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1

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age (years)  

E-print Network

and children from the Dallas, Texas region. Across age and gender classes, we find a systematic relationship bars show standard errors across talkers. Assmann, P.F., Nearey T.M. & Bharadwaj, S. (2008). Analysis

O'Toole, Alice J.

2

Literacy in Malta: The National Literacy Survey of Year 5 Pupils (Aged 9-10)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work reported here is based on the second Malta National Literacy Survey, carried out in March 2002. All Year 5 pupils in Malta were involved and their literacy attainment in both Maltese and English was tested. Two parallel multi-level analyses were carried out, one for Maltese, the other for English. The background variables were; gender,…

Mifsud, Charles; Grech, Rowena; Hutchison, Dougal; Morrison, Jo

2005-01-01

3

Breakfast consumption and daily physical activity in 9-10 year old British children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between breakfast consumption and physical activity in a well-characterised sample of English children. Design Cross sectional study using food diaries to record breakfast consumption and accelerometery to assess physical activity. Setting Norfolk county, England. Subjects 1697 children aged 9-10yrs from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. Results Boys who consumed a poor quality breakfast based on dairy product, cereal and fruit intakes, spent approximately 7 minutes more time in moderate to vigorous (MVPA) during weekday afternoons and evenings compared to those who did not consume breakfast (p<0.05). On weekend days, boys who consumed a poor or good quality breakfast spent approximately 6 and 5 minutes respectively less time sedentary during the mornings compared to non-breakfast consumers (p<0.05). Boys who consumed a good quality breakfast spent almost 3 minutes more in MVPA during the morning on weekend days compared to non-consumers, and boys who consumed a poor or good quality breakfast were 22% and 16% more active overall respectively than non-breakfast consumers (p<0.05). During the rest of the day, boys who consumed a good quality breakfast spent around 11 minutes less time sedentary (p<0.05) and 7 minutes more time in MVPA (p<0.01). Conclusion Although some associations between breakfast consumption and physical activity were detected for boys, this study does not provide strong evidence that failing to consume breakfast, or having a low energy intake at breakfast time, is detrimental to children’s physical activity levels. PMID:21899790

Vissers, Pauline.A.J; Jones, Andy. P; Corder, Kirsten; Jennings, Amy; van Sluijs, Esther. M. F; Welch, Ailsa; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon

2013-01-01

4

Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIage, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

5

Reducing depression in 9-10 year old children in low SES schools: a longitudinal universal randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOP-PTS) is an innovative curriculum-based mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. The program is aimed at preventing depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in middle primary school children aged 9-10 years. Students from 22 low SES primary schools (N = 910) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline, post-test, 6 months and 18 months. The intervention group received the program implemented by teachers and the control group received their regular Health Education curriculum. Students completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, and attribution style. At risk students were further assessed with the computerised Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Parents reported on their children's externalising and internalising problems at home. Children in the intervention condition reported a significant pre-post reduction in depressive symptoms, and there was a significant pre-post reduction in parent-reported emotional difficulties which was maintained at 6 month follow-up; no changes were evident in the control group. Both groups showed significant improvements in child-reported anxiety and attribution style, and significant improvements in parent-reported pro-social behaviours. For both groups, there were no significant post-baseline changes in incidence and recovery rates for depression, anxiety, or internalising symptoms. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has the potential to treat depressive symptomatology in the immediate term but the effects were not sustained. There is also evidence of improved emotional resilience up to 6 months following the program. Further follow-up to investigate longer term effects is needed. PMID:24185214

Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare M; Nesa, Monique

2013-12-01

6

Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius  

E-print Network

digital scales (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Both height and weight measurements wereperformed while children were lightly dressed and with- out shoes. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Age... children. Nearly one-fifth of the children in this sample were overweight, 5.0% were obese, and 12.7% of children were thin. Prevalence of overweight and/or obesity did notdemic performance, with a trend of increasing levels of BMI in schools where a higher...

Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Siegel, Karen R; Richards, Nigel; Whincup, Peter H

2012-07-23

7

Association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old British White children  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To examine the association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9–10-year-old children. Study design A cross-sectional study using data from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study undertaken in Norfolk, UK. Methods Data from 4-day food diaries and 7 days of accelerometery were matched on concurrent days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent in sedentary behaviour and various measures of dietary intake were collected. Covariates included age, sex, weight status, family socio-economic status, and energy intake reporting quality. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for clustering of children by school and stratified by sex, were fitted to examine the associations between dietary measures and physical activity and sedentary outcomes. Results In total, 1317 children (584 boys and 733 girls) provided concurrent data. Boys in the highest quartile of energy percentage from protein spent approximately 6 min [95% confidence interval (CI) 0–12] less in MVPA compared with boys in the lowest quartile. Those in the highest quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake and fruit juice intake had respective average activity counts per minute that were 56 above (95% CI 8–105) and 48 below (95% CI 2–95) those in the lowest quartiles, whilst those in the highest quartile of fizzy drink consumption spent approximately 7 min (95% CI 2–13) more in MVPA and approximately 14 min (95% CI 5–24 min) less in sedentary behaviour. Boys in the highest quartile of savoury snack consumption spent approximately 8 min (95% CI 2–13 min) more in MVPA per day, and approximately 12 min (95% CI 2–23) less in sedentary behaviour. No significant associations were apparent among girls. Conclusions Few associations were detected, and the directions of those that were apparent were mainly counterintuitive. The extent to which this reflects a true lack of association or is associated with the measurement methods used for diet and physical activity needs further investigation. PMID:23332733

Vissers, P.A.J.; Jones, A.P.; van Sluijs, E.M.F.; Jennings, A.; Welch, A.; Cassidy, A.; Griffin, S.J.

2013-01-01

8

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Frontal EEG Asymmetry and Alpha Power in 9-10 Year Old Twins  

PubMed Central

Modest genetic influences on frontal EEG asymmetry have been found in adults, but little is known about its genetic origins in children. Resting frontal asymmetry and alpha power were examined in 951 9–10-year-old twins. Results showed that in both males and females: (1) a modest but significant amount of variance in frontal asymmetry was accounted for by genetic factors (11–27%) with the remainder accounted for by non-shared environmental influences, and (2) alpha power were highly heritable, with 70–85% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Results suggest that the genetic architecture of frontal asymmetry and alpha power in late childhood are similar to that in adulthood and that the high non-shared environmental influences on frontal asymmetry may reflect environmentally-influenced individual differences in the maturation of frontal cortex as well as state-dependent influences on specific measurements. PMID:19386046

Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora I.; Baker, Laura A.

2008-01-01

9

Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9-10 year old children in Liverpool, UK  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the common childhood phenomenon of growing up with pets. PMID:23668544

2013-01-01

10

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION 2year FALL SEMESTER 2013 Room A-32 SA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  

E-print Network

see PMP Courses to be chosen by the student: Intercultural Communication 3 NN see PMP eCORPORATE COMMUNICATION 2year FALL SEMESTER 2013 Room A-32 SA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Corporate Communication Research 6 Schulz Public Affairs 3 Seele Internal Communication 3 Vercic

Krause, Rolf

11

Prevention of internalizing disorders in 9-10 year old children: efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up  

PubMed Central

The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9–10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776

Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent

2013-01-01

12

Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to a 10-week school-based football intervention for 9-10-year-old children.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the cardiac effects of a 10-week football training intervention for school children aged 9-10 years using comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography as a part of a larger ongoing study. A total of 97 pupils from four school classes were cluster-randomized into a control group that maintained their usual activities (CON; two classes, n = 51, 21 boys and 30 girls) and a football training group that performed an additional 3 × 40 min of small-sided football training per week (FT; two classes, n = 46, 23 boys and 23 girls). No baseline differences were observed in age, body composition, or echocardiographic variables between FT and CON. After the 10-week intervention, left ventricular posterior wall diameter was increased in FT compared with CON [0.4 ± 0.7 vs -0.1 ± 0.6 (± SD) mm; P < 0.01] as was the interventricular septum thickness (0.2 ± 0.7 vs -0.2 ± 0.8 mm; P < 0.001). Global isovolumetric relaxation time increased more in FT than in CON (3.8 ± 10.4 vs -0.9 ± 6.6 ms, P < 0.05) while the change in ventricular systolic ejection fraction tended to be higher (1.4 ± 8.0 vs -1.1 ± 5.5%; P = 0.08). No changes were observed in resting heart rate or blood pressure. In conclusion, a short-term, school-based intervention comprising small-sided football sessions resulted in significant structural and functional cardiac adaptations in pre-adolescent children. PMID:24944128

Krustrup, P; Hansen, P R; Nielsen, C M; Larsen, M N; Randers, M B; Manniche, V; Hansen, L; Dvorak, J; Bangsbo, J

2014-08-01

13

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

14

Infant feeding method and obesity: body mass index and dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements at 9-10 y of age from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies reported inconsistent associations between breastfeeding and body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). As- sociations with body fatness are unknown. Objective: We investigated the association of breastfeeding with fatness measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Design:Theprospectivecohortstudyinvolved4325singletonswith measurements at 9-10 y of age to assess the main outcomes of BMI and total and trunk fat masses. Results: Prevalence of any

André M Toschke; Richard M Martin; Rudiger von Kries; Jonathan Wells; George Davey Smith; Andrew R Ness

15

Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2011-01-01

16

Teenagers (15-17 years of age)  

MedlinePLUS

... Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Teenagers (15-17 years of age) Language: English Español (Spanish) Share ... or wrong. Positive Parenting Tip Sheet Teens (15-17 years of age) [PDF - 587 KB] Positive Parenting ...

