Sample records for age 9-10 years

  1. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years.

  2. Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9–10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Kontos, Emily Zobel; Ryff, Carol D.; Ayanian, John Z.; Albert, Michelle A.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Year-to-year decreases in smoking in the US have been observed only sporadically in recent years, which suggest a need for intensified efforts to identify those at risk for persistent smoking. To address this need, we examined the association between a variety of psychosocial stressors and smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9–10 years among adults in the United States (N=4938, ages 25–74). Methods Using information provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Stressors related to relationships, finances, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, neighborhood, discrimination, and past-year family problems were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results High stress at both assessments was associated with greater odds of persistent smoking for stressors related to relationships, finances, work, perceived inequality, past-year family problems, and a summary score. Among respondents who were smokers at baseline, high stress at both time-points for relationship stress, perceived inequality, and past-year family problems was associated with nearly double the odds of failure to quit. Conclusions Interventions to address psychosocial stress may be important components within smoking cessation efforts. PMID:23860953

  3. Single leg mini squat: an inter-tester reproducibility study of children in the age of 9–10 and 12–14 years presented by various methods of kappa calculation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest that reduced postural orientation is a possible risk factor for both patello-femoral joint pain (PFP) and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In order to prevent PFP and ACL injuries in adolescent athletes, it is necessary to develop simple and predictive screening tests to identify those at high risk. Single Leg Mini Squat (SLMS) is a functional and dynamic real-time screening test, which has shown good validity and reproducibility in evaluation of postural orientation of the knee in an adult population. The aim of this study was to determine the inter-tester reproducibility of SLMS in the age group of 9–10 and 12–14 years by evaluating postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk. Further on, this study exemplify the divergence of kappa values when using different methods of calculating kappa for the same dataset. Methods A total of 72 non-injured children were included in the study. Postural orientation of the ankle, knee, hip and trunk for both legs was determined by two testers using a four-point scale (ordinal, 0–3). Prevalence, overall agreement as well as four different methods for calculating kappa were evaluated: linear weighted kappa in comparison with un-weighted kappa, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) and quadratic weighted kappa. Results The linear weighted kappa values ranged between 0.54-0.86 (overall agreement 0.86-0.97), reflecting a moderate to almost perfect agreement. When calculating un-weighted kappa (with and without PABAK) and quadratic weighted kappa, the results spread between 0.46-0.88, 0.50-0.94, and 0.76-0.95, reflecting the various results when using different methods of kappa calculation. Conclusions The Single Leg Mini Squat test has moderate to almost perfect reproducibility in children aged 9–10 and 12–14 years when evaluating postural orientation of the ankles, knees, hips and trunk, based on the excellent strength of agreement as presented by linear weighted kappa. The inconsistency in results when using different methods of kappa calculation demonstrated the linear weighted kappa being generally 15% lower than the quadratic weighted values. On average, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa increased the un-weighted kappa values by 7% and 12% by children aged 9–10 and 12–14, respectively. PMID:23082764

  4. Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIage, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

  5. Reducing depression in 9-10 year old children in low SES schools: a longitudinal universal randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare M; Nesa, Monique

    2013-12-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOP-PTS) is an innovative curriculum-based mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. The program is aimed at preventing depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in middle primary school children aged 9-10 years. Students from 22 low SES primary schools (N = 910) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline, post-test, 6 months and 18 months. The intervention group received the program implemented by teachers and the control group received their regular Health Education curriculum. Students completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, and attribution style. At risk students were further assessed with the computerised Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Parents reported on their children's externalising and internalising problems at home. Children in the intervention condition reported a significant pre-post reduction in depressive symptoms, and there was a significant pre-post reduction in parent-reported emotional difficulties which was maintained at 6 month follow-up; no changes were evident in the control group. Both groups showed significant improvements in child-reported anxiety and attribution style, and significant improvements in parent-reported pro-social behaviours. For both groups, there were no significant post-baseline changes in incidence and recovery rates for depression, anxiety, or internalising symptoms. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has the potential to treat depressive symptomatology in the immediate term but the effects were not sustained. There is also evidence of improved emotional resilience up to 6 months following the program. Further follow-up to investigate longer term effects is needed. PMID:24185214

  6. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A. K.; Hill, J. C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0–2 years), 2–5 years and 5–9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P<0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P?0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P<0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0–2, 2–5 and 5–9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9–10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  7. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9-10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Wills, A K; Hill, J C; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2010-12-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6-12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0-2 years), 2-5 years and 5-9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P < 0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P ? 0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0-2, 2-5 and 5-9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9-10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  8. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the common childhood phenomenon of growing up with pets. PMID:23668544

  9. Prevention of internalizing disorders in 9–10 year old children: efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9–10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776

  10. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age (years)

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Girls ANALYSIS OFAVOWELDATABASE Peter F. Assmann1 , Terrance M. Nearey2 and Sneha Bharadwaj1 1 School English, /i/, heed; /I/, hid; /e/, hayed; /E/, head; /Q/, had; //, hud; /`/, herd; /A/, hod; /ç/, hawed

  11. Diet quality is independently associated with weight status in children aged 9-10 years.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

    2011-03-01

    Although energy imbalance is key to the development of childhood obesity, the association between different dietary components, reflected in diet quality scores, and children's weight status has not been extensively studied. The current study determined if diet quality, characterized according to 3 predefined scores, was associated with weight status in a population-based sample of 9- to 10-y-old British children, independently of factors previously associated with weight status. In a cross-sectional study of 1700 children (56% girls), data from 4-d food diaries were used to calculate 3 diet quality scores modified to be reflective of children's diets: the Diet Quality Index (DQI), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Physical activity was measured with 7-d accelerometery, and height, weight, waist, and bio-impedance were objectively measured and used to calculate weight status variables. After multiple adjustments, including physical activity and overall energy density, higher DQI and HDI scores were significantly associated with improved weight status. Comparing extreme quintiles of the scores revealed the DQI and HDI were associated with lower waist circumference (-3.0%, P = 0.005 and -2.5%, P = 0.033, respectively), and lower body fat (-5.1%, P = 0.023 and -4.9%, P = 0.026, respectively). The DQI was also associated with lower weight (-5.9%; P = 0.002) and BMI (-4.2%; P = 0.004). No significant associations were observed with the MDS. These findings suggest that diet quality is independently associated with children's weight status. Future work should consider if diet quality scores could be key components of interventions designed to reduce obesity in children. PMID:21270356

  12. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK.

  13. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perfit, M.R. [Univ., of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Batiza, R. [Univ., of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fornari, D.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1994-06-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

  14. Exercise Capacity and Selected Physiological Factors by Ancestry and Residential Altitude: Cross-Sectional Studies of 9–10-Year-Old Children in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Nafstad, Per; Wu, Tianyi; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bianba, Sveinung Bernsten, Lars Bo Andersen, Hein Stegum, Ouzhuluobu, Per Nafstad, Tianyi Wu, and Espen Bjertness. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude—Cross-sectional studies of 9–10-year-old children in Tibet. High Alt Med Biol. 15:162–169, 2014.—Aim: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300?m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700?m). Methods: A total of 430 9–10-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300?m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700?m) participated in two cross-sectional studies. The maximal power output (Wmax) was assessed using an ergometer cycle. Results: Lhasa Tibetan children had a 20% higher maximal power output (watts/kg) than Tingri Tibetan and 4% higher than Lhasa Han Chinese. Maximal heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. Conclusions: The superior exercise capacity in native Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700?m demonstrated a better exercise capacity than residents at a higher altitude of 4300?m when measured at their respective residential altitudes. Such altitude- or ancestry-related difference could not be fully attributed to the physiological factors measured. PMID:24836751

  15. A cross-sectional study of frequency and factors associated with dog walking in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Owning a pet dog could potentially improve child health through encouraging participation in physical activity, through dog walking. However, evidence to support this is limited and conflicting. In particular, little is known about children’s participation in dog walking and factors that may be associated with this. The objective of this study was to describe the participation of children in dog walking, including their own and those belonging to somebody else, and investigate factors associated with regular walking with their own pet dog. Methods Primary school children (n=1021, 9–10 years) from a deprived area of Liverpool were surveyed during a ‘fitness fun day’ as part of the SportsLinx project. The ‘Child Lifestyle and Pets’ survey included questions about pet ownership, pet attachment, and dog walking. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with walking any dog, or their own dog, several times a day or more, including level of attachment to the dog, dog type, and sociodemographic factors. Results Overall, 15.4% of children reported walking with any dog (their own or belonging to a friend or family member) ? once daily, 14.1% several times a week, 27.6% ? once a week, and 42.8% never. Dog owning children (37.1% of the population) more often reported dog walking ‘several times a week or more’ (OR=12.30, 95% CI=8.10-18.69, P<0.001) compared to those without a dog, but were less likely to report other walking without a dog. The majority (59.3%) of dog owning children indicated that they usually walked their dog, with 34.6% reporting that they walked their dog ? once daily. Attachment score was highly associated with the child reporting walking their dog (lower score=higher attachment; OR=0.93, 95% CI=0.89-0.96, P<0.001). There was no evidence that gender, ethnicity, sibling status or deprivation score was associated with dog walking. Children that reported owning Pit Bulls were more likely to report friends walking with their dog than those owning non-Pit bull types (OR=10.01, 95% CI=1.52-65.76, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Promotion of supervised walking of suitable pet dogs may be an opportunity for increasing physical activity in 9–10 year old children. The identification of stronger attachment to dogs regularly walked is similar to findings in adult studies. PMID:24015895

  16. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  17. Pediatric injury patterns by year of age

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Elisabeth T.; Englum, Brian R.; Barbas, Andrew S.; Foley, Carolyn; Rice, Henry E.; Shapiro, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Since trauma is the leading cause of death and disability among children, understanding injury patterns may reduce morbidity and mortality through targeted prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify pediatric injury patterns by year of age using a large national database. Methods We searched the National Trauma Database (NTDB) Research Data Set 7.0 for patients aged 0–18 years with the following relevant ICD-9 external-cause-of-injury codes (e-codes). We also reviewed our institutional trauma registry data (1999–2009). Data were analyzed using ?2 analysis and ANOVA with significance defined as p < 0.05. Results We identified 354,196 pediatric trauma patients. The leading MOI were motor-vehicle collisions (MVC) for ages 10–18 years and falls for ages 0–9 years. Fire was the second leading MOI among 1-year-olds, but not a major MOI in other age groups. Penetrating trauma was the MOI for 21% of injuries among adolescents with public or no insurance (versus 7.5% adolescents with private insurance). Injury severity scores were highest for children < 1 year old and children 14–18 years old. Our review of 1209 patients from our institution yielded additional detail. Conclusion MVC and falls remain leading pediatric MOI. In our year-of-age analysis, we found several interesting trends, including a higher-than-expected rate of penetrating trauma. Our findings may support targeted injury prevention efforts. PMID:23845634

  18. Ethnic and gender differences in physical activity levels among 9–10-year-old children of white European, South Asian and African–Caribbean origin: the Child Heart Health Study in England (CHASE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G; Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Cook, Derek G; Ekelund, Ulf; Whincup, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in physical activity in children in the UK have not been accurately assessed. We made objective measurements of physical activity in 9–10-year-old British children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Methods Cross-sectional study of urban primary school children (2006–07). Actigraph-GT1M activity monitors were worn by 2071 children during waking hours on at least 1 full day. Ethnic differences in mean daily activity [counts, counts per minute of registered time (CPM) and steps] were adjusted for age, gender, day of week and month. Multilevel modelling allowed for repeated days within individual and clustering within school. Results In white Europeans, mean daily counts, CPM and mean daily steps were 394?785, 498 and 10?220, respectively. South Asian and black Caribbean children recorded more registered time per day than white Europeans (34 and 36?min, respectively). Compared with white Europeans, South Asians recorded 18?789 fewer counts [95% confidence interval (CI) 6390–31 187], 41 fewer CPM 95% CI 26–57) and 905 fewer steps (95% CI 624–1187). Black African–Caribbeans recorded 25?359 more counts (95% CI 14?273–36 445), and similar CPM, but fewer steps than white Europeans. Girls recorded less activity than boys in all ethnic groups, with 74?782 fewer counts (95% CI 66?665–82?899), 84 fewer CPM (95% CI 74–95) and 1484 fewer steps (95% CI 1301–1668). Conclusion British South Asian children have lower objectively measured physical activity levels than European whites and black African–Caribbeans. PMID:19377098

  19. A 12-year study of menarcheal age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D F Roberts; T C Dann

    1975-01-01

    Data on menarcheal age were collected on girls admitted to the University College of Swansea over a 12-year period. It appears that the downward trend in menarcheal age ceased in girls born about 1946 (the 1965 student intake) and that an upward swing may have since occurred. This change in the secular trend is not due to the association of

  20. The influence of relative age effects on the cardiorespiratory fitness levels of children age 9 to 10 and 11 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon J; Boddy, Lynne M; Fairclough, Stuart J; Stratton, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to examine whether there was an observed relative age effect in the cardiorespiratory fitness scores of 9-10 and 11-12 year old children, and secondly whether any observed effect was maintained after controlling for somatic maturity. Cardiorespiratory fitness data from 11,404 children aged 9-10 years and 3,911 children aged 11-12 years were obtained from a large cross-sectional field-based fitness testing program. A one-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant relative age effect (p < .01) existed in the 20mSRT scores across all the age groups. Furthermore, ANCOVA analyses identified a statistically significant relative age effect was maintained after controlling for somatic maturation (p < .05). From a public health perspective these results confirm the existence of relative age effects for the first time and consequently may hold implications for relatively younger children in the accurate assessment of their cardiorespiratory fitness scores. PMID:22433266

  1. Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

  2. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  3. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 ?mol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  4. Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 04 Years of Age and 511 Years of Age August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 0­4 Years of Age and 5­11 Years of Age 281 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN CHILDREN 0­4 YEARS OF AGE AND 5­11 YEARS OF AGE Diagnosis and Prognosis of Asthma in Children Long-term management decisions begin with diagnosis

  5. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  6. Pregnancy outcome and intelligence at age five years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Goldenberg; Mary B. DuBard; Suzanne P. Cliver; Kathleen G. Nelson; Kwamena Blankson; Sharon L. Ramey; Allen Herman

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the influence of being small for gestational age at term and being preterm <34 weeks on cognitive functioning at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: Five hundred forty-six children of black low-income mothers, nearly all at risk for being small for gestational age, followed up prenatally with early ultrasonographic gestational age dating, were classified as

  7. Acute diverticulitis in patients 40 years of age and younger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A Marinella; Muhanad Mustafa

    2000-01-01

    Acute colonic diverticulitis typically occurs in patients older than 60 years of age but is uncommon in patients under the age of 40, which may lead to a delay in diagnosis. Because abdominal pain is a very common presenting symptom in emergency department patients, we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 21 patients 40 years of age and younger diagnosed with

  8. Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.

    PubMed

    Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

  9. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  10. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01...2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  11. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  12. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01...2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  13. [8],[9],[10], [11] STRAIGHT[12

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    with autism: a guide to applied behavior analysis for parents, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2001. [3] Robert 74.9% 10 24 72 SVM Boosting [1] Andy Bondy and Lori Frost, A Picture's Worth: PECS and Other Visual

  14. Colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients less than 40 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Palmer; Lemuel Herrera; Nicholas J. Petrelli

    1991-01-01

    From 1973 to 1985, 105 patients under 40 years of age were treated for colorectal adenocarcinoma at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. There were 51 males and 54 females. The mean age was 32 years. The majority of patients were treated for left colon or rectal carcinomas. Ninety-seven of 105 patients underwent surgical resection of their primary cancer, 70 (67 percent)

  15. Evaluation of post-mortem estimated dental age versus real age: a retrospective 21-year survey.

    PubMed

    Reppien, Kirsa; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2006-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of methods used for forensic dental age estimation. We analysed all cases over the last 21 years (1984-2004) of unidentified bodies that were examined for identification purposes (including age assessment), and of which secure identification was subsequently achieved. In total, the study included 51 cases and 7 different methods had been used for dental age estimation, with the Bang/Ramm and the Gustafson/Johanson methods being the most frequently applied. The age estimates had usually been recorded as 10-year intervals. Factual ages at death were in the range of 6-76 years, with the largest concentration of cases being in the age interval of 25-55 years (34 cases). There was good agreement between estimated age interval and factual age at death in 37/51 (72%) of the cases. In eight cases the factual age at death deviated up to +/-5 years from the estimated age, and in six cases by more than 6 years. The average difference between factual age at death and estimated age was 4.5 years. The four subadults in the material were all correctly estimated within an age range of +/-3 years. Our study showed that forensic odontological age estimates are reliable. However, the implementation of the specific methods may need to be adjusted concerning age ranges. In the future we recommend to register anamnestic information and the different steps in the methods used. Clinical evaluation should contain more details about attrition, colour, number and presumed age of the restorations and periodontal status. PMID:16540275

  16. Colorectal carcinoma in patients less than 40 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Öhman

    1982-01-01

    The mean incidence of colorectal carcinoma in persons under age 40 in Sweden is 1.74\\/100,000\\/year. Over a 30-year period,\\u000a 1950 through 1979, 1061 patients with colorectal carcinoma were seen, 48 of whom were under age 40 (21 to 39 years) and in\\u000a this study were compared with older patients. Carcinoma was superimposed upon ulcerative colitis in 18 patients. All patients

  17. Amaurosis fugax under the age of 40 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C J Poole; R W Ross Russell; P Harrison; G F Savidge

    1987-01-01

    Sixteen patients who presented under the age of 40 years with amaurosis fugax have been studied. Follow up from the time of presentation was one to 13 years with a median of 3 years. One patient whose attacks of uniocular visual loss were associated with headache developed a permanent uniocular field defect. None of the other patients has suffered permanent

  18. Multiple sclerosis in children under 10 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ruggieri; P. Iannetti; A. Polizzi; L. Pavone

    2004-01-01

    Despite the consistent amount of information accumulated in recent years on multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood, many clinicians still view this condition as an exclusively young adult-onset disease and do not consider that it may occur and manifest even during infancy and pre-school age, suggesting that the number of MS cases in the paediatric age group may have been underestimated.

  19. Growth hormone deficiency presenting under age 2 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Herber; R D Milner

    1984-01-01

    Twenty nine (1.8%) of a national cohort of 1600 patients with growth hormone deficiency presented before the age of 2 years. Sixteen of the 29 presented before 6 months of age--11 with symptomatic hypoglycaemia, four with failure to thrive, and one with obesity. Hypoglycaemia was persistent and difficult to control until growth hormone treatment was started. Ten of the 11

  20. MEDICAL ENTRANCE FORM (REQUIRED) UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE ONLY

    E-print Network

    Weitz, Joshua S.

    :___________________________________________________ REQUIRED IMMUNIZATIONS REQUIREMENT (MMDDYY) REQUIRED FOR: MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) (2 Doses) #1 or later 1st due at 12 months of age or older 2nd dose due at 4-6 years of age or older Measles (Rubeola) Mumps Rubella (German Measles) (2 Doses) #1 ________ #2 _______ Or Antibody titer (blood test

  1. Subjective age and personality development: a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N?=?3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10-year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank-order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time. PMID:24471687

  2. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  3. Evaluation of post-mortem estimated dental age versus real age: A retrospective 21-year survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsa Reppien; Birgitte Sejrsen; Niels Lynnerup

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of methods used for forensic dental age estimation. We analysed all cases over the last 21 years (1984–2004) of unidentified bodies that were examined for identification purposes (including age assessment), and of which secure identification was subsequently achieved. In total, the study included 51 cases and 7 different methods had

  4. Successful Aging: Perceptions of Adults Aged between 70 and 101 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Tess; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2003-01-01

    In this research, content analysis was employed to investigate older adults' perceptions of successful aging and the relationship of these perceptions to definitions given in the literature to date. Participants were 18 males and 42 females between the ages of 70 and 101 years. Analyses revealed older adults mentioned only 1 or 2 criteria of…

  5. Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

    2009-03-01

    Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development. PMID:19209081

  6. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

  7. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  8. Motor activity at age one year does not predict ADHD at seven years.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul; Ahamat, Boolang; McConnachie, Alex; Puckering, Christine; Marwick, Helen; Furnivall, Daniel; Marwick, Robbie; Gillberg, Christopher; Heron, Jon; Wilson, Philip

    2014-03-01

    We have examined the predictive utility of motor activity in infancy towards diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in later childhood. We conducted a nested case-control study using videos of infants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Sixty videos of children who received any Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA) psychiatric diagnosis at age 91 months (including 16 with ADHD) plus two controls per case were selected for data analysis. Body movements were measured at age one year: associations between motor activity-derived variables using factor analysis, and later ADHD diagnoses were sought. No significant association was found between infant motor activity and later ADHD. A positive association between motor activity and inattentive ADHD was found in males. Motor activity at age one year did not predict ADHD at age seven years. The positive association with inattentive ADHD in males requires further investigation. PMID:24496957

  9. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  10. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel; Duncan, Michael J

    2014-05-14

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cut-off used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in non-selective groups of children and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six fundamental movement skills (FMS: sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys, 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± S.D. = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = .0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared to girls (p = .012) and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = .001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = .003) and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than children born in Q2 (p = .015), Q3 (p = .019) and Q4 (p = .01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared to girls (p = .013), and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than children born in Q4 (p = .038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children's skilled performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born relatively later in the selection year whereas children born earlier in the selection year will likely evidence greater skill mastery and subsequent advantage for selection purposes. PMID:24832979

  11. NIA's intervention testing program at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Warner, Huber R

    2015-04-01

    The previous 20 years of basic research on aging has identified a large number of genes and gene products whose expression can be manipulated in a variety of ways to increase the healthy life span of animal models such as yeast, nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. In an overt attempt to capitalize on this information, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) began a program in 2003 to identify nutritional and pharmaceutical interventions that could be safely employed to extend the healthy life span of mice. This program is called the Intervention Testing Program (ITP), and this article briefly describes the development of this initiative and some of the early success achieved during its first 10 years (2004-2014) of operation. PMID:25726185

  12. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

  13. The first report of a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) ?-thalassemia mutation in a Turkish patient.

    PubMed

    Unal, Sule; Chui, David H K; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Okur, Hamza; Oymak, Yesim; Gumruk, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in Turkey, we report a thalassemic patient with a homozygous codons 9/10 (+T) genotype. Currently, the patient is 3 years and 2 months old and received an initial transfusion at the age of 18 months. After being alloimmunized following this transfusion, he required frequent transfusions, every week to every other week. Although alloimmunization was controlled after methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis and rituximab, the transfusion requirements continued related to hypersplenism. Subsequent to splenectomy, transfusion requirements disappeared with average hemoglobin (Hb) levels around 11.0 g/dL. The mother underwent prenatal diagnosis (PND) when she became pregnant for the third time; this revealed a heterozygous codons 9/10 fetus. PMID:25572182

  14. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9–11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a count-down task in 843 children (aged 9–10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or unsignaled white-noise bursts. Using multilevel regression models, both larger HR acceleration and fewer NS-SCR were found to be significantly associated with psychopathic traits during anticipation of signaled white-noise bursts. However, two divergent patterns appeared for HR and SCR: (1) larger HR acceleration was specific to the callousness-disinhibition factor of psychopathic traits while reduced NS-SCR was only associated with the manipulative-deceitfulness factor; (2) the negative association between the manipulative-deceitfulness factor and NS-SCR was only found in boys but not in girls. These findings replicated what has been found in psychopathic adults, suggesting that autonomic deficits present in children at risk may predispose them to later psychopathy. The divergent findings across psychopathic facets and sexes raised the possibility of different etiologies underlying psychopathy, which may in turn suggest multiple treatment strategies for boys and girls. PMID:22228313

  15. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined. Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Teachers of second class were questioned about the time and facilities for physical education in schools. Results—Some 39% of children were participating in hard exercise for at least 20 minutes three or more times a week, with fewer girls (28%) than boys (53%) contributing to this result. A further 57% of children were engaging in at least 20 minutes of light exercise three or more times a week, with no sex differences. Estimated energy expenditure in regular activity was higher in boys than girls. Most (78%) of the children were spending one to three hours a day sedentary in front of a screen. Conclusions—This study provides comprehensive data on physical activity levels in Dublin schoolchildren aged 7–9 years. The amount of inactivity is of concern. Even at this young age, boys are reported to participate in more physical activity than girls. Key Words: physical activity; exercise; children PMID:11477025

  16. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  17. Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia

    2014-01-01

    Aging in place, an image of growing old in one’s home and maintaining one’s daily routine, is desired by most older adults. To identify variables promoting such independent living in the oldest-old, we examined the association between living situation of a population-based cohort of 90+ year olds with health and lifestyle variables. Of 1485 participants, 53% still lived in their home at a retirement community designed to foster wellness. Those living at home tended to be healthier, with smaller proportions having chronic diseases or hospitalizations in the preceding year and a greater proportion having normal functional ability. Dementia was the chronic disease most significantly related to living situation. In addition to not having dementia, not using a wheelchair or bath aid, receiving meals on wheels, and being married were jointly related to living at home. With the help of family and friends and with a medical and social support system, many 90+ year olds can age in place. This is often because they have a caregiving spouse or paid caregiver. PMID:25288828

  18. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  19. AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years)

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids (5-11 years) Golf (4­15 years) Multi) The Director's Cut (5-11 years) Under the Sea (5-8 years) #12;AGE 6 Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids-8 years) Wrestling (6-17 years) #12;AGE 7 Baseball for Boys (7-15 years) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years

  20. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ?4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, ? = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  1. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  2. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA?+?idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  3. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept. PMID:17296029

  4. Long-term follow up of patients with classical phenylketonuria after diet relaxation at 5 years of age. The Paris Study.

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Abadie, V; Plainguet, F; Rey, J

    1996-07-01

    The age for discontinuing dietary treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) has been a worldwide source of controversy for many years. It is the reason we report here the results of a prospective, controlled study in which the diet was relaxed at 5 years of age in 31 so far well-treated children with classical PKU. The increase of phenylalanine (Phe) plasma levels to about 1500 mumol/l (25 mg/dl) after relaxing the diet was not associated with any significant decline of intellectual performance as measured by the Wechsler scores. Paired comparisons at 7-8 years and 11-13 years of age (n = 12) have shown WISC scores of 102.6 +/- 16.2 and 104.8 +/- 16, respectively, which were not significantly different. Similarly, paired comparisons at 9-10 years and 14-16 years (n = 6) did not demonstrate a significant loss of IQ points (107.7 +/- 13 vs 104.8 +/- 18). Of course, it is possible to argue that we should have observed an increase in IQ with increasing age in our patients and that the absence of deterioration cannot be considered by itself as a good result. Nevertheless, it cannot be excluded that the subtle but global intellectual impairments that have been documented in early-treated subjects are, to a very substantial degree, determined in the pre-school years, long before there is any question of stopping or relaxing the diet. PMID:8828607

  5. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  6. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against...having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes for...

  7. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against...having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes for...

  8. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against...having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes for...

  9. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321...780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D...available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though...

  10. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321...780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D...available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though...

  11. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321...780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D...available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though...

  12. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against...having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes for...

  13. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117...Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed against...having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes for...

  14. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321...780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D...available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though...

  15. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321...780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D...available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though...

  16. [5 years follow-up study of stroke patients over 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Vogel, J

    1994-08-01

    A total of 289 stroke patients over age 65 were followed-up 5 years post-discharge from in-patient rehabilitation. Predictors of the course following discharge are investigated and geriatric rehabilitation assessed based on data gathered during in-patient rehabilitation as well as follow-up findings. 40% of the patients were alive 5 years post-discharge; the average annual death rate of 14.6% had been three times higher than among a control group. 67% are living in their own home, 21% in a nursing facility, and 12% in a residence for the elderly; only 3 of the surviving patients had to move to a nursing home post discharge. The patients' independence had reduced by an average 5 points on the Barthel index. Negative predictors for survival had been the presence of cardiac disease, Diabetes mellitus, psycho-organic syndrome and depression at discharge. However, as is the case for age as such, these conditions do not affect survivors' functional outcomes. Two thirds of the patients consider their state of health as constant or improved; only one fifth were rated as having a poor quality of life. The data gathered for the follow-up patients show that geriatric stroke rehabilitation is worthwhile. PMID:7973060

  17. Characteristics and screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer aged 20–29 years

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, A; Leung, V M W; Landy, R; Lim, A W W; Sasieni, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: There was concern that failure to screen women aged 20–24 years would increase the number of cancers or advanced cancers in women aged 20–29 years. We describe the characteristics of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in England aged 20–29 years and examine the association between the period of diagnosis, screening history and FIGO stage. Methods: We used data on 1800 women diagnosed with cervical cancer between April 2007 and March 2012 at age 20–29 from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancers. Results: The majority of cancers (995, or 62% of those with known stage) were stage 1A. Cancer at age 20–24 years was rare (12% of those aged 20–29 years), when compared with age 25 (24%) and age 26–29 years (63%); however, cancers in women aged 20–24 years tended to be more advanced and were more often of a rare histological type. For 59% of women under age 30, the cervical cancer was screen detected, most of them (61%) as a result of their first screening test. A three-fold increase in the number of cancers diagnosed at age 25 years was seen since the start of the study period. Conclusion: Cervical cancer at age 20–24 years is rare. Most cancers in women under age 30 years are screen detected as microinvasive cancer. PMID:23820257

  18. AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years)

    E-print Network

    AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids Freshman (4 1/2 -6 years) Golf 6 Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids Freshman (4 1/2 -6 years) Clan Kids Junior (6-8 years (5-13 years) Under the Sea (5-8 years) Wrestling (6-17 years) #12;AGE 7 Basketball for Boys (5

  19. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1

  20. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  1. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  2. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  3. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  4. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  5. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  6. Consistent yearly appearance of age-O walleye pollock,

    E-print Network

    1981, age-O pollock were taken near the bottom at 30-60 m depths at vari- ous bays and inlets, submerged (20-25 m depths) rocky ledges at a site within 200 m of the Auke Bay Laboratory. The diving effort

  7. Postural sway in normal subjects aged 20-70 years.

    PubMed

    Røgind, H; Lykkegaard, J J; Bliddal, H; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2003-05-01

    So far, no population-based reference material of postural sway has been presented in the literature. This study evaluated postural control by measuring posturographic parameters, with the aim of establishing useful standards with regard to gender, age, body weight, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and articular hypermobility. This was performed in an age-stratified random sample of 195 subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, of whom, 133 agreed to participate. Measurement of postural sway was performed the Balance Master Pro(R). Outcome parameters were average angular velocity, target sway area, per cent maximum stability and per cent ankle strategy. Using SAS Proc Mixed, backward stepwise elimination was performed and 95% prediction intervals were obtained. Sway increased with increasing difficulty of the test (P<0.001) and with increasing age (P<0.001). No differences were found between the sexes. Ankle-strategy did not change with age, but decreased with increasing body weight, and increased in subjects reporting a consumption of modest amounts of alcohol (P<0.001), or with the finding of increased hypermobility (P = 0.006). The present material may be used as a reference in further studies of postural control. PMID:12752561

  8. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  9. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens B. Asendorpf; Jaap J. A. Denissen; Marcel A. G. van Aken

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4–6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in establishing a

  10. Use of tiotropium in patients with COPD aged 80 years and older

    PubMed Central

    SATOH, HIROAKI; KAGOHASHI, KATSUNORI; OHARA, GEN; SATO, SHINYA; MIYAZAKI, KUNIHIKO; NAKAZAWA, KENSUKE; TAMURA, TOMOHIRO; KURISHIMA, KOICHI; KAWAGUCHI, MIO; HIZAWA, NOBUYUKI

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine clinical features and treatment modality approaches in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in those aged 80 years and older. Using databases available at Mito Kyodo General Hospital (Japan), the medical records of COPD patients between April 2009 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient population was divided into three age groups; less than 70 years (the <70 age group), between 70–79 years (the 70–79 age group) and 80 years or older (the ?80 age group). Demographic data, as well as the efficacy and safety of tiotropium, were compared between the three groups. Patients in the ?80 age group comprised 35.6% of the study population with COPD (n=174). The ?80 and 70–79 age groups demonstrated a higher proportion of comorbid disease compared with the <70 age group. A subjective improvement of dyspnea on effort as well as no additional adverse effects were observed in the ?80 age group, similar to the other two age groups. However, higher incidence of acute exacerbation of COPD in patients aged ?80 years old was found, particularly in those with comorbid disease. The efficacy and safety of tiotropium in COPD patients in the ?80 age group were almost identical to patients <80 years old, however, physicians must be cautious with acute exacerbation of COPD in the extremely elderly population with comorbid disease. PMID:23596463

  11. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  12. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  13. Homicides of persons aged < or = 18 years--Fulton County, Georgia, 1988-1992.

