical HBCDs and in flame-proofed polystyrenes. Therefore, it is likely that PBCDOHs and iBPBCDs are released to the environment together with HBCD-containing plastic materials. PMID:22520970

  12. Influence of smoking habits on change in carbon monoxide transfer factor over 10 years in middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A; Joyce, H; Hopper, L; Pride, N B

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema is associated with a reduction in carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (TLCO/VA), but little is known about the evolution of changes in TLCO/VA in middle aged smokers at risk of developing chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: TLCO/VA (single breath method) was measured on two occasions 10 years apart in 122 middle aged men. RESULTS: Initially TLCO/VA averaged 97% predicted in never smokers (n = 42, mean age 37.2 years), 99% predicted in ex-smokers (n = 21, mean age 41.9 years), and 85% predicted in those who smoked over 15 cigarettes a day (n = 42, mean age 42.0 years). Mean rates of decrease in TLCO/VA over 10 years, however, were similar in the three groups, so that differences between smokers and non-smokers did not increase during the 10 years. Seventeen men (mean age 40.9 years) who initially were smokers became sustained ex-smokers within two years of the first measurement; in these men mean absolute values of TLCO/VA rose, averaging 89% predicted at the first assessment but 102% predicted 10 years later. CONCLUSION: By the age of about 40 years TLCO/VA was lower in smokers than in never smokers but this difference did not increase over the following 10 years. Sustained ex-smokers had values similar to those of never smokers even when TLCO/VA was known to have been reduced while they were smoking. Changes in TLCO/VA associated with stopping smoking were considerably larger than could be explained by carbon monoxide back pressure, indicating that mechanisms other than irreversible increase in the size of terminal air spaces underlie the lower values in smokers. To detect emphysema in smokers it is necessary to use reference equations that take account of current smoking. PMID:8493623

  13. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor. 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26308158

  14. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  15. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ?2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P?=?0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P?=?0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P?=?0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P?=?0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

  16. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    PubMed

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:386-393. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26584469

  17. Long-Term Effect of Different Physical Activity Levels on Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Men: A 25-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozińska, Joanna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of lifetime physical activity (PA) on selected indices of atherosclerosis in longitudinal observation of middle-aged men. Methods The subject of the study was a cohort of 101 men (mean age 59,7±9,0 years), free of cardiovascular symptoms and treatment, participating in follow-up examinations in the years 1985/90-2011/12. Self-report PA was assessed by interviewer-administered Seven-Day PA Recall and Historical PA questionnaire. Subclinical atherosclerosis was measured by assessing the coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to Agatston's method using multi-slice computed tomography; the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound; and the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT2000). The participants were initially divided into three groups according to tertiles of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) in kcal/week at baseline, i.e. <2050 (low-to-moderate; n = 33), 2050–3840 (high; n = 34), >3840 (very high; n = 34). Results The low-to-moderate, high and very high PA groups were comparable in terms of age and atherosclerosis risk factors at baseline. No linear relationship was found between PA and CAC, IMT and RHI. Men who maintained low-to-moderate (n = 26), high (n = 21) and very high (n = 15) PA level had the mean CAC of 286.1±361.9, 10.7±28.9, and 106.1±278.3 (p<0.001 for low-to moderate vs high; p<0.05 for low-to-moderate vs very high); the mean IMT of 0.751±0.19 mm, 0,641±0.26 mm, and 0.750±0.60 mm (p>0.05); and the mean RHI of 1.69±0.4, 2.00±0.4, and 2.13±0.5 (p for trend = 0.050), respectively. No cases of CAC>400, IMT ≥0.9 and RHI<1.67 were noted only among men with maintained high PA level. At final examination men with high and very high PA had more favorable cardiometabolic profile than men with lower PA. Conclusions Maintaining regular high PA level through young and middle adulthood may protect against atherosclerosis as measured by CAC, IMT and RHI. PMID:24465505

  18. Colorectal carcinoma before 40 years of age: prognosis and predisposing conditions.

    PubMed

    Jrvinen, H J; Turunen, M J

    1984-07-01

    The prognosis and the occurrence of premalignant conditions were studied in 249 patients with colorectal carcinoma, diagnosed before the age of 40 years, between 1970 and 1979, in Finland. The aim was to evaluate the possibilities for prevention and screening of colorectal carcinoma in young people. The 5-year survival (41%) corresponded to that observed generally in colorectal carcinoma. The therapeutic delay (mean, 8.6 months) was not longer in the advanced stages (Duke's C, D), which comprised 53% of all, than in the localized stages. A premalignant condition occurred in 46 patients (18.5%): familial adenomatous polyposis coli in 18 (7.2%), ulcerous colitis in 11 (4.4%), cancer family syndrome in 9 (3.6%), and miscellaneous conditions in 8 (3.2%) patients. The younger the patient, the more often a premalignant condition was found. Nearly half of the high-risk patients could have been identified earlier. The findings suggest that more emphasis should be placed on the identification, family screening, and treatment of the conditions predisposing to colorectal cancer. PMID:6474085