17

Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

2012-01-01

18

Contraception at age 35 years and older.  

PubMed

About 85% of all births in the US occur to women under 35 years of age. According to the US National Survey of Family Growth, women aged 35-39 years expect to have an additional 0.3 births while those 40-44 years anticipate only 0.1 additional births. Thus, there is a need to protect women age 35 years and over from unwanted pregnancy until menopause occurs. Sterilization continues to be the most common choice for married women older than 30 years. The IUD may be an excellent alternative to sterilization. Oral contraceptive (OC) use declines in women over 35 years because of concerns about increased cardiovascular risk. However, new studies have indicated myocardial risk in older women is mainly limited to women with other cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, the OC-related benefits of protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, reduced menstrual blood loss, and increased bone density are especially important to women over 35 years. Since it is impossible to diagnose menopause within the pill-free week, OC users should stop the pill for a month at around 50 years of age to allow accurate follicle-stimulating hormone measurement. PMID:9917950

Westhoff, C

1998-12-01

19

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2010-07-01

20

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2011-07-01

21

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2013-07-01

22

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01...2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2012-07-01

23

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01...2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2014-07-01

24

Dialysis outcomes in those aged >=65 years  

PubMed Central

Background The number of elderly people over the age of 65 commencing dialysis in NZ has increased by almost 400% in the past decade. Few data are available about health related outcomes and survival on dialysis in the elderly to help the individual, their family, clinicians and health planners with decision-making. Methods/design This study will provide the first comprehensive longitudinal survey of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient centred outcomes for individuals aged ?65 years on, or eligible for, dialysis therapy and will link these data to survival outcomes. Data collected by yearly structured interviews with participants will be linked to co-morbidity data, health service use, and laboratory information collected from health records, and analysed with respect to HRQOL and survival. The information obtained will inform the delivery of dialysis services in New Zealand and facilitate improved decision-making by individuals, their family and clinicians, about the appropriateness and impact of dialysis therapy on subsequent health and survival. Discussion Results from this study will make possible more informed decision-making by future elderly patients and their families as they contemplate renal replacement therapy. Results will also allow health professionals to more accurately describe the impact of dialysis therapy on quality of life and outcomes for patients. Trial registration ACTRN12611000024943. PMID:23945009

2013-01-01

25

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 04 Years of Age and 511 Years of Age August 28, 2007  

E-print Network

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 0­4 Years of Age and 5­11 Years of Age 281 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN CHILDREN 0­4 YEARS OF AGE AND 5­11 YEARS OF AGE Diagnosis and Prognosis of Asthma in Children Long-term management decisions begin with diagnosis

Levin, Judith G.

26

Ability to Delay Gratification at Age 4 Years and Risk of Overweight at Age 11 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine if limited ability to delay gratification (ATDG) at age 4 years is independently associated with an increased risk of being overweight at age 11 years and to assess confounding or moderation by child body mass index z score at 4 years, self-reported maternal expectation of child ATDG for food, and maternal weight status. Design Longitudinal prospective study. Setting Ten US sites. Participants Participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Main Exposure Ability to delay gratification at 4 years, measured as pass or fail on a validated task. Outcome Measures Overweight at 11 years, defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to the 85th percentile based on measured weight and height. Results Of 805 children, 47% failed the ATDG task. Using multiple logistic regression, children who failed the ATDG task were more likely to be overweight at 11 years (relative risk, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.58), independent of income to needs ratio. Body mass index z score at 4 years and maternal expectation of child ATDG for food did not alter the association, but maternal weight status reduced the association significantly. Conclusions Children with limited ATDG at age 4 years were more likely to be overweight at age 11 years, but the association was at least partially explained by maternal weight status. Further understanding of the association between the child’s ATDG and maternal and child weight status may lead to more effective obesity intervention and prevention programs. PMID:19349558

Seeyave, Desiree M.; Coleman, Sharon; Appugliese, Danielle; Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.; Davidson, Natalie S.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

2014-01-01

27

Pericardiectomy in children <15 years of age.  

PubMed

Between January, 2002 and December, 2011, 27 patients (19 boys) underwent pericardiectomy. The mean age was 9.3 ± 4.96 years (range 0.4 to 15 years) and the mean duration of symptoms was 16.9 ± 22.15 months. In all, 25 patients had dyspnoea; eight were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; six had bacterial pericarditis; and 18 were on anti-tuberculosis treatment, although only nine had records suggesting tuberculosis. There were nine patients who underwent pre-operative pigtail catheter drainage of pericardial fluid. Surgical procedures were complete pericardiectomy (n = 20), partial pericardiectomy (n = 6), and pleuropericardial window (n = 1).The mean pre-operative right atrial pressure was 20.4 ± 4.93 mmHg. There were six hospital deaths due to low cardiac output (n = 5) and arrhythmia (n = 1). The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.7 ± 1.2 days and mean post-operative stay was 9.9 days. The mean right atrial pressure dropped to 8.7 ± 1.15 mmHg. Adverse outcomes defined as death/prolonged intensive care unit stay, prolonged post-operative stay were not associated with sex, diagnosis of tuberculosis or pyopericardium, or the duration of symptoms or pre-operative right atrial pressure. Younger patients had prolonged intensive care unit stay (p = 0.03) but not increased mortality. Advanced NYHA class predicted death (p = 0.02). The mean follow-up was 23.1 ± 23.8 months. All except one survivor are in NYHA class I and off all cardiac medications. Despite adequate surgery, pericardiectomy in children is associated with a high mortality, which is related to delayed surgery and poor pre-operative general condition. No specific pre-operative variable other than worse pre-operative NYHA class is a predictor of survival. Therefore, early pericardiectomy should be undertaken in such patients. PMID:23841979

Talwar, Sachin; Nair, Vinitha Viswambharan; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Sreeniwas, Vishnubhatla; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Airan, Balram

2014-08-01

28

Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years  

MedlinePLUS

2 to 20 years: Boys Stature Weight-for-age percentiles -for-age and NAME RECORD # SOURCE: Developed b (2000). y the National Center ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 AGE (YEARS) AGE (YEARS) 40 95 90 75 50 25 ...

29

Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.  

PubMed

The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

2014-11-01

30

Food allergy in Finnish children aged 1 to 6 years.  

PubMed

Food allergy was studied in a total of 866 Finnish children aged 1, 2, 3 and 6 years in the Helsinki region. The diagnosis was based on history as well as on elimination and challenge performed at home concerning fish, citrus fruit and eggs. The prevalence of food allergy was 19% at one year of age, increased to a peak of 27% at three years, and thereafter decreased to 8% at six years of age. The most common allergenic foods were citrus fruit, tomato, eggs, strawberry and fish. A positive history of food allergy could be confirmed by challenge in about half of the cases in the younger age groups and in 100% at six years of age. The data indicate that food allergy is common in Finnish children. PMID:7180451

Kajosaari, M

1982-09-01

31

Onset of schizophrenia at 100 years of age  

PubMed Central

Although generally regarded as a disease of young adults, schizophrenia does occur in older ages. Doubts have been raised about the validity of diagnosing schizophrenia in very old age. We have described herein a rare and unique case of a woman who had onset of “schizophrenia” as per ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR criteria at the age of 100 years. We have discussed about the validity of diagnosing schizophrenia in older age. PMID:24574565

Gupta, Sumit Kumar; Jiloha, Ram Chander; Yadav, Abhilasha

2014-01-01

32

Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake (? median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95), salty snacks (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00) and sweets (IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age (? 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.96; IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later. PMID:24229473

Vilela, Sofia; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

2014-04-14

33

Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls’ Physical Activity at Age 11 Years  

PubMed Central

Girls’ perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls’ physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways linking perceived competence, parental support, and physical activity were assessed using path analysis. Results provided evidence for the child elicitation pathway; higher perceived competence at the age of 9 years predicted higher parental support at age 11 years, which, in turn, predicted higher physical activity among girls. Findings highlight the importance of encouraging parents to make a special effort to support physical activity among girls who do not perceive themselves as being athletically competent. PMID:16646349

Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

2008-01-01

34

Spotless Sun: Blankest Year of the Space Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site provides a description of the remarkable minimum in sunspot counts in the year of 2008, naming it the "blankest year" of the Space Age. The article includes sunspot data records spanning the past 100 years and explains the major benefits and disadvantages of this solar minimum. Images and links for additional information are included.