    PubMed

    1994-04-15

    Homicide is a major cause of death among persons aged < or = 18 years in the United States; among black males aged 15-24 years, homicide is the leading cause of death. Most efforts to characterize homicide among persons aged < or = 18 years have used databases at the national level rather than at the state or local level or have been restricted in scope to specific types of homicides (e.g., gang-related homicide. This report summarizes an epidemiologic study of homicides that occurred among persons aged < or = 18 years in Fulton County (Atlanta), Georgia (1990 population: 648,951), from 1988 through 1992. PMID:8145718

  14. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  15. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  16. The Wonders of the Middle-Aged Brain s if people reaching their middle years

    E-print Network

    Yellen, Gary

    The Wonders of the Middle-Aged Brain A s if people reaching their middle years didn't have enough in the prime of middle age. Although the study did find that certain innate skills, like memory and reasoning that, compared with brain performance in Gen Xers and millennials, middle-aged adult brains perform

  17. Age Changes in Nonverbal Decoding Skills: Evidence for Increasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaulo, Bella M.; Rosenthal, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Middle class children and adults (n=632) from eight age levels (mean ages 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 33 years) were tested with the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (the PONS test) to measure accuracy in decoding nonverbal cues. The prediction that nonverbal skills would increasingly differentiate over ages was confirmed. (RH)

  18. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  19. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  20. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  1. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Heidi M.; Dale, Philip S.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Paradise, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N=113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and…

  2. 1 | P a g e Today's Date Age Now (years/months)

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    1 | P a g e Today's Date Age Now (years/months) Desired Entrance Date Age on Sept. 1, 2014 (years INFORMATION Name Relationship to Child Nature of Work Place/Name of Business Work Hours Birthplace Home Address Business Address Home Phone Business Phone Email Address Cell Phone PARENT OR GUARDIAN INFORMATION

  3. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40?years. PMID:25516923

  4. Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years?

    PubMed

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Objective. The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 years of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods. This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results. In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 years of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions. Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during pre-school age, independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long-term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children's first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel. PMID:25385683

  5. Impact of screening mammography on mortality from breast cancer before age 60 in women 40 to 49 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Narod, S.A.; Sun, P.; Wall, C.; Baines, C.; Miller, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether screening mammography programs should include women in their 40s is controversial. In Canada, screening of women aged 40–49 years has not been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer. Given that screening mammography reduces mean tumour size and that tumour size is inversely associated with survival, the lack of benefit seen with screening is puzzling and suggests a possible adverse effect on mortality of mammography or subsequent treatment (or both) that counterbalances the expected benefit derived from downstaging. Methods We followed 50,436 women 40–49 years of age until age 60 for mortality from breast cancer. Of those women, one half had been randomly assigned to annual mammography and one half to no mammography. The impact of mammography on breast cancer mortality was estimated using a left-censored Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 256 deaths from breast cancer recorded in the study cohort, 134 occurred in women allocated to mammography, and 122 occurred in those receiving usual care and not allocated to mammography. The cumulative risk of death from breast cancer to age 60 was 0.53% for women assigned to mammography and 0.48% for women not so assigned. The hazard ratio for breast cancer–specific death associated with 1 or more screening mammograms before age 50 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.40). Conclusions Mammography in women 40–49 years of age is associated with a small but nonsignificant increase in the risk of dying of breast cancer before age 60. Caution should be exercised when recommending mammographic screening to women before age 50. PMID:25302030

  6. CONCENTRATION PLAN for NEUROSCIENCE [Eff. 9/10

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    CONCENTRATION PLAN for NEUROSCIENCE [Eff. 9/10] Name Uniqname UMID Exp. Date of Graduation to satisfy two requirements. Group A: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (Elect at least two courses.) BIO of Neurodegeneration MCDB 456 (3) Genes, Circuits, and Behavior Group B: Behavioral Neuroscience (Elect at least two

  7. Microsoft Word - App 9-10 AE specs.doc

    Cancer.gov

    1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 9-10 Lung Screening Study Specifications for Completion of the Adverse Events for NIH-Sponsored Clinical Trials (RAE) The Report of Adverse Events for

  8. Lecture 9-10 Introduction to energy & environment

    E-print Network

    annually in the world. Indoor air pollution is found to cause 1.6M of these deaths Smoking is not includedLecture 9-10 HAS222d-09 Introduction to energy & environment Air pollution #12;applying flux of air pollution. This health impact represents about 4.3% percent of the total 56M deaths that occur

  9. Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Alize J.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Norman, Rosana E.; Patten, Scott B.; Freedman, Greg; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease. Methods and Findings Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%–10.8%) of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%–2.0%). Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%–3.2%) of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%–0.6%). There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%–3.8%) to 3.8% (3.0%–4.7%) of global DALYs. Conclusions GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing cost-effective interventions to reduce its burden. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24223526

  10. Molecular gears: Structures of (9,10-triptyceno) crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Sachleben, R.A.; Gakh, A.A.; Bunick, G.J.

    1999-05-01

    The incorporation of 9,10-triptycene unit in a crown ether is examined from a structural perspective. Insertion of a triptycene group into 18-crown-6 stretches the crown into an ellipse, as seen in structures presented here of 9,10-triptyceno-22-crown-6 and its thallium complex. Symmetric addition of two triptycene groups into 18-crown-6 results in the sterically congested bis(9,10-triptyceno)-26-crown-6, whose crown cavity is filled with the {pi}-clouds of two arene groups. The larger bis(9,10-triptyceno)-32-crown-8 is more sterically relaxed. The structures of these bis(triptyceno)crown ether molecules are the first with two triptycene groups simultaneously linked through their 9 and 10 positions, thereby forming a simple molecular gearing mechanism. The compound 9,10-triptyceno-22-crown-6 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 10.7962(7), b = 15.826(3), c = 31.147(5) {angstrom}, V = 5321.8(12) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 8; its complex with TlNO{sub 3} crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 8.1884(14), b = 19.552(2), c = 20,575(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 97.062(8){degree}, V = 3269.2(9) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4; bis(9,10-triptyceno)-26-crown-6 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P{bar 1} with a = 8.6488(11), b = 10,7718(12), c = 12.3324(12) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 111.58(1), {beta} = 100.55(1), {gamma} = 106.43(1){degree}, V = 970.3(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 1; and bis(9,10-triptyceno)-32-crown-8 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna2{sub 1} with a = 20.186(3), b = 8.558(2), c = 25.623(2) {angstrom}, V = 4426.2(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4.

  11. Course of patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia during first episode occurring under age 18 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schmidt; Bernd Blanz; Astrid Dippe; Till Koppe; Barbara Lay

    1995-01-01

    Of 118 child and adolescent schizophrenic patients (ICD-9: 295.x; mean onset age 16.0 years), 97 (82.2%) could be completely investigated at follow-up (mean interval 7.4 years; mean age 23.1 years). At followup 30% of the patients were semidependent or dependent, 72% still required psychiatric treatment, 44% were at least moderately impaired with regard to educational\\/occupational functions and 58% with regard

  12. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age. PMID:22877414

  13. Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

  14. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). PMID:21917018

  15. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12–19 years: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. H. Huijgen; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Wendy Post; Chris Visscher

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12–19 years (n = 267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 years, resulting in 519 measurements. Two field tests, the Shuttle Sprint

  16. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  17. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  18. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Felicia W.; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  19. Validity of self-reports of psychopathology from children of 4–11 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Norwood

    2007-01-01

    Self-reports from children below primary age are rarely used in assessments of psychopathology. This study uses a version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), previously validated for children 11–15 years, to assess the internal validity of self-reports of psychopathology from primary aged children. The SDQ was completed by primary aged children (N?=?1118). The sample consisted of children who had

  20. Aortic biological valve prosthesis in patients younger than 65 years of age: transition to a flexible age limit?

    PubMed Central

    Niclauss, Lars; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl; Ferrari, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Guidelines proposed bioprosthesis implantation for aortic valve disease if the patients were at least 65 years old at the time of surgery, with a trend towards even younger patients in recent years. Considering the adverse effects of lifetime anticoagulation, new biological valves (less prone to degeneration) and new technologies may lead patients and surgeons to different choices. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse the results of aortic bioprosthetic valve replacement in patients aged <65 years at the time of surgery. METHODS From January 2000 to December 2010, 84 patients aged <65 years at the time of surgery had undergone an aortic bio-prosthetic valve replacement. A mid-term follow-up [(FU) mean FU time: 54.4 ± 39.2 months] was done in August 2011 in all patients (FU completeness: 100%). Results were compared with patients who had a mechanical prosthetic aortic valve replacement during the same period. RESULTS The reoperation rate for structural valve degeneration (SVD) of bioprostheses was 6% and occurred exclusively among patients <56 years. Contraindications for anticoagulation determined the choice of a bioprosthesis among 83% of these patients. The personal preference to avoid anticoagulation was the leading cause in 68% of the older patients (56–65 years). Neurological complications occurred more frequently in the mechanical control group. CONCLUSIONS Reoperations for SVD after bioprosthesis implantation occurred exclusively among younger patients (<56 years), not suitable for systemic anticoagulation. Previous studies, together with our experience, are in favour of an age limit between 56 and 60 years, taking into consideration alternative transcatheter approaches to SVD treatment. PMID:23287588

  1. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 year age classes (so sex-ratios of offspring of

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    with the report on parental age differences and the sex ratio of first-born children1 . These contain 326,571 first-born daughters, a sex ratio of 1.0469. This small difference is in the oppo- site directionNature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 year age classes (so sex-ratios of offspring of `toy boys

  2. An Analysis of Problems and Perspective of the Black Aged: Preparation for the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Clinton V.; Sheppard, N. Alan

    This paper addresses some of the problems and concerns of the nation's Black aged with special emphasis toward the year 2000. Dramatization of the plight of the Black aged may proceed in a number of directions. This paper focuses on strategies that may be developed within academic institutions, local communities, professional and other…

  3. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  4. Outcome of Cochlear Implantation at Different Ages from 0 to 6 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Govaerts; Carina De Beukelaer; Kristin Daemers; Geert De Ceulaer; Marjan Yperman; Thomas Somers; Isabelle Schatteman; F. Erwin Offeciers

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of cochlear implantation in young children in relation to the age at implantation. Study Design: A retrospective longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of pediatric cochlear implant patients. Patients: All children with congenital deafness who underwent implantation before the age of 6 years (n 48 for the longi- tudinal analysis and n 70 for the cross-sectional analysis)

  5. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants D Laurier 1 living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present herein results about the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results

  6. Diarrhea in Children under 5 Years of Age from Ifakara, Tanzania: a Case-Control Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. GASCON; M. VARGAS; D. SCHELLENBERG; H. URASSA; C. CASALS; E. KAHIGWA; J. J. APONTE; H. MSHINDA; J. VILA; Tropical Section; Servei Microbiologia

    2000-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Clinic (MCH) in Ifakara, Tanzania, during the rainy season in order to elucidate the risk factors for and etiology of diarrheal diseases in children under 5 years of age. Cases (103) and controls (206) were matched for sex and age group. Precoded questionnaires with demographic details, clinical history,

  7. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  8. Associations between Media Viewing and Language Development in Children Under Age 2 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERICK J. ZIMMERMAN; DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS; ANDREW N. MELTZOFF

    Objective To test the association of media exposure with language development in children under age 2 years. Study design A total of 1008 parents of children age 2 to 24 months, identified by birth certificates, were surveyed by telephone in February 2006. Questions were asked about child and parent demographics, child-parent interactions, and child's viewing of several content types of

  9. Multifactorial cardiovascular disease prevention in patients aged 75 years and older: A randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo E. Strandberg; Kaisu Pitkala; Saila Berglind; Markku S. Nieminen; Reijo S. Tilvis

    2001-01-01

    Background The number of patients aged 75+ years with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing, but few studies of secondary prevention in this age group exist. The aim of the Drug and Evidence Based Medicine in the Elderly (DEBATE) study is to test the applicability and effectiveness of established CVD treatments in elderly patients. Methods From 1998 to 2000, population-based postal

  10. Three Years of the New Minimum Drinking Age Law: The Search for the "Spillover Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.; Watson, Zarus E. P.

    Raising the legal drinking age nationally was designed to decrease highway deaths, but it has not seemed to have affected the drinking behavior of 18-20 year old college students. In August of 1995, the Louisiana legislature raised the legal minimum drinking age to 21. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a change in legal…

  11. Survival and cause of death after mitral valve replacement in patients aged 80 years and over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Asimakopoulos; M-B Edwards; J Brannan; K. M Taylor

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Over the last decade there has been an increasing number of patients aged 80 years and over undergoing heart valve replacement. However, literature on the outcome of mitral valve replacement (MVR) in this age group is still limited. Methods: We conducted the present study by analysing data extracted from the UK Heart Valve Registry. From January 1986 to December

  12. High Incidence of Severe Influenza among Individuals over 50 Years of Age ?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Anna J. X.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Guo, Kun-Yuan; Li, Can; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Chen, Honglin; Tam, Sidney; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Age-specific epidemiological data on asymptomatic, symptomatic, and severe infections are essential for public health policies on combating influenza. In this study, we incorporated data on microbiologically confirmed infections and seroprevalence to comprehensively describe the epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza. Seroprevalence was determined from 1,795 random serum samples collected in our hospital in January 2007 (before the first wave of the pandemic) and March 2010 (after the second wave). Data on microbiologically confirmed infection and severe cases were obtained from the Centre for Health Protection in Hong Kong. Severe cases were most common in the 51- to 60-year-old age group. The microbiologically confirmed incidence rate was highest for children aged ?10 years and dropped sharply for the adult population (? = ?1.0; P < 0.01), but the incidence rate for severe disease was highest for the 51- to 60-year-old age group. For the 51- to 60-year-old age group, the seroprevalence was similar to that for the younger age groups, but the proportion of severe cases relative to seroprevalence was significantly higher than that for 11- to 50-year-old age groups. As judged from the percentage of specimens positive for other respiratory viruses compared with that for pandemic H1N1 virus, the impact of symptomatic disease due to pandemic H1N1 virus was higher than that for other respiratory viruses in people aged ?50 years. In conclusion, the 51- to 60-year-old age group, which had the highest overall incidence and the highest rate of severe disease but is currently not considered by the World Health Organization to be an at-risk group, should be prioritized for influenza vaccination in areas where universal influenza vaccination is not practiced. PMID:21900532

  13. Visual acuity impairment in patients with retinitis pigmentosa at age 45 years or older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep Grover; Gerald A Fishman; Robert J Anderson; Marcia S. V Tozatti; John R Heckenlively; Richard G Weleber; Albert O Edwards; Jeremiah Brown

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the severity of visual acuity impairment in patients, age 45 years or older, with either isolated or identifiable genetic subtypes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Usher syndrome.

  14. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the following: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including...the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 570.33...years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations,...

  15. Height growth of triplets from birth to 12 years of age in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sugimoto, Masako; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in height of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' length and height growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, and maternal height were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school which children receive health check-ups. The height deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 2% and 5% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of height between the general population and triplets were approximately -3.6 cm for male and -4.4 cm for female. Maternal height showed the strongest contribution to height of triplets from 6 to 12 years of age. In conclusion, triplets remain shorter than singletons until 12 years of age. PMID:21962141

  16. The Malignant Potential of Small Cystic Ovarian Tumors in Women over 50 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Bailey; F. R. Ueland; G. L. Land; P. D. DePriest; H. H. Gallion; R. J. Kryscio; J. R. van Nagell

    1998-01-01

    Objective.The aim of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy in cystic ovarian tumors <10 cm in diameter in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age.Methods.All cystic ovarian tumors detected by transvaginal sonography screening in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age were evaluated with respect to size and morphology. Histology was recorded on

  17. Prostate cancer screening: knowledge, experiences and attitudes of men aged 40-79 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Arroll; Salil Pandit; Stephen Buetow

    Aim The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, experiences and attitudes of men aged 40-79 years regarding screening for prostate cancer. Methods This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of men aged 40-79 years whose names were randomly selected from the Auckland telephone directory. The study was undertaken in the summers of 2000\\/2001 and 2001\\/2002. Results The

  18. Early Life Environmental Control Effect on Symptoms, Sensitization, and Lung Function at Age 3 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Woodcock; Lesley A. Lowe; Clare S. Murray; Bridget M. Simpson; Spyros D. Pipis; Patricia Kissen; Angela Simpson; Adnan Custovic

    We investigated whether environmental control during pregnancy and early life affects sensitization and lung function at the age of 3 years. High-risk children (n 251) were prenatally randomized to stringent environmental control (active) or no intervention (con- trol). Questionnaires, skin testing, IgE, and specific airway resistance (sRaw) measurement were completed at the age of 3 years. Children in the active

  19. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school. PMID:23033753

  20. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  1. Comorbidities among the HIV-Infected Patients Aged 40 Years or Older in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Liu, Wen-Chun; Yang, Shan-Ping; Luo, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART. Methods We reviewed medical records of all HIV-infected patients aged 40 years or older who had been followed at a university hospital for HIV care in Taiwan between January and December 2013. A standardized case record form was used to collect information on demographics and clinical characteristics, comorbidity, cART, and concurrent medications. Results During the study period, 610 patients aged 40 to 49 years (mean, 44.1) and 310 aged 50 years or older (mean, 58.8) sought HIV care at this hospital. Compared with patients aged 40 to 49 years, those aged 50 years or older were significantly more likely to be female (15.9% vs 3.8%); to have received cART (97.7% vs 94.8%) and a lower plasma HIV RNA load (1.6 vs 1.7 log10 copies/ml); and to have diabetes mellitus (18.4% vs 4.6%), hypertension (31.0% vs 10.8%), hyperlipidemia (29.4% vs 11.6%), coronary artery disease (6.8% vs 0.5%), and an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (11.5% vs 2.7%); and were significantly less likely to have syphilis. Other than HIV infection, patients aged 50 years or older were more likely to have been receiving two or more concurrent medications than those aged 40 to 49 years (22.9% vs 6.4%). Conclusions Our findings show a significant proportion of the HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older have multiple comorbidities that may increase the risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. Issues of poly-pharmacy among the HIV-infected patients who are aging should be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions. PMID:25119532

  2. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  3. Evaluation of acute pyelonephritis with DMSA scans in children presenting after the age of 5 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neamatollah Ataei; Abbas Madani; Reza Habibi; Mosa Khorasani

    2005-01-01

    It is generally believed that infants are more susceptible to development of renal scarring after pyelonephritis than children over 5 years old. This view has led to differences in investigations and treatment according to age. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children over 5 years admitted with a first-time symptomatic urinary tract

  4. Surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women of 80 years of age and older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karlijn J. Schweitzer; Mark E. Vierhout; Alfredo L. Milani

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term results of women over 80 years of age following surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. METHODS: We reviewed all records of women of 80 years and older operated for pelvic organ prolapse; all patients alive were contacted through a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 2058 operations for pelvic organ prolapse were

  5. Cochlear implantation in children under the age of two years: Candidacy considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY JOE OSBERGER

    1997-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been a growing trend to lower the age at implantation below 2 years in children. The motivation for this trend is to provide children with access to auditory stimulation as early as possible, thereby taking advantage of crucial periods for speech and language development. Determining implant candidacy in very young children, however, poses numerous challenges

  6. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  7. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS Cannabis Use and Cognitive Decline in Persons under 65 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantine G. Lyketsos; Elizabeth Garrett; Kung-Yee Liang; James C. Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible adverse effects of cannabis use on cognitive decline after 12 years in persons under age 65 years. This was a follow-up study of a probability sample of the adult household residents of East Baltimore. The analyses included 1,318 participants in the Baltimore, Maryland, portion of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study who

  8. Intrauterine growth retardation and neurodevelopment at one year of age in Mexican children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Alberto Fernández-Carrocera; Raquel Chávez-Torres; Esther Casanueva; René Humberto Barrera-Reyes; María del Pilar Ibarra-Reyes; Carlos Martínez-Cruz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the frequency and type of neurological, neuromotor, auditive, language, psychological and anthropometric abnormalities present at one year of age in a group of infants born with IUGR. One hundred and fifty four infants (77 IUGR and 77 controls) were included in a case control evaluation. Weight gain at one year of

  9. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  10. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  11. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  12. Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taina Huurre; Tomi Lintonen; Jaakko Kaprio; Mirjami Pelkonen; Mauri Marttunen; Hillevi Aro

    2010-01-01

    Aims  To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent\\u000a predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed\\u000a up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use

  13. Clinicopathological features and survival rates of patients with renal cell carcinoma under 50 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Fuat Atmaca; Ömer Bayrak; Olcay Kandemir; Ege Can ?erefo?lu; Ílke Evrim Çulha; Abdullah Erdem Canda; M. Derya Balbay

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the clinicopathological features and survival rates of the patients with renal cell carcinoma younger than 50\\u000a years old. Between 2004 and 2007, 28 patients between 19–49 years underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma. Presenting symptoms,\\u000a type of the surgery performed, postoperative outcomes and duration of follow-up were recorded. Mean age was 41.5±7.6 years\\u000a and 75% of patients were

  14. H2D(+) observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Brünken, Sandra; Sipilä, Olli; Chambers, Edward T; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E; Kami?ski, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Stutzki, Jürgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-11

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H(+)) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D(+) and para-H2D(+), have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D(+) is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D(+) emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H(+) work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D(+) clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years. PMID:25409140

  15. H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, Sandra; Sipilä, Olli; Chambers, Edward T.; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E.; Kami?ski, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M.; Stutzki, Jürgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H+) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D+ and para-H2D+, have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D+ is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D+ emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H+ work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D+ clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years.

  16. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients Aged 65 Years and Older: Follow-Up of 52 Patients After 1 Year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sedat; M. Dib; M. Lonjon; S. Litrico; D. Von Langsdorf; D. Fontaine; P. Paquis

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose—We sought to describe the clinical outcome and results obtained in the endovascular therapy of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in the elderly over an 8-year period. We compared endovascular therapy results in patients aged 65 and 65 years. Methods—During 1993-1999, 52 patients aged 65 to 85 years (mean age, 71.54.7 years) were embolized with the use of Guglielmi detachable

  17. Total knee arthroplasty in carefully selected patients aged 80 years or older

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The patients aged ?80 years have been considered to have a higher risk of mortality, postoperative complications, and longer hospital stay following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) than younger patients. The purposes of this retrospective study were to review the results of TKA in patients aged ?80 years after a preoperative consultation. Methods Seventy-five patients aged ?80 years underwent TKA from January 2006 and June 2010. A control group of younger patients (65–74 years) was matched in a 1:1 ratio with the ?80 years group for sex, diagnosis of the disease, body mass index, the American Society of Anesthesiologists' type of anesthesia, and comorbidities. Cardiologists and neurologists carefully evaluated the risk of patients for both groups before surgery. The groups were compared with regard to Knee Society Scores, Knee Society Function Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores, length of stay, postoperative complications, and 90-day mortality rate. Results The mean follow-up was 2.3 years (range 1–5 years). We found no difference in the functional outcomes and length of stay between the two groups. The ?80 years group had a higher rate of blood transfusion (29.3% versus 10.7%, p?=?0.006) after Bonferroni correction. There were no cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications in the ?80 years group. There were no mortalities within 90 days in either group. Conclusions Despite similar functional results and pain relief of the TKA compared with the young patient group, the ?80 years group had a higher complication rate of blood transfusion. With a preoperative consultation by cardiologists and neurologists, patients aged ?80 years have a low cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications and 90-day mortality after TKA. PMID:25017667

  18. Methods for Predicting Age0 Crappie Year-Class Strength in J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Todd St. John; William Patrick Black

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the precision and efficiency of larval townets and trap nets and correlated estimates to hydrologic parameters (temperature and spring discharge) during 1998–2002 to determine the best method for predicting year-class strength of age-0 white crappie Pomoxis annularis and black crappie P. nigromaculatus in J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee. Both larval townet and fall trap-net samples effectively sampled age-0

  19. Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Developmental Outcomes and Environmental Risks at Seven Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. ARENDT; ELIZABETH J. SHORT; LYNN T. SINGER; SONIA MINNES; JULIE HEWITT; SARAH FLYNN; LISA CARLSON; MEEYOUNG O. MIN; NANCY KLEIN; DANIEL FLANNERY

    2004-01-01

    Data are equivocal regarding the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cocaine on school-aged children. We compared 101 children exposed prenatally to cocaine with 130 unexposed children on measures of intelligence, visual motor, and motor abilities at age 7 years. Bivariate analyses revealed that cocaine-exposed children scored significantly lower than comparison children on the abbreviated Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third

  20. Prenatal Drug Exposure: Effects on Cognitive Functioning at 5 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret B. Pulsifer; Arlene M. Butz; Megan OReilly Foran; Harolyn M. E. Belcher

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning at age 5 years in prenatal drug-exposed children with nondrug-exposed children from a comparable inner-city environment. Children with prenatal drug exposure scored significantly lower on measures of language, school readiness skills, impulse control, and visual attention span\\/sequencing than controls matched for age and socioeconomic status. Intelligence, visual-motor, manual dexterity,

  1. Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound measurements in former pre-term children aged 9 11 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z P Halaba; J Bursa; U Kostowska Kaplon; W Pluskiewicz; S Marciniak; U Drzewiecka

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare phalangeal ultrasound values in 38 former pre-term children, aged 9-11 years, with 50 age-matched term controls. Skeletal status was evaluated using phalangeal quantitative ultrasound measurements (QUS) by DBM Sonic 1200 (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) which measures the amplitude dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS, m s21). There were no significant differences in values of

  2. Recurrence and follow-up after urinary tract infection under the age of 1 year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Nuutinen; Matti Uhari

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyze the risk factors for recurrence and the value of routine follow-up by monthly urine cultures in a group\\u000a of children who had their first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) under 1 year of age, we performed a retrospective\\u000a survey of 262 children (134 girls, 128 boys) who were treated for their first UTI while aged

  3. Determinants of maximal instantaneous muscle power in women aged 50–75 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Vito; M. Bernardi; R. Forte; C. Pulejo; A. Macaluso; F. Figura

    1998-01-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the age-related decline in maximal muscle power (W?) in 52 sedentary healthy women aged between 50 and 75 years to determine whether force or velocity is the major determinant.\\u000a Maximal muscle power was estimated from two types of vertical jumps, squatting (SJ) and counter?movement (CmJ), performed\\u000a on a force platform. It was obtained by

  4. Maximal mouth opening capacity: percentiles for healthy children 4–17 years of age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduced mouth opening capacity may be one of the first clinical signs of pathological changes in the masticatory system. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to create age related percentiles for unassisted maximal mouth opening capacity (MOC) of healthy children. Methods All recordings of MOC as measured at the yearly dental examinations of school children in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, between August 2009 and August 2010 were extracted from the database. The program LMSchartMaker Pro Version 2.43, Huiqi Pan and Tim Cole, Medical Research Council, 1997–2010 was used to calculate age and sex related reference centiles. Results Records from 22?060 dental examinations were found during the study period. In 1286 (5.8%) the maximal interincisal measurement was missing. Another 55 examinations were excluded because of missing data for sex (7), age at examination (11) or because the value was deemed to be pathologically low (37). Thus, a total of 20?719 measurements (10?060 girls, 10?659 boys) were included in the analysis. The median age (range) was 9.9 years (3.3-18.3) for girls and 10.0 years (2.8-18.7) for boys. The mean MOC (range) was 45 mm (25–69) for girls and 45 mm (25–70) for boys. Age related percentiles were created for girls and boys separately, showing the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile from 3 through 18 years of age. Conclusions In these 20?719 unselected school children MOC increased with age but showed a wide range within children of the same age. PMID:23607797

  5. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations, for the periods, and under the conditions hereafter...minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of...between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations, for the periods, and under the conditions...