  19. Search for Varicella Zoster Virus DNA in Saliva of Healthy Individuals Aged 20 to 59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Birlea, Marius; Cohrs, Randall J.; Bos, Nathan; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    All neurological and ocular complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation can occur without rash. Virological verification requires detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue in patients with neurological disease without rash and found to correlate with tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. Saliva is a potential source of VZV DNA. To study the potential diagnostic value of detecting VZV DNA in saliva from patients with neurological disease, saliva of healthy adults searched for VZV DNA. A single saliva sample obtained by passive drool was centrifuged at 16,000 g for 20 mins. DNA was extracted from the supernatant and cell pellet and examined in triplicate for VZV DNA by real time PCR. A single random saliva sample from 80 healthy men and women aged 2059 years revealed no VZV DNA (Table 1), but was uniformly positive for cell (GAPdH) DNA. Because VZV DNA was not found in a random saliva sample from 80 individuals 2059 years-old, a VZV-positive sample during neurologic disease may have potential significance. Further studies will determine whether VZV DNA in saliva correlates with VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF in patients with neurological disease. PMID:24338812

  20. [Exercised-induced asthma in soccer players ages from 8 to 13 years].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, M; Tsimaras, V; Fotiadou, E; Aggelopoulou-Sakadami, N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the detection of exercise induced asthma in soccer players aged 8-13 years. Thirty boys, 8-13 years old participated in the study. They were coming from an athletic team of north of Thessaloniki. The study included clinical examination, administration of a respiratory health questionnaire and the exercise -- free running -- test with spirometric measurements. Spirometric measurements were performed by using a microspirometer, before exercise and 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after a 6 min free running exercise (80 - 90 % max heart rate). The highest forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)) value before exercise was compared with the lowest of post exercise values. The results showed a decline in FEV (1) > 15 % in 12 out of 30 children. Particularly, decline in FEV (1) was present in 1 (11 %) out of 9 children with free personal medical history but positive family history for asthma, in 3 (25 %) out of 12 children with allergies, and in 8 (89 %) out of 9 children with asthma. Symptoms were reported by 9 of 12 children with fall in FEV (1) > 15 %, during the 6 min exercise test, who had no symptoms during the soccer games. Identification of EIA by exercise challenge test in young athletes is a useful component for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Similar studies should be performed on older and younger athletes who participate in different sports and games. PMID:15944897

  1. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 4045 years

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 4045 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

  2. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  3. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  4. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents. PMID:26852155

  5. A first attempt to prevent amblyopia and squint by spectacle correction of abnormal refractions from age 1 year.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Walker, C; Wilson, J M; Arnold, P E; Lucas, J; Dally, S

    1985-01-01

    Spectacle correction of unusually hypermetropic refractions from age 1 year did not reduce the incidence of squint or amblyopia, nor did it lead to a reduction in the severity of residual amblyopia after subsequent occlusion. PMID:3904821

  6. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  7. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  8. An Educational Way of Dealing with Tunneling, Motivation to Novelties, and Creative Mindies in 13-16 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Raimo J.

    The objective of this study was to inquire if tunneling of mind, motivation to novelties, and creative mindies in 4 age groups (13, 14, 15, and 16, years of age) have dynamic relationships. A creative mindy is a new organized mind shape not previously occurring. The subjects were 93 pupils of a secondary comprehensive school. Questionnaires were…

  9. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic

  10. Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was

  11. Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Six Potential Screening Instruments for Bipolar Disorder in Youths Aged 5 to 17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Demeter, Christine; DelPorto Bedoya, Denise; Price, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficiency of six index tests as predictors of juvenile bipolar disorder in two large outpatient samples, aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, gathered from 1997 to 2002. Method: DSM-IV diagnosis was based on a semistructured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age

  12. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  13. ERIC/EECE Digests Related to the Education and Care of Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    The ERIC/EECE Digests in this compilation focus on different aspects of the education and care of children from birth through 12 years of age. The four digests produced in 1989 concern the escalating kindergarten curriculum, involvement of parents in the education of their children, mixed-age groups in early childhood education, and praise in the

  14. The impact of maternal age over forty years on the caesarean section rate: six year experience at a busy district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Moore, E K; Irvine, L M

    2014-04-01

    A retrospective study over a 6-year period was undertaken to determine the trend in age at booking for antenatal care at West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust and to investigate the relationship between maternal age at booking for antenatal care and mode of delivery. Between 2006 and 2011, there was an 80% increase in the number of women over the age of 40 years booking for antenatal care. The overall caesarean section rate in this cohort of women increased from 34.6% in 2006 to 53.7% in 2011, comprising of an increase in both elective and emergency caesarean sections. It appears that increasing maternal age may explain a significant proportion of the rising caesarean section rate in our unit. PMID:24483167