2009-03-12

35

Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age

Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

2011-01-01

36

External fixation in fractured patients aged more than 60 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures account for significant morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Commonly, surgical procedures like internal fixation are not exempt of complications (infection, soft-tissue problems). In this study, we examined the use of external fixation (EF) in 28 patients aged more than 60 years with a total of 30 fractures. There were 16 men and 12 women with a mean age

L. Galois; L. Darbelley; R. Traversari; D. Girard; D. Mainard; J. P. Delagoutte

2003-01-01

37

Pre-teen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at age 18-19: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, BMI (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9-10. We hypothesized that pre-teen insulin and insulin resistance (IR) would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Further, we hypothesized that increased insulin and IR, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Patients and Methods: Prospective 10-yr follow-up of 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. Results: When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9-10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9-10, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19. Black girls consumed a greater percent of calories from fat throughout. At age 19, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9-10 for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and greater fat free mass. By ages 18-19, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by age 9-10 BMI, 10 year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between age 9-10 insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls), all p <.0001. Conclusions: Insulin at ages 9-10 interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9-10 could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity. PMID:19913844

Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping

2009-01-01

38

Total Median Under 5 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 74 75 to 84 85 years 18 years 21 years 62 years 65 years Area population age years years years years years years years years years years years years and over and over and over and over and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

191,701 35.2 7.0% 7.3% 6.9% 7.2% 7.0% 14.3% 15.9% 13.6% 4.7% 3.9% 6.2% 4.4% 1.6% 74.7% 70.0% 14.5% 12.2% Davenport--Moline--Rock Island IA--IL MSA 359,062 36.9 6.6% 6.9% 7.3% 7.4% 6.4% 12.8% 15.4% 14.2% 5.2% 4.1% 7.0% 5.0% 1.8% 74.8% 7.1% 16.2% 13.8% Scott county (IA part) 158,668 35.4 6.9% 7.3% 7.7% 7.4% 6.5% 13.7% 15.7% 14.3% 4.9% 3.8% 6.1% 4.2%

Cedar Rapids; IA MSA

2000-01-01

39

The Child Before Seven Years of Age; The Child After Seven Years of Age; and What Children Taught Dr. Montessori.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three lectures reprinted here, given in 1957 London Elementary course, integrate the Montessori perspective on the Elementary child and Cosmic Education: (1) differences between children before and after 7 years of age; (2) characteristics of children 7 years and older; and (3) the adult role in responding to children in the second stage of…

Montessori, Mario M.; Montessori, Renilde

1998-01-01

40

Evaluation of post-mortem estimated dental age versus real age: A retrospective 21-year survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of methods used for forensic dental age estimation. We analysed all cases over the last 21 years (1984–2004) of unidentified bodies that were examined for identification purposes (including age assessment), and of which secure identification was subsequently achieved. In total, the study included 51 cases and 7 different methods had

Kirsa Reppien; Birgitte Sejrsen; Niels Lynnerup

2006-01-01

41

Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.  

PubMed

Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development. PMID:19209081

Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

2009-03-01

42

Longitudinal development of vowels before four years of age ????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is the fourth year of a longitudinal observation of the vocalic production in Mandarin-learning children. Vocalic productions of children aged 36-48 months were audio-taped and analyzed with both perceptual transcription and acoustic measurement. Major findings in the fourth year of development are: 1) Almost all of the single vowels appear and they are evenly distributed except for

Li-mei Chen

43

Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age  

PubMed Central

Objective This study evaluated dental arch dimensional changes of Brazilian children. Material and methods Dental casts were taken from 66 children (29 males; 37 females) with normal occlusion selected among 1,687 students from public and private schools aged 9, 10, 11 and 12 years, according to the following criteria: Class I canine and molar relationships; well-aligned upper and lower dental arches; mixed dentition; good facial symmetry; no previous orthodontic treatment. Dental arch dimensions were taken by one examiner using the Korkhaus’ compass and a digital pachymeter. ANOVA test was applied to compare the arch dimensions at the different ages and the t-test was used to compare the arch dimensions of male and female subjects. Arch forms were compared by means of chi-square tests. Results Only the maxillary anterior segment length showed a statistically significant increase from 10 to 12 years of age. Males had a significantly larger maxillary depth than females at the age range evaluated. The predominant dental arch form found was elliptical. Conclusion In the studied age range, anterior maxillary length increased from 10 to 12 years of age, males had larger maxillary depth than females and the predominant arch form was elliptical. PMID:21552719

LOULY, Fabiane; NOUER, Paulo Roberto Aranha; JANSON, Guilherme; PINZAN, Arnaldo

2011-01-01

44

Policy for Students Under the Age of 18 years Introduction  

E-print Network

Policy for Students Under the Age of 18 years Introduction 1. Occasionally the College admits, as the student will be approaching their eighteenth birthday. The College treats all its students as independent be fulfilled before the student can enrol. Parental responsibilities 7. The College is not able to take

Crawford, Ian

45

"Permanent discharge": deaths of people under 50 years of age in residential aged care in Victoria.  

PubMed

In June 2007 there were 210 people under 50 years of age living in residential aged care in Victoria, Australia, most of whom had acquired brain injuries. There are an average of 21 deaths per year in this group yet very little is known about the causes of such deaths. While the Coroners Act 2008 (Vic) requires mandatory reporting of "unexpected" and "accidental" deaths, anecdotal evidence and data from the Coroner's Office suggest that most deaths of people under 50 years of age in residential aged care are not reported. This research presents the cases of three "preventable" deaths, none of which was reported to the coroner and all of which have implications for systemic reform. It concludes that cross-sectoral solutions to meet the complex needs of people under 50 years of age with disabilities in residential aged care are urgently needed as well as monitoring to help us to understand better the needs of young people in residential aged care. PMID:21988010

Dearn, Liz

2011-09-01

46

Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years  

PubMed Central

Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

2013-01-01

47

Infant Growth and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Infancy is a critical period for brain development. Few studies have examined the extent to which infant weight gain is associated with later neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy populations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this work was to examine associations of infant weight gain from birth to 6 months with child cognitive and visual-motor skills at 3 years of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied 872 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing prospective, longitudinal, prebirth cohort. We abstracted birth weight from the medical chart and weighed infants at 6 months of age. We used the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts to derive weight-for-age z scores. Our primary predictor was infant weight gain, defined as the weight-for-age z score at 6 months adjusted for the weight-for-age z score at birth. At 3 years of age, we measured child cognition with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities. RESULTS Mean Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score was 104.2, and mean Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test score was 102.8. Mean birth weight z score was 0.21, and mean 6-month weight z score was 0.39. In multiple linear regression adjusted for child age, gender, gestational age, breastfeeding duration, primary language, and race/ethnicity; maternal age, parity, smoking status, and cognition; and parental education and income level, we found no association of infant weight gain with child Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score (?0.4 points per z score weight gain increment, 95% confidence interval ?1.3, 0.6) or total Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities standard score (?0.4 points, 95% confidence interval ?1.2, 0.5). CONCLUSIONS Slower infant weight gain was not associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy, term-born 3-year-old children. These results should aid in determining optimal growth patterns in infants to balance risks and benefits of health outcomes through the life course. PMID:18762504

Belfort, Mandy B.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.