  6. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570...employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations, for the periods, and under the conditions specified...

  7. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570...employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations, for the periods, and under the conditions specified...

  8. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570...employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations, for the periods, and under the conditions specified...

  9. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570...employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations, for the periods, and under the conditions specified...

  10. Last upgrade: 9/10/13 MANAGEMENT 1 Year MANAGEMENT 1 Year

    E-print Network

    Krause, Rolf

    Intrdocuction to Statistics (Mira) A-22 Intrdocuction to Statistics (Mira) A-22 Organizational Behavior (Jametti) A-21 Organizational Behavior (Lomi ) 2 (Bresciani) 3 A-21 A-11 13.30-15.30 Accounting (Caglio) 2 Organizational Behavior (Lomi ) 2 A-21 15.30-17.30 Intrdocuction to Statistics (Mira) A-11 Organizational

  11. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

  12. Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John M. D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. Results Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11) if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised). Conclusions These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen. PMID:25251831

  13. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Small-for-Gestational-Age Status: Effects on Growth at 6 Years of age

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Das, Abhik; Bauer, Charles R.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Wright, Linda L.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Poole, W. Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status on childhood growth. STUDY DESIGN Cocaine exposure was defined by history or meconium metabolites. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine cocaine exposure and SGA status on growth, while controlling for exposure to other drugs and alcohol use. RESULTS At birth cocaine-exposed infants (n=364) had significantly lower growth parameters compared to non-exposed children (n=771). At 6 years, weight was similar between exposed and unexposed children. SGA infants continued to be growth impaired. There was a significant interaction between prenatal cocaine exposure and SGA status at 6 years. The negative effects of cocaine on weight and height were greater among non-SGA than SGA children (432 vs. 280 gm, and 0.7 and 0.5 cm, respectively) while negative effects of SGA status on weight and height were larger in non-cocaine exposed compared to the exposed children (2.3 kg vs.1.6 kg and 2.2 and 1.0 cm). CONCLUSIONS Children exposed to prenatal cocaine were similar in weight to non-exposed children at 6 years of age. Cocaine had an unexplained greater detrimental effect on non-SGA than SGA children. SGA status at birth has an independent detrimental effect on childhood growth. PMID:21849244

  14. Participation-related relative age effects in Masters swimming: a 6-year retrospective longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Medic, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Medic and colleagues (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007) found that relatively younger cohorts of Masters athletes had higher participation rates and achieved higher performances compared with a relatively older cohort. Considering that Medic and colleagues' (2007) study was cross-sectional in nature, the purpose of this investigation was to employ a retrospective longitudinal study design to examine the participation rates of Masters swimmers as a function of an individual's constituent year within any 5-year age category over a period of 6 years. Using archived data from the 2003 to 2009 US Masters Short Course National Championships, swimmers' attendance was followed for a period of six consecutive years. Results indicated that a participation-related relative age effect was observed among swimmers who, over a period of 6 years, competed in either at least one championship (N = 2596; Cochran's Q? = 64.16, r(s) = -0.92, both P < 0.0001) or at least three championships (N = 441; Cochran's Q? = 47.51, r(s) = -0.91, both P < 0.0001). Overall, effect size analyses indicated that the odds of a Masters swimmer participating in the championship during the first constituent year of any 5-year age category was more than two times greater than the odds of that athlete participating during the fifth constituent year. PMID:21077002

  15. Results of psychological testing of patients aged 3-6 years.

    PubMed

    Michel, U; Schmidt, E; Batzler, U

    1990-01-01

    Cognitive development of early treated PKU children (132) was investigated by intelligence tests, tests for visual perception, motor and language development. Deviations from test norms occurred at 5 years of age concerning performance IQ, mathematical thinking, and visual perception. With the exception of mathematical thinking, "normal" results were obtained at the age of 6 years. Correlation with levels of plasma Phe revealed a relation between quality of dietary control and performance IQ. Results are discussed in light of methodological aspects and with respect to treatment consequence. PMID:2091929

  16. Infant Motor Development Predicts Sports Participation at Age 14 Years: Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Ong, Ken K.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Sharp, Stephen; Ekelund, Ulf; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Background Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. Methods Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE). Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. Principal Findings Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001) and standing unaided (p?=?<0.001). Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p?=?0.003) and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p?=?0.043). These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. Conclusions Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life. PMID:19718258

  17. Screening for refractive errors at age 1 year: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Traynar, M J; Walker, C; Wilson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Cycloplegic refraction of 1-year-old children is technically possible and is acceptable to mothers as a method for screening children for visual defects. The range of refractions found in a sample of 186 1-year-old children is reported. Prediction of which children are significantly at risk for squint and/or amblyopia is possible on the basis of refractions at age 1 year according to the criteria selected for an 'abnormal' refraction. Bilateral hypermetropia and/or astigmatism or anisometropia at age 1 year was significantly (P less than 1 in 10 000) associated with a child eventually being found to have squint or amblyopia. Both the age of screening and criteria of abnormality will probably need modification. +2.50 or more D hypermetropia in any one meridian of either eye at age 1 year was even more significantly (P = 0.000 000 05%) associated with squint and/or amblyopia. The possibility that meridional hypermetropia could be the basic defect in squint and amblyopia is discussed. PMID:435441

  18. Relative strength as a determinant of mobility in elders 67–84 years of age. A NuAge study: Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choquette; D. R. Bouchard; C. Y. Doyon; M. Sénéchal; M. Brochu; Isabelle J. Dionne

    This cross-sectional study proposes two relative strength indexes in order to evaluate the risks of lower mobility in healthy\\u000a older adults: 1) handgrip strength on body mass index and 2) quadriceps strength on body weight. Nine hundred and four men\\u000a and women aged between 67–84 years old were tested for body composition, muscle strength and mobility function. Individuals\\u000a in the

  19. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

  20. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  1. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  2. Bacteriology of peritonsillar abscess in patients over 40 years-a neglected age group.

    PubMed

    Gavriel, Haim; Golan, Yitzhak; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2015-04-01

    The clinical presentation of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) in patients over 40 years is scarcely reported. Since older patients present differently than younger patients, our aim was to investigate possible correlation between illness severity in the older age group and their bacteriologic studies. A retrospective study on all cases of PTA admitted between June 1996 and June 2003 was carried out. Details regarding sex and age were obtained. Bacteriologic studies were analyzed for gram stain, aerobic and anaerobic culture results. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (143 male and 139 female) had 311 hospitalizations due to PTA with known results of the microbiologic studies. Mean age was 29.6 (range 4-80 years). Sixty-five adults over 40 of age were found comprising 23 % of our cohort. Aerobic growth in the older group was found to be significantly lower (P < 0.05). Anaerobic growth was identified in 44.7 % of the positive pathogen growth. The older age group also showed a tendency to higher rates of anaerobic bacterial growth (57.1 % compared to 41 % in the young age group; P = 0.09, OR = 1.91). Older population with PTA presents with significant lower rates of aerobic bacteria and a tendency towards higher rates of anaerobic growth. The dangerous combination of the latter with the higher reported rates of comorbidities and less prominent symptoms and signs compared to the younger patients might clarify the need for prompt and aggressive surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:24710848

  3. NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years)

    Cancer.gov

    The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives (100). Preschool children continue to expand their gross and fine motor capabilities and by age 4 years, a child can hop, jump on one foot, ride a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels, and throw a ball overhand.

  4. Management of neglected giant omphalocele with Gore-tex in a child aged 8 years.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, G; Petrakis, I; Vlazakis, S; Kakavelakis, K; Vasiliou, M; Antipas, S; Ntolatzas, T

    2002-10-01

    Omphalocele is a disease of neonatal age and its present management is successful in almost all specialized centers of Pediatric Surgery. A case of an 8-year-old girl who was managed with conservative treatment during her neonatal period with mercurochrome (Grob method) is presented. Due to very serious congenital cardiopathy, a corrective operative procedure of the omphalocele was not feasible during neonatal age. However, following successful heart surgery the child grew up with her initial disorder. The child was first seen in our clinic at the age of 5 years, presenting with a very large omphalocele. Following a staged pressure of the abdomen with a special belt an attempt was made to close the ventral hernia successfully using a Gore-tex sheet. PMID:12244283

  5. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  6. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  7. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45 years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45 years, females aged 27 to 45 years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners’ (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs’ and patients’ beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45 years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  8. Alcoholic Beverage Preference, 29Year Mortality, and Quality of Life in Men in Old Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo E. Strandberg; Arto Y. Strandberg; Veikko V. Salomaa; Kaisu Pitkala; Reijo S. Tilvis; Tatu A. Miettinen

    2007-01-01

    Background. Harms of excessive alcohol consumption are obvious, but moderate wine consumption is frequently advocated for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We compared 29-year mortality and quality of life in old age by alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, or spirits) in a cohort of men whose socioeconomic status was similar in their adult life. Methods. In 1974, cardiovascular risk factors and

  9. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  10. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  11. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  13. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  14. THE YEAR IN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 2009 What Can Asexual Lineage Age Tell Us about

    E-print Network

    Neiman, Maurine

    THE YEAR IN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 2009 What Can Asexual Lineage Age Tell Us about the Maintenance points to major disadvantages of asexual reproduction, which is usually given as an explanation for why almost all asexual lineages are apparently quite short-lived. However, a growing body of evidence

  15. Age-related changes in memory reactivation by 1- and 2-year-old human infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirstie Morgan; Harlene Hayne

    2006-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the effect of a single reactivation treatment on retention by 1- and 2-year-old human infants who were tested in the visual recognition memory (VRM) paradigm. In all experiments, infants were familiarized with a visual stimulus and were tested after a delay. In the absence of a reactivation treatment, infants of both ages exhibited forgetting but

  16. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  17. Risk Factors for Serious Suicide Attempts among Youths Aged 13 through 24 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNETTE L. BEAUTRAIS; PETER R. JOYCE; ROGER T. MULDER

    1996-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine associations between a series of sociodemographic factors, childhood experiences, and mental disorders and risk of serious suicide attempt in young people aged 13 through 24 years and to explore the joint relationship between these factors and vulnerability to serious suicide attempt.

  18. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  19. Prognosis of primary care patients aged 80 years and older with lower respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    van de Nadort, Christiana; Smeets, Hugo M; Bont, Jettie; Zuithoff, N Peter A; Hak, Eelko; Verheij, Theo JM

    2009-01-01

    Background Predictors for a complicated course of a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) episode among patients aged ?80 years are unknown. Aim To determine prognostic factors for hospital admission or death within 30 days after first onset of LRTI among primary care patients aged ?80 years. Design of study Retrospective cohort study. Setting Utrecht General Practitioner Research Network. Method Data were obtained using the computerised database of the research network over the years 1997 to 2003. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the independent association of predictors with 30-day hospitalisation or death. Results In all, 860 episodes of LRTI were observed in 509 patients; 13% of patients were hospitalised or died within 30 days. Type of LRTI, diabetes, use of oral glucocorticoids, use of antibiotics in the previous month, and hospitalisation in the previous 12 months were independently associated with the combined outcome. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a greater risk of 30-day hospitalisation or death compared with patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Conclusion Independent of age, serious comorbidity – notably the presence of insulin-dependent diabetes or exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring oral glucocorticoids – increases the risk for complications, including hospital admissions, in patients aged ?80 years with an LRTI. PMID:19341546

  20. Continuous versus accumulated brisk walking in children aged 8–11 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ford; Ian Swaine

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the total energy expenditure of brisk walking 1500 m in one continuous bout versus two accumulated bouts using a portable gas analyser in children aged 8–11 years. There were no significant differences in oxygen uptake, energy expenditure or effort rating between the continuous and accumulated brisk walks (P >0.05). There was a difference in

  1. Continuous versus accumulated brisk walking in children aged 8–11 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ford; Ian Swaine

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the total energy expenditure of brisk walking 1500 m in one continuous bout versus two accumulated bouts using a portable gas analyser in children aged 8–11 years. There were no significant differences in oxygen uptake, energy expenditure or effort rating between the continuous and accumulated brisk walks (P > 0.05). There was a difference

  2. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to…

  3. Stroke hospitalizations and subtypes vary by state among adults aged ? 65 years—united states, 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. McGruder; J. Croft; A. Malarcher; G. Mensah

    2003-01-01

    Background: Geographic disparities are widely observed in stroke mortality, but few studies have examined these differences in stroke hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to assess geographic differences in Medicare hospitalizations for stroke subtypes among adults aged ? 65 years in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Methods: Medicare hospital claims and enrollment records for 2000 were

  4. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  5. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  6. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  7. Prediction of amblyopia and squint by means of refraction at age 1 year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ingram; C. Walker; J. M. Wilson; P. E. Arnold; S. Dally

    1986-01-01

    In this series amblyopia, uncorrectable by spectacles and occlusion, was highly likely (48%) if a child had +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia at age 1 year. 45% of children with this refraction also had a squint. All those who remained with severely defective acuity in spite of treatment had either +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia or

  8. Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel S. Beckett; Ruth Peters; Astrid E. Fletcher; Jan A. Staessen; Lisheng Liu; Dan Dumitrascu; Vassil Stoyanovsky; Riitta L. Antikainen; Yuri Nikitin; Craig Anderson; Alli Belhani; Françoise Forette; Chakravarthi Rajkumar; Lutgarde Thijs; Winston Banya; Christopher J. Bulpitt

    2008-01-01

    A b s t r ac t Background Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death. Methods We randomly assigned 3845 patients from Europe, China, Australasia, and Tunisia who

  9. Semen and Sperm Reference Ranges for Men 45 Years of Age and Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WAYNE J. G. HELLSTROM; JAMES W. OVERSTREET; SURESH C. SIKKA; JONATHAN DENNE; SANJEEV AHUJA; AMY M. HOOVER; GREGORY D. SIDES; WILLIAM H. CORDELL; L. MARK HARRISON; J. STEVEN WHITAKER

    2006-01-01

    The most widely used reference values for human semen and sperm variables were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to help assess the fertility status of men interested in reproduction (typically a younger population). In this retrospective analysis, data from a large population of men aged 45 years or older were analyzed to derive semen and sperm reference ranges

  10. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  11. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  12. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  13. Children's Terms & Conditions All children under the age of 16 years are considered children

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    Children's Terms & Conditions · All children under the age of 16 years are considered children · Children must be accompanied by a competent adult at all times within the centre, unless for specific children's programmes and courses · Children are only permitted to use the swimming pool with an adult

  14. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

  15. Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis arterial age versus framingham 10-year or lifetime cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Villines, Todd C; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-12-01

    Methods to improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction include incorporation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) within risk models and considering longer time horizons such as evaluation of lifetime cardiovascular risk (LTR). We compared the accuracy of 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS), LTR, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) arterial age-adjusted 10-year risk for prediction of incident CHD events in men in the Prospective Army Coronary Calcium Project. We studied 1,633 healthy men (mean age 43 years, range 40 to 50 years, mean FRS 4.6%) with electron-beam computed tomography for CAC. Events (CHD death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome with nonelective coronary revascularization) were prospectively assessed over 5.6 ± 1.5 years. Predicted risk using 10-year FRS for CHD and cardiovascular disease, LTR, and MESA arterial age were evaluated in relation with CAC and CHD events. CAC prevalence was strongly related to LTR, increasing in a graded fashion from 10.1% to 66.7% across 8 categories of increasing LTR. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, MESA arterial age (area under curve 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93) had the largest area under the curve but similar areas under the curve were observed for 10-year risk (CHD 0.74, 0.61 to 0.86; cardiovascular disease 0.70, 0.59 to 0.82), LTR (0.68, 0.49 to 0.76), and LTR with CAC as a covariate (0.76, 0.63 to 0.89). Inclusion of family history of CHD or body mass index did not improve model accuracy. In conclusion, increasing LTR was associated with increasingly prevalent CAC in this low-risk cohort and inclusion of CAC improved the accuracy of LTR for short-term event prediction. PMID:22921999

  16. Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di,,1-naphthyl...anthracene

    E-print Network

    So, Shu K.

    .1063/1.2409367 In recent years, there has been considerable interest in developing blue organic light emitting diodes OLEDs light emitting device which produces electroluminescence efficiencies of 3.3 cd/A and 1.3 lmHighly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di,,1-naphthyl

  17. Outcomes of surgery in patients 90 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Hosking, M P; Warner, M A; Lobdell, C M; Offord, K P; Melton, L J

    1989-04-01

    During the 11-year period 1975 through 1985, seven hundred ninety-five patients 90 years of age and older underwent operative procedures at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Overall serious morbidity within 48 hours after surgery was 9.4%, and the mortality was 1.6%. The 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year mortality rates were 8.4%, 31.4%, and 78.8%, respectively. Short-term morbidity and both short- and long-term mortality were highly associated with the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of the patient. Emergency procedures carried a significantly higher risk for morbidity and mortality within the 48-hour period and, to a lesser extent, for long-term mortality. Overall, poorer patient survival was associated with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class; male sex; preoperative renal, liver, and central nervous system impairment; and surgery on the mouth, nose, or pharynx. When compared with age-, sex-, and calendar year--matched peers from the general population, there was a modest decrease in patient survival at 1 year that reversed by 2 years, with observed survival at 5 years comparable to the rate expected. PMID:2926926

  18. Emergency surgical admissions in patients aged more than 80 years: a study over four decades.

    PubMed Central

    Menon, K. V.; Young, F. M.; Galland, R. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of older patients in the community is rising. The aim of this study was to determine the trend in emergency surgical admissions in patients over 80 years of age in 1997 compared with the previous three decades. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained on all patients over 80 years of age admitted as general surgical emergencies in 1997 to the Royal Berkshire and Battle Hospitals, Reading, UK. Reasons for admission, management, mortality and duration of hospital stay were recorded and compared with results from 1966, 1976 and 1989. RESULTS: During 1997, 4807 patients over the age of 80 years were admitted as emergencies to all specialities. Of these, 447 (9.3%) were surgical. This compares with 122 in 1966, 248 in 1976 and 339 in 1989. Emergency surgical workload in patients over 80 years of age had increased from 6.2% in 1966 to 12% in 1997. A random sample of 261 patients was analysed. In-patient mortality was 13.8% in 1997 compared with 21.8% for 1976 and 22.4% for 1989. Median length of stay was 8 days (range, 0-41 days) for 1997 and 1989 compared with 14 days in 1976. Twenty-four patients either needed admission to other specialities or need not have been admitted as emergencies at all and were classified as inappropriate admissions to the general surgical ward. CONCLUSIONS: The trend of increased number of patients over the age of 80 years being admitted as emergencies to general surgery continues through four decades. There has been a decrease in mortality and length of stay since 1966, but no decrease in length of stay in 1997 compared with 1989. Avoiding inappropriate admissions would result in a significant improvement in bed utilisation for elective surgery and help to reduce waiting lists. PMID:11103155

  19. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  20. Gunshot wounds in children under 10 years of age. A new epidemic.

    PubMed

    Ordog, G J; Wasserberger, J; Schatz, I; Owens-Collins, D; English, K; Balasubramanian, S; Schlater, T

    1988-06-01

    Before 1980 we had not treated any children with gunshot wounds who were younger than 10 years of age, but the number has increased dramatically each year since then. Thirty-four children younger than 10 years of age were treated for gunshot wounds from 1980 to 1987. Sociologic and epidemiologic data were assessed by a child-abuse team and police. Other studies have concluded that gunshot wounds in young children were usually caused by unintentional injury, child abuse, or neglect. From our present study we add a further, and very disturbing, category, that of attempted or intentional pediatric homicide. The children in this category were shot in retaliation for gang activities of their older siblings. This study demonstrates that the majority of our patients' childhood gunshot wounds were related to gang violence and retaliation, the availability of handguns in the home, and child neglect. The prevalence of childhood gunshot wounds in the inner city is increasing dramatically. PMID:3369400

  1. Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ?65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476

  2. Modeling the durability of ZOSTAVAX(®) vaccine efficacy in people ?60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jane H; Betts, Robert F; Morrison, Vicki A; Xu, Ruifeng; Itzler, Robbin F; Acosta, Camilo J; Dasbach, Erik J; Pellissier, James M; Johnson, Gary R; Chan, Ivan S F

    2015-03-17

    Since 2006, the vaccine, ZOSTAVAX(®), has been licensed to prevent herpes zoster. Only limited clinical follow-up data are available to evaluate duration of protection, an important consideration when developing HZ vaccination policy recommendations. Four Poisson regression models were developed based on an integrated analysis of data from the Shingles Prevention Study and its Short Term Persistence extension to estimate the effects of years-since-vaccination and chronological-age on vaccine efficacy among people ?60 years old. The models included number of HZ cases parsed into categories by chronological-age and time-since-vaccination as the dependent variable with different explanatory variables in each model. In all models, the interaction between vaccine-group and chronological-age was statistically significant indicating that vaccine efficacy decreases with the expected effects of advancing age but the interaction between vaccine-group and time-since-vaccination was not statistically significant indicating that much of the reduction in vaccine efficacy over time-since-vaccination can be explained by increasing age. PMID:25444784

  3. A CHC Theory-Based Analysis of Age Differences on Cognitive Abilities and Academic Skills at Ages 22 to 90 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Johnson, Cheryl K.; Liu, Xin

    2008-01-01

    Age differences for nine age groups between 22 and 25 years and 81 and 90 years were evaluated, covarying educational attainment, on five Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities: fluid reasoning (Gf), crystallized ability (Gc), quantitative knowledge (Gq), reading (Grw-Reading), and writing (Grw-Writing). Data were from the adult portions of the…

  4. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Reproducing ten years of road ageing--accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik; Arm, Maria; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Reuse of industrial aggregates is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This paper proposes a laboratory method for accelerated ageing of steel slag, to predict environmental and technical properties, starting from fresh slag. Ageing processes in a 10-year old asphalt road with steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type in the subbase were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leaching tests. Samples from the road centre and the pavement edge were compared with each other and with samples of fresh slag. It was found that slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas the road centre material was nearly identical to fresh slag, in spite of an accessible particle structure. Batches of moisturized road centre material exposed to oxygen, nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2) were used for accelerated ageing. Time (7-14 days), temperature (20-40 degrees C) and initial slag moisture content (8-20%) were varied to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. After ageing, water was added to assess leaching of metals and macroelements. 12% moisture, CO2 and seven days at 40 degrees C gave the lowest pH value. This also reproduced the observed ageing effect for Ca, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ca (decreased leaching) and for V, Si, and Al (increased leaching). However, ageing effects on SO4, DOC and Cr were not reproduced. PMID:19539979

  6. [Treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients older than 70 years of age].

    PubMed

    Shlomin, V V; Gusinksi?, A V; Vazhenin, S O; Nikolaev, D N; Iurtaev, E A; Kas'ianov, I V; Didenko, Iu P; Sharipov, E M; Korovin, I V; Mikhailov, I V; Shatravka, A V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation has shown that patients with the diagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms must be operated, the age being not considered a contraindication to surgical treatment. Five years survival of the patients after resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and its prosthesis does not depend on the age and is higher than 70%, while the expectant management leads to rupture of the aneurysm and death of 70% of the patients. A medical algorithm has been developed allowing reduction of lethality of elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and less frequency of complications. PMID:20209989

  7. Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Texas Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Malik-Bass, Noor; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Colacino, Justin A.; Gent, Tyra L.; Hynan, Linda S.; Harris, T. Robert; Malla, Sunitha; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Background: For > 50 years, polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) have been used worldwide, mainly as surfactants and emulsifiers, and human exposure to some PFCs is widespread. Objectives: Our goal was to report PFC serum concentrations from a convenience sample of Dallas, Texas, children from birth to < 13 years of age, and to examine age and sex differences in PFC concentrations. Methods: We analyzed 300 serum samples collected in 2009 for eight PFCs by online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in > 92% of participants; the other PFCs measured were detected less frequently. Overall median concentrations of PFOS (4.1 ng/mL) were higher than those for PFOA (2.85 ng/mL), PFNA (1.2 ng/mL), and PFHxS (1.2 ng/mL). For PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, we found no significant differences (p < 0.05) by sex, significantly increasing concentrations for all four chemicals by age, and significantly positive correlations between all four compounds. Conclusions: We found no significant differences in the serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS by sex, but increasing concentrations with age. Our results suggest that these 300 Texas children from birth through 12 years of age continued to be exposed to several PFCs in late 2009, years after changes in production of some PFCs in the United States. PMID:22182702

  8. Environmental Exposure to Metals and Children's Growth to Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Vahter, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001–2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were ?0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.60, ?0.06) for high (?95th percentile) arsenic exposure and ?0.57 kg (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (?5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were ?0.50 cm (95% CI: ?1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and ?1.6 cm (95% CI: ?2.4, ?0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (?0.67 kg, 95% CI: ?0.82, ?0.53) and height (?1.3 cm, 95% CI: ?1.7, ?0.89). PMID:23676282

  9. Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Golley, Rebecca K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brazionis, Laima; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Lynch, John W

    2012-07-01

    Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years. PMID:22810299

  10. Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Díaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Purpose of the study Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. Materials and methods We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Results Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease. PMID:23580357

  11. Follow-up of children attending infant language units: outcomes at 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, G; Botting, N; Simkin, Z; Knox, E

    2001-01-01

    A large cohort of 242 children who had been attending infants language units at 7 years of age was followed up when the children were in their final year of primary school. Two hundred (83%) of the children were reassessed at 11 years of age on a wide battery of language and literacy measures, on a test of non-verbal ability, an autism checklist and a communication checklist. In total, 89% of children still scored < 1 SD from the mean on at least one test of language and the majority (63%) scored poorly on three or more assessments demonstrating widespread difficulties. Compared with non-verbal abilities at 7 years of age, a large proportion of the cohort also performed poorly on performance IQ subtests (28%). A further 10 children scored highly on a checklist for autistic spectrum disorder. Thus, only 115 (58%) children could be said to meet criteria for specific language impairment. A small group of 16 children appeared to have entirely resolved their difficulties. These outcomes and their implications for education and long-term impact of the disorder are discussed. PMID:11344595

  12. Aging Attitudes Moderate the Effect of Subjective Age on Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a 10Year Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Mock; Richard P. Eibach

    2011-01-01

    Older subjective age is often associated with lower psychological well-being among middle-aged and older adults. We hypothesize that attitudes toward aging moderate this relationship; specifically, feeling older will predict lower well-being among those with less favorable attitudes toward aging but not those with more favorable aging attitudes. We tested this with longitudinal data from the National Survey of Midlife Development

  13. Two-year citations of JAPPL original articles: evidence of a relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Soares de Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ramalho de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; da Matta, Thiago Torres; Viana, Bruno Ferreira; de Souza, Cintia Pereira; Guerreiro, Renato de Carvalho; de Carvalho Guerreiro, Renato; Slama, Fabian Antonio; Portugal, Eduardo da Matta Mello; da Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    Several indicators have been used to analyze scientific journals, with the impact factor and the number of citations in a 2-yr calendar time frame (2-YRC) being the most common factors. However, considering that the Journal of Applied Physiology (JAPPL) appears monthly and that calculations of these indicators are based on citations of papers published in previous years, we hypothesized that articles published at the beginning of the year would be cited more in the 2-YRC compared with those appearing in the last issues of the year, a phenomena known as a relative age effect. Our objective was to confirm the existence of a relative age effect in the 2-YRC for original articles published in JAPPL. From 2005 to 2008, a total of 1,726 original articles were published, according to the Web of Science, and 9,973 citations in 2-YRC, varying from 0 to 45, with a mean of 5.78 for individual papers. Although there were no differences in the number of original articles published in a given month (P = 0.99), the 2-YRC varied considerably throughout the year, being higher for those earlier issues of the year, as shown by the linear regression analysis (r(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). The 2-YRC began at 6.62 during the first 3 mo of the year, dropping by 10% at each 3-mo period. In summary, the longer an article has been out there, the more citations it collects. The relative age effect is a potential confounding variable for the assessment and interpretation of 2-YRC (using calendar years) from JAPPL original articles. PMID:22383506

  14. 9,10-Anthraquinone hinders b-aggregation: How does a small

    E-print Network

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    9,10-Anthraquinone hinders b-aggregation: How does a small molecule interfere with Ab of two relatively similar tricyclic, planar compounds, that is, 9, 10-anthraquinone (AQ) and anthracene; implicit solvent; Alzheimer's disease; 9,10-anthraquinone; amyloid; aggregation inhibition Introduction

  15. Could the MMR vaccine replace the measles vaccine at one year of age in Egypt?

    PubMed

    Abbassy, A A; Barakat, S S; Abd El Fattah, M M; Said, Z N; El Metwally, H A

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the immune status of non-vaccinated healthy infants to determine if it is possible to replace both measles vaccine (at 9 months) and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine (at 18 months) with a single dose of MMR at 12 months. Serum samples from 566 children in Alexandria, Egypt showed a significant decrease in the seropositive rate to the 3 viral diseases with increasing age, but a significant increase in the seropositive rate among infants who were ranked 1st or 2nd in their family, full-term or born to mothers with no history of hypertension during pregnancy. We recommend administration of the first dose of MMR vaccine between 9 and 12 months of age, and a booster dose of MMR vaccine at 4 years of age. PMID:19469430