2009-01-01

48

Linear mixed models Researchers followed the growth of 27 children (16 males and 11 females) from age 8 until  

E-print Network

to describe the distance in boys and girls as simple functions of age, and then to compare the functions for boys and girls. Age (years) Distance(mm) 20 25 30 8 9 10 12 14 M16 M05 8 9 10 12 14 M02 M11 8 9 10 12 are to estimate the population mean differences (at some age, 8 or 14 or the mid-point age of 11), the population

Bardsley, John

49

Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

Butchart, Alexander; Engstrom, Karin

2002-01-01

50

Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years  

PubMed Central

Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a count-down task in 843 children (aged 9–10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or unsignaled white-noise bursts. Using multilevel regression models, both larger HR acceleration and fewer NS-SCR were found to be significantly associated with psychopathic traits during anticipation of signaled white-noise bursts. However, two divergent patterns appeared for HR and SCR: (1) larger HR acceleration was specific to the callousness-disinhibition factor of psychopathic traits while reduced NS-SCR was only associated with the manipulative-deceitfulness factor; (2) the negative association between the manipulative-deceitfulness factor and NS-SCR was only found in boys but not in girls. These findings replicated what has been found in psychopathic adults, suggesting that autonomic deficits present in children at risk may predispose them to later psychopathy. The divergent findings across psychopathic facets and sexes raised the possibility of different etiologies underlying psychopathy, which may in turn suggest multiple treatment strategies for boys and girls. PMID:22228313

Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

2012-01-01

51

Survival of chronic hemodialysis patients over 80 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background/aim The number of elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 management with hemodialysis (HD) is steadily increasing. Therefore we analyzed the number of new CKD patients ?80 years managed with HD and their survival through the study period. We aimed also, to identify which of several key variables might be independently associated with survival in this very elderly population of patients. Patients and methods This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study that took place during the period from January 1987 to September 2012. The study consisted of 78 (50 male and 28 women) very elderly patients (?80 years of age); the mean age at which HD was initiated was 83.2±2.5 years. Survival and factors associated with mortality were studied. Survival was defined as the time from start of HD treatment to death (or end of study, if still alive). Results In the period from 1987 to 2002, patients ?80 years of age were only sporadically treated with HD, but since 2003, the number of new patients has been steadily increasing. The mean survival for our group of patients was 25.1±22.4 months (range 1–115 months). Furthermore, 30.8% patients survived <12 months, 29.5% patients survived 12–24 months, 30.8% patients survived 24–60 months, and 9% patients survived >60 months on HD treatment. Older patients were less likely to have diabetes, and primary renal disease did not influence survival. Patients with high C-reactive protein levels and poor nutritional status, as well as those who did not have pre-HD nephrology care and those that had a catheter as vascular access for HD had poor survival. In about half of our patients, the cause of death was cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Among patients who were ?80 years of age at the start of HD treatment, those who received pre-HD nephrology care that followed a planned management pathway, those who had a good nutritional status, and those with an arteriovenous fistula as vascular access for HD at the time of HD initiation had a better survival. PMID:24790421

Sladoje-Martinovic, Branka; Mikolasevic, Ivana; Bubic, Ivan; Racki, Sanjin; Orlic, Lidija

2014-01-01

52

Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds  

PubMed Central

Aging in place, an image of growing old in one’s home and maintaining one’s daily routine, is desired by most older adults. To identify variables promoting such independent living in the oldest-old, we examined the association between living situation of a population-based cohort of 90+ year olds with health and lifestyle variables. Of 1485 participants, 53% still lived in their home at a retirement community designed to foster wellness. Those living at home tended to be healthier, with smaller proportions having chronic diseases or hospitalizations in the preceding year and a greater proportion having normal functional ability. Dementia was the chronic disease most significantly related to living situation. In addition to not having dementia, not using a wheelchair or bath aid, receiving meals on wheels, and being married were jointly related to living at home. With the help of family and friends and with a medical and social support system, many 90+ year olds can age in place. This is often because they have a caregiving spouse or paid caregiver.

Paganini-Hill, Annlia

2014-01-01

53

Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2008-10-01

54

Page 1 of 28 Rev.: nsh:3/9/10  

E-print Network

.: nsh:3/9/10 handbook of film and media studies (pp. 391-413). New York: Oxford University Press. [On: An effective pedagogy. The International Journal of Learning, 15(3), 305-311. Fitzgerald, Mary, S disabilities in children with fragile X syndrome. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15(1), 21

Morrell, Christopher H.

55

Microsoft Word - App 9-10 AE specs.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 9-10 Lung Screening Study Specifications for Completion of the Adverse Events for NIH-Sponsored Clinical Trials (RAE) The Report of Adverse Events for

56

Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

57

AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years)  

E-print Network

AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids (5-11 years) Golf (4­15 years) Multi) The Director's Cut (5-11 years) Under the Sea (5-8 years) #12;AGE 6 Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids-8 years) Wrestling (6-17 years) #12;AGE 7 Baseball for Boys (7-15 years) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years

Kavanagh, Karen L.

58

Crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report on the crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Crystals of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) were grown by the solution growth technique as well as the vertical Bridgman method. In case of the solution growth technique, several organic solvents were investigated including heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and p-xylene. The largest crystals of the highest quality were obtained from toluene and xylene. In the case of vertical Bridgman, evacuated silica ampoules were used to grow large single crystals of DPA. Crystals grown by this method exhibit excellent scintillation properties. Radioluminescence spectra of DPA crystals exhibit a broad emission band peaking at 475 nm. DPA crystals show high light yields of up to 20,000 ph/MeV and a fast scintillation decay of less than 20 ns. Fast neutron detection was achieved using a 252Cf source.

van Loef, Edgar V.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Zaitseva, Natalia; Payne, Steve; Shah, Kanai S.

2012-08-01

59

Open tibial fractures in children under 13 years of age—10 years experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the results of treatment in children with open tibial fractures.Design: Retrospective review.Subjects: Eighty three children under 13 years of age treated for an open tibial fracture between 1989 and 1999.Main outcome measures: Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture classification, treatment method, clinical outcome and complications.Results: Eighty one percent of children had an open tibial fracture as their

B. G Jones; R. D. D Duncan

2003-01-01

60

Relationship between age and elite marathon race time in world single age records from 5 to 93 years  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of the study were (i) to investigate the relationship between elite marathon race times and age in 1-year intervals by using the world single age records in marathon running from 5 to 93 years and (ii) to evaluate the sex difference in elite marathon running performance with advancing age. Methods World single age records in marathon running in 1-year intervals for women and men were analysed regarding changes across age for both men and women using linear and non-linear regression analyses for each age for women and men. Results The relationship between elite marathon race time and age was non-linear (i.e. polynomial regression 4th degree) for women and men. The curve was U-shaped where performance improved from 5 to ~20 years. From 5 years to ~15 years, boys and girls performed very similar. Between ~20 and ~35 years, performance was quite linear, but started to decrease at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference increased non-linearly (i.e. polynomial regression 7th degree) from 5 to ~20 years, remained unchanged at ~20 min from ~20 to ~50 years and increased thereafter. The sex difference was lowest (7.5%, 10.5 min) at the age of 49 years. Conclusion Elite marathon race times improved from 5 to ~20 years, remained linear between ~20 and ~35 years, and started to increase at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference in elite marathon race time increased non-linearly and was lowest at the age of ~49 years. PMID:25120915

2014-01-01

61

Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

2012-01-01

62

Ageing of the cardiovascular system during 33 years of aerobic exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: increasing age affects aerobic capacity, with an average loss of 10% or more per decade. Aim: to determine the effect of ageing on the circulatory system in middle-aged men during 33 years of physical training. Methods: 15 men initially aged 45 years took part in an exercise training programme for 25-33 years. Nine serial measurements were made at rest

FRED W. K ASCH; OHN L. BOYER; AUL K. SCHMIDT; R USSELL H. WELLS; ANET P. W ALLACE

1999-01-01

63

Age-related change in sit-to-stand power in Japanese women aged 50 years or older  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether the age-related change in power, calculated from the score of a sit-to-stand (STS) test, corresponds to those in knee extension torque and leg lean tissue mass in Japanese women aged 50 years or older. Findings Time for a 10-times-repeated STS test and knee extension torque were determined in 556 Japanese women aged 50 to 94 years. STS power was calculated using an equation reported previously. In addition, leg lean tissue mass was estimated using muscle thicknesses determined at thigh and lower leg. STS power, knee extension torque, and lean tissue mass were negatively correlated to age. STS power and knee extension torque, expressed as the percentages of the mean value of the corresponding variable for the subjects aged 50 to 54 years were lower than that of lean tissue mass in the subjects aged 60 years or over, and were similar in those aged under 75 years. However, the relative value of STS power was lower than that of knee extension torque in the subjects aged over 75 years. Conclusions In Japanese women aged 50 to 74 years, STS power can be a convenient measure for assessing the age-related decline in knee extension torque, but not for leg lean tissue mass. At over 75 years old, the magnitude of the age-related decline in STS power does not parallel to that in the force generation capability of knee extensor muscles. PMID:25129071

2014-01-01

64

An 11-year review of levetiracetam ingestions in children less than 6 years of age.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Levetiracetam is a new anticonvulsant, which works to block high-voltage-activated Ca(++) channels in children, for partial-onset seizures. Reports of clinical experience with pediatric ingestions are minimal. The purpose of this study was to characterize the toxicity of accidental levetiracetam exposures in children less than 6 years of age. Methods. This was an 11-year retrospective observational case series of pediatric (< 6 years old) levetiracetam ingestions reported to a Poison Control System from 2002 to 2013. Case narratives were individually reviewed to collect desired information on exposure and clinical course. Inclusion criteria were levetiracetam as a single ingested medication, age less than 6 years, treatment in a health care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Results. Eighty-two cases met inclusion criteria with 55% female patients and overall median age of 2.0 years (range: 1-60 months). The levetiracetam dose ingested was reported in 69 (84.1%) cases, with exact dose (median dose, 45.0 mg/kg; range, 10.5-1429 mg/kg) reported in 33 cases (40.2%). Of these, twenty-nine cases (88%) involved the oral solution formulation and 28 cases (85%) had unintentional therapeutic error as the cause of the exposure. No dose-response relationship was demonstrated; however, the odds of a levetiracetam-naive patient, (median dose, 26.9 mg/kg; N = 15) with an unintentional exposure, developing drowsiness or ataxia was 6 times that of a patient who was not naïve to levetiracetam (median dose, 70.1 mg/kg; N = 20) (Odds ratio [OR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-35.91).Of the 82 cases, 17 (20.7%) developed untoward clinical effects of drowsiness and/or ataxia. Eighty patients (97.6%) were treated and discharged from the emergency department, and two patients (2.4%) were admitted. The two patients admitted included a two-month old who was accidentally given a dose 10 times that of her usual dose and a 3-year old who was lethargic on arrival to the hospital after ingestion of an unknown dose. Of all patients, 66 patients (80.5%) had no effect from the drug exposure. The medical outcome was considered to be minor in 15 cases (18.3%), and moderate in 1 case (1.2%). There were no cases with major outcomes and no deaths. Conclusions. Pediatric levetiracetam exposures were associated with few transient clinical effects. Poison Control Centers may wish to consider acuity of ingestion when developing send-in protocols. PMID:25283254

Lewis, J C; Albertson, T E; Walsh, M J

2014-11-01

65

[Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].  

PubMed

We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. ?-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area. PMID:24721269

Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

2014-01-01

66

OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age  

MedlinePLUS

... Products: Not For Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... cold products for infants and children under 2 years of age? A. FDA strongly recommends that over- ...

67

Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

2008-01-01

68

The World Assembly on Aging--Three Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the world response to population aging. Discusses national, regional, and international activities, such as conferences, campaigns to promote an active aging, employment projects, and community alternatives to institutional care. Policy responses are considered, involving employment, income, health, housing, family, consumerism,…

Nusberg, Charlotte

1985-01-01

69

AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years)  

E-print Network

AGE 5 (and under) Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids Freshman (4 1/2 -6 years) Golf 6 Basketball for Boys (5-18 years) Clan Kids Freshman (4 1/2 -6 years) Clan Kids Junior (6-8 years (5-13 years) Under the Sea (5-8 years) Wrestling (6-17 years) #12;AGE 7 Basketball for Boys (5

70

Excimer formation in 9,10-dichloroanthracene - Solutions and crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excimer formation and dissociation in 9,10-dichloroanthracene is investigated in solution phase (low/high concentration) and monocrystalline state (?/? structure) at room temperature by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy combined with streak-camera fluorescence experiments. The transition from the monomeric to the excimeric state is accompanied by a red-shift of the fluorescence and a blue-shift of an excited state absorption band. Excimer formation in solution occurs in the 1 ns time regime. In the pre-arranged crystalline state of the ?-form a strong acceleration of excimer formation to about 1 ps is observed. The slower formation time in solution is attributed to a diffusion process before the two molecules arrange in an ideal excimer geometry. The crystalline structure of the ?-form does not allow to reach the optimal geometry, leading to significantly smaller spectral shifts than in solution. For the ?-form spectral dynamics typical for the excimer formation are not observed.

Lederer, F. J.; Graupner, F. F.; Maerz, B.; Braun, M.; Zinth, W.

2014-01-01

71

Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group:\\u000a median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years).\\u000a The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but\\u000a different in age. After

Leonardo OstiRocco; Rocco Papalia; Angelo Del Buono; Vincenzo Denaro; Nicola Maffulli

2010-01-01

72

Durability of structural wood adhesives after 30 years ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight urea-formaldehyde (UF) glues and one acid phenolic (PF) glue were compared with “established” glues of the casein and\\u000a resorcinol (RF) types as for long-term durability, by use of accelerated and natural ageing. The purpose was to evaluate these\\u000a glues for structural softwood bonding.\\u000a \\u000a After unprotected outdoor exposure, only the phenolresorcinols (PRF) still meet the delamination requirements of the Norwegian

E. Raknes

1997-01-01

73

Syntheses and bioactivities of substituted 9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetrones. Unusual reactivities with amines.  

PubMed

A number of substituted 9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetrones have been synthesized and their anticancer and antimalarial activities evaluated. A one-pot synthesis of 2,5,8-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4-dione (4) was achieved by heating a mixture of 1,4-dimethoxyanthracene, methoxyhydroquinone, silver oxide, and zinc iodide in toluene. Regioselective bromination of 4 and 2-methoxy-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetrone (7) with N-bromosuccinimide provided 2-bromo-3,5,8-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4-dione and 2-bromo-3-methoxy-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetrone (1), respectively. The reactions of 1 with aliphatic primary amines and secondary amines, respectively, produced different products, a result most likely attributed to the different basicities (or nucleophilicities) and steric effects of the two kinds of amines. The structure of the displacement product, 2-bromo-3-[2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethylamino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetrone, from the reaction of 1 with tert-butyl 3-aminopropanoate was unequivocally determined by a single-crystal X-ray analysis. IC(50) values of triptycene bisquinones for the inhibition of L1210 leukemia cell viability are in the 0.11-0.27 microM range and for the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 are in the 4.7-8.0 microM range. PMID:11975545

Hua, Duy H; Tamura, Masafumi; Huang, Xiaodong; Stephany, Heidi A; Helfrich, Brian A; Perchellet, Elisabeth M; Sperfslage, Bonnie J; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre; Jiang, Suping; Kyle, Dennis E; Chiang, Peter K

2002-05-01

74

The Wonders of the Middle-Aged Brain s if people reaching their middle years  

E-print Network

The Wonders of the Middle-Aged Brain A s if people reaching their middle years didn't have enough involved in memory start to fall in expression around age 40," continued on page 2 contents 1 The Wonders

Yellen, Gary

75

Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2010-01-01

76

The Effect of Air Pollution on Lung Development from 10 to 18 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Whether exposure to air pollution adversely affects the growth of lung function during the period of rapid lung development that occurs between the ages of 10 and 18 years is unknown. methods In this prospective study, we recruited 1759 children (average age, 10 years) from schools in 12 southern California communities and measured lung function annually for eight years.

W. James Gauderman; Edward Avol; Frank Gilliland; Hita Vora; Kiros Berhane; Rob McConnell; Nino Kuenzli; Fred Lurmann; Edward Rappaport; Helene Margolis; David Bates; John Peters

2010-01-01

77

The Structure of Working Memory From 4 to 15 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of working memory and its development across the childhood years were investigated in children 4–15 years of age. The children were given multiple assessments of each component of the A. D. Baddeley and G. Hitch (1974) working memory model. Broadly similar linear functions characterized performance on all measures as a function of age. From 6 years onward, a

Susan E. Gathercole; Susan J. Pickering; Benjamin Ambridge; Hannah Wearing

2004-01-01

78

Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

2011-01-01

79

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

80

Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study\\u000a also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness\\u000a (IMCI) guidelines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in

Sabrina J Moyo; Njolstad Gro; Mecky I Matee; Jesse Kitundu; Helge Myrmel; Haima Mylvaganam; Samuel Y Maselle; Nina Langeland

2011-01-01

81

Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:22071592

2011-11-11

82

NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council July 9-10, 2009 NASA Headquarters Washington, D Chair, Planetary Science Subcommittee (Interim) #12;NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009

Rathbun, Julie A.

83

Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State  

MedlinePLUS

... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State Regardless ... Statistics Indian Health Service Reports Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24, by State Archive Chlamydia, All Years ...

84

Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11–17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11–13 and 15–17 years. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. Subjects: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11–13 or 15–17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. Measurements: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. Results: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15–17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15–17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15–17 years old. Conclusions: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11–13 and 15–17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11–13 and 15–17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength. PMID:14608433

Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

2003-01-01

85

Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch  

E-print Network

Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch H. E. RICHMOND 55812, U.S.A. (Received 25 June 2003, Accepted 6 April 2004) The ability of age-0 year yellow perch in the dark. Following chemical ablation of the lateral line, yellow perch showed a significant reduction

Mensinger, Allen F.

86

Coping of Judo Competitors in the Context of Gender, Age, Years of Practice and Skill Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which gender, age, skill level, and years of practice, serves as predictors of coping styles in judo. Participants in the study consisted of 98 judo competitors (47 females and 51 males, aged 13-21 years). As a result of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis four coping styles have been established for

Aleksandra Rogowska; Cezary Ku?nierz

2012-01-01

87

Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N=113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and…

Feldman, Heidi M.; Dale, Philip S.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Paradise, Jack L.