  16. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND LIPID PARAMETERS IN OLDER PERSONS AGED 80 YEARS AND OLDER

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Matteo; Onder, Graziano; Zamboni, Valentina; Capoluongo, Ettore; Russo, Andrea; Bernabei, Roberto; Pahor, Marco; Landi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aims of the study were 1) to investigate the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) with lipid (i.e. total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) concentrations, and to evaluate their predictive value for mortality in very old subjects. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in a prospective cohort study. Setting - Participants Data are from 336 community-dwelling subjects aged ?80 years old enrolled in the “Invecchiamento e Longevita' nel Sirente” (ilSIRENTE) study. Measurements High sensitivity CRP and lipid concentrations were measured at the baseline clinical visit. High sensitivity CRP concentrations were measured by ELISA assessment. Mortality outcome was evaluated over a 24-month follow-up. Results Participants had a mean age of 85.8 (SD 4.8) years old. Spearman's correlations showed significant (p values <0.01) inverse correlations between CRP and lipid parameters (except triglycerides). Adjusted linear regressions between CRP and lipid parameters concentrations showed no significant association in participants aged lower than 85 years old (all p values >0.5). In the older age group, significant inverse associations of CRP with total (p=0.002), LDL (p=0.007), and HDL cholesterol (p=0.002) were found, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models demonstrated that CRP was the only biomarker significantly predictive of mortality, independently of age and lipid parameters. Conclusion An inverse relationship of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol with CRP is present in very old persons. The prognostic value of CRP is particularly important among very old persons whereas lipid parameters tend to lose their capacity to predict events. PMID:19621193

  17. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Celina, Mathias C.; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  18. MAXILLOFACIAL INJURIES IN A GROUP OF BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Rafaela; de Oliveira, Ingrid Araújo; Passeri, Luis Augusto; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Müller, Paulo Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical retrospective analysis of the etiology, incidence and treatment of selected oral and maxillofacial injuries in Brazilian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during a 14-year period between 1986 and 2000. All patients were admitted to Hospital XV in the city of Curitiba, State of Paraná. Age, gender, monthly distribution, etiology, soft injuries, associated injuries, site of fractures and methods of treatment were reviewed. Results: Of the total of 350 patients of all ages treated for facial injuries, 29.42% were within the age range of the study (0 to 18 years). Mean age was 10.61. Of the patients, 63.1% were male. The most common cause of injury was accidental falls (37.87%), followed by bicycle and motorcycle accidents (21.36%). Of the 103 patients, 88.34% had single injuries. Mandibular fractures were the most common and the condylar region was particularly affected. Conclusion: Facial trauma is a relatively common occurrence in children. The study indicates that fractures in children and adolescents differ quite considerably from an adult population. PMID:19466250

  19. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. PMID:25790469

  20. Diadochokinetic skills: normal and atypical performance in children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Stackhouse, J

    1998-01-01

    Although diadochokinetic (DDK) tasks are a popular assessment tool in clinical practice, the interpretation of their results is often limited and obscure. This paper examines the development of DDK skills in normally developing children (age range 3-5 years) for comparison with three case studies of children with specific speech difficulties. The results are presented in terms of accuracy, rate and consistency of response. The normally-developing children increased the accuracy and consistency but not the rate of their responses between the ages of 3 and 5 years. The three case study children (matched on severity of speech difficulty) not only performed differently from control children on some of the measures but also performed differently from each other. The diagnostic value of a developmental DDK profile is discussed. PMID:10343741

  1. Risk Factors Associated With Abscess Formation in Children 5 Years of Age and Younger.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vaidehi; Wright, Avery; Mehta, Brinda; Zhu, Chunxiao; Lindholm, Erin; Lee, Yong-Woo; Emran, Mohammad Ali

    2014-11-12

    From 1997 to 2009, hospitalization rates have doubled for pediatric patients with soft tissue abscesses requiring incision and drainage. Despite this increasing national burden, few studies have been conducted to identify the risk factors associated with abscess formation. Our study evaluates a collection of physiological and lifestyle parameters that may serve as risk factors for abscess formation among pediatric patients 5 years of age or younger. Our results indicate family history and age 2 years and younger are associated with higher risk of abscess formation. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were prevalent pathogens associated with abscess in our study group. Pediatricians may employ these novel parameters to educate parents and/or guardians of high-risk groups on preventing abscess formation to alleviate the burden of incision & dragining requiring abscess on health care costs. PMID:25395611

  2. JCL roundtable: lipid-lowering drugs in those older than 75 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Bittner, Vera A; McKenney, James M; Ziajka, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Using drugs in the elderly requires some special considerations; however, there is no question that our older patients benefit tremendously from the use of agents that prevent and/or control many of the risk factors for vascular disease that are most prevalent in the latter years of life. Recently, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association issued guidelines for the management of blood cholesterol elevations. For the first time, little specific guidance was given for the age group older than 75 years of age. The rationale given for this approach was primarily that the data from randomized trials comparing drug therapy to treatment with placebos were inadequate for such recommendations. There was also concern regarding safety in this group. This Roundtable will consider this lack of recommendations in a broader context than statin trials. PMID:25499934

  3. Contraceptive use in women under 20 years of age: A study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahpoorian, F; Kashanian, M; Shakhan, Z; Sheikhansari, N

    2014-10-01

    Contraception methods are one of the most important factors in population control. A choice of the safe and effective methods available to adolescents may guarantee their safety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the rate and kind of contraceptive methods used by women under 20 years of age and finding the related demographic factors. A total of 500 women who finished the study were evaluated regarding the rate of contraceptive use, which method was used and the probable demographic-related factors. More than half (51.6%) of the women used contraception. The most common method was breast-feeding (27.1%), although only 2.8% had enough knowledge about breast-feeding as a contraceptive method. Other common methods used were IUD (intrauterine device) (24.8%) and the withdrawal method (24.8%). The usage of contraception was directly related to the number of pregnancies, the age of marriage and the woman's age at first pregnancy. It related indirectly to the level of education, the number of brothers and sisters and size of the family, socioeconomic status, the age of the mother when married and the age of menarche. PMID:24911985

  4. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  5. Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-08-31

    Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

  6. Study of somatotype in Italian children aged 6 to 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Toselli; G. Gruppioni

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the variations of somatotype, calculated by the Heath-Carter anthropometric technique,\\u000a during growth in a sample of children (416 males and 402 females), aged 6 and 10 years, attending primary and secondary schools\\u000a of L'Aquila and its province (Abruzzo, Italy). The sample was subdivided into “urban” and “non-urban” groups, on the basis

  7. Recovery O 2 and blood lactic acid: longitudinal analysis in boys aged 11 to 15 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Paterson; D. A. Cunningham; L. A. Bumstead

    1986-01-01

    Summary  Nineteen boys were tested annually from age 11 to 15 years. Recovery O2 (or O2 debt in l and ml · kg–1) and blood lactate ([La], mmol · l–1) were measured following supramaximal treadmill tests (20% grade) designed to stress the anaerobic energy systems maximally. The purpose was to describe the rate of development of anaerobic capacity (AnC) from pre-puberty

  8. Iodine Status in Children Aged 8-11 Year in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Ahmad; Parvez I. Paracha

    Aims: To assess the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical iodine deficiency in children. and also determine the iodine content of household salt. Design: A cross sectional school-based study was conducted on children aged between 8-11 year in two rural and two urban areas of Kabul. Patients and Methods: Four hundred children were enrolled for the study and were examined for

  9. Gender differences and determinants of aerobic fitness in children aged 8–11 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Dencker; Ola Thorsson; Magnus K. Karlsson; Christian Lindén; Stig Eiberg; Per Wollmer; Lars Bo Andersen

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of gender differences in maximum oxygen uptake have come to different conclusions. Limited data exists where\\u000a the determinants of maximum oxygen uptake have been evaluated in a comprehensive manner. Thus, we examined 248 children (140\\u000a boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9–11.1 years. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured variables\\u000a were total body fat (TBF) and lean

  10. Lung volumes in healthy boys and girls, 6–15 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. von der Hardt; R. Nowak-Beneke

    1976-01-01

    Functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), and its subdivisions, inspiratory capacity (IC) and expiratory reserve\\u000a volume (ERV) were measured by spirometry in 140 healthy children (74 boys and 66 girls), aged 6–15 years.\\u000a \\u000a Total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were calculated on the measured lung volumes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The coefficient of variation was calculated on three successive determinations of

  11. Occupation and breast cancer in women 20–44 years of age (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Teitelbaum; Julie A. Britton; Marilie D. Gammon; Janet B. Schoenberg; Donna J. Brogan; Ralph J. Coates; Janet R. Daling; Kathleen E. Malone; Christine A. Swanson; Louise A. Brinton

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between breast cancer risk and job history among women 20–44 years of age who participated in a multi-center, population-based, case–control study. Methods: Participants consisted of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (1642) and controls identified by random-digit dialing (1494). Details about the three longest jobs were collected and coded by an industrial hygienist. Odds ratios

  12. Occupation and breast cancer in women 20-44 years of age (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Teitelbaum; Julie A. Britton; Marilie D. Gammon; Janet B. Schoenberg; Donna J. Brogan; Ralph J. Coates; Janet R. Daling; Kathleen E. Malone; Christine A. Swanson; Louise A. Brinton

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between breast cancer risk and job history among women 20-44 years of age who participated in a multi-center, population-based, case-control study. Methods: Participants consisted of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (1642) and controls identified by random-digit dialing (1494). Details about the three longest jobs were collected and coded by an industrial hygienist. Odds ratios

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino adults aged 20 years and over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celeste C Tanchoco; Arsenia J Cruz RND; Charmaine A Duante; Augusto D Litonjua

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using data collected from 4,541 adults aged 20 years and over covered in the Fifth National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. The metabolic variables ana- lyzed were: total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. In addition, measurements of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)

  14. A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball

    PubMed Central

    Schorer, Jörg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745

  15. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  16. Motor planning between 4 and 7 years of age: changes linked to executive functions.

    PubMed

    Pennequin, Valérie; Sorel, Olivier; Fontaine, Roger

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we adopted the conceptual frameworks of Miyake et al. (2000) (organization of executive functions) and Sergeant (2000) (linking executive function to motor behaviour) to assess developmental changes in executive functions and motor behaviour, using a planning task with a sample of 4-7-years old children. More precisely, the aim of the study was to characterize the development of motor response planning between the ages of 4 and 7 as a measure of the integration of multiple executive function processes, namely inhibition, shifting and working memory, and to gain insight into the concurrent developmental contributions of these processes. Participants were divided into two groups: group 1 was composed of 24 children aged 4-5 years and group 2 was composed of 20 children aged 6-7 years. Each participant took tests for shifting, inhibition, working memory and motor planning (the egg-planning task). Our results suggest that the egg-planning task requires the inhibition of a pre-potent but inappropriate response, and to a lesser extent the manipulation of working memory strategies. These results are discussed in relation to the development of each executive function component. PMID:20678848

  17. Rubella Immunity in Women of Childbearing Age, Eight Years After the Immunization Program in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpana, Fatemeh; Pournasrollah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rubella is a viral disease with a worldwide distribution. Mass vaccination campaigns have increased the vaccine coverage in the world with substantial impact on reduction of rubella infections. In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals 5-25 years old, was initiated in 2003 and mass childhood vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps has continued ever since. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine vaccination on rubella immunity among women of childbearing age in Babol, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 women of childbearing age living in Babol, north of Iran, in 2011. Twelve samples were excluded from the study because of inadequate sera amounts. Serum samples were examined for presence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies by means of quantitative ELISA. Results: From a total of 800 samples in this study, rubella IgG seropositivity was seen in 786 (98.3% [95% CI = %97.5-%99.1]) cases. The maximum IgG seropositivity (99.2%) was seen in the age group of 21-25 years old and the lowest immunity (87.7%) was in the group of above 30 years old. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the rate of seropositivity to rubella virus in our population was high, suggesting that vaccination has been successful in Babol, reducing the likelihood of congenital rubella infection. PMID:25237562

  18. Lack of sex differences on the Stroop Color-Word Test across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Daniel, D B; Pelotte, M; Lewis, J

    2000-04-01

    The present study investigated recent reports of sex differences on the Stroop Color-Word Test by age. Present results indicate no sex differences at 7-8 years, 9-10 years, and 18-24 years. The two school-age samples reported similar amounts of interference and significantly more than the college-age sample. Inconsistencies in the literature may be a function of response modality rather than interference. PMID:10833743

  19. Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

  20. Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15?years classified by skill level

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1?years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer?specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15?years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant predictors of soccer skill (29% of the total explained variance), highlighting the inter?relationship of growth, maturity and functional characteristics of youth soccer players. PMID:17224444

  1. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  2. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n?=?3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n?=?1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  3. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  4. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  5. Physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography in women 40 to 49 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patricia; Hum, Susan; Kakzanov, Vered; Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Heisey, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography, breast self-examination, and breast awareness in women aged 40 to 49 at average risk of breast cancer. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, both in Toronto, Ont. Participants Family medicine residents, fellows, and staff physicians at 2 academic family practice health centres affiliated with the University of Toronto (n = 95). Main outcome measures Physicians’ answers to questions about offering screening mammography and promoting breast self-examination and breast awareness. Results Fifty-two completed surveys were returned (response rate 55%). Less than half of all surveyed family physicians (46%) routinely offered screening mammography to women aged 40 to 49 who were at average risk of breast cancer. Although 40% of physicians did not think breast cancer screening was necessary for women aged 40 to 49, 62% indicated that they would offer screening if their patients requested it. Physicians’ reasons not to offer screening included no evidence of decreasing breast cancer deaths (63%), grade A recommendation to screen women starting at age 50 and not at age 40 (25%), and the harms of screening outweighing the benefits (19%). Physicians’ reasons to offer screening included patient request (55%), personal clinical practice experience or mentors’ recommendations (27%), and guideline recommendations (18%). Breast self-examination was not recommended by most physicians (74%), yet most encouraged women to practise breast awareness (81%). Conclusion Many women at average risk of breast cancer are not being offered the opportunity to discuss and initiate mammographic screening before 50 years of age. While breast-self examination is not recommended, most physicians promote breast awareness. PMID:22972742

  6. 7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media_hat_june_2010/en/index.html

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases and projects Neglected tropical diseases Diseases Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control Innovative and intensified disease management Vector ecology and management Neglected zoonotic diseases Neglected tropical

  7. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001

  8. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, David T. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  9. Sensitization to hen's egg at the age of twelve months is predictive for allergic sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens at the age of three years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Nickel; Michael Kulig; Johannes Forster; Renate Bergmann; Carl Peter Bauer; Susanne Lau; Irene Guggenmoos-Holzmann; Ulrich Wahn

    1997-01-01

    Background: Specific predictors for atopic sensitization in early infancy are prerequisites for preventive intervention studies. Objective: To identify predictors of allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens in infancy, 1314 children in five German cities were followed up from birth (1990) to the age of 3 years. Methods: BLOOD samples were taken from cord blood and at follow-up visits at the ages

  10. Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Garman, Greg C.; Fine, Michael L.; Hager, Christian H.; McIninch, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a ‘mini-ice age’ with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times. PMID:20236963

  11. Empathic Responsivity at 3 Years of Age in a Sample of Cocaine-exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Colder, Craig D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cocaine and behavioral and physiological responsiveness during an empathy task at three years of age. Participants were 216 mother-infant dyads (116 cocaine exposed-CE, 100 nonexposed-NCE) recruited at birth. Measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained during baseline and during a task designed to elicit empathy (exposure to infant crying). When the effects of prenatal cocaine use were examined in the context of polydrug use, results of model testing indicated that lower gestational age, prenatal exposure to cocaine and postnatal exposure to alcohol were each associated with a reduced suppression of RSA during the empathy task. These findings provide additional support for an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and dysregulation during early childhood during affect-eliciting environmental challenges. PMID:24444666

  12. Motor and Cognitive Outcomes Through Three Years Of Age In Children Exposed To Prenatal Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Haning, William; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. The impact of prenatal MA exposure on development in childhood is unknown. Objective To examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on motor and cognitive development in children at 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Design/Methods IDEAL enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at four sites (Tulsa OK, Des Moines IA, Los Angeles CA, and Honolulu HI). MA subjects (n=204) were identified by self-report or GC/MS confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Comparison subjects (n=208) were matched (race, birth weight, maternal education, type of insurance), denied amphetamine use, and had a negative meconium screen. Both groups included prenatal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, but excluded use of opiates, lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine or cocaine only. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2) were administered to the infants at the 1 and 3 year visits. This analysis includes a subsample (n=350) of the IDEAL study with completed 1 and/or 3 year visits (n= 330 and 281, respectively). At each annual visit we also conducted the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) as a general evaluation of mental and motor development. The BSID-II analysis includes a subsample (n=356) of the IDEAL study with completed 1, 2, and/or 3 year visits (n= 331, 288, and 278 respectively). GLM analysis conducted on the PDMS-2 and BSID-II examined the effects of MA exposure and heavy MA exposure (?3 days of use/week), with and without covariates. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine the effects of MA exposure on changes in motor and cognitive performance over time. Results Heavy MA exposure was associated with significantly lower grasping scores than some and no use at 1 year (P = 0.018). In longitudinal analysis, lower grasping scores associated with any MA exposure and heavy exposure persisted to 3 years. There were no effects of MA exposure, including heavy exposure, on the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) or Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at any or across age. Conclusions There were no differences in cognition as assessed by the BSID-II between the groups. There was a subtle MA exposure effect on fine motor performance at 1 year with the poorest performance observed in the most heavily exposed children. By 3 years, no differences in fine motor performance were observed. These findings suggest MA exposure has modest motor effects at 1 year that are mostly resolved by 3 years. PMID:21256431

  13. Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults 326 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN YOUTHS 12 YEARS OF AGE AND ADULTS K E Y P O I N T S : M A N A G I N for therapy is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome

  14. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  15. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  16. Lifestyle and 15Year Survival Free of Heart Attack, Stroke, and Diabetes in Middle-aged British Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Goya Wannamethee; A. Gerald Shaper; Mary Walker; Shah Ebrahim

    1998-01-01

    Background: To examine the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and body mass index (BMI)) and the like- lihood of 15-year survival free of major cardiovascular end points and diabetes in middle-aged men. Methods: A prospective study of 7142 men aged 40 to 59 years at screening with no history of coronary heart dis- ease, diabetes,

  17. The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Ford; Christopher Carling; Marco Garces; Mauricio Marques; Carlos Miguel; Andrew Farrant; Andreas Stenling; Jansen Moreno; Franck Le Gall; Stefan Holmström; John H. Salmela; Mark Williams

    2012-01-01

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged

  18. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  19. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

  20. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

  1. Management of Idiopathic Clubfoot by Ponseti Technique in Children Presenting After One Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Jilani, Latif Zafar; Abbas, Mazhar; Zahid, Mohammad; Asif, Naiyer

    2014-08-12

    We conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of the Ponseti technique in the management of idiopathic congenital clubfoot in patients older than 1 year of age. A total of 19 patients with 28 clubfeet (16 males [84.2%], 3 females [15.8%]) were included in the present study. The mean age at presentation was 2.7 (range 1 to 3.5) years. The results of treatment using the Ponseti technique were evaluated using the Pirani and Dimeglio scoring systems. The mean precorrection total Pirani score was 4.84 (range 3.5 to 5.5) and the mean precorrection Dimeglio score was 12.96 (range 10 to 14). The mean postcorrection total Pirani score was 0.55 (range 0 to 1), and the mean postcorrection Dimeglio score was 2.32 (range 2 to 3). These differences were statistically significant (p < .001 and p < .001, respectively). In 92.8% of the feet, satisfactory correction of the deformity was achieved. The mean number of casts applied was 8 (range 5 to 12). All but 1 (3.6%) of the clubfeet required tenotomy to achieve correction. The mean follow-up duration was 2.7 (range 1.5 to 3.5) years. We have concluded that the Ponseti technique is an effective method for the management of idiopathic congenital clubfoot, even in toddlers. PMID:25128311

  2. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34 years aged Lithuanian population: 18-year incidence study based on prospective databases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian males and females during 1991 - 2008 Methods A contact system with general practitioners covering 100% of the 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian population was the primary data source. Reports from regional endocrinologists and statistical note-marks of State patient insurance fund served as secondary sources for case ascertainment. Results The average age-standardized incidence rate was 8.30 per 100,000 persons per year (95% Poisson distribution confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.71) during 1991 - 2008 and was statistically significantly higher among males (10.44 per 100,000 persons per year, 95% CI 9.82-11.10) in comparison with females (6.10 per 100,000, 95% CI 5.62-6.62). Male/female rate ratio was 1.71 (95% CI 1.63-1.80). Results of the linear 1991 - 2008 regression model showed that the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly over the time (r = -0.215, p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data demonstrated the male predominance in primary incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged population in Lithuania. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly during 1991-2008. PMID:22011463

  3. Increased Rate of Amygdala Growth in Children Aged 2 to 4 Years With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nordahl, Christine Wu; Scholz, Robert; Yang, Xiaowei; Buonocore, Michael H.; Simon, Tony; Rogers, Sally; Amaral, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Context Precocious amygdala enlargement is commonly observed in young children with autism. However, the age at which abnormal amygdala enlargement begins and the relative growth trajectories of the amygdala and total brain remain unclear. Objective To determine whether the rate of amygdala growth is abnormal and disproportionate to total brain growth in very young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Design Longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting Neuroimaging and diagnostic assessments were performed at an academic medical center. Participants were recruited from the community. Participants Baseline scans were acquired in 132 boys (85 with ASD and 47 control subjects with typical development [TD]; mean age, 37 months). Longitudinal magnetic resonance images were acquired in 70 participants (45 with ASD and 25 TD controls) 1 year later. Main Outcome Measure Amygdala volumes and total cerebral volumes (TCVs) were evaluated at both time points, and 1-year growth rates were calculated. Results The amygdala was larger in children with ASD at both time points, but the magnitude of enlargement was greater at time 2. The TCV was also enlarged in the children with ASD by the same magnitude at both time points. When we controlled for TCV, amygdala enlargement remained significant at both time points. The rate of amygdala growth during this 1-year interval was faster in children with ASD than in TD controls. The rate of TCV growth did not differ between groups. Post hoc exploratory analyses revealed 3 patterns of amygdala and TCV growth rates in the ASD group. Conclusions Disproportionate amygdala enlargement is present by 37 months of age in ASD. The amygdala continues to grow at an increased rate, but substantial heterogeneity exists in amygdala and TCV growth patterns. Future studies aimed at clinical characterization of different growth patterns could have implications for choice and outcomes of treatment and behavioral therapy. PMID:22213789

  4. Growth charts for Down's syndrome from birth to 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Myrelid, A; Gustafsson, J; Ollars, B; Anneren, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Growth in children with Down's syndrome (DS) differs markedly from that of normal children. The use of DS specific growth charts is important for diagnosis of associated diseases, such as coeliac disease and hypothyroidism, which may further impair growth. Aims: To present Swedish DS specific growth charts. Methods: The growth charts are based on a combination of longitudinal and cross sectional data from 4832 examinations of 354 individuals with DS (203 males, 151 females), born in 1970–97. Results: Mean birth length was 48 cm in both sexes. Final height, 161.5 cm for males and 147.5 cm for females, was reached at relatively young ages, 16 and 15 years, respectively. Mean birth weight was 3.0 kg for boys and 2.9 kg for girls. A body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 at 18 years of age was observed in 31% of the males and 36% of the females. Head growth was impaired, resulting in a SDS for head circumference of -0.5 (Swedish standard) at birth decreasing to -2.0 at 4 years of age. Conclusion: Despite growth retardation the difference in height between the sexes is the same as that found in healthy individuals. Even though puberty appears somewhat early, the charts show that DS individuals have a decreased pubertal growth rate. Our growth charts show that European boys with DS are taller than corresponding American boys, whereas European girls with DS, although being lighter, have similar height to corresponding American girls. PMID:12138052

  5. [The year 2000: one billion couples of child-bearing age].

    PubMed

    Lintong, L J

    1988-04-01

    Out of 1 billion couples there are only 124 million who use modern and effective contraceptives. World abortions number 33 million/year. 250 million sexually active women of child-bearing age in developing countries outside China do not use modern and effective contraceptives. Fertility control costs on the average US$2.5 billion a year in each developing country, 20% of which is assistance from developed countries. Expanding the family planning service to the 250 million sexually active child-bearing aged women costs an additional U.S. $5 billion yearly. A family planning accessibility survey was conducted by the Population Crisis Committee. PCC divided the countries into 2 categories: Developed and developing countries. The 110 countries (15 developed and 95 developing) covered 96% of the world population. The survey placed the countries in 5 classes according to accessibility levels: Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor. The developed countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, service to the poor and minorities, sex education in the schools, and family planning information and advertisement. The developing countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, performance of service and distribution, public information and education, private sector participation, government finance and policies. Of the 15 developed countries, 43% were excellent, 22% good, 24% fair, and 2% poor. Of the 95 developing countries, 5 were excellent, 10 good, 16 fair, and 64 either poor or very poor countries in respect to family planning accessibility. In the face of a population explosion in the year 2000, many countries lack of government support for family planning programs. After 30 years of world effort in population control, half of the world population still has no effective family planning services. PMID:12343749

  6. Nutritional Status of Children Aged 3-6 Years in a Rural Area of Tamilnadu

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandham, Ranjit; Salome, Sam Dashni; Francis, Roniya; D, Roopa; Sampavi, Sakthi; S R, Sabu; Prasad, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Background: A child’s entire life is determined in large measures by the food given to him during his first five years. Since childhood is the most vulnerable phase in the life of human being, nutritional inadequacies will result in the hampering of the development of the body. Future of the country is determined by the growing generation of the country. Objectives: a) To assess the nutritional status of children aged 3-6 y in a rural area of TamilNadu. b) To identify the factors associated with the nutritional status of the above study population. Settings and Design: Kuthambakkam village in Tamilnadu, Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Total number of children aged 3-6 y is 172 in Kuthambakkam village. The entire children aged 3-6 y was included in the study. Mothers of the children were interviewed using an interview schedule to collect information regarding the sociodemographic profile, feeding practices, and immunization status. Socio-economic status was assessed using modified BG Prasad’s classification. Weight of the children was measured using a portable weighing machine. Nutritional status among 3-6 y old children was assessed by computing weight for age (standard used - National Centre For Health Statistics (NCHS) standards for weight for age) and grading of nutritional status of the children was done using the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP) classification. Grade I to Grade IV nutritional grade is taken as undernourished. Statistical Analytical: Prevalence will be expressed in percentage and Chi-square test will be used to find association with factors. Results: The prevalence of under-nutrition (? 80 percentage of standard weight for age) was 66.5%. The prevalence of grade 1 malnourishment was 46.2%.The prevalence of under nourishment increased with increasing age and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p< 0.05).Prevalence of under nourishment was higher among male children (76.9%)than female children (56.3%) and was statistically significant. As the socioeconomic status increased the prevalence of undernourishment decreased and the difference was found to be statistically significant(p<0.05). Duration of exclusive breast feeding had influence on the nutritional status. Conclusion: Community based preventive measures should be taken to allievate malnutrition. Health education to the mothers on dietary practices like feeding their children with locally available low cost but healthy food should be given. Nutritional rehabilitation centres should be established. Improving the socioeconomic standards is mandatory. PMID:25478370

  7. Fecal Incontinence in Females Older Than Aged 40 Years: Who is at Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Madhulika G.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Thom, David H.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Beattie, Mary S.; Subak, Leslee L.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of, and identify risk factors associated with, fecal incontinence in racially diverse females older than aged 40 years. METHODS: The Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at Kaiser is a population-based study of 2,109 randomly selected middle-aged and older females (average age, 56 years). Fecal incontinence, determined by self-report, was categorized by frequency. Females reported the level of bother of fecal incontinence and their general quality of life. Potential risk factors were assessed by self-report, interview, physical examination, and record review. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent association between selected risk factors and the primary outcome of any reported fecal incontinence in the past year. RESULTS: Fecal incontinence in the past year was reported by 24 percent of females (3.4 percent monthly, 1.9 percent weekly, and 0.2 percent daily). Greater frequency of fecal incontinence was associated with decreased quality of life (Medical Outcome Short Form-36 Mental Component Scale score, P = 0.01), and increased bother (P < 0.001) with 45 percent of females with fecal incontinence in the past year and 100 percent of females with daily fecal incontinence reporting moderate or great bother. In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of fecal incontinence in the past year increased significantly [odds ratio per 5 kg/m2 (95 percent confidence interval)] zwith obesity [1.2 (1.1–1.3)], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [1.9 (1.3–2.9)], irritable bowel syndrome [2.4 (1.7–3.4)], urinary incontinence [2.1 (1.7–2.6)], and colectomy [1.9 (1.1–3.1)]. Latina females were less likely to report fecal incontinence than white females [0.6 (0.4–0.9)]. CONCLUSIONS: Fecal incontinence, a common problem for females, is associated with substantial adverse affects on quality of life. Several of the identified risk factors are preventable or modifiable, and may direct future research in fecal incontinence therapy. PMID:16741640

  8. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M Evans

    2011-01-01

    Background  Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening\\u000a with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The results

  9. [Recommendations for health care of people with Down syndrome from 0 to 18 years of age].

    PubMed

    Lizama C, Macarena; Retamales M, Natalia; Mellado S, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    People born with Down syndrome have an increased risk of birth defects and are more vulnerable to certain illnesses. Health care for them should emphasize prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment of their most common health conditions. A healthy lifestyle promotes future physical and intellectual development. The purpose of this review is to update health care recommendations for individuals with Down syndrome from 0 to 18 years of age. The health professionals members involved in the care of these patients should be aware of these guidelines. PMID:23732418

  10. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yo-El S.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50 years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

  11. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  12. The relative age effect in European professional soccer: did ten years of research make any difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Baker, Joseph; Michiels, Stijn; Schorer, Joerg; Van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) refers to an asymmetry in the birth-date distribution favouring players born early in the selection year and discriminating against participants born later in the year. While the RAE effect was initially reported in sport more than two decades ago, there have been few attempts to examine whether player selection strategies have changed over time in light of our improved understanding of the phenomenon. We compared the birth-date distributions of professional soccer players in ten European countries over a 10-year period involving the 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 competitive seasons, respectively. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to compare differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions across selection years. Generally, results indicated no change in the RAE over the past 10 years in professional soccer, emphasizing the robust nature of this phenomenon. We propose a change in the structure of youth involvement in soccer to reduce the impact of the RAE on talent identification and selection. PMID:23005576

  13. Attachment security in young foster children: continuity from 2 to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Heidi; Ivarsson, Tord; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated attachment patterns among 60 foster children (FC) and 42 comparison children (CC) at 2 years (T1) and again at 3 years (T2) of age, as well as stability from T1 to T2. Descriptive analyses, including cross-tabulation, were used to present attachment patterns, group differences and stability from T1 to T2. Most FC were securely attached at T1, and no group differences were identified; neither the FC nor CC differed from typical children in their attachment patterns. Furthermore, the majority of children in both groups received the same classification at both time points. Among FC who were securely attached at T1, a majority remained so at T2, while among those classified as disorganized at T1, significantly less remained so at T2. The study suggests that young FC have the possibility to form enduring secure attachments when placed in stable and well-functioning foster homes. PMID:24215159

  14. Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3–4) in Japanese preschool children. Methods The SDQ 3–4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week interval between June and July 2012. Cronbach’s ? and correlation coefficients were used to examine internal consistency and test-retest reliability, respectively. Results Of 393 parents who returned their responses at Time 1 (response rate 52.1%), 383 were used for analysis after excluding 10 responses with missing data. Their children’s mean age was 4.7 (standard deviation 0.7) years. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s ?) was good for the total difficulties score (0.74) and the prosocial behavior scale (0.70). However, it was slightly worse for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales (0.61–0.66) and poor for the peer problems scale (0.45). Of the 383 included respondents at Time 1, 211 parents returned their responses at Time 2 (response rate: 55.1%). Test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients) was good (0.73–0.82), except for the peer problems scale (0.58). Conclusions The results support the reliability of the SDQ 3–4 being satisfactory for the total difficulties score and prosocial behavior scale and being acceptable for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales in Japanese preschool children aged 4–6 years. PMID:25373462

  15. Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4-6 Years.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2014-08-23

    Background: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3-4) in Japanese preschool children.Methods: The SDQ 3-4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week interval between June and July 2012. Cronbach's ? and correlation coefficients were used to examine internal consistency and test-retest reliability, respectively.Results: Of 393 parents who returned their responses at Time 1 (response rate 52.1%), 383 were used for analysis after excluding 10 responses with missing data. Their children's mean age was 4.7 (standard deviation 0.7) years. The internal consistency (Cronbach's ?) was good for the total difficulties score (0.74) and the prosocial behavior scale (0.70). However, it was slightly worse for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales (0.61-0.66) and poor for the peer problems scale (0.45). Of the 383 included respondents at Time 1, 211 parents returned their responses at Time 2 (response rate: 55.1%). Test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients) was good (0.73-0.82), except for the peer problems scale (0.58).Conclusions: The results support the reliability of the SDQ 3-4 being satisfactory for the total difficulties score and prosocial behavior scale and being acceptable for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales in Japanese preschool children aged 4-6 years. PMID:25152192

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Child Wheeze from Birth to 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Robert S.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Hornung, Richard; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is routinely detected in > 90% of Americans, promotes experimental asthma in mice. The association of prenatal BPA exposure and wheeze has not been evaluated in humans. Objective: We examined the relationship between prenatal BPA exposure and wheeze in early childhood. Methods: We measured BPA concentrations in serial maternal urine samples from a prospective birth cohort of 398 mother–infant pairs and assessed parent-reported child wheeze every 6 months for 3 years. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to evaluate the association of prenatal urinary BPA concentration with the dichotomous outcome wheeze (wheeze over the previous 6 months). Results: Data were available for 365 children; BPA was detected in 99% of maternal urine samples during pregnancy. In multivariable analysis, a one-unit increase in log-transformed creatinine-standardized mean prenatal urinary BPA concentration was not significantly associated with child wheeze from birth to 3 years of age, but there was an interaction of BPA concentration with time (p = 0.003). Mean prenatal BPA above versus below the median was positively associated with wheeze at 6 months of age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.1] but not at 3 years (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.1). In secondary analyses evaluating associations of each prenatal BPA concentration separately, urinary BPA concentrations measured at 16 weeks gestation were associated with wheeze (AOR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5), but BPA concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation or at birth were not. Conclusions: Mean prenatal BPA was associated with increased odds of wheeze in early life, and the effect diminished over time. Evaluating exposure at each prenatal time point demonstrated an association between wheeze from 6 months to 3 years and log-transformed BPA concentration at 16 weeks gestation only. PMID:22334053

  17. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya-Beysolow, Iyabode

    2014-02-01

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2013, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2014, which include several changes from the 2013 immunization schedules. PMID:24500290

  18. Long-term survival after mitral valve replacement in children aged <5 years: a multi-institutional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Caldarone; Geetha Raghuveer; Christine B. Hills

    2002-01-01

    Background—Short- and long-term outcomes after prosthetic mitral valve replacement (MVR) in children aged ,5 years are ill-defined and generally perceived as poor. The experience of the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (45 centers, 1982 to 1999) was reviewed. Methods and Results—MVR was performed 176 times on 139 patients. Median follow-up was 6.2 years (range 0 to 20 years, 96% complete). Age

  19. Lifestyle in adults aged 35 years who were born with open spina bifida: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gillian M; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2004-12-10

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: From 1963 to 1971, 117 babies with open spina bifida were treated non-selectively from birth. In 2002 we reviewed all the survivors by postal questionnaire and telephone call. The aims were to find out how many were living independently in the community or were in open employment or drove a car. In addition to these achievements we recorded health, medication and admissions to hospital and asked how much daily help they needed. RESULTS: Ascertainment was 100%. There had been 63 deaths, mainly of the most severely affected. The mean age of the 54 survivors was 35 years. The outcome in terms of disability ranged from apparent normality to total dependency. It reflected both the neurological deficit, which had been recorded in infancy in terms of sensory level, and events in the CSF shunt history. Overall about 2 in 5 of the survivors lived independently in the community, 2 in 5 drove a car, 1 in 5 was in competitive employment and 1 in 5 could walk 50 metres. CONCLUSION: Although those who survived to age 35 years tended to be less disabled, 2 in 5 continued to need daily care. PMID:15679938

  20. Swimming Pool Drownings Among US Residents Aged 5–24 Years: Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995–1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools. PMID:16507730

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narinder; Parihar, Ravi Kumar; Saini, Ghanshyam; Mohan, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Neeraj; Razaq, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III) modified forage was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84%) than in females (1.6%) and slightly higher in urban area (2.80%) than in rural area (2.52%), whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3%) of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people. PMID:23776866

  2. Hospital admissions before the age of 2 years in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Read, A W; Gibbins, J; Stanley, F J; Morich, P

    1994-01-01

    A linked data file of birth records and hospital admissions was used to investigate inpatient hospital morbidity before 2 years of age for all non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children born in Western Australia in 1986. Of the non-Aboriginal children, 31.8% were admitted to hospital at least once before the age of 2 years, with an overall admission rate of 526/1000 live births; the corresponding figures for Aboriginal children were 68.7% and 2797. The mean number of days in hospital for each non-Aboriginal child admitted was 7.4, and 26.5 for Aboriginal children. Of the total cohort, 21% of non-Aboriginal and 20% of Aboriginal children were admitted only once, and 4% of non-Aboriginal and 36% of Aboriginal children were admitted at least three times; 23% of non-Aboriginal and 24% of Aboriginal children were admitted for only one major disease category, and 1% of non-Aboriginal and 16% of Aboriginal children were in at least four categories. The highest admission rates and highest percentages of the cohort admitted were for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and social admissions. These results illustrate the importance for both descriptive and analytical research of relating admissions to hospital for the total population to the individual child, and of using clinically relevant disease classifications. PMID:8135564

  3. [Surgical indication and problems of patients aged over 70 years with unruptured aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Niwa, J; Tanigawara, T; Kubota, T; Chiba, M; Akiyama, Y; Inamura, S

    1999-06-01

    Surgical indication and problems of patients aged over 70 years with unruptured aneurysms were investigated. Clinical features of eighteen cases of unruptured cerebral aneurysms were analyzed. The location of the cerebral aneurysms were in the internal carotid artery in five cases, in the middle cerebral artery in ten cases, in the anterior cerebral artery in 2 cases and in the basilar artery in 1 case. The size of the aneurysms was less than 10 mm in diameter in 17 cases and giant in one case. Treatment of these aneurysms was classified into two groups as follows; the conservative treatment group (four cases) and the surgical treatment group (14 cases). The therapeutic results of the conservative group were good recovery in 2 cases, and death in 2 cases. On the other hand, the results of surgical group were good recovery in 12 cases and fair in 2 cases. Operative complications were recognized in two cases. Consciousness disturbance and left hemiparesis was recognized in one case. Right hemiparesis was recognized in the another case. Postoperative MR imagings or CT scan presented small cerebral infarctions in the corona radiata in both cases. The cause of infarction was thought to be the occlusion of lenticulostriate arteries. From these data, in patients aged over 70 years with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, surgery should be considered not only from the aspect of aneurysmal size and its site, but also from the aspect of cerebral blood flow of the patient. PMID:10396734

  4. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p?0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ? 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  5. Feeding practices and nutritional status of children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Hoque, M A; Mollah, A H; Islam, M N; Latif, S A; Hossain, M A

    2011-10-01

    A descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Pediatrics Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess breast feeding pattern, complementary feeding pattern, types of complementary foods and also to assess the nutritional status and to detect any relationship with the nutritional status and the feeding practices. Mothers with their children aged less than 2 years were included and very sick children, mother less children, handicapped children were excluded. Four hundred (400) consecutive children were enrolled from eight upazillas of Mymensingh district who were selected randomly. Out of 400 children, 214 children (53.5%) were male and 186 children (47.5%) were female and M:F was 1.2:1. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was 41.5%. Pre-lacteal feeding rate were 30.7% and most common pre-lacteal foods were honey and sugar water. Colostrum was given in 69.3% children. Breast feeding continued at the time of interview was 58.1%. Complementary feeding started in time in 35.8%, early weaning in 44.5% children. Type of complementary food was mainly luta (rice powder mixed with boiled water and sugar only) in 38.8% and khichuri (rice, pulses, soybean oil) in 19.5%. Bottle feeding rate was 31.30%. Around 43% children were underweight and 10.25% children were severely underweight and common in between 12 to 23 months of age group. Around 29% children were stunted among 11.25% were severely stunted. About 13.5% children were wasted and among them 2.5% were severely wasted. Stunting prevalent over the age of 9 months and wasting started after 6 months of age. Malnutrition was common in partially breast fed and early weaning with carbohydrate rich food. PMID:22081170

  6. Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-02-01

    Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation. PMID:25599927

  7. Gait speed and cognitive decline over 2 years in the Ibadan study of aging

    PubMed Central

    Ojagbemi, Akin; D’Este, Catherine; Verdes, Emese; Chatterji, Somnath; Gureje, Oye

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence suggesting that gait speed may represent a sensitive marker for cognitive decline in the elderly requires support from diverse racial groups. Objective We investigated the relationship between gait speed and cognitive decline over 2 years in a community dwelling sample of elderly Africans. Methods Data are from the Ibadan study of aging (ISA) conducted among a household multi-stage probability sample of 2149 Yoruba Nigerians aged 65 years or older. Gait speed was measured as the time taken to complete a 3 or 4 m distance at normal walking speed. We assessed cognitive functions with a modified version of the 10-word learning list and delay recall test, and examined the relationship between baseline gait speed, as well as gait speed changes, and follow-up cognition using multiple linear regression and longitudinal analyses using random effects. Results Approximately 71% of 1461 participants who were dementia free and who had their gait speed measured at baseline (2007) were successfully followed up in two waves (2008 and 2009). Along with increasing age, poor health and economic status, a slower baseline gait speed was independently associated with poorer follow-up cognition in both linear regression (1.2 words, 95% CI = 0.48–2.0) and longitudinal analyses (0.8 words, 95% CI = 0.44–1.2). Also, a greater change in gait speed between 2007 and 2009 was associated with the worst follow-up cognition (0.3 words, 95% CI = 0.09–0.51). Conclusion The finding that a substantial change in gait speed was associated with reduced cognitive performance is of potential importance to efforts aimed at early identification of cognitive disorders in this population. PMID:25698351

  8. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ?1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ?1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ?1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

  9. [False positive urine cultures in children under two years of age - own research.

    PubMed

    Krzemie?, Gra?yna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Artemiuk, Iwona; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The basis of the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children is positive culture of properly collected urine sample. The reliability of the urine cultures depends on the method how the urine sample was taken and sometimes this may increase the risk of misdiagnosis. Aim of the study:To determine the frequency of false positive urine cultures taken from midstream to a container or to a plastic collection bag in children under 2 years of age. Material and methods:The study included 50 children (25 girls, 25 boys) aged 12 days to 24 months (mean age 7.26±6.51months) referred to the hospital with suspicion of urinary tract infection. The most frequent indications for urine analysis were: history of infection and/or abnormalities of urinary tract in 28 (56%) children, failure to thrive in 8 (16%) and fever in 6 (12%). Urine was taken from midstream to a container in 32 (64%) children and collected to a plastic bag in 18 (36%) children. Results: Hospital verifications of urine cultures were performed by suprapubic puncture culture in 24 (48% children) or by catheterization of the urinary bladder in 26 (52%) children. Urinary tract infection was confirmed in 11 (34%) among 32 children who had positive culture of urine form midstream. None of the children with positive urine culture from a plastic collection bag had urinary tract infection confirmed by suprapubic puncture or catheterization. Conclusions: Correct method of urine collection for bacteriological tests in children under two years of life can avoid the misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection and following unnecessary hospitalization, imaging procedures as well as potentially harmful treatment. PMID:25182259

  10. A Randomized Trial of Atropine versus Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 10 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine the visual acuity outcome at 10 years of age for children less than 7 years of age when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomized to patching or atropine eye drops for 6 months. Two years after enrollment, a subgroup of 188 children entered long-term follow-up. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator; 89% of children were treated. Main outcome measure Visual acuity at age 10 years with the electronic ETDRS test. Results The mean amblyopic eye acuity, measured in 169 patients, at age 10 years was 0.17 logMAR (approximately 20/32) and 46% of amblyopic eyes were 20/25 or better. Age < 5 years at the time of entry into the randomized trial was associated with a better visual acuity outcome (P<0.001). Mean amblyopic and sound eye visual acuities at age 10 years were similar in the original treatment groups (P= 0.56 and 0.80, respectively). Conclusion At age 10 years the improvement of the amblyopic eye is maintained, although residual amblyopia is common following treatment initiated at 3 to <7 years of age. The outcome is similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. Application to Clinical Practice Patching and atropine eye drops produce comparable improvement in visual acuity that is maintained through age 10 years. Trial Registry Name Amblyopia Treatment Study: Occlusion Versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Registration Number NCT00000170 URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000170 PMID:18695096

  11. Cervical Screening at Age 50–64 Years and the Risk of Cervical Cancer at Age 65 Years and Older: Population-Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Castañón, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little consensus, and minimal evidence, regarding the age at which to stop cervical screening. We studied the association between screening at age 50–64 y and cervical cancer at age 65–83 y. Methods and Findings Cases were women (n?=?1,341) diagnosed with cervical cancer at age 65–83 y between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012 in England and Wales; age-matched controls (n?=?2,646) were randomly selected from population registers. Screening details from 1988 onwards were extracted from national databases. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) for different screening histories and subsequent cervical cancer. Women with adequate negative screening at age 65 y (288 cases, 1,395 controls) were at lowest risk of cervical cancer (20-y risk: 8 cancers per 10,000 women) compared with those (532 cases, 429 controls) not screened at age 50–64 y (20-y risk: 49 cancers per 10,000 women, with OR?=?0.16, 95% CI 0.13–0.19). ORs depended on the age mix of women because of the weakening association with time since last screen: OR?=?0.11, 95% CI 0.08–0.14 at 2.5 to 7.5 y since last screen; OR?=?0.27, 95% CI 0.20–0.36 at 12.5 to 17.5 y since last screen. Screening at least every 5.5 y between the ages 50 and 64 y was associated with a 75% lower risk of cervical cancer between the ages 65 and 79 y (OR?=?0.25, 95% CI 0.21–0.30), and the attributable risk was such that in the absence of screening, cervical cancer rates in women aged 65+ would have been 2.4 (95% CI 2.1–2.7) times higher. In women aged 80–83 y the association was weaker (OR?=?0.49, 95% CI 0.28–0.83) than in those aged 65–69 y (OR?=?0.12, 95% CI 0.09–0.17). This study was limited by an absence of data on confounding factors; additionally, findings based on cytology may not generalise to human papillomavirus testing. Conclusions Women with adequate negative screening at age 50–64 y had one-sixth of the risk of cervical cancer at age 65–83 y compared with women who were not screened. Stopping screening between ages 60 and 69 y in women with adequate negative screening seems sensible, but further screening may be justifiable as life expectancy increases. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24453946

  12. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6–8 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day’s school lunch reported by 6–8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child’s intake of the previous day’s lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children’s recalls and teachers’ records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Findings Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6–8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson’s correlations r=0.92, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement between child-reported and weighed intakes but confirmed systematic differences between teacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Conclusions Children 6–8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake. Parents were not able to report on their children’s school lunches consumed on the previous day. PMID:24047239

  13. Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged ?20 Years in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ?20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ?20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We present the first empirical estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium prevalence at high spatial resolution throughout West Africa. Our prediction maps allow prioritizing of interventions in a spatially explicit manner, and will be useful for monitoring and evaluation of schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:21695107

  14. Tolerability of Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years and Older

    SciTech Connect

    Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek; Kobayashi, Wendy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Clark, Jeffrey [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of treatment deviations during combined modality therapy for rectal cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of consecutively treated patients with rectal cancer aged 75 years and older treated with combined modality therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2002 to 2007. The primary endpoint was the rate of treatment deviation, defined as a treatment break, dose reduction, early discontinuation of therapy, or hospitalization during combined modality therapy. Patient comorbidity was rated using the validated Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 Test (ACE-27) comorbidity index. Fisher's exact test and the Mantel-Haenszel trend test were used to identify predictors of treatment tolerability. Results: Thirty-six eligible patients had a median age of 79.0 years (range, 75-87 years); 53% (19/36) had no or mild comorbidity and 47% (17/36) had moderate or severe comorbidity. In all, 58% of patients (21/36) were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and 33% (12/36) with postoperative CRT. Although 92% patients (33/36) completed the planned radiotherapy (RT) dose, 25% (9/36) required an RT-treatment break, 11% (4/36) were hospitalized, and 33% (12/36) had a dose reduction, break, or discontinuation of concurrent chemotherapy. In all, 39% of patients (14/36) completed {>=}4 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, and 17% (6/36) completed therapy without a treatment deviation. More patients with no to mild comorbidity completed treatment than did patients with moderate to severe comorbidity (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.66). The rate of deviation did not differ between patients who had preoperative or postoperative CRT (19% vs. 17%, p = 1.0). Conclusions: The majority of elderly patients with rectal cancer in this series required early termination of treatment, treatment interruptions, or dose reductions. These data suggest that further intensification of combined modality therapy for rectal cancer should be performed with caution in elderly patients, who require aggressive supportive care to complete treatment.

  15. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years. Study Design and Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Results We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD) change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7) mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1) %/yr). Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years. Conclusion The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time. PMID:25875773

  16. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50?years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49?years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56?years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=?0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30?years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30?years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  17. Age at menarche and age of onset of pubertal characteristics in 6-14-year-old girls from the Province of L'Aquila (Abruzzo, Italy).

    PubMed

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; De Simone, Michele; Vecchi, Francesco; Amicone, Elisa; Altobelli, Emma; Gruppioni, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    The present study is part of a research project on growth models of children in an area of central-southern Italy. It analyzes the phases of pubertal breast development (BD) in 397 girls, pubic hair development (PHD) in 399 girls, and menarche in 583 girls from 6-14 years old. The status quo method was used to evaluate the age at menarche. Probit analysis was used to analyze the data for all three variables. The onset of BD and PHD (Tanner stage 2) occurs at age 7 in 6.1% of girls. Passage to stage 3 of one or both secondary sexual characteristics occurs at age 10 in 8.5% of girls. Comparison with data from the United States shows higher percentages of American white girls in stage 2 (or greater) of both characteristics at any age. The mean (median) age of onset (Tanner stage 2) of BD or PHD or both of them is 9.96 years. The passage to stage 3 occurs at age 12.36 for BD (95% confidence interval: 1.36 years) and at age 12.10 for PHD (95% confidence interval: 0.51 years). The mean age at menarche is 12.55 years, in general agreement with other values found in Italy. Sexual maturation at any considered stage for both pubertal characteristics is generally in line with literature data concerning other Mediterranean and industrialized countries or countries in which the demographic transition is in an advanced phase. It does not show a significant earlier onset. The evidence emerging from the general project suggests that the secular trend is still in progress in this region of Italy. PMID:15214065

  18. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and Child Behavior at Age 6–7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 6–7 years of age in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposure—both specific to PAH—in the same cohort. Methods: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 6–7 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 6–7 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. Results: In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m3) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ? 0.05). Conclusion: These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior. PMID:22440811

  19. Racial Disparities in Allergic Outcomes in African Americans Emerge as Early as Age 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Joseph, Christine LM; Zoratti, Edward; Ownby, Dennis; Woodcroft, Kimberley; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Racial disparities in allergic disease outcomes have been reported with African Americans suffering disproportionately compared to White individuals. OBJECTIVE Examine whether racial disparities are present as early as age 2 years in a racially diverse birth cohort in the Detroit metropolitan area. METHODS All children who were participants in a birth cohort study in the Detroit metropolitan area were invited for a standardized physician exam with skin prick testing and parental interview at age 2 years. Physicians made inquiries regarding wheezing and allergy symptoms and inspected for and graded any atopic dermatitis (AD). Skin testing was performed for Alternaria, cat, cockroach, dog, Dermatophagoides farinae (Der F), Short Ragweed, Timothy grass, egg, milk and peanut. Specific IgE was measured for these same allergens and total IgE was determined. RESULTS African American children (n=466) were more likely than White children (n=223) to have experienced any of the outcomes examined: at least 1 positive skin prick test from the panel of 10 allergens (21.7% versus 11.0%, p=0.001); at least one specific IgE ?0.35 IU/mL (out of a panel of 10 allergens) (54.0% versus 42.9%, p=0.02); had AD (27.0% versus 13.5%, Chi-square p<0.001); and to ever have wheezed (44.9% versus 36.0%, p=0.03). African American children also tended to have higher total IgE (geometric means 23.4 IU/mL (95%CI 20.8, 27.6) versus 16.7 IU/mL (95%CI 13.6, 20.6 IU/mL), Wilcoxon Rank Sum p=0.004). With the exception of wheezing, the associations did not vary after adjusting for common social economic status variables (e.g.; household income), environmental variables (endotoxin; dog, cat and cockroach allergen in house dust) or variables that differed between the racial groups (e.g.; breastfeeding). After adjustment, the wheeze difference was ameliorated. CONCLUSIONS With disparities emerging as early as age 2 years, investigations into sources of the disparities should include the prenatal period and early life. PMID:22909162

  20. Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) at Age 8 Years: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria B.; Duffy, Frank H.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports the effects of NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) at 8 years of age for a randomized controlled trial of 38 very early born (?29 weeks postmenstrual age), high-risk preterm infants. It was hypothesized that the experimental group at school age in comparison with the control group would perform significantly better neuropsychologically and neuroelectrophysiologically. Twenty-two (11 control, 11 experimental) children of the original 38 (18 control, 20 experimental) participants were studied at school age with a detailed neuropsychological battery and with EEG spectral coherence measures. Results indicated significantly better right hemisphere and frontal lobe function in the experimental group than the control group, both neuropsychologically and neurophysiologically. Neurobehavioral and physiological results in the newborn period successfully predicted the beneficial brain function effects at age 8 years. Results support the conclusion that the NIDCAP intervention has lasting effects into school age. PMID:19448128

  1. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

  2. Accuracy of two dental and one skeletal age estimation methods in 6-16 year old Gujarati children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purv S.; Chaudhary, Anjani Ramachandra; Dudhia, Bhavin B.; Bhatia, Parul V.; Soni, Naresh C.; Jani, Yesha V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is of immense importance not only for personal identification but also for treatment planning in medicine and dentistry. Chronologic age conveys only a rough approximation of the maturational status of a person, hence dental and skeletal ages have been explored as maturity indicators since decades. The tooth maturation provides a valuable indicator of dental age and serves as a better index of the maturation of a child as compared to other maturity indicators. Aims and Objectives: To test the applicability of Demirjian's and Willem's dental age assessment methods as well as Greulich and Pyle skeletal age assessment method in children residing in Gandhinagar district. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of randomly selected 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females) ranging from 6 to 16 years age and residing in Gandhinagar district. Dental age estimation was performed from radiovisuograph (RVG) images of mandibular teeth of left quadrant by both Demirjian's and Willem's methods. Skeletal age estimation was done from right hand wrist radiograph by Greulich and Pyle method. The differences between the chronological age and the estimated dental and skeletal ages were statistically tested using paired ‘t’ test. The correlation between chronological age, dental and skeletal age estimation methods was confirmed statistically by Pearson's correlation. The reproducibility of the estimations was statistically tested using the Pearson's Chi-square test. Results: Amongst the age estimation methods used in this study, the Willem's dental age estimation method proved to be the most accurate and consistent. Conclusion: Although various age estimation methods do exist, the results are varied in different populations due to ethnic differences. However, till new tables are formulated, the Willem's method (Modified Demirjian method) can be accurately applied to estimate chronological age for the population residing in Gandhinagar district. PMID:25709315

  3. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  4. Survivorship of the cementless Spotorno femoral component in patients under 50 years of age at a mean follow-up of 18.4 years.

    PubMed

    Biemond, J E; Venkatesan, S; van Hellemondt, G G

    2015-02-01

    The long-term survival of the cementless Spotorno CLS femoral component in patients aged > 50 years at the time of arthroplasty was investigated. Survivorship analysis of a consecutive series of 85 patients (100 hips; under 50 years of age at a mean follow-up of 18.4 years (16.3 to 20.8)) was performed. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were satisfactory. The overall rate of survival of the femoral component was 93.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 90.9 to 96.1) after 19 years. Survival with revision for aseptic loosening as the end point was 95.7% (95% CI 93.6 to 97.8%) at 19 years. This study demonstrates an excellent long-term survival of the Spotorno CLS femoral component after 16 to 20 years in young patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25628276

  5. Fecal Overflow Often Affects Children With Chronic Constipation That Appears After the Age of 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Kammacher Guerreiro, Mélissa; Bettinville, Aurore; Herzog, Denise

    2014-05-23

    Chronic functional constipation with or without encopresis is a common problem in the pediatric population, and the prevalence of encopresis may be underestimated. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for overflow incontinence in patients with chronic constipation seen at a pediatric gastroenterology consultation. A retrospective study of 270 files of patients seen between 1997 and 2012 was conducted, and a classification according to Rome III criteria was done. Among 145 (53.7%) boys and 125 (46.2%) girls, 117 had overflow incontinence (43.3%) - 41 (35%) girls and 76 (65%) boys. The first symptoms of chronic constipation appeared at a median age of 30 and 33 months in encopretic and 16 and 12 months in nonencopretic girls and boys, respectively. The first specialized consultation took place after a median disease duration of 26.5 and 24 months in encopretic and 16 and 9 months in nonencopretic girls and boys, respectively. A history of stool retention and the presence of scybala at examination, but not of pain at defecation or anal fissure, were associated with encopresis. The onset of chronic constipation after the age of 2 years, a longer disease duration, male gender, and a history of stool retention were seen as risk factors for the development of encopresis in patients with chronic functional constipation. PMID:24860106

  6. Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7-10 years in South Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yamamah, G; Mabrouk, A; Ghorab, E; Ahmady, M; Abdulsalam, H

    2012-03-01

    Hearing loss among schoolchildren in developing countries is reported to be a significant health problem. Data on child hearing loss in South Sinai, a remote governorate of Egypt, are lacking. Middle ear diseases and hearing impairment were assessed among 453 primary-school children aged 7-10 years in South Sinai (906 ears). Otoscopic examination, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA) were done. Ear disease was found in 27.5% of the ears examined. The commonest cause was secretory otitis media (10.8%), followed by occluded earwax (9.5%). Mild and moderate hearing loss affected 8.5% of the sample, while sensorineural hearing loss affected 2.4%; only 0.4% had moderate and severe hearing loss. Hearing impairment affects 19.3% of this age group in South Sinai. None of the children with hearing impairment had been previously diagnosed or was receiving treatment and support. Hearing and middle ear screening at schools is recommended for early detection and management of middle ear and hearing problems. PMID:22574480

  7. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)], E-mail: lshi@wfubmc.edu; Molina, Doris P. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Michael E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Wheeler, Kenneth T. [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  8. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujevi?, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers. PMID:24611320

  9. Cortical structural abnormalities in very preterm children at 7years of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J; Dierker, Donna L; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Anderson, Peter J; Van Essen, David C

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed long-lasting alterations in brain morphometry associated with preterm birth using volumetric and surface-based analyses applied to children at age 7years. Comparison of 24 children born very preterm (VPT) to 24 healthy term-born children revealed reductions in total cortical gray matter volume, white matter volume, cortical surface area and gyrification index. Regional cortical shape abnormalities in VPT children included the following: shallower anterior superior temporal sulci, smaller relative surface area in the inferior sensori-motor cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex, larger relative surface area and a cingulate sulcus that was shorter or more interrupted in medial frontoparietal cortex. These findings indicate a complex pattern of regional vulnerabilities in brain development that may contribute to the diverse and long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences that can occur after very premature birth. PMID:25614973

  10. Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

  11. A study of anthropometric characteristics between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Taha, Zahari; Jomoah, Ibrahim M; Zadry, Hilma Raimona

    2009-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the anthropometric characteristics of 241 Malaysian and 646 Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years. The mean values, standard deviation (SD), and 5th and 95th percentile values of 26 measurements and 22 proportions of each group were given. The results showed that there were significant differences in a number of body dimensions between these populations, except for eye height and elbow height (standing) and height, eye height, shoulder height, and elbow height (sitting). These results are important for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems and furniture: The presented data may be useful for providing a safer, more productive and user-friendly workplace for Malaysian and Saudi Arabian populations. PMID:20034316

  12. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  13. Skin infections in young people (aged 14-18 years): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2014-06-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature specific to young people aged 14-18 years is therefore timely. Integrative review using the methods described by Whittemore and Knafl was undertaken. Electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases were searched for English-language articles published after 1990. Twenty primary studies were included and the findings are reported here. Data analysis revealed factors influencing skin infections in young people may be host-, transmission-, or pathogen-specific. Strategies to address host and transmission factors may be effective in controlling skin infection rates in young people. PMID:23945044

  14. Age Is No Longer a Limit: Two Cases of Hepatectomy in Patients Over 90 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Uwatoko, Shugo; Yamamoto, Kentaroh; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Fukumori, Daisuke; Igimi, Hirotsune; Yamamoto, Mami; Yamamoto, Fumio; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis. The age of patients affected by HCC is considered to be increasing, and several studies have reported significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality after hepatectomy for HCC in elderly patients. However, other studies have reported that the short- and long-term outcomes of surgery for HCC in elderly patients are similar to those in younger patients. Whether the indications for hepatic resection in elderly patients resemble those in younger patients has thus been questioned. We describe two cases of patients over 90 years old who underwent major hepatectomy for HCC, representing the oldest patients in the world to have done so.