2005-01-01

88

How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

Grayson, Nancy Mathea

2010-01-01

89

Smoking and cognitive change from age 11 to 66 years: A confirmatory investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we reported that smoking is associated with a small relative decline in cognition from childhood to old age. In this study we perform confirmatory analyses on a further wave of data collected from 298 of the participants, all with age 11 IQ scores, at age 66years, 2years after the original observations. Non-smokers scored a mean 4.9 memory test and

John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary; Helen C. Foxc; Lawrence J. Whalley

90

Causes of Failure after Total Knee Arthroplasty in Osteoarthritis Patients 55 Years of Age or Younger  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the modes of failure after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients >55 years of age and to compare with those >55 years of age in patients who underwent revision TKA. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 256 revision TKAs among patients who underwent TKA for knee osteoarthritis between January 1992 and December 2012. The causes of TKA failure were analyzed and compared between the groups. Results Thirty-one revision TKAs were performed in patients ?55 years of age at the time of primary TKA, whereas 225 cases were in those >55 years of age at primary TKA. In the ?55 years of age group, the most common cause of TKA failure was polyethylene wear (45%) followed by infection (26%) and loosening (17%). The interval from primary TKA to revision was 8.6 years (range, 1 to 17 years). There were relatively lower infection rate and higher loosening rate in patients ?55 years of age, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The main causes of failure after TKA in patients ?55 years of age were polyethylene wear, infection and loosening, and there was no significant difference in the modes of failure after TKA between the two groups. PMID:24639942

Lee, Song; Ko, Dong Oh; Seo, Bong Soo; Jung, Woo Shik; Chang, Byung Kwon

2014-01-01

91

Charnley low-friction arthroplasty in patients 35 years of age or younger. Results at a minimum of 23 years.  

PubMed

We evaluated the outcome of 41 consecutive Charnley low-friction arthroplasties (LFAs) performed by a single surgeon in 28 patients aged ? 35 years at operation between 23 and 36 years previously. There were 20 women and eight men with a mean age of 32 years (23 to 35) at surgery. Two patients (three hips) were lost to follow-up at 12 and 17 years post-operatively, respectively, and one patient (one hip) died at 13 years post-operatively. These patients were excluded from the final evaluation. The survival rate of the acetabular components was 92.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 88.7 to 96.7) at ten years, 67.1% (95% CI 59.75 to 74.45) at 20 years and 53.2% (95% CI 45.3 to 61.1) at 25 years. For the femoral component the survival was 95.1% (95% CI 91.8 to 98.5) at ten years, 77.1% (95% CI 73.9 to 80.3) at 20 years and 68.2% (95% CI 60.7 to 75.8) at 25 years. The results indicate that the Charnley LFA remains a reasonable choice in the treatment of young patients and can serve for comparison with newer techniques and implants. PMID:23908419

Lampropoulou-Adamidou, K; Georgiades, G; Vlamis, J; Hartofilakidis, G

2013-08-01

92

Flexibility of older adults aged 55-86 years and the influence of physical activity.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55-86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, 71 ± 9 years; 231 women, 72 ± 8 years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes. PMID:23862064

Stathokostas, Liza; McDonald, Matthew W; Little, Robert M D; Paterson, Donald H

2013-01-01

93

7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media_hat_june_2010/en/index.html  

E-print Network

level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media tropical diseases > Integrated media related to NTD printable version Human African trypanosomiasis: number donation from Bayer Healthcare have also helped to reduce transmission levels in endemic countries. Human

Cross, George

94

Impact of screening mammography on mortality from breast cancer before age 60 in women 40 to 49 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background Whether screening mammography programs should include women in their 40s is controversial. In Canada, screening of women aged 40–49 years has not been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer. Given that screening mammography reduces mean tumour size and that tumour size is inversely associated with survival, the lack of benefit seen with screening is puzzling and suggests a possible adverse effect on mortality of mammography or subsequent treatment (or both) that counterbalances the expected benefit derived from downstaging. Methods We followed 50,436 women 40–49 years of age until age 60 for mortality from breast cancer. Of those women, one half had been randomly assigned to annual mammography and one half to no mammography. The impact of mammography on breast cancer mortality was estimated using a left-censored Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 256 deaths from breast cancer recorded in the study cohort, 134 occurred in women allocated to mammography, and 122 occurred in those receiving usual care and not allocated to mammography. The cumulative risk of death from breast cancer to age 60 was 0.53% for women assigned to mammography and 0.48% for women not so assigned. The hazard ratio for breast cancer–specific death associated with 1 or more screening mammograms before age 50 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.40). Conclusions Mammography in women 40–49 years of age is associated with a small but nonsignificant increase in the risk of dying of breast cancer before age 60. Caution should be exercised when recommending mammographic screening to women before age 50. PMID:25302030

Narod, S.A.; Sun, P.; Wall, C.; Baines, C.; Miller, A.B.

2014-01-01

95

Use of Medication Prescribed for Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties among Children Aged 6-17 Years in the United ...  

MedlinePLUS

... Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties Among Children Aged 6–17 Years in the United States, 2011–2012 On ... race and Hispanic origin among children aged 6–17 years. Figure 1. Percentage of children aged 6– ...

96

Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.  

PubMed

The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations. PMID:17606860

Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

2007-09-01

97

Obesity prognosis: a longitudinal study of children from the age of 6 months to 9 years.  

PubMed Central

The development of body fatness and leanness is examined in an ongoing prospective nutrition and growth study. Individual skinfold thicknesses, relative weights, weight gains, activity levels, and caloric intakes were examined at seven ages between 6 months and 9 years. Changes in body fatness in this group of children provide evidence that the obese infant usually does not become the obese child. Weight gain in infancy is also a poor predictor of 9-year old obesity. Changes from obese to non-obese or lean are often not linear. There is evidence that impending or actual obesity begins at ages 6 to 9 years with some predictability provided as early as age 2 years for girls, age 3 years for boys. PMID:6465410

Shapiro, L R; Crawford, P B; Clark, M J; Pearson, D L; Raz, J; Huenemann, R L

1984-01-01

98

Age Changes in Nonverbal Decoding Skills: Evidence for Increasing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle class children and adults (n=632) from eight age levels (mean ages 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 33 years) were tested with the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (the PONS test) to measure accuracy in decoding nonverbal cues. The prediction that nonverbal skills would increasingly differentiate over ages was confirmed. (RH)

DePaulo, Bella M.; Rosenthal, Robert

1979-01-01

99

Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. PMID:24164982

Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

2013-10-01

100

The Effect of Class Size on the Teaching of Pupils Aged 7-11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is still little consensus on whether and how teaching is affected by small and large classes, especially in the case of students in the later primary years. This study investigated effects of class size on teaching of pupils aged 7-11 years. We used a multimethod approach, integrating qualitative information from teachers' end-of-year

Blatchford, Peter; Russell, Anthony; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope; Martin, Clare

2007-01-01

101

Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

2008-01-01

102

Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

2014-01-01

103

Oseltamivir Pharmacokinetics, Dosing, and Resistance Among Children Aged <2 Years With Influenza  

PubMed Central

Background.?Children <2 years of age are at high risk of influenza-related mortality and morbidity. However, the appropriate dose of oseltamivir for children <2 years of age is unknown. Methods.?The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group evaluated oseltamivir in infants aged <2 years in an age–de-escalation, adaptive design with a targeted systemic exposure. Results.?From 2006 to 2010, 87 subjects enrolled. An oseltamivir dose of 3.0 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range in subjects 0–8 months of age, although there was a greater degree of variability in infants <3 months of age. In subjects 9–11 months of age, a dose of 3.5 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range. Six of 10 subjects aged 12–23 months receiving the Food and Drug Administration–approved unit dose for this age group (ie, 30 mg) had oseltamivir carboxylate exposures below the target range. Virus from 3 subjects developed oseltamivir resistance during antiviral treatment. Conclusions.?The appropriate twice-daily oral oseltamivir dose for infants ?8 months of age is 3.0 mg/kg, while the dose for infants 9–11 months old is 3.5 mg/kg. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00391768. PMID:23230059

Kimberlin, David W.; Acosta, Edward P.; Prichard, Mark N.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Ampofo, Krow; Lang, David; Ashouri, Negar; Vanchiere, John A.; Abzug, Mark J.; Abughali, Nazha; Caserta, Mary T.; Englund, Janet A.; Sood, Sunil K.; Spigarelli, Michael G.; Bradley, John S.; Lew, Judy; Michaels, Marian G.; Wan, Wen; Cloud, Gretchen; Jester, Penelope; Lakeman, Fred D.; Whitley, Richard J.; Giles, Dusty; Cotton, Bari; Judy, Sharon; Cowie, Margaret; Francis, Jeanne; Evans, Candice; O'Donnell, Nan; Shiraishi, Ofelia Vargas; Latiolais, Lisa; Aymami, Valeri; Dole, Ken; Gaultier, Julie; Lofthus, Gerry; Kinnunen, Diane; Lacombe, Kirsten; Stellato, Nancy; Denlinger, Julie; Hingtgen, Sara; Mason, Christina; Jeffrey, Noreen