  15. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work. PMID:11202492

  16. 9-9:10 Opening: Dean R. Bushnell 10:20-10:50 Coffee

    E-print Network

    Grassi, Antonella

    Friday 9-9:10 Opening: Dean R. Bushnell 9:10-9:40 9:50-10:20 10:20-10:50 Coffee 10:50-11:20 11 theorie Paban Evolution of Gravitationally Unstable de Sitter Compactifications Caporaso Britto Coffee/Posters Piene Making a smooth torus action symplectic, or almost.. Cheung Strings in gravimagnetic field Coffee

  17. Closed-Loop Insulin Therapy Improves Glycemic Control in Children Aged <7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Andrew; Corcia, Liat; Safer, Jason; Agus, Michael S.D.; Einis, Sara; Steil, Garry M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the possibility of improving nocturnal glycemic control as well as meal glycemic response using closed-loop therapy in children aged <7 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a randomized controlled crossover trial comparing closed-loop with standard open-loop insulin pump therapy performed in an inpatient clinical research center. Ten subjects aged <7 years with type 1 diabetes for >6 months treated with insulin pump therapy were studied. Closed-loop therapy and standard open-loop therapy were compared from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. on 2 consecutive days. The primary outcome was plasma glucose time in range (110–200 mg/dL) during the night (10:00 p.m.–8:00 a.m.). Secondary outcomes included peak postprandial glucose levels, incidence of hypoglycemia, degree of hyperglycemia, and prelunch glucose levels. RESULTS A trend toward a higher mean nocturnal time within target range was noted for closed- versus open-loop therapy, although not reaching statistical significance (5.3 vs. 3.2 h, P = 0.12). There was no difference in peak postprandial glucose or number of episodes of hypoglycemia. There was significant improvement in time spent >300 mg/dL overnight with closed-loop therapy (0.18 vs. 1.3 h, P = 0.035) and the total area under the curve of glucose >200 mg/dL (P = 0.049). Closed-loop therapy returned prelunch blood glucose closer to target (189 vs. 273 mg/dL on open loop, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery decreases the severity of overnight hyperglycemia without increasing the incidence of hypoglycemia. The therapy is better able to reestablish target glucose levels in advance of a subsequent meal. Younger children with type 1 diabetes may reap significant benefits from closed-loop therapy. PMID:23033237

  18. Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50–70 years

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, S U; Torres, S J; Nowson, C A; Tilbrook, A J; Turner, A I

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25?kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35?kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500?h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15?min from 1400 to 1700?h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired. PMID:24867909

  19. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and poorer cognitive inhibitory control at age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    ALGARÍN, CECILIA; NELSON, CHARLES A; PEIRANO, PATRICIO; WESTERLUND, ALISSA; REYES, SUSSANNE; LOZOFF, BETSY

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy on executive functioning at age 10 years, specifically inhibitory control on the Go/No-Go task. We predicted that children who had IDA in infancy would show poorer inhibitory control. Method We assessed cognitive inhibitory control in 132 Chilean children (mean [SD] age 10y 0mo [1mo]): 69 children had IDA in infancy (45 males, 24 females) and 63 comparison children who did not have IDA (26 males, 37 females). Participants performed the Go/No-Go task with event-related potentials. Group differences in behavioral (accuracy, reaction time) and electrophysiological outcomes (N2 and P300 components) were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. N2 and P300 are interpreted to reflect attention and resource allocation respectively. Results Relative to comparison participants, children who had IDA in infancy showed slower reaction time (mean [SE], 528.7ms [14.2] vs 485.0ms [15.0], 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference between groups 0.9–86.5); lower accuracy (95.4% [0.5] vs 96.9% [0.6], 95% CI ?3.0 to ?0.1); longer latency to N2 peak (378.9ms [4.9] vs 356.9ms [5.0], 95% CI 7.5–36.6); and smaller P300 amplitude (4.5?V [0.8] vs 7.6?V [0.9], 95% CI–5.5 to ?0.5). Interpretation IDA in infancy was associated with slower reaction times and poorer inhibitory control 8 to 9 years after iron therapy. These findings are consistent with the long-lasting effects of early IDA on myelination and/or prefrontal–striatal circuits where dopamine is the major neurotransmitter. PMID:23464736

  20. Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50-70 years.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, S U; Torres, S J; Nowson, C A; Tilbrook, A J; Turner, A I

    2014-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50-70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20-25?kg/m(2); n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27-35?kg/m(2); n=17) men (50-70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500?h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7-15?min from 1400 to 1700?h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired. PMID:24867909

  1. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  2. Physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years and the influence of peers on these behaviours: a 1-year follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Coppinger; Y M Jeanes; J Dabinett; C Vögele; S Reeves

    2010-01-01

    Background:This study investigated physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours over a 2-year period.Methods:A total of 106 (64 girls; 42 boys) children were investigated annually, over 2 years. Measures included physical activity (sealed pedometer), self-report measures of dietary intake and physical activity, and a peer influence questionnaire. Anthropometric measures

  3. Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Six Potential Screening Instruments for Bipolar Disorder in Youths Aged 5 to 17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Demeter, Christine; DelPorto Bedoya, Denise; Price, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficiency of six index tests as predictors of juvenile bipolar disorder in two large outpatient samples, aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, gathered from 1997 to 2002. Method: DSM-IV diagnosis was based on a semistructured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age

  4. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  5. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32?years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research. PMID:25043923

  6. Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    McCay, Timothy S.

    Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania ABSTRACT bobcat stomachs taken from Pennsylvania during autumn and winter 2000­2002. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. The bobcat diet varies by age

  7. Is the Acquisition of a Theory of Mind Linked to a Specific Competence beyond Three Years of Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradmetz, Joel

    1998-01-01

    A LISREL model is used to show that there is no specific group factor between tasks related to theory of mind (TOM) whose covariance is totally explained by a general intelligence factor. Results with 102 children aged 3 to 6 years show that if there is an innate base for TOM, it is online before age 3. (SLD)

  8. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  9. Longitudinal volumetric brain changes in autism spectrum disorder ages 6-35 years.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Prigge, Molly B D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cariello, Annahir N; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an 8-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans, and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. Autism Res 2015, 8: 82-93. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25381736

  10. Fetal exposure to an intra-amniotic inflammation and the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Hyun Yoon; Roberto Romero; Joong Shin Park; Chong Jai Kim; Seung Hyup Kim; Jung Hwan Choi; Tai Ryoon Han

    2000-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to determine whether fetal exposure to intra-amniotic inflammation and a systemic fetal inflammatory response (funisitis) are associated with the development of cerebral palsy at the age of 3 years.

  11. Reference range variation in haematological indices amongst five different age groups of less than one year in Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tauseef Bukhari, Kiran; Zafar, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to establish the reference ranges of haematological indices amongst five healthy infantile (<1 year) age groups. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Non probability convenience sampling was adopted for the proceedings for the study. A sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed as 400 samples for all the five age groups i.e. <27 days, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and one year. One thousands were males and 1000 were the females. An informed consent from the guardian was the pre requisite of study, while those candidates having an evidence of any systemic illness were not excluded. Results : The values of haematological indices i.e. MCV, MCHC, MCH, PCV and RDW varies with growing age of an infant. A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. Conclusion : A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. The values reported in this study can be used as a local reference for the newborn aged between <27 days and 1 year of age. PMID:24353580

  12. Increasing trends in HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older: evidence from estimates and survey data

    PubMed Central

    Mahy, Mary; Autenrieth, Christine S.; Stanecki, Karen; Wynd, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the most recent 2013 UNAIDS estimates of HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older, and to validate these estimates using data from national household surveys. Design: Modelled estimates of HIV prevalence were validated against nationally representative household survey measures of HIV prevalence. Methods: The UNAIDS 2013 HIV estimates were used to compute HIV prevalence and number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older. Sex-specific HIV-prevalence rates by the 5-year age group were calculated from nationally representative household surveys conducted between 2003 and 2013, and were compared to prevalence rates from the modelled estimates. The ratios (Spectrum/Survey) of the prevalence rates from the two sources were analysed. Results: In 2013, an estimated 4.2 million (4.0–4.5 million) people aged 50 years and older were living with HIV. The global HIV prevalence among older individuals more than doubled in almost all the 5-year age groups since 1995. There was a relatively good agreement between the modelled HIV-prevalence rates and the survey-based rates among men and women aged 50–54 years (0.90 and 1.00 median ratio, respectively), whereas for 55–59 year-olds, the differences were more notable (ratios of 0.63 for men and 0.90 for women). Conclusion: Both data sources suggest HIV-prevalence rates among people aged over 50 have increased steadily in the recent years. Care and treatment services need to address the specific needs of older people living with HIV. Action is needed to incorporate older age groups into HIV surveillance systems. PMID:25222641

  13. Use of sublingual nitroglycerin during head-up tilt-table testing in patients >60 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Natale; Jasbir Sra; Masood Akhtar; Luke Kusmirek; Gery Tomassoni; Fabio Leonelli; Keith Newby; Salwa Beheiry; Antonio Pacifico

    1998-01-01

    Previous work had demonstrated a reduced specificity associated with head-up tilt protocols using high-dose isoproterenol in patients between 20 and 50 years of age. We evaluated the specificity of head-up tilt testing using different isoproterenol infusion doses and administration of nitroglycerin in patients aged >60 years. In addition, whether the same protocols have impact on the sensitivity of the test

  14. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (?1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  15. Influenza vaccine uptake in adults aged 50-64 years: policy and practice in England 2003/2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Carol; Elgohari, Suzanne; Nichols, Tom; Verlander, Neville

    2006-03-10

    A small national study was carried out in England in 2003/2004 to ascertain the views of primary care trusts (PCTs) and general practitioners (GPs) on whether influenza immunisation should be extended to all people aged 50-64 years from the current recommendation of 65 years or more. Results showed that as many primary care trusts would be in favour, as would not be in favour. A similarly divided view was expressed by general practitioners. Vaccine uptake rates for high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) adults aged 50-64 years in the study population were higher in those practices where the GP was in favour of a more inclusive policy of offering flu vaccine to all persons aged 50 years or more, compared with those that did not favour this policy (60% versus 54% HR (p=0.02) and 16% versus 11% LR (p=0.02)). Higher rates of vaccine uptake for low-risk patients aged 50-64 years were also reported from practices where GPs perceived a greater health benefit of immunisation for this age group. Although policy for recommending vaccine to all patients aged 50 years or more is established elsewhere, opinion on whether such a policy should be adopted in England is currently divided amongst those providing local health services. PMID:16289767

  16. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE...

  17. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE...

  18. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE...

  19. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE...

  20. Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children

    E-print Network

    Elsenburg, Leonie K; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Atkin, Andrew J

    2014-06-12

    spent watching television (including video/DVD; 1 week test-retest reliability ICC = 0.93), using a computer (including the internet; 1 week test-retest reliability ICC = 0.53) and playing computer games (1 week test-retest reliability ICC = 0... -demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Methods: Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n = 1472, 42.9% male) were...

  1. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius

    E-print Network

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Siegel, Karen R; Richards, Nigel; Whincup, Peter H

    2012-07-23

    follow a western dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of cakes/pastries, meat and fast foods [24]. The pattern is similar in children, with surveys of school children reporting that most of the popular snacks were high in carbohydrate, fat... and measurement in Mauritius. Public Health Nutr 2005, 8(6):608–619. 25. Oogarah-Pratap B: Dietary habits of Mauritian school adolescents. Nutr Food Sci 2007, 37:442–451. 26. Oogarah-Pratap B, Heerah-Booluck BJ: Children's consumption of snacks at school...

  2. Search for Varicella Zoster Virus DNA in Saliva of Healthy Individuals Aged 20 to 59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Birlea, Marius; Cohrs, Randall J.; Bos, Nathan; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    All neurological and ocular complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation can occur without rash. Virological verification requires detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue in patients with neurological disease without rash and found to correlate with tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. Saliva is a potential source of VZV DNA. To study the potential diagnostic value of detecting VZV DNA in saliva from patients with neurological disease, saliva of healthy adults searched for VZV DNA. A single saliva sample obtained by passive drool was centrifuged at 16,000 × g for 20 mins. DNA was extracted from the supernatant and cell pellet and examined in triplicate for VZV DNA by real time PCR. A single random saliva sample from 80 healthy men and women aged 20–59 years revealed no VZV DNA (Table 1), but was uniformly positive for cell (GAPdH) DNA. Because VZV DNA was not found in a random saliva sample from 80 individuals 20–59 years-old, a VZV-positive sample during neurologic disease may have potential significance. Further studies will determine whether VZV DNA in saliva correlates with VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF in patients with neurological disease. PMID:24338812

  3. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

  4. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended. PMID:11769344

  5. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  6. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  7. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in children 16 years of age or younger

    PubMed Central

    AL-Zaaidi, Sultan; AL-Rashaed, Saba; AL-Harthi, Essam; AL-Kahtani, Eman; Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the anatomical and visual outcomes and prognostic factors that may predict the outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in children. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for patients 16 years of age or younger who underwent retinal reattachment surgery for RRD at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital from 1996 to 2005 and the King Khalid Eye Specialist Hospital from 2002 to 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Good visual outcome was defined as ?20/200. The association between two categorical variables was evaluated with the Chi-squared test or the exact test, as appropriate. Predictors for RRD and good final visual acuity were identified by conducting stepwise logistic regression analysis. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results The study population comprised 148 patients (166 eyes). There were 104 (70%) males and 44 (30%) females. Mean age at presentation was 8.33 ± 3.26 years (range 1.5–16 years). The retina was reattached after one surgical procedure in 106 (63.8%) eyes and reattached in 130 (78.3%) eyes after multiple surgeries. Factors predicting recurrence after the first surgery were myopia (P = 0.028), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) at presentation (P = 0.024), and total retinal detachment (P = 0.032). Good final visual outcome was achieved in 60 (44.4%) eyes. Predictors of good visual acuity were: good visual acuity at presentation (P < 0.001); absence of PVR at presentation (P < 0.001); one quadrant of retinal detachment (P = 0.0024); macula on (P = 0.0107); absence of primary repair of a ruptured globe (P = 0.0059); no pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (P = 0.0123); clear phakic lens at follow-up (P < 0.001); absence of postoperative complications (P < 0.001); absence of recurrence of RRD (P < 0.001); and absence of epiretinal membrane (P = 0.0088). Logistic regression analysis indicated that recurrence of RRD was associated with myopia and previous congenital cataract surgery; good final visual outcome was associated with macula on detachment and poor visual outcome was associated with recurrence of RRD and occurrence of postoperative complications and previous repair of a ruptured globe. Conclusion RRD in children is usually associated with a predisposing factor, a high rate of PVR, and total retinal detachment. Despite late diagnosis and the presence of PVR, favorable anatomical and visual outcomes can be achieved. PMID:23818752

  8. Adding Years to Your Life (or at Least Looking Like It): A Simple Normalization Underlies Adaptation to Facial Age

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Sean F.; Mac, Amy; Rhodes, Gillian; Webster, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation has been widely used to probe how experience shapes the visual encoding of faces, but the pattern of perceptual changes produced by adaptation and the neural mechanisms these imply remain poorly characterized. We explored how adaptation alters the perceived age of faces, a fundamental facial attribute which can uniquely and reliably be scaled by observers. This allowed us to measure how adaptation to one age level affected the full continuum of perceived ages. Participants guessed the ages of faces ranging from 18–89, before or after adapting to a different set of faces composed of younger, older, or middle-aged adults. Adapting to young or old faces induced opposite linear shifts in perceived age that were independent of the model's age. Specifically, after adapting to younger or older faces, faces of all ages appeared 2 to 3 years older or younger, respectively. In contrast, middle-aged adaptors induced no aftereffects. This pattern suggests that adaptation leads to a simple and uniform renormalization of age perception, and is consistent with a norm-based neural code for the mechanisms mediating the perception of facial age. PMID:25541948

  9. Allergen avoidance in infancy and allergy at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hide, D W; Matthews, S; Tariq, S; Arshad, S H

    1996-02-01

    In an attempt to prevent or reduce the manifestations of atopic disease, a group of infants considered to be genetically at high risk of atopy was entered in a prenatally randomized, controlled study. A prophylactic group (n = 58) was either breast-fed with their mothers excluding foods regarded as highly antigenic from their diets, or given an extensively hydrolysed formula. In addition, strenuous efforts were made to reduce exposure to the house-dust mite by application of acaricide to the bedroom and living room carpets and upholstered furniture. A control group (n = 62) was fed conventionally by breast or on formula, and no specific environmental measures were taken. The results (previously reported) after 1 year showed significantly less total allergy, asthma, and eczema in the prophylactic group. Similar results were obtained at 2 years although the reduction in asthma no longer achieved statistical significance. However, there was significantly less sensitization, as shown by a battery of skin prick tests (SPTs), to both dietary allergens and aeroallergens in the prophylactic group. All the children have now been reviewed at the age of 4 years, and SPTs to a wide range of dietary allergens and aeroallergens have been performed. The control group continues to show more total allergy (odds ratio [OR] 2.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-6.13, P < 0.02), definite allergy (allergic symptoms plus positive SPT) (OR 5.6, CI 1.8-17.9, P < 0.005), and eczema (OR 3.4, CI 1.2-10.1, P < 0.05). More control children have positive SPTs (OR 3.7, CI 1.3-10.0, P < 0.02). A dual approach to the prevention of allergic disease, avoiding as far as possible sensitization to food and aeroallergens, significantly reduces the risk of atopic disease. This should be reserved for infants considered at very high risk of atopy, and close medical and dietetic supervision must be available. PMID:8738513

  10. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

  11. Off Label Use of Botulinum Toxin in Children under Two Years of Age: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Druschel, Claudia; Althuizes, Henriette C.; Funk, Julia F.; Placzek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with cerebral palsy with Botulinum Toxin is considered safe and effective, but is only approved for children older than two years of age. The effect of BoNT-A injection on juvenile skeletal muscle especially on neuromuscular junction density, distribution and morphology is poorly delineated and concerns of irreversible damage to the motor endplates especially in young children exist. In contrast, earlier treatment could be appropriate to improve the attainment of motor milestones and general motor development. This review systematically analyzes the evidence regarding this hypothesis. A database search, including PubMed and Medline databases, was performed and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in children younger than two years were identified. Two authors independently extracted the data and the methods of all identified trials were assessed. Three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of the analysis revealed an improvement in spasticity of the upper and lower extremities as well as in the range of motion in the joints of the lower limbs. However, evidence of an improvement of general motor development could not be found, as the assessment of this area was not completely specified for this patient group. Based on available evidence it can not be concluded that Botulinum Toxin treatment in children younger than two years improves the achievement of motor milestones. However, there is evidence for the reduction of spasticity, avoiding contractures and delaying surgery. Due to some limitations, the results of this review should be cautiously interpreted. More studies, long-term follow up independent high-quality RCTs with effectiveness analyses are needed. PMID:23296386

  12. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7?g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02?g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84?g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044?g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  13. yielded age-specific-survival fractions (Lx) for females of each year class. Ro* for each year class

    E-print Network

    *) and their reciprocals (liRo*) for the 1954-63 year classes of Atlantic menhaden. Year I Year class RD' liRa class Ro' li. P. CHEEK. AND R. L. KROGER. 1973. Preliminary analyses of Atlantic menhaden, Bre· voortia tyrannus and spawning of Atlantic menhaden. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 63:255- 271. JUNE, F. C., AND J. W

  14. Perceptions of Five-Year Competitive Categories: Model of How Relative Age Influences Competitiveness in Masters Sport

    PubMed Central

    Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W.; Grove, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps < .001). Findings point to perceived psycho-social and physical factors that potentially explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key Points There are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes. Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes’ continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training. PMID:24421732

  15. The effects of driving age, driver education, and curfew laws on traffic fatalities of 15-17 year olds.

    PubMed

    Levy, D T

    1988-12-01

    This study examines the effect of state driving age, learning permit, driver's education, and curfew laws on 15-17-year-old driver fatality rates. A multivariate regression model is estimated for 47 states and nine years. The minimum legal driving age and curfew laws are found to be important determinants of fatalities. Driver's education and learning permits have smaller effects. The relationship between rates of licensure and driving age, education, and curfew laws is also examined. In each case, a more restrictive policy is found to reduce licensure of 15-17 year olds. The results suggest that the imposition of curfew laws and higher minimum driving ages are particularly effective traffic safety policies. PMID:3244865

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome among children aged 7-9 years - Arizona, Colorado, and New York, 2010.

    PubMed

    Fox, Deborah J; Pettygrove, Sydney; Cunniff, Christopher; O'Leary, Leslie A; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Druschel, Charlotte M; Breen, April; Robinson, Luther; Ortiz, Linnette; Frías, Jaime L; Ruttenber, Margaret; Klumb, Donald; Meaney, F John

    2015-01-30

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious birth defect and developmental disorder caused by in utero exposure to alcohol. Assessment of the public health burden of FAS through surveillance has proven difficult; there is wide variation in reported prevalence depending on the study population and surveillance method. Generally, records-based birth prevalence studies report estimates of 0.2-1.5 per 1,000 live births, whereas studies that use in-person, expert assessment of school-aged children in a community report estimates of 6-9 per 1,000 population. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II addressed some of the challenges in records-based ascertainment by assessing a period prevalence of FAS among children aged 7?9 years in Arizona, Colorado, and New York. The prevalence across sites ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 per 1,000 children. Prevalence of FAS was highest among American Indian/Alaska Native children and lowest among Hispanic children. These estimates continue to be much lower than those obtained from studies using in-person, expert assessment. Factors that might contribute to this discrepancy include 1) inadequate recognition of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS by clinical care providers; 2) insufficient documentation of those characteristics in the medical record; and 3) failure to consider prenatal alcohol exposure with diagnoses of behavioral and learning problems. Addressing these factors through training of medical and allied health providers can lead to practice changes, ultimately increasing recognition and documentation of the characteristics of FAS. PMID:25632951

  17. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Jafarian, Korosh; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI) or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI) relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI) and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.01). After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity. PMID:23853625

  18. Blood cadmium and depressive symptoms in young adults (aged 20-39 years).

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, F; Buser, M C

    2015-03-01

    Background. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of depression and several studies have noted an association between tobacco smoke and depression. Cadmium is a neurotoxicant and the main source of non-occupational exposure is tobacco smoke. Method. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 2892 young adult (aged 20-39 years) participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Multivariate logistic regressions, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio (PIR), obesity, alcohol intake, blood lead (BPb) and smoking status, were used to analyze the association between blood cadmium (BCd) and depressive symptoms, as determined by the score on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. Individuals in the highest BCd quartile had higher odds of having depressive symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-4.25] than those in the lowest BCd quartile. Smoking status, but not BPb, was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Stratification by smoking status found that BCd was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both non-smokers (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.12-7.58) and current smokers (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.13-6.42). Conclusions. This is the first study to report an association between BCd levels and depressive symptoms using a nationally representative sample. The association of cadmium with depressive symptoms was independent of smoking status. If this association is further confirmed, the continued efforts at reducing cadmium exposures, mainly through tobacco smoking cessation programs, may decrease the incidence of depression. PMID:25115444

  19. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: The Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n=94dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age. PMID:25800150

  20. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China’s largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. Methods A total of 13,532 children of 0?~?36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Results Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Conclusions Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas. PMID:24499429

  1. Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children under 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Paradise, Jack L.; Rockette, Howard E.; Shaikh, Nader; Wald, Ellen R.; Kearney, Diana H.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Zoffel, Lisa M.; Jenkins, Carly; Pope, Marcia A.; Balentine, Tracy L.; Barbadora, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recommendations vary regarding immediate antimicrobial treatment versus watchful waiting for children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media. Methods We randomly assigned 291 children 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media diagnosed with the use of stringent criteria, to receive amoxicillin–clavulanate or placebo for 10 days. We measured symptomatic response and rates of clinical failure. Results Among the children who received amoxicillin–clavulanate, 35% had initial resolution of symptoms by day 2, 61% by day 4, and 80% by day 7; among children who received placebo, 28% had initial resolution of symptoms by day 2, 54% by day 4, and 74% by day 7 (P = 0.14 for the overall comparison). For sustained resolution of symptoms, the corresponding values were 20%, 41%, and 67% with amoxicillin–clavulanate, as compared with 14%, 36%, and 53% with placebo (P = 0.04 for the overall comparison). Mean symptom scores over the first 7 days were lower for the children treated with amoxicillin–clavulanate than for those who received placebo (P = 0.02). The rate of clinical failure — defined as the persistence of signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination — was also lower among the children treated with amoxicillin–clavulanate than among those who received placebo: 4% versus 23% at or before the visit on day 4 or 5 (P<0.001) and 16% versus 51% at or before the visit on day 10 to 12 (P<0.001). Mastoiditis developed in one child who received placebo. Diarrhea and diaper-area dermatitis were more common among children who received amoxicillin–clavulanate. There were no significant changes in either group in the rates of nasopharyngeal colonization with nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Among children 6 to 23 months of age with acute otitis media, treatment with amoxicillin–clavulanate for 10 days tended to reduce the time to resolution of symptoms and reduced the overall symptom burden and the rate of persistent signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00377260.) PMID:21226576

  2. Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Margaret

    Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

  3. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2010, MEDLINE (1950 to 2010 April week 4), EMBASE (1947 to 2010 week 18), CINAHL (up to 12 May 2010), PsycINFO (up to 12 May 2010) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (up to February 2011) were searched to identify eligible trials, as well as electronic trial registers (also up to February 2011). The reference lists of included trials were reviewed and handsearches of three international nutrition journals were also performed. Authors of all included trials were contacted in order to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials, of any intervention primarily targeting fruit and/or vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under and incorporating a biochemical or dietary assessment of fruit and/or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified papers. A third review author with expertise in review methodology resolved any disagreements regarding study eligibility. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements between review authors. Fixed-effect models were used to perform meta-analysis for the primary review outcomes where a sufficient number of trials with suitable data and homogeneity were identified. Main results Five trials, with 13 trial arms and 3967 participants were included in the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI ?0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  4. 9,10-Disubstituted octafluoroanthracene derivatives via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Tannaci, John F; Noji, Masahiro; McBee, Jennifer L; Tilley, T Don

    2008-10-17

    9,10-Dichlorooctafluoroanthracene (1) reacts with aryl boronic acids and terminal alkynes under palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling conditions to afford 9,10-diaryloctafluoroanthracenes (2a-e) and 9,10-dialkynyloctafluoroanthracenes (6a,b), respectively. Optical spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry indicate that octafluoro-9,10-di(thiophen-2-yl)anthracene (2d) exhibits donor-acceptor character and a LUMO energy level of -3.27 eV relative to vacuum. A functionalized 5-bromothiophen-2-yl derivative (2e) was obtained in high yield by bromination of 2d with NBS. X-ray crystallographic analysis of octafluoro-9,10-bis[(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]anthracene (6a) reveals a solid-state structure that mimics the packing of columnar liquid crystals, with a pi stacking distance of 3.39 A between the octafluoroanthracene cores. In addition, octafluoro-9,10-bis(mesitylethynyl)anthracene (6b) displays a LUMO energy level of -3.50 eV, which approaches the value of -3.65 eV measured for perfluoropentacene, making 9,10-dialkynyloctafluoroanthracenes a promising new class of n-type organic materials. PMID:18788782

  5. Socioeconomic factors associated with the onset of disability in older age: a longitudinal study of people aged 75 years and over.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ruth J; Smith, Lucy K; Hancock, Ruth M; Jagger, Carol; Spiers, Nicola A

    2005-10-01

    Although the association between socioeconomic status and mortality is well documented, there is less work focusing on the association with morbidity in older people. This is partly due to the difficulties of measuring socioeconomic status at older ages. The work that does exist tends to use cross-sectional data and objective measures of socioeconomic status such as education, social class or income. However, these standard measures may be less relevant for older people. In this study, we explore the association between socioeconomic status and disability in older people using a range of individual, household and area level indicators of socioeconomic status, including a subjective measure of adequacy of income. We use cross-sectional data of 1470 participants aged 75 years or over on 31/12/1987 and registered with a UK primary care practice. Of these 719 participants with no disability at baseline were followed up until 2003 with measurements at up to seven time points to determine onset of disability. Disability was defined as difficulty with any one of five activities of daily living. In cross-sectional multivariate analysis, age, housing tenure, living status and a subjective measure of income adequacy were associated with prevalence of disability. In longitudinal analyses, self-perceived adequacy of income showed the strongest association with onset of disability; with those reporting difficulties managing having a median age of onset 80.5 years, 7 years younger than those who felt their income was adequate (median age 87.8 years). The prospective association between self-perceived adequacy of income and onset of disability decreased with age. This subjective measure of income adequacy may signify difficulties in budgeting, but could also capture differences in objective indicators of status not recorded in this study, such as wealth. Further work is needed to explore what causes older people to experience difficulty in managing their money and to understand the mechanisms behind its impact on their physical health. PMID:16005788

  6. Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

  7. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

    2015-02-01

    A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain. PMID:25485731

  8. Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Blood Lead Screening Among US Children Aged One to Five Years: 1988 -1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel B. Kaufmann; Timothy L. Clouse; David R. Olson; Thomas D. Matte

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the proportion of children 1 to 5 years of age who received blood lead testing during 1988 -1994 and to assess whether predic- tors of testing coincided with predictors of elevated blood lead levels. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur- vey. Participants. US children 1 to 5 years of

  9. Socio-Cognitive Abilities of Children between 4-5 Years of Age Coming from Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pry, Rene; And Others

    This study examined the social and cognitive competence of immigrant preschool children in France. A total of 25 immigrant (Maghreb) children and 25 nonimmigrant French children age 4 and 5 years participated in the study, which compared their cognitive abilities, adaptive behaviors, play abilities, and success in the first year of elementary…

  10. Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123

    PubMed Central

    Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  11. Premature Pubarche before One Year of Age: Distinguishing between Mini-Puberty Variants and Precocious Puberty.