2013-01-01

104

Aortic biological valve prosthesis in patients younger than 65 years of age: transition to a flexible age limit?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Guidelines proposed bioprosthesis implantation for aortic valve disease if the patients were at least 65 years old at the time of surgery, with a trend towards even younger patients in recent years. Considering the adverse effects of lifetime anticoagulation, new biological valves (less prone to degeneration) and new technologies may lead patients and surgeons to different choices. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse the results of aortic bioprosthetic valve replacement in patients aged <65 years at the time of surgery. METHODS From January 2000 to December 2010, 84 patients aged <65 years at the time of surgery had undergone an aortic bio-prosthetic valve replacement. A mid-term follow-up [(FU) mean FU time: 54.4 ± 39.2 months] was done in August 2011 in all patients (FU completeness: 100%). Results were compared with patients who had a mechanical prosthetic aortic valve replacement during the same period. RESULTS The reoperation rate for structural valve degeneration (SVD) of bioprostheses was 6% and occurred exclusively among patients <56 years. Contraindications for anticoagulation determined the choice of a bioprosthesis among 83% of these patients. The personal preference to avoid anticoagulation was the leading cause in 68% of the older patients (56–65 years). Neurological complications occurred more frequently in the mechanical control group. CONCLUSIONS Reoperations for SVD after bioprosthesis implantation occurred exclusively among younger patients (<56 years), not suitable for systemic anticoagulation. Previous studies, together with our experience, are in favour of an age limit between 56 and 60 years, taking into consideration alternative transcatheter approaches to SVD treatment. PMID:23287588

Niclauss, Lars; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl; Ferrari, Enrico

2013-01-01

105

Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?  

PubMed

This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

2014-04-01

106

Esterification and transesterification of 9(10)-carboxystearic acid and its methyl esters. Kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

9(10)-Carboxystearic acid and its mono- and dimethyl esters were esterified and transesterified with 1-butanol, 2-methoxyethanol,\\u000a 2-chloroethanol, 2,2-dimethylpentanol, 2-ethylhexanol and 1-octanol. Rate studies for the sulfuric acid-catalyzed esterification\\u000a of 9(10)-carboxystearic acid to alkyl 9(10)-carboxystearate and alkyl 9(10)-carboalkoxystearate indicate than on an average\\u000a the terminal carboxyl is approximately 26–27 times more reactive than the branched carboxyl group. Esterification is highly\\u000a dependent on

E. J. Dufek; R. O. Butterfield; E. N. Frankel

1972-01-01

107

SHIFTS IN SAUGER SPAWNING LOCATIONS AFTER 40 YEARS OF RESERVOIR AGEING: INFLUENCE OF A NOVEL DELTA  

E-print Network

construction of dams has altered water cycles and sediment transport patterns (Vo¨ro¨smarty and Sahagian, 2000 passage (e.g. Stanford et al., 1996). However, as many reservoirs age, the process of sedimentationSHIFTS IN SAUGER SPAWNING LOCATIONS AFTER 40 YEARS OF RESERVOIR AGEING: INFLUENCE OF A NOVEL DELTA

108

Childhood asthma in adult life: a further study at 28 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 323 subjects who had wheezed in childhood and 48 control subjects of the same age were studied prospectively from 7 to 28 years of age. A classification system based on wheezing frequency was found to correlate well with clinical and spirometric features of airway obstruction. The amount of wheezing in early adolescence seemed to be a guide

W J Kelly; I Hudson; P D Phelan; M C Pain; A Olinsky

1987-01-01

109

Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

110

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

111

Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants  

E-print Network

Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants D Laurier 1 living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present herein results about the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Three Years of the New Minimum Drinking Age Law: The Search for the "Spillover Effect."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raising the legal drinking age nationally was designed to decrease highway deaths, but it has not seemed to have affected the drinking behavior of 18-20 year old college students. In August of 1995, the Louisiana legislature raised the legal minimum drinking age to 21. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a change in legal…

Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.; Watson, Zarus E. P.

113

Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.METHODSRetrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932. Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital

S D Shenkin; J M Starr; A Pattie; M A Rush; L J Whalley; I J Deary

2001-01-01

114

An Analysis of Problems and Perspective of the Black Aged: Preparation for the Year 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses some of the problems and concerns of the nation's Black aged with special emphasis toward the year 2000. Dramatization of the plight of the Black aged may proceed in a number of directions. This paper focuses on strategies that may be developed within academic institutions, local communities, professional and other…

Turner, Clinton V.; Sheppard, N. Alan

115

Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

2013-01-01

116

Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

2012-01-01

117

Safety and efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 2-7 years of age.  

PubMed

Three pivotal trials supported the licensure of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for children > or =2 years of age: 2 placebo-controlled studies each conducted over 2 seasons, and a 1-year trial comparing LAIV with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Analyses were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LAIV in the subgroup of children > or =2 years of age from these trials. Efficacy was demonstrated compared with placebo in children aged 2-7 years in seasons with matched strains (69.2% [95% CI: 52.7, 80.4] and 94.6% [95% CI: 88.6, 97.5]), seasons with primarily mismatched strains (87% [95% CI: 77.0, 92.6]), and during late season epidemics (73.8% [95% CI: 40.4, 89.4]). Compared with TIV recipients, LAIV recipients aged 2-5 years had 52.5% (95% CI: 26.7, 68.7) and 54.4% (95% CI: 41.8, 64.5) fewer cases of influenza illness against matched and mismatched strains, respectively. No unusual or unexpected adverse reactions were noted. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with LAIV were runny nose/nasal congestion and low-grade fever. Hospitalizations and medically significant wheezing were increased in children 6-11 and 6-23 months of age who received LAIV, respectively, but were not increased in children 2-5 years of age. PMID:18611422

Belshe, Robert B; Ambrose, Christopher S; Yi, Tingting

2008-09-12

118

Drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes --- United States, 2004-2008.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States, accounting for approximately one third of deaths in this age group. Crash risk is highest during the first years of independent driving. To characterize trends in fatal crashes involving drivers aged 16 or 17 years, CDC analyzed data from the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS) for 2004-2008. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, during 2004-2008, a total of 9,644 passenger vehicle drivers aged 16 or 17 years were involved in fatal crashes. During that period, the annual population-based rate for drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes declined 38%, from 27.1 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 16.7 in 2008. By state, 5-year annualized rates for drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes ranged from 9.7 per 100,000 population in New Jersey and New York to 59.6 in Wyoming. To further reduce fatal crashes involving young drivers, states should periodically reexamine and update graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs, and communities should vigorously enforce laws on minimum legal drinking age, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and safety belt use, all of which can reduce the number of fatal crashes among young drivers. PMID:20966895

2010-10-22

119

Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.  

PubMed

Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

2013-01-01

120

9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.  

PubMed

9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ. PMID:22281686

Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

2012-02-01

121

Myeloablative unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia patients between 50 and 55 years of age: single institutional retrospective comparison with patients younger than 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Increasing recipient age is a well-known risk factor for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and treatment-related mortality (TRM) and has a negative impact on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Since the incidence of severe GVHD after cord blood transplantation (CBT) is lower than that after transplants using bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood grafts from adult cells, we should expect better outcomes from CBT in older patients. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of myeloablative unrelated CBT in patients aged between 50 and 55 years, we performed a retrospective comparison of 100 patients with acute leukemia who received cord blood grafts at our institution. Nineteen older patients (median age, 52; range, 50-55) and 81 younger patients (median, 36; range, 16-49) received a myeloablative conditioning regimen including 12 Gy of total body irradiation and chemotherapy. GVHD prophylaxis included cyclosporine with (n = 96) or without (n = 4) methotrexate. There were no significant differences in the incidences of grades II to IV acute GVHD, extensive-type chronic GVHD, TRM, and the probability of overall and disease-free survival between these groups. These results suggest that, in patients with acute leukemia, myeloablative CBT might be as safe and effective in patients aged between 50 and 55 years as in younger patients. PMID:19030858

Konuma, Takaaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ooi, Jun; Tomonari, Akira; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Kato, Seiko; Sato, Aki; Monma, Fumihiko; Kasahara, Senji; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Iseki, Tohru; Tojo, Arinobu; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Asano, Shigetaka

2009-06-01

122

Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Subdimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Method Data were collected from 6,328 mother–child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Results Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. Conclusions The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. PMID:23972698

Whelan, Yvonne M.; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D.

2014-01-01

123

Ethnic ancestry and increased paternal age are risk factors for breast cancer before the age of 40 years.  