    PubMed

    Bourayou, Rafik; Giabicani, Eloïse; Pouillot, Monique; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Brauner, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to facilitate the distinction between the benign "mini-puberty of early infancy" and precocious puberty (PP). Material and Methods We compared 59 patients (21 boys and 38 girls) seen for pubic hair development before one year of age diagnosed as mini-puberty to 13 patients (2 boys) in whom pubertal development before one year revealed a PP. Results The boys with mini-puberty presented with pubic hair development and prepubertal testicular volume, with low plasma testosterone concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test showed predominant luteinising hormone increase in 9/13. The girls presented with pubic hair development that was accompanied by breast development in 47% of cases, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses showed predominant follicle-stimulating hormone increase in the 17 evaluated. The patients with PP had organic central PP (5 hypothalamic hamartoma) or idiopathic central PP (n=6), or peripheral PP (one ovarian tumor and one congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The diagnosis was challenging only in 3 girls with idiopathic central PP presenting with prepubertal plasma estradiol concentrations and responses to GnRH test. Conclusions The diagnosis of PP was easily determined based on the clinical presentation and the pubertal concentrations of testosterone in boys or of estradiol in girls, as was the diagnosis of central or peripheral origin of PP based on gonadotropin response to the GnRH test. Once PP is excluded, these patients need careful follow-up and physician consultation is needed if clinical pubertal signs progress. PMID:25832117

  12. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC) centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children). Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight) and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76) for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17) for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions. PMID:21159203

  13. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ?500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  14. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ?500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = ?4.69, CI: ?7.31, ?2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  15. Premature Pubarche before One Year of Age: Distinguishing between Mini-Puberty Variants and Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Bourayou, Rafik; Giabicani, Eloïse; Pouillot, Monique; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Brauner, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to facilitate the distinction between the benign “mini-puberty of early infancy” and precocious puberty (PP). Material/Methods We compared 59 patients (21 boys and 38 girls) seen for pubic hair development before one year of age diagnosed as mini-puberty to 13 patients (2 boys) in whom pubertal development before one year revealed a PP. Results The boys with mini-puberty presented with pubic hair development and prepubertal testicular volume, with low plasma testosterone concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test showed predominant luteinising hormone increase in 9/13. The girls presented with pubic hair development that was accompanied by breast development in 47% of cases, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses showed predominant follicle-stimulating hormone increase in the 17 evaluated. The patients with PP had organic central PP (5 hypothalamic hamartoma) or idiopathic central PP (n=6), or peripheral PP (one ovarian tumor and one congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The diagnosis was challenging only in 3 girls with idiopathic central PP presenting with prepubertal plasma estradiol concentrations and responses to GnRH test. Conclusions The diagnosis of PP was easily determined based on the clinical presentation and the pubertal concentrations of testosterone in boys or of estradiol in girls, as was the diagnosis of central or peripheral origin of PP based on gonadotropin response to the GnRH test. Once PP is excluded, these patients need careful follow–up and physician consultation is needed if clinical pubertal signs progress. PMID:25832117

  16. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

  17. Respiratory infections in children up to two years of age on prophylaxis with palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744

  18. Children's bilateral advantage for grasp-to-eat actions becomes unimanual by age 10years.

    PubMed

    Flindall, Jason W; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that infants tend to develop a lateralized hand preference for hand-to-mouth actions earlier than they do a preference for many other grasp-to-place or grasp-to-manipulate tasks, years even before direction of hand preference can be reliably determined. This observation has led to a series of studies contrasting the kinematics of grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions in adults. These studies have described a robust kinematic asymmetry between left- and right-handed grasp-to-eat maximum grip apertures (MGAs) that has been interpreted as a right-hand advantage for feeding that may have led to right-handedness as observed on a global scale. The current study examines grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place kinematics in two groups of typically developing children aged 7 to 12years. It was found that the previously described task difference is present in both hands among younger children and that the effect does not become lateralized until the end of the first decade of life. Additional kinematics of both the dominant and non-dominant hands are described in detail to augment a growing catalogue of reach-to-grasp action descriptions for typically developing children. The maturation of the right-hand advantage for grasp-to-eat actions is discussed in terms of an inherent right-hand/left-hemisphere bias for such actions that may have influenced the development of population-level right-handedness in humans. PMID:25765884

  19. Behavioural factors associated with diarrhea among adults over 18 years of age in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, a large proportion of people still suffer from diarrhea diseases. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there are substantial social and economic costs caused by the high incidence of diarrheal diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors of diarrhea among adults in Beijing, China. Methods A multistage, stratified study based on cross-sectional data was performed using randomized and systematic sampling, recruiting 12,936 adults over 18 years of age in Beijing. All adults were requested to complete a questionnaire, including information such as demographic characteristics, incidence of diarrhea, and behaviors related to the diarrhea. Results The self-reported prevalence of diarrhea was 17.5% during the last year prior to the survey. Six behavioral factors were significantly associated with diarrhea in our study including: (1) washing hands before meals and after defecation (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.707, 95% CI 0.597?~?0.837), (2) washing hands with soap and running water (AOR 0.872, 95% CI 0.786?~?0.967), (3) consuming raw seafood (AOR 1.285, 95% CI 1.138?~?1.450), (4) using the same chopping block and knife when processing raw and cooked food (AOR 1.375, 95% CI 1.225?~?1.542), (5) using the same chopsticks to handle raw and cooked food (AOR1.149, 95% CI 1.041?~?1.268), and (6) regularly participating in physical exercise (AOR 0.719, 95% CI 0.651?~?0.793). Conclusion Good health habits, good eating habits, and regular exercise can prevent the episodes of diarrhea, and thus decrease the potential for disease occurrence. PMID:24885464

  20. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    PubMed

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (? 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mure?, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ? 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ? 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ? 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs. PMID:25093420

  1. Summer work and injury among middle school students, aged 10–14 years

    PubMed Central

    Zierold, K; Garman, S; Anderson, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Little information exists on injury and factors associated with injury in working youth aged 10–14 years. Most studies do not involve children younger than 15. Methods: A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered to middle school students in five school districts and one large urban school in October 2001. Results: Of the 3189 working middle school students who responded to the survey, the majority were employed in informal job settings, such as working for someone in a home, newspaper delivery, and working on family farms or in family businesses. Overall, 18% of children reported being injured at work. Of those injured, 26% reported that their injury was severe enough to affect their activities for more than three days. Variables that were associated with injury included having a "near-miss" incident at work (AOR 6.61, 95% CI 4.92 to 8.89), having a co-worker injured (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.60), and being asked to do something dangerous (AOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.14). Conclusions: Children are working and being injured in jobs that are not covered by existing child labour laws. Injury rates in non-covered occupations are high, warranting review of current laws. PMID:15150391

  2. Correlates of low-level lead exposure in urban children at 2 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M.; Needleman, H.; Waternaux, C.

    1986-06-01

    The blood lead levels of a large number of US preschool children approach the value regarded as the upper limit of normal. To reduce the number of children whose levels increase into the range thought to be toxic, the antecedents and correlates of levels in the 0- to 25-micrograms/dL range must be identified. In a large longitudinal study of middle and upper-middle class children living in metropolitan Boston, we evaluated how well five sets of variables predicted children's blood lead levels at 2 years of age: environmental lead sources, mouthing activity, home environment/care giving, prior developmental status, and sociodemographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that only environmental lead sources and, to a lesser extent, mouthing activity accounted for significant portions of the variance in blood lead levels. Environmental lead sources were not significantly related to the home environment/care-giving variables or to sociodemographic characteristics. The most promising approach for achieving community-wide reductions in children's blood lead levels is reduction in the amount of lead in the proximate environment.

  3. Is routine influenza immunization indicated for people over 65 years of age? An affirmative view.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M P

    1988-02-01

    Influenza is usually a minor, self-limiting illness, but for the elderly, especially the elderly who have chronic illnesses, it may be a severe or fatal disease. During influenza epidemics this disease may not always be recognized clinically as influenza but may appear as an acute decompensation in a patient with a known chronic illness. The influenza vaccine is not perfect, but it has been shown to be effective in the elderly. Reactions to the vaccine are usually minor and administration costs are low. Experience with influenza vaccine since the early 1940s has led to an improved, more pure vaccine formulation, has developed worldwide systems of tracking the dominant circulating viral strains, and has refined recommendations for vaccine usage based on clinical studies of its efficacy and cost effectiveness. Physicians should be aware of the present limitations of the existing studies and the imperfections of the vaccines, but in the elderly population, a proven intervention that will offer a substantial degree of protection during the influenza season should not be withheld. Most of the existing evidence suggests that the vaccine is effective and that physicians should be more stringent in their influenza immunization practices with the elderly. The elderly who are at high risk should be of high priority for receiving influenza vaccine, and the vaccine should also be recommended to healthy individuals aged 65 years and older because of its proven efficacy for reducing attack rates when appropriate viral strains are used. PMID:3339325

  4. Aging well: methanotrophic potential and community structure along a paddy soil chronosequence of 2000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Frenzel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Given that rice paddies are anthropogenic methane sources and the inevitable need to increase rice production to sustain human population growth, it is pertinent to identify the effects of long term agriculture on the selection of methanotrophs. Methanotrophs play a crucial role in mitigating methane emission from rice paddies. Therefore, we analyzed the methanotroph community along a chronosequence of paddy soils from China covering recently reclaimed sites to paddies under permanent agriculture since 2000 years (Cheng et al., 2009; doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.016). Maximum potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) increased monotonically with age. Our results also showed that long-term agriculture imposes a selection pressure on different groups of methanotrophs. In contrast to younger soils, type Ib methanotrophs were observed to multiply in correspondence with increasing PMOR in ancient soils, while other groups showed a relatively stable community composition as revealed by pmoA-based fingerprints (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cloning and sequencing the pmoA (a key gene in methane oxidation), the soils were found to harbour known and putative methanotrophs, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and interestingly, sequences affiliated to Crenothrix, a methane oxidizer with an unusual pmoA (Stoecker et al., 2006; doi:10.1073/pnas.0506361103). In summary, long-term agriculture shapes the community and allows for an elevated level of potential methane oxidation.

  5. Parental Characteristics Associated With Bullying Perpetration in US Children Aged 10 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Rosa M.; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We identified factors associated with child bullying in the United States. Methods. We used the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health to examine associations among child, parent, and community factors and bullying perpetration among children aged 10 to 17 years, using bivariate and stepwise multivariable analyses. Results. African American and Latino children and children living in poverty and who had emotional, developmental, or behavioral (EDB) problems had higher odds of bullying, as did children of parents who felt angry with their child or who felt their child bothered them a lot or was hard to care for; suboptimal maternal mental health was associated with higher bullying odds. Children who always or usually completed homework and had parents who talked with them and met all or most of their friends had lower bullying odds. Conclusions. Assessing children’s EDB problems, maternal mental health, and parental perceptions may identify children at risk for bullying. Parent–child communication, meeting children’s friends, and encouraging children academically were associated with lower bullying odds; these protective factors may be useful in designing preventive interventions. PMID:23078471

  6. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. PMID:23995043

  7. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

  8. Investigation of complete dental arches of 23 patients aged at least 75 years

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Beniamino; Di Carlo, Stefano; Shahinas, Jorida; Mencio, Francesca; Fusco, Raimondo; Pompa, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Numerous factors help to conserve the dentition of elderly patients, such as healthy food habits, a strong physical constitution, and a good quality of life. The aim of this study was to define a model that takes into account the integration of both the structural and functional aspects of a healthy dentition. Twenty-three patients aged at least 75 years were recruited. The patients were required to possess all of their dentition and have no prosthetic rehabilitations and be asymptomatic for temporomandibular joint disorders. Occlusal characteristics were measured and recorded using the criteria adopted by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: presence or absence of rotation of the upper arches, trend of the occlusal table, and distribution of occlusal contacts during movements. We believe that the following parameters are predictive of a condition of the dental arches’ equilibrium: crowding and disalignment of the teeth, derotated position of the upper arches, absence of the curve of Spee, an occlusal plane trend contrary to spherical theory, and presence of group function on the working side and malocclusion on the nonworking side. We consider that these factors are merely the consequence of correct functioning within the framework of favorable environmental factors. PMID:22545185

  9. Minimum Purchasing Age for Alcohol and Traffic Crash Injuries Among 15- to 19-Year-Olds in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Kypri, Kypros; Voas, Robert B.; Langley, John D.; Stephenson, Shaun C.R.; Begg, Dorothy J.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Davie, Gabrielle S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. In 1999, New Zealand lowered the minimum purchasing age for alcohol from 20 to 18 years. We tested the hypothesis that this increased traffic crash injuries among 15- to 19-year-olds. Methods. Poisson regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios for the after to before incidence of alcohol-involved crashes and hospitalized injuries among 18- to 19-year-olds and 15- to 17-year-olds (20- to 24-year-olds were the reference). Results. Among young men, the ratio of the alcohol-involved crash rate after the law change to the period before was 12% larger (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00, 1.25) for 18- to 19-year-olds and 14% larger (95% CI=1.01, 1.30) for 15- to 17-year-olds, relative to 20- to 24-year-olds. Among young women, the equivalent ratios were 51% larger (95% CI=1.17, 1.94) for 18- to 19-year-olds and 24% larger (95% CI=0.96, 1.59) for 15- to 17-year-olds. A similar pattern was observed for hospitalized injuries. Conclusions. Significantly more alcohol-involved crashes occurred among 15-to 19-year-olds than would have occurred had the purchase age not been reduced to 18 years. The effect size for 18- to 19-year-olds is remarkable given the legal exceptions to the pre-1999 law and its poor enforcement. PMID:16317197

  10. Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina; Casas, Lidia; Wouters, Inge M; Doekes, Gert; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Gehring, Ulrike; Hyvärinen, Anne; Oldenwening, Marieke; Kerkhof, Marjan; Sunyer, Jordi; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Torrent, Maties; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n=553; INMA: n=481; and LISAplus: n=395), endotoxin, (1,3,)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments. PMID:25186271

  11. Response inhibition at 8 and 9 1/2 years of age in children prenatally exposed to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Paul; Reihman, Jacqueline; Gump, Brooks; Lonky, Edward; Darvill, Thomas; Pagano, James

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported a relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and impulsive (excessive) responding on a continuous performance task in children at 4 1/2 years of age [P.W. Stewart, S. Fitzgerald, J. Reihman, B. Gump, E. Lonky, T. Darvill, J. Pagano, P. Hauser, Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition, Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (13) (2003b) 1670-1677.]. The current study investigated the stability of this effect at 8 and 9 1/2 years of age. We tested the hypothesis that PCB-related impulsive responding might be a function of impaired response inhibition. Children (n=202) enrolled in the Oswego Children's Study were tested at 8 years of age using the NES2 Continuous Performance Test (CPT). This was followed by a series of Extended Continuous Performance Tests (E-CPT) at 9 1/2 years of age, designed to dissociate response inhibition from sustained attention. After taking into account more than 50 measured covariables, including maternal IQ, maternal sustained attention and maternal response inhibition, results revealed PCB-related associations with impulsive responding at both testing ages. At 8 years of age, prenatal PCB exposure was associated with increased impulsive responding on the CPT. At 9 1/2 years of age, E-CPT testing clearly indicated that the PCB-related impulsive responding was due to impaired response inhibition and not impaired sustained attention. These results were significant after extensive and rigorous control for multiple potential confounders, including several non-PCB contaminants (prenatal MeHg, DDE, HCB, and pre- and postnatal Pb). These data are consistent with, and in fact predicted by, several studies in PCB-exposed animals. PMID:16198536

  12. Archean Rocks in Antarctica: 2.5-Billion-Year Uranium-Lead Ages of Pegmatites in Enderby Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward S. Grew; William I. Manton

    1979-01-01

    Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-billion-year lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may

  13. Built Environment and 1Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Moore; Alan Acock; Naruepon Vongjaturapat

    2009-01-01

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard

  14. Lasting Effects of Preterm Birth and Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage at 12 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Ment, Laura R.; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Allan, Walter C.; R.Vohr, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To compare cognitive, language, behavioural and educational outcomes of preterm children to term controls, and to evaluate the impact of neonatal brain injury, indomethacin and environmental risk factors on intellectual function at 12 years. Methods 375 children born in 1989?1992 with birth weight 600?1250g enrolled in the Indomethacin Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) Prevention Trial and 111 term controls were evaluated at 12 years of age. Neuropsychometric testing, neurological exam, and interviews on educational needs were completed. Severe brain injury was defined as the presence of grade 3?4 IVH, periventricular leukomalacia or severe ventriculomegaly on cranial ultrasound. Results On the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence for Children, the preterm cohort obtained a mean full scale IQ of 87.9 ± 18.3, verbal IQ of 90.8 ± 18.9, and performance IQ of 86.8 ±17.9. Preterm children obtained scores 6?14 points lower than term controls on all psychometric tests after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. On the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (test of basic language skills), 22?24% of preterm children scored in the abnormal ranges (<70) as opposed to 2?4% of controls. Preterm children with and without brain injury required more school services (76% and 44% vs. 16%), and support in reading (44% and 28% vs. 9%), writing (44% and 20% vs. 4%), and mathematics (47% and 30% vs. 6%) compared to controls. Preterm children also displayed more behaviour problems than their term counterparts. Severe neonatal brain injury was the strongest predictor of poor intelligence (mean difference ?22.1; CI ?28.1, ?16.2). Antenatal steroids, higher maternal education, and 2-parent family were associated with better cognition, whereas minority status incurred a disadvantage. Indomethacin did not affect intellectual function among preterm children. Conclusion Preterm children born in the early 1990s, especially those with severe brain injury, demonstrate serious deficits in their neuropsychological profile, which translates into increased use of school services at 12 years. PMID:19255037

  15. Mechanism for quenching of the luminescence of 9,10-anthraquinone vapor by oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudko, E. V.; Kalosha, I. I.; Tolkachev, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescence of 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-aminoanthraquinone, 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone, and 1,5-diaminoanthraquinone is not quenched by oxygen because the singlet-triplet energy difference in these compounds is less than the energy needed for excitation of the triplet state of oxygen to the singlet state. Luminescence of 9,10-anthraquinone is quenched because it is mainly phosphorescence, for which the singlet-triplet difference is sufficient for quenching by a mechanism involving singlet oxygen formation. The weak fluorescence of 9,10-anthraquinone is not quenched. The resistance of the fluorescence of 9,10-anthraquinone vapor to quenching by oxygen and the quenching of its phosphorescence explain the different effects of oxygen on the luminescence of ?-substituted and ?-substituted anthraquinones known from the literature, and indicate that their singlet excited state cannot convert triplet oxygen to singlet oxygen.

  16. Prediction of body composition in elderly men over 75 years of age.

    PubMed

    Fuller, N J; Sawyer, M B; Laskey, M A; Paxton, P; Elia, M

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive number of body composition predictions (involving weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and near-infrared interactance-NIRI) were evaluated against total body water (TBW from isotope dilution), in 23 randomly selected men over 75 years old, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in 15 volunteers from this group. Comparisons were made between anthropometric and impedance methods for estimating limb muscle mass (obtained using DXA). Bias and 95% limits of agreement between measured TBW and DXA estimates were -2.1 kg and 3.1 kg, respectively (for fat, 5.4% and 6.1% body weight). Agreement between TBW predictions and reference measurements was remarkably variable, irrespective of whether TBW was predicted from TBW-specific equations or indirectly from estimates of fat or fat-free mass: for predictions using anthropometry, bias ranged from -4.7 kg to 1.6 kg and 95% limits of agreement from bias +/- 3.8 kg to +/- 5.0 kg; using impedance, bias was -8.8 kg to 3.2 kg and 95% limits of agreement were bias +/- 3.6 kg to +/- 7.8 kg; corresponding values for NIRI were -5.3 kg and +/- 5.4 kg. Although some non-age-specific equations appeared valid, age-specific equations generally predicted TBW better. Limb muscle mass (DXA) was predicted better using the segmental impedance method, from indices of limb muscle area (r = 0.76; SEE = 1.9 kg) and volume (r = 0.86; SEE = 1.6 kg), than by anthropometry alone (r = 0.61 and 0.71; SEE = 2.3 kg and 2.1 kg, respectively). In conclusion, some body composition predictions are unacceptable (at least for TBW) in older men, and care is recommended when selecting from these methods or equations. Also, the segmental impedance method is as good as, if not better than, anthropometry alone in predicting limb muscle mass (DXA) in older men. PMID:8702212

  17. The validity of continuing developmental follow-up of high-risk infants to age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Blackman, J A; Lindgren, S D; Bretthauer, J

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine whether performance on developmental tests at age 5 years could predict academic achievement at age 8 years. As part of a longitudinal developmental surveillance project, 179 children at risk due to perinatal complications who had passed developmental screening through age 2 1/2 years and 50 comparison children underwent an extensive prekindergarten psychoeducational test battery at age 5 years and took the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills at age 8 years, if they had reached the third grade. The mean Iowa Tests of Basic Skills score was significantly lower for those children who were "flagged" on the prekindergarten psychoeducational test battery (t = 5.39). Preacademic, rather than developmental, items appeared to be the best predictors. However, the prekindergarten psychoeducational test battery correctly predicted low achievement or grade retention in only 58% of cases. Its sensitivity was 0.45 and its specificity was 0.85. No significant difference was noted between group Iowa Tests of Basic Skills mean scores for the high-risk or comparison group. When low achievement and failure to reach the third grade were combined, prevalence of "failure" was higher for the high-risk group (31% vs 24%). The only perinatal variable predictive of low achievement was neonatal seizures. In summary, because the ability to predict future academic achievement at age 5 years is limited, routine developmental testing for symptom-free preschool children is not warranted. High-risk infant follow-up programs should focus on the first several years of life. PMID:1371037

  18. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation among Boys and Men Assessed Annually from Ages 9 to 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 206 boys (90% Caucasian), self-reported suicidal ideation (SI; ages 12 to 29) and parent-reported youth suicidal talk (ages 9 to 20) were assessed annually by questionnaire. One-week point prevalence of self-reported SI ranged from 2.6% to 16.3%. New cases emerged across adolescence; by age 29, 57.3% self-reported SI at least once.…

  19. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 width of binding site (k)

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 width of binding site (k) log10 (numberofspots) Spotted Array (~22,000 spots) Agilent 44K Array (~44,000 spots) Agilent 244K Array (~244,000 spots) NimbleGen Array (~786,000 spots) Supplementary Figure 8 Width (k) deBruijn (hairpin) deBruijn (primer ext.) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16

  20. Immune response to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in a cohort of children from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, P M; Mathiot, J; Ipero, J; Kirimat, M; Georges, A J; Georges-Courbot, M C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort of 111 children from Bangui, Central African Republic, was surveyed for enteric Campylobacter infections from birth to the age of 2 years; stools were examined biweekly in these children until 6 months of age and at least four times per year thereafter until 2 years of age and after each diarrheal episode. Blood samples were obtained at birth and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Antibodies against glycine-extracted membrane antigens, purified flagella, and cholera toxin (CT) were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that titers of antibody against the three tested antigens increased in children between 6 and 12 months of age and that nearly all children were immunized by the age of 2 years. A significant fall in anti-flagellum (P less than 0.001) and anti-glycine extract antibodies (P less than 0.001) occurred between birth and age 3 months, and children who had Campylobacter infections during the first 6 months of life had significantly (P less than 0.02) less anti-flagellum antibodies at birth than did those who did not have Campylobacter infections during that time. Three-month-interval stratification showed that CT antibody titers at birth were significantly lower in children who developed Campylobacter infection than in controls (P = 0.05). Comparison of the immune response to a single Campylobacter episode showed that 46.6% of children with asymptomatic carriage did not respond to CT while only 5% of children with diarrhea-producing infection did not respond to CT (P less than 0.01), compared with 30% (P = 0.065) and 56% (P less than 0.01), respectively, of the age-matched controls. Antibodies to flagella seem to protect against enteric colonization by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. PMID:2744860

  1. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  2. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  3. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  4. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3...minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...required to attend for at least one day or partial day...youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated...during play; providing ice, drinks,...

  5. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3...minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...required to attend for at least one day or partial day...youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated...during play; providing ice, drinks,...

  6. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3...minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...required to attend for at least one day or partial day...youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated...during play; providing ice, drinks,...

  7. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3...minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...required to attend for at least one day or partial day...youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated...during play; providing ice, drinks,...

  8. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...14 and 15 years of age who are employed...during play; providing ice, drinks...14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards...required to attend for at least one day or partial...14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has...during play; providing ice,...

  9. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  10. Lifestyle at 3 years of age and quality of life (QOL) in first-year junior high school students in Japan: results of the Toyama Birth Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbing Wang; Michikazu Sekine; Xiaoli Chen; Takashi Yamagami; Sadanobu Kagamimori

    2008-01-01

    Objective  The aim of this study was to determine whether some effects of childhood lifestyles at 3 years of age are associated with\\u000a quality of life (QOL) in first-year junior high school students (JHSS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Lifestyles including sleep, physical activity and dietary habits of 9,674 3-year-old children were obtained by questionnaire\\u000a between 1992 and 1994. Assessments were undertaken with the Dartmouth Primary

  11. 573?Prevalence of Allergen Sensitization in Children with Atopy Suspicion between Six Months and Five Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marinovic, Maria Angelica; Rojas, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically we have been taught that the skin prick test (SPT) must be performed over 4 years of age mainly because of the lack of sensibility the test has on younger children, now a days the utility of the SPT in younger children with atopic history is controversial and it would help make an early diagnosis. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of allergen sensitization in children between 0 and 5 years of age that have atopic history. We also describe the sensitization percentages to the most relevant allergens according to age group. Methods SPT performed between January 2006 and July 2010 at the Respiratory and Allergy Department of Clínica Santa Maria to children with atopic story were analyzed. A standard base of 21 allergens from LETI laboratory was used. Results Seven hundred and fifty two children with SPT were studied; they were divided into 2 groups. Group A corresponding to children between 6 and 24 months of age, group B corresponding to children between 25 months and 5 years of age. In group A 76 SPT and group B 676 SPT were performed. The total number of SPT positive to 1 or more allergens was 46.4%. (Group A: 6.4%, group B 40%). The most prevalent allergens according to age were: group A: grass 16%, egg 16%, cat dander 10% and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinsus and farinae) 10%. Group B: grass 15%, house dust mite 13.6%, fungal allergens (Aspergillus an Alternaria) 11.4%, trees 9% and cat dander 6.6%. Conclusions A high sensitization percentage to grass and egg is seen under 24 months of age. Egg sensitization diminishes significantly over 2 years of age, on the other hand house dust mite and fungal sensitization increases with age which could be explained by a longer exposure time in genetically predisposed children. Forty-six percent of the children are sensitized to 1 or more allergens which make us question the classical indication that SPT will be done over 4 years of age. When high suspicion of atopic history, a SPT should be performed independently of patient age.

  12. Efficacy of amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil ± hydrochlorothiazide in patients aged ? 65 or < 65 years with uncontrolled hypertension on prior monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Weir, Matthew R; Shojaee, Ali; Maa, Jen-Fue

    2013-03-01

    Our subanalysis evaluated the efficacy of an amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (AML/OM)-based titration regimen to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals among patients aged ? 65 years. In this dose-titration study, 999 patients (228 of whom were aged ? 65 years) with uncontrolled BP after ? 1 month of monotherapy were switched to fixed-dose AML/OM 5/20 mg and uptitrated every 4 weeks to AML/OM 5/40 and 10/40 mg to achieve BP < 120/70 mm Hg. Patients were subsequently uptitrated every 4 weeks to AML/OM 10/40 mg + hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg and AML/OM 10/40 mg + HCTZ 25 mg to achieve BP < 125/75 mm Hg. The primary efficacy endpoint (ie, the cumulative percentage of patients achieving the seated cuff systolic BP goal of < 140 mm Hg [or < 130 mm Hg for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus] during first 12 weeks of treatment) was achieved by 76.7% and 75.6% of patients aged ? 65 (ie, 65-80) years and < 65 (ie, 18-64) years, respectively. For patients aged ? 65 and < 65 years, mean seated cuff BP changes from baseline during the titration periods ranged from -14.5/-7.8 mm Hg and -14.1/-7.7 mm Hg, respectively, for AML/OM 5/20 mg, to -28.5/-12.4 and -24.5/-14.0 mm Hg for AML/OM 10/40 mg + HCTZ 25 mg (all P < 0.0001). By week 20, the cumulative BP threshold of < 140/90 mm Hg was achieved by 86.8% and 84.2% of patients aged ? 65 and < 65 years, respectively. Among patients aged ? 65 years who underwent ambulatory BP monitoring, mean 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ambulatory BP all decreased from baseline at weeks 12 and 20 (all P < 0.0001). At weeks 12 and 20, the mean 24-hour American Heart Association-recommended ambulatory BP target of < 130/80 mm Hg was achieved in 80.4% and 97.4% of patients aged ? 65 years, respectively, and in 71.3% and 88.8% of patients aged < 65 years, respectively. The majority of adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events determined by clinical laboratory evaluation was low. The incidence of drug-related hypotension and orthostatic hypotension in patients aged ? 65 years was 2.2% and 0.0%, respectively, and in patients aged < 65 years, was 2.3% and 0.3%, respectively. Fixed-dose AML/OM ± HCTZ combination therapy effectively lowered BP and achieved BP goals in patients aged ? 65 and < 65 years with hypertension previously uncontrolled on monotherapy. The treatment regimen was well tolerated irrespective of patient age. PMID:23816778

  13. Clinical significance of late gadolinium enhancement in patients<20 years of age with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brandon M; Dorfman, Adam L; Yu, Sunkyung; Russell, Mark W; Agarwal, Prachi P; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Lu, Jimmy C

    2014-04-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is associated with adverse events in adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). However, limited data exist on the extent and clinical significance of LGE in the pediatric population. In 30 patients (aged 14.1±3.2 years) with clinically diagnosed HC who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging from 2007 to 2012, segments with hypertrophy and LGE were identified by 2 experienced readers blinded to outcome. Radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strains were evaluated using feature tracking software. The composite outcome was defined as cardiac death, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge. LGE was present in 17 of 30 patients (57%), all in a midmyocardial pattern, with median 3 segments per patient (interquartile range [IQR] 2 to 5). No LGE was detected in patients without phenotypic hypertrophy. Segments with LGE had decreased radial (basal segments 20.7% vs 70.9%, p=0.01), circumferential (basal segments -23.2% vs -29.3%, p=0.04), and longitudinal strains (basal segments -13.8% vs -20.9%, p=0.04). After median follow-up of 26.9 months (IQR 7.5 to 34.3), 7 patients who had an adverse outcome (5 ventricular tachycardia, 1 appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge, and 1 death) had more segments of LGE (median 4, IQR 2 to 7 vs 0, IQR 0 to 2, p=0.01). One patient without LGE had ventricular tachycardia on exercise test. In conclusion, LGE occurs in a similar pattern in pediatric patients with HC as in adults, associated with hypertrophy, decreased myocardial strain, and adverse clinical outcomes. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the rate of development of LGE and relation to outcomes in a larger cohort. PMID:24513464

  14. Diet and organochlorine contaminants in women of reproductive age under 40 years old.

    PubMed

    Campoy, C; Olea-Serrano, F; Jiménez, M; Bayés, R; Cañabate, F; Rosales, M J; Blanca, E; Olea, N

    2001-11-01

    The diet of the breast-feeding mother impacts on the quality and quantity of the milk that she feeds her child. Milk can be a vehicle for toxins, such as drugs and their metabolites, viruses, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, and organochlorine molecules such as PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH and dioxins, which can harm the health of the breast-feeding child. The 24-h recall diet was considered appropriate to adequately study the diet of breast-feeding mothers and was used in the present preliminary study to establish the possible relationship between the food items consumed and the presence of pesticides in her milk. Two groups of randomly selected healthy breast-feeding volunteers aged between 17 and 35 years from two different areas were recruited: 34 from intensive agriculture zone, El Ejido (Almeria), from the "Hospital de Poniente" and 21 urban zone, the city of Granada, from the "Clinico" University Hospital. Application of the Spearman Correlation Test to the results from Almeria showed a certain positive correlation between the total intake of fats and both the p,p'DDD (rho=0.53, p< or =0.05) and methoxychlor (rho=0.48, p< or =0.05) in mature milk, and between the energy supplied by vegetables and the endosulfan-lactone in mature milk (rho=0.50, p< or =0.05). Among the group of breast-feeding women from Granada, there was a strong correlation between the intake of fats and both the p,p'DDT in transition milk (rho=0.90, p< or =0.05) and the p,p'DDD in mature milk (rho=0.90, p< or =0.05). In conclusion, there is a statistically significant relationship between the consumption of fatty foods and some organochlorine molecules and between the consumption of vegetables and pesticides, and the latter relationship occurs in Almeria but not in Granada. PMID:11755049

  15. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  16. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  17. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments. PMID:25043255

  18. High-resolution 1000-year sediment records from the North Iceland shelf: temperature reconstructions and marine reservoir ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, K. L.; Eiríksson, J.; Bartels-Jónsdóttir, H. B.; Jiang, H.; Heinemeier, J.; Larsen, G.

    2009-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic and climatic high-resolution archives for the last millennium are preserved in several sedimentary basins on the North Icelandic shelf. The present position of the oceanographic Polar Front across the North Icelandic shelf separates Polar and Arctic surface waters of the East Greenland and East Icelandic currents from branches of the North Atlantic Current. The sedimentary and fossil record, which is extremely sensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes in a boundary region like that, has shown that the position of the Polar Front has been very dynamic through the last millennium. Our study is based on material from the IMAGES piston cores MD99-2275 and MD99-2273, located at 440 and 600 m water depths, respectively, combined with lead-dated multicores from the same sites off North Iceland. The mean sedimentation rate at the core sites is about 300 and 600 cm per 1000 years in respective cores. The presence of historically and terrestrially dated air-fall tephra markers from Icelandic volcanoes makes it possible to construct a reliable tephrochronological age model for the marine cores, minimizing the problem of variable marine radiocarbon reservoir ages. A 1000-year sea surface and bottom water temperature record has been reconstructed for each site based on stable isotopes, as well as on planktonic and benthic foraminiferal and diatom transfer function calculations. A comparison between our proxy results for the last 130 years with instrumental data from the North Icelandic shelf shows a strong connection between atmospheric and oceanic changes. For instance, there is a clear change in the faunal distribution and the reconstructed sea-surface temperature at around AD 1910-1920, a general cooling trend towards the top of the record, and a slight warming again in the 1990s. Instrumental data from the last 60 years are used for calibration of the 1000-year temperature record. A weakening of the North Atlantic Current and penetration of cold Polar and Arctic water masses and sea-ice to the North Icelandic shelf occurred during the Little Ice Age, which in our record is characterized by low reconstructed sea surface and bottom water temperatures. The Maunder Minimum (around AD 1700) appears to have been the coldest interval during the last millennium. Changes in the marine radiocarbon reservoir ages through time on the North Icelandic shelf appear to be related to the inflow of Polar waters to the area. This enables us to use the deviation in reservoir age as a palaeoceanographic tool for tracing changes in the position of the oceanographic Polar Front. The modern (pre-bomb) reservoir age of the coastal water masses off Iceland, which are dominated by the Atlantic Water of the Irminger Current, is generally assumed to be about 400 years, and this correction is conventionally applied to marine radiocarbon ages from Iceland. The modern reservoir age of the Polar Water of the East Greenland Current north of the Polar Front is relatively high, about 550 years, indicating that the recent, pre-bomb apparent age difference across the Polar Front is about 150 years. Age models developed for the shelf sediments north of Iceland, based on offshore tephrochronology on one hand and on calibrated AMS radiocarbon age determinations of marine molluscs on the other, display major deviations through the last 1000 years. The discrepancies between the two age models show that there was an average reservoir age of about 550 years, which is suggested to be related to a generally high, but fluctuating, inflow of Polar waters to the area through the last millennium.

  19. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = ?0.19; 95% confidence interval, ?0.29 to ?0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  20. Outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients age ?80 years: results from the National Cardiovascular Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen P Alexander; Kevin J Anstrom; Lawrence H Muhlbaier; Ralph D Grosswald; Peter K Smith; Robert H Jones; Eric D Peterson

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to evaluate characteristics and outcomes of patients age ?80 undergoing cardiac surgery.BACKGROUNDPrior single-institution series have found high mortality rates in octogenarians after cardiac surgery. However, the major preoperative risk factors in this age group have not been identified. In addition, the additive risks in the elderly of valve replacement surgery at the time of

  1. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - All Races

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2007 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  2. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  3. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2009 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  4. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  5. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2009 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  6. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2006 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  7. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2007 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  8. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - All Races

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  9. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - All Races

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2010 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  10. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2006 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  11. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2005 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  12. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2003 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  13. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  14. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - All Races

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2009 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  15. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2010 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  16. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2010 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 18 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  17. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2008 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  18. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2007 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  19. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - All Races

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2008 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  20. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2003 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  1. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2005 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  2. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2008 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  3. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Blacks

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  4. Growth at the Age of 4 Years Subsequent to Early Failure to Thrive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansson, Bengt; Fallstrom, Sven P.

    1987-01-01

    Followup at age 4 of 55 children, previously investigated for failure to thrive (FFT) at 4-18 months of age, indicated normal growth for most children with organic causes of FFT, but persisting suboptimal growth patterns for children with nonorganic FFT, particularly for those children with higher numbers of risk factors. (Author/DB)

  5. Relative strength as a determinant of mobility in elders 67–84 years of age. A nuage study: Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choquette; D. R. Bouchard; C. Y. Doyon; M. Sénéchal; M. Brochu; Isabelle J. Dionne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study proposes two relative strength indexes in order to evaluate the risks of lower mobility in healthy\\u000a older adults: 1) handgrip strength on body mass index and 2) quadriceps strength on body weight. Nine hundred and four men\\u000a and women aged between 67–84 years old were tested for body composition, muscle strength and mobility function. Individuals\\u000a in the

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). PMID:25230939

  7. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. (CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

    1992-10-29

    Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

  8. Associations of birth weight and postnatal weight gain with cardiometabolic risk parameters at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Garcia-Vicent, Consuelo; Torro, Maria Isabel; Aguilar, Francisco; Redon, Josep

    2014-06-01

    The present prospective study assessed the impact of birth weight (BW) and postnatal weight gain on blood pressure and metabolic profile during the first 5 years of life. One hundred thirty-nine newborns (63 women) born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies and in the absence of perinatal illness were included. Subjects were divided according to size at birth in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. After the initial evaluation on the second day of life, infants were followed up at 6 months and 2 and 5 years. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured at each visit and metabolic assessment was performed at 5 years of age. Among the BW groups, mothers did not differ in terms of age, smoking, and weight gain during pregnancy. BW was a positive determinant of systolic blood pressure at birth. Afterward, current weight was the strongest determinant, becoming significant at 2 years of age and progressively increasing in influence. At 5 years insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index and triglycerides were dependent on BW, current weight, and postnatal weight gain. In addition, BW was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and inversely so to uric acid. A positive relationship among insulin, blood pressure values, and uric acid was observed even early in life. In conclusion, the acceleration of early infant weight gain may aggravate the effects of low BW. Multiple interactions between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters foreshadow the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors later in life. PMID:24688125

  9. The Effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems for Children Aged 3 Years or Younger During Motor Vehicle Collisions: 1996 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effectiveness of child restraints in preventing death during motor vehicle collisions among children 3 years or younger. Methods. We conducted a matched cohort study using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 1996 to 2005. We estimated death risk ratios using conditional Poisson regression, bootstrapping, multiple imputation, and a sensitivity analysis of misclassification bias. We examined possible effect modification by selected factors. Results. The estimated death risk ratios comparing child safety seats with no restraint were 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34) for infants, 0.24 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.30) for children aged 1 year, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.32, 0.51) for those aged 2 years, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.52) for those aged 3 years. Estimated safety seat effectiveness was greater during rollover collisions, in rural environments, and in light trucks. We estimated seat belts to be as effective as safety seats in preventing death for children aged 2 and 3 years. Conclusions. Child safety seats are highly effective in reducing the risk of death during severe traffic collisions and generally outperform seat belts. Parents should be encouraged to use child safety seats in favor of seat belts. PMID:19059860

  10. Investigation of mechanical properties of modern dental composites after artificial aging for one year.

    PubMed

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Henrich, Anne; Bürgers, Ralf; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the aging behavior of dental composites with regard to surface roughness (SR), Vickers hardness (VH) and flexural strength (FS), and the study elucidated the impact of artificial aging parameters. One hundred and sixty-five rectangular specimens were prepared from five composites (Filtek Supreme XT, Filtek Silorane, CeramX, Quixfil, experimental ormocer) and subjected to various artificial aging protocols (storage in distilled water/ethanol/artificial saliva for 7, 90 and 365 days; thermal cycling, 2 x 3000 cycles 5/55 degrees C). SR, VH and FS were determined at baseline and after each aging treatment. Means and standard deviations were calculated; statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test (alpha=.05). The results showed a significant influence in the composite and aging duration on mechanical parameters; the aging medium did not have a significant influence on VH and FS, but there was a significant influence on SR. The highest overall VH was found for theexperimental ormocer; Filtek Silorane yielded the lowest values. For FS, the significantly highest values were found for Filtek Silorane, and the lowest values were found for the experimental ormocer. Prolonged aging periods (90 or 365 days) or thermal cycling led to significant decreases in both VH and FS and significant increases in SR. The findings of the current study indicate that composites differ significantly for SR and its mechanical properties with regard to FS and VH, as well as in aging behavior. Generally, artificial aging leads to a significant decrease in mechanical properties, which underlines the relevance of continuous improvement of dental composites. PMID:20672725

  11. Longitudinal Study of Performance on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a cognitive test to measure executive function. Longitudinal studies have shown that repeated testing improves performance on the RFFT. Such a practice effect may hinder the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal performance on the RFFT in persons aged 35–82 years. Performance on the RFFT was measured three times over an average follow-up period of six years in 2,515 participants of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) study in Groningen, the Netherlands: 53% men; mean age (SD), 53 (10) years. The effect of consecutive measurements on performance on the RFFT was investigated with linear multilevel regression models that also included age, gender, educational level and the interaction term consecutive measurement number x age as independent variables. It was found that the mean (SD) number of unique designs on the RFFT increased from 73 (26) at the first measurement to 79 (27) at the second measurement and to 83 (26) at the third measurement (p<0.001). However, the increase per consecutive measurement number was negatively associated with age and decreased with 0.23 per one-year increment of age (p<0.001). The increase per consecutive measurement number was not dependent on educational level. Similar results were found for the median (IQR) number of perseverative errors which showed a small but statistically significant increase with repeating testing: 7 (3–13) at the first measurement, 7 (4–14) at the second measurement and 8 (4–15) at the third measurement (ptrend = 0.002). In conclusion, the performance on the RFFT improved by repeating the test over an average follow-up period of three to six years. This practice effect was the largest in young adults and not dependent on educational level. PMID:25799403

  12. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 ?g/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 ?g/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 ?g/L) than in girls (61.9 ?g/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs?100 ?g/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (?100 ?g/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  13. Feasibility of overnight closed-loop therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes aged 3–6?years: comparison between diluted and standard insulin strength

    PubMed Central

    Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M; Tauschmann, Martin; El-Khairi, Ranna; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess feasibility of overnight closed-loop therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes and contrast closed loop using diluted versus standard insulin strength. Research design and methods Eleven children (male 6; age range 3.75–6.96?years; glycated hemoglobin 60 (14) mmol/mol; body mass index SD score 1.0 (0.8); diabetes duration 2.2 (1.0) years, mean (SD); total daily dose 12.9 (10.6, 16.5) IU/day, median (IQR)) were studied at a clinical research facility on two occasions. In random order, participants received closed loop with diluted insulin aspart (CL_Dil; 20?IU/mL) or closed loop with standard aspart (CL_Std; 100?IU/mL) from 17:00 until 8:00 the following morning. Children consumed an evening meal at 17:00 (44 (12) gCHO) and an optional bedtime snack (6 (7) gCHO) identical on both occasions. Meal insulin boluses were calculated by standard pump bolus calculators. Basal rates on insulin pump were adjusted every 15?min as directed by a model-predictive-control algorithm informed by a real-time glucose sensor values. Results Mean plasma glucose was 122 (24) mg/dL during CL_Dil vs 122 (23) mg/dL during CL_Std (p=0.993). The time spent in the target glucose range 70–145?mg/dL was 83 (70, 100)% vs 72 (54, 81)% (p=0.328). Time above 145?mg/dL was 13 (0, 27)% vs 19 (10, 45)% (p=0.477) and time spent below 70?mg/dL was 0.0 (0.0, 1.4)% vs 1.4 (0.0, 11.6)% (p=0.161). One asymptomatic hypoglycemia below 63?mg/dL occurred in one participant during CL_Dil versus six episodes in five participants during CL_Std (p=0.09). Glucose variability measured by CV of plasma glucose tended to be reduced during CL_Dil (20% (13, 31) vs 32% (24, 42), p=0.075). Conclusions In this feasibility study, closed-loop therapy maintained good overnight glucose control with tendency towards reduced hypoglycemia and reduced glucose variability using diluted insulin. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01557634. PMID:25512874

  14. A Complete Census of the Bright z~9-10 Galaxies in the CANDELS Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard

    2014-10-01

    At present, we have only limited information on the spectral properties, stellar masses, and luminosity function of galaxies at z~9-10. While the new Frontier Fields Initiative will significantly improve our knowledge of the prevalence of fainter sources at these epochs, no comparable HST programs exist to study the properties of the brighter z~9-10 galaxies. This is unfortunate given that the brighter z~9-10 candidates are more amenable to follow-up study with facilities such as Spitzer and ALMA and the existence of only 8 reasonably reliable bright candidates (only 3 visible to ALMA). Fortunately, we can rectify this situation by using the existing HST+Spitzer observations over the full CANDELS program to identify all plausible z~9-10 candidates in that data set, but which lack sufficiently deep 1-micron observations to be secure. Here we propose to follow up each of these candidates with WFC3/IR at 1-micron F105W to determine which are likely at z~9-10 and thereby almost certainly doubling the number of bright, reliable z~9-10 candidates known to ~17 galaxies. Our follow-up strategy is very efficient, e.g., >~10x more efficient as tiling the relevant CANDELS fields with 1-micron F105W data and ~40x more efficient as searches in fields with no pre-existing data. The large samples of bright z~9-10 galaxies we will select with our program will be used to solidify current conclusions about the evolution of the bright end of the UV luminosity function, to quantify evolution in the mean spectral properties and stellar masses of galaxies from z~10, and as targets for follow-up studies on dust emission from galaxies with ALMA.

  15. Molecular Interaction of ?-Conotoxin RgIA with the Rat ?9?10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Azam, Layla; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zouridakis, Marios; Giastas, Petros; Tzartos, Socrates J; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-05-01

    The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was first identified in the auditory system, where it mediates synaptic transmission between efferent olivocochlear cholinergic fibers and cochlea hair cells. This receptor gained further attention due to its potential role in chronic pain and breast and lung cancers. We previously showed that ?-conotoxin (?-CTx) RgIA, one of the few ?9?10 selective ligands identified to date, is 300-fold less potent on human versus rat ?9?10 nAChR. This species difference was conferred by only one residue in the (-), rather than (+), binding region of the ?9 subunit. In light of this unexpected discovery, we sought to determine other interacting residues with ?-CTx RgIA. A previous molecular modeling study, based on the structure of the homologous molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein, predicted that RgIA interacts with three residues on the ?9(+) face and two residues on the ?10(-) face of the ?9?10 nAChR. However, mutations of these residues had little or no effect on toxin block of the ?9?10 nAChR. In contrast, mutations of homologous residues in the opposing nAChR subunits (?10 ?197, P200 and ?9 T61, D121) resulted in 19- to 1700-fold loss of toxin activity. Based on the crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human ?9 nAChR, we modeled the rat ?9?10 ECD and its complexes with ?-CTx RgIA and acetylcholine. Our data support the interaction of ?-CTx RgIA at the ?10/?9 rather than the ?9/?10 nAChR subunit interface, and may facilitate the development of selective ligands with therapeutic potential. PMID:25740413

  16. Anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia in the age group 2 years and above: a prospective study of the results of treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Lithander, J; Sjöstrand, J

    1991-01-01

    Forty-four children aged 2-9 years with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia were prospectively followed up during amblyopia treatment. The efficacy of optimised treatment in terms of number of cured children, time to achieve cure, and rate of initial improvement of visual acuity was evaluated in relation to age at start of treatment, type and initial degree of amblyopia, and adherence to treatment regimen. Compliance with treatment was the most critical factor predicting a successful outcome. Among the compliant children 35 out of 36 were cured (visual acuity difference between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes not more than one line) within five months regardless of age, treatment regimen, and type or initial degree of amblyopia as compared with none in the group with low compliance. Most of these compliant children were cured within three months, with shorter treatment times on average for the younger children. The initial improvement of visual acuity was also faster at 2 years than at 4 years of age. Anisometropes with moderate amblyopia at the start of treatment were over-represented in the group with low compliance. We conclude that early diagnosis of strabismus in combination with general population screening at the age of 4 to detect amblyopia caused by anisometropia or microstrabismus seems to be efficacious for the cure of most cases. The major factor in treatment failure was found to be inadequate adherence to the treatment regimen. Images PMID:1995038

  17. Age-Related Differences in Neural Correlates of Face Recognition During the Toddler and Preschool Years

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Geraldine; Panagiotides, Heracles; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; McPartland, James; Gray, Jonathan; Munson, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Research on the development of face recognition in infancy has shown that infants respond to faces as if they are special and recognize familiar faces early in development. Infants also show recognition and differential attachment to familiar people very early in development. We tested the hypothesis that infants’ responses to familiar and unfamiliar faces differ at different ages. Specifically, we present data showing age-related changes in infants’ brain responses to mother’s face versus a stranger’s face in children between 18 and 54 months of age. We propose that these changes are based on age-related differences in the perceived salience of the face of the primary caregiver versus strangers. PMID:12555279

  18. The Effect of the 18-Year Old Drinking Age on Auto Accidents

    E-print Network

    Cucchiaro, Stephen

    The effect of Massachusetts' reduced drinking age on auto accidents is examined by employing an interrupted time series analysis of monthly accident data covering the period January, 1969, through September 1973. The data ...

  19. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  20. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  1. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  2. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT

  3. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  4. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  5. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull S Feather NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  6. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull BANDER'S INITIALS CODE BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR

  7. Clinical Experience With Open-Label Topiramate Use in Infants Younger Than 2 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Watemberg; Hadassah Goldberg-Stern; Bruria Ben-Zeev; Itai Berger; Rachel Straussberg; Sara Kivity; Uri Kramer; Nathan Brand; Tally Lerman-Sagie

    2003-01-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topiramate in infants younger than 24 months of age, we conducted an open-label, multicenter chart review study of infants who received topiramate. Twenty-eight patients were evaluated. All had refractory epilepsy. The mean age of seizure onset was 3.8 months (range 0—10 months). Refractory infantile spasms were the most common epilepsy syndrome. Among

  8. TEACHING ABOUT AGING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: A ONE?YEAR FOLLOW?UP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Corbin; Cherie Barg

    1989-01-01

    This study followed up on a 7?day, 5th?grade intergenerational project on aging. The “Age Doesn't Matter” (ADM) project was interdisciplinary; incorporating dance, health education, history, art, and poetry to teach about growing older. Older adults came to the school to interact with the students and the students also went on field trips to a nursing home and a retirement hotel.

  9. Cobalamin Status and Its Biochemical Markers Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine in Different Age Groups from 4 Days to 19 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Lise Bjørke Monsen; Helga Refsum; Trond Markestad; Per Magne Ueland

    2003-01-01

    Background: Recent data indicate that cobalamin and folate status, including the metabolic markers methyl- malonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy), undergo marked changes during childhood, particularly during the first year. Methods: Serum cobalamin, serum and whole-blood folate, and plasma MMA and tHcy were determined in a cross-sectional study of 700 children, ages 4 days to 19 years. Results: During

  10. Parental smoking and the nutrient intake and food choice of British teenagers aged 16-17 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H F Crawley; D While

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between parental smoking habits and the nutrient intake and food choice of teenagers aged 16-17 years, allowing for differences in teenage smoking and the social class and regional distribution of the participants. DESIGN: Data were collected from the 1970 longitudinal birth cohort, cross-sectionally at 16-17 years. The smoking habits of teenagers were evaluated from

  11. Study of mini-mental state exam evolution in community-dwelling subjects aged over 60 years without dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Watfa; N. Husson; S. Buatois; M. C. Laurain; P. Miget; Athanase Benetos

    Objective  \\u000a In recent years, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used and has been proposed for cognitive decline\\u000a screening in the framework of a systematic geriatric evaluation in health centers. The aim of the present longitudinal study\\u000a was to identify the potential determinants of MMSE score and its evolution over a 4-year period in a population aged over

  12. Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D Matte; Michaeline Bresnahan; Melissa D Begg; Ezra Susser

    2001-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings.Design: Cohort study of siblings of the same sex.Setting: 12 cities in the United States.Subjects: 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was

  13. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA is associated with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Standl, M; Demmelmair, H; Koletzko, B; Heinrich, J

    2015-05-01

    An elevated ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain (LC-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be a potential risk factor for obesity development. N-3 LC-PUFA are thought to alter adiponectin concentrations, and thus may have a beneficial effect on weight development. We analysed the association between n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations in cord blood and adiponectin concentrations at 10 years. Fatty acid composition was measured in cord blood and at 10 years of age by gas chromatography, and adiponectin concentrations were measured only at 10 years of age in 237 children from the Munich LISAplus birth cohort study. Linear regression models assessed associations between n-3 LC-PUFA, n-6 LC-PUFA and the n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. LC-PUFA were presented as percentages and categorized into tertiles. Regression models were adjusted for LC-PUFA percentages at 10 years of age and other potential confounding factors. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA tertiles were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in an inverse J-shaped relationship [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: Beta=1.84 (SE=0.65), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: 1.02 (0.68), p-value<0.01 (ANOVA)]. Further, cord blood n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: 0.14 (0.67), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: -1.37 (0.68), p-value=0.03 (ANOVA)]. The cord blood n-6 LC-PUFA tertiles were not associated with adiponectin concentrations. Our results suggest that a higher n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood are associated with higher adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. PMID:25773861

  14. Early educational and health enrichment at age 3-5 years is associated with increased autonomic and central nervous system arousal and orienting at age 11 years: evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project.

    PubMed

    Raine, A; Venables, P H; Dalais, C; Mellingen, K; Reynolds, C; Mednick, S A

    2001-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of environmental enrichment on psychophysiological measures of arousal and orienting in humans. This study tests the hypothesis that early educational and health enrichment is associated with long-term increases in psychophysiological orienting and arousal. One hundred children were experimentally assigned to a two-year enriched nursery school intervention at ages 3-5 years and matched at age 3 years on psychophysiological measures, gender, and ethnicity to 100 comparisons who received the normal educational experience. Children were retested 6-8 years later at age 11 years on skin conductance (SC) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of arousal and attention during pre- and postexperimental rest periods and during the continuous performance task. Nursery enrichment was associated with increased SC amplitudes, faster SC rise times, faster SC recovery times, and less slow-wave EEG during both rest and CPT conditions. This is believed to be the first study to show that early environmental enrichment is associated with long-term increases in psychophysiological orienting and arousal in humans. Results draw attention to the important influence of the early environment in shaping later psychophysiological functioning. PMID:11347871

  15. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring temperament and behavior at 1 and 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Schmidt, Louis A; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H

    2013-06-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and: (1) temperament at 1 year of age, and (2) Child Behavior Checklist internalizing and externalizing scales at age 2 in the 2900 mothers and infants enrolled in the Western Australian Pregnancy Study. Pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with externalizing scores (? = 0.131, 95 % CI 0.013-0.249) at age 2, even after adjustment for confounders, but not with internalizing scores or an increased risk of difficult temperament. These data suggest that fetal exposure to increased maternal BMI is associated with elevated levels of behavior problems as early as age 2, and that this may be linked to the intrauterine environment. PMID:22983494

  16. Siblings, theory of mind, and executive functioning in children aged 3-6 years: new longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Anna R; Peterson, Candida C

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children agedyears 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling influences suggests that benefits-in terms of advanced ToM development-accrue to children with siblings versus without, and to those with a larger number of child-aged siblings. Any advance in either area (ToM or EF) is likely to benefit the other, and early sibling interaction appears to act as a catalyst. PMID:23848417

  17. Sensorimotor and psychosocial determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Guralnik, Jack; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to identify sensorimotor and psychosocial determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability. Design: prospective. Setting: population-based sample of community-dwelling older persons. Participants: community-living middle-aged and older persons (age: 50–85 years) without baseline mobility disability (n = 622). Measurements: mobility disability, defined as self-reported inability to walk a quarter mile without resting or inability to walk up a flight of stairs unsupported, was ascertained at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Potential baseline determinant characteristics included demographics, education, social support, financial condition, knee extensor strength, visual contrast sensitivity, cognition, depression, presence of chronic conditions and history of falls. Results: a total of 13.5% participant reported 3-year incident mobility disability. Age ?75 years, female sex, knee extensor strength in the lowest quartile, visual contrast sensitivity <1.7 on the Pelli-Robson chart or significant depressive symptoms (CESD score >16) were independent determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability (ORs 1.84–16.51). Conclusions: low visual contrast sensitivity, poor knee extensor strength and significant depressive symptoms are independent determinants of future onset of mobility disability. PMID:24042004

  18. Serial 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans after urinary infections presenting before the age of 5 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I G Verber; S T Meller

    1989-01-01

    Forty five children presenting with a first proven urinary tract infection under the age of 5 years were studied by sequential 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans. Forty nine kidneys in 40 children had definite defects at presentation, and 39 (80%) of these defects were still present when the DMSA scan was repeated. Changes in the appearance of defects were independent

  19. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  20. Surgical treatment of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients 40 years of age or younger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Hcwkins; William D Morin; Peter M Bonutti

    1999-01-01

    Full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff are uncommon in the first 4 decades of life. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 19 consecutive patients who were 40 years of age or younger and had been treated surgically for a full-thickness tear of the rotator cuff. Sixteen patients (84%) recalled an acute injury that heralded the onset of symptoms. Five of