PubMed

To study the risk factors associated with breast cancer in women younger than 40 years, a cohort study (The Jerusalem Perinatal Study) of 42 822 female offspring born in hospitals in West Jerusalem during 1964-1976 was carried out. Hazard ratios of potential parental and perinatal risk factors for early breast cancer were measured. The overall incidence of breast cancer was 5.2/100 000 person-years. The highest incidence was found among Jewish women of West Asian ancestry (8.6/100 000 person-years), specifically those whose maternal grandfathers were born in Iraq, Iran or Afghanistan (9.5/100 000 person-years). Using Cox models we found independent risk factors for early breast cancer to be paternal age (relative risk/year=1.06, 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.10, P=0.005), and ancestry from Iraq/Iran/Afghanistan (relative risk=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.50-6.52, P=0.002). The study confirms a previously observed effect of advanced paternal age on the occurrence of early breast cancer and identifies a novel population group at increased risk for the disease. The excess risk of early breast cancer associated with ancestry from Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan suggests involvement of genetic determinants, environmental exposures and/or lifestyle factors and mandates further investigation. PMID:18090128

Weiss-Salz, Inbal; Harlap, Susan; Friedlander, Yehiel; Kaduri, Luna; Levy-Lahad, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Deutsch, Lisa; Hochner, Hagit; Paltiel, Ora

2007-12-01

124

Postnatal Growth of the Clavicle: Birth to Eighteen Years of Age  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The purpose of our study was to perform a large cross-sectional study aimed at determining the postnatal growth pattern of the clavicle from birth to 18 years of age. METHODS We analyzed digital chest radiographs of a convenience sample of 961 individuals between birth and 18 years of age. Malrotated radiographs were excluded. Right and left clavicle lengths were measured in millimeters from the most lateral ossified border to the most medial ossified border of each clavicle. Study subjects were divided into 19 subgroups with the first group being labeled “birth to 11 months of age” followed by 1 year olds, 2 year olds, etc. Subjects were also grouped by gender. There was a minimum of 25 subjects in each group. RESULTS At 18 years of age the mean±SD clavicle length for females was 149±12 mm and for males it was 161±11 mm. Although a statistically significant difference (p=0.049) was noted between the length of right and left clavicles it was not clinically significant (0.036 mm). A steady growth rate was noted for both genders from birth to age 12 years (8.4 mm per yr). Above age 12 there were significant differences in the growth of the clavicles of girls (2.6 mm per yr) versus boys (5.4 mm per yr) (p<0.001). Our data suggest that females achieve 80% of their clavicle length by 9 years of age and boys by 12 years of age. CONCLUSION This cross-sectional study establishes that relatively little clavicle growth (20%) remains for girls beyond age 9 years and for boys beyond 12 years. The length of one clavicle may be properly judged by comparing it to the contralateral clavicle. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Remodeling of clavicle shaft fractures is currently believed to be proportional to growth remaining. Our study questions the capacity of the clavicle to re-establish normal length beyond the age thresholds we have identified. PMID:19934713

McGraw, Molly A; Mehlman, Charles T; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Kirby, Cassie L.

2009-01-01

125

Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school. PMID:23033753

Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

2012-08-01

126

9-9:10 Opening: Dean R. Bushnell 10:20-10:50 Coffee  

E-print Network

Friday 9-9:10 Opening: Dean R. Bushnell 9:10-9:40 9:50-10:20 10:20-10:50 Coffee 10:50-11:20 11 theorie Paban Evolution of Gravitationally Unstable de Sitter Compactifications Caporaso Britto Coffee/Posters Piene Making a smooth torus action symplectic, or almost.. Cheung Strings in gravimagnetic field Coffee

Grassi, Antonella

127

Television Viewing in Infancy and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age in a US Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To examine the extent to which infant television viewing is associated with language and visual motor skills at 3 years of age. MEASURES. We studied 872 children who were participants in Project Viva, a prospec- tive cohort. The design used was a longitudinal survey, and the setting was a multisite group practice in Massachusetts. At 6 months, 1 year,

Marie Evans Schmidt; Michael Rich; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Elsie M. Taveras

2010-01-01

128

A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

2011-01-01

129

Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

2013-01-01

130

Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

1995-01-01

131

Retrospective study of radiotherapy for lung cancer in patients aged 75 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: radiotherapy is widely used in the management of lung cancer but there arc few data on its use in elderly patients. Methods: retrospective review of case notes of all patients aged 75 years and over referred to a regional centre for radiotherapy with a diagnosis of lung cancer over 1 year. Results: of 149 patients referred, full information was

CHRIS J. PATTERSON; MARK HOCKING; MARILYN BOND; CHARLIE TEALE

1998-01-01

132

Comorbidities among the HIV-Infected Patients Aged 40 Years or Older in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART. Methods We reviewed medical records of all HIV-infected patients aged 40 years or older who had been followed at a university hospital for HIV care in Taiwan between January and December 2013. A standardized case record form was used to collect information on demographics and clinical characteristics, comorbidity, cART, and concurrent medications. Results During the study period, 610 patients aged 40 to 49 years (mean, 44.1) and 310 aged 50 years or older (mean, 58.8) sought HIV care at this hospital. Compared with patients aged 40 to 49 years, those aged 50 years or older were significantly more likely to be female (15.9% vs 3.8%); to have received cART (97.7% vs 94.8%) and a lower plasma HIV RNA load (1.6 vs 1.7 log10 copies/ml); and to have diabetes mellitus (18.4% vs 4.6%), hypertension (31.0% vs 10.8%), hyperlipidemia (29.4% vs 11.6%), coronary artery disease (6.8% vs 0.5%), and an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (11.5% vs 2.7%); and were significantly less likely to have syphilis. Other than HIV infection, patients aged 50 years or older were more likely to have been receiving two or more concurrent medications than those aged 40 to 49 years (22.9% vs 6.4%). Conclusions Our findings show a significant proportion of the HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older have multiple comorbidities that may increase the risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. Issues of poly-pharmacy among the HIV-infected patients who are aging should be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions. PMID:25119532

Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Liu, Wen-Chun; Yang, Shan-Ping; Luo, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-01-01

133

Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 9-10 Year Old Children  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. Purpose To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n?=?1472, 42.9% male) were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES) intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013. Results 83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.69 (1.21,2.37)) and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62)) were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99)), participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94)) and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94)) were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Conclusions A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours and there was evidence of clustering of screen viewing and unhealthy dietary behaviours. Sub-groups at greatest risk may be targeted for intervention. PMID:24923793

Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

134

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(7) Identify the amount and extent of cost-share assistance that NRCS will provide for the adoption or implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include any other provision determined necessary or appropriate by the NRCS...

2010-01-01

135

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE...

2011-01-01

136

7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE...

2012-01-01

137

Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children  

E-print Network

spent watching television (including video/DVD; 1 week test-retest reliability ICC = 0.93), using a computer (including the internet; 1 week test-retest reliability ICC = 0.53) and playing computer games (1 week test-retest reliability ICC = 0... shows the prevalence of not meeting individual health behaviour guidelines. Seventy-eight percent of participants exceeded the recommended intake of fat and NMES (MAR.1) and 56.1% failed to consume sufficient fruits and vegetables. Insufficient physical...

Elsenburg, Leonie K; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Atkin, Andrew J

2014-06-12

138

Successful Aging in a 70YearOld Man With Down Syndrome: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome (''Mr. C.'') who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well as provide detailed information regarding Mr.

Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale; Darlynne A. Devenny; Hong Gu; Edmund C. Jenkins; Phyllis Kittler; Vundavalli V. Murty; Nicole Schupf; Luigi Scotto; Benjamin Tycko; Tiina K. Urv; Lingling Ye; Warren B. Zigman; Wayne Silverman

2008-01-01

139

Allograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients over 40 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The study goal was to determine the results of allograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in patients over 40 years old at a minimum of 24 months follow-up (mean, 59.7 months; range, 24 to 110 months). Type of Study: Retrospective review. Methods: The records of 57 consecutive patients (mean age at surgery, 45.0 years; range, 40.2 to 60.8 years)

David K. Kuechle; Sara E. Pearson; William R. Beach; Eric L. Freeman; David F. Pawlowski; Terry L. Whipple; John F. Meyers

2002-01-01

140

Clinicopathological features and survival rates of patients with renal cell carcinoma under 50 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the clinicopathological features and survival rates of the patients with renal cell carcinoma younger than 50\\u000a years old. Between 2004 and 2007, 28 patients between 19–49 years underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma. Presenting symptoms,\\u000a type of the surgery performed, postoperative outcomes and duration of follow-up were recorded. Mean age was 41.5±7.6 years\\u000a and 75% of patients were

Ali Fuat Atmaca; Ömer Bayrak; Olcay Kandemir; Ege Can ?erefo?lu; Ílke Evrim Çulha; Abdullah Erdem Canda; M. Derya Balbay

2008-01-01

141

Impact of rotavirus vaccination in Australian children below 5 years of age  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the impact of administration of two-dose rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) among children aged less than 5 y in three states/territories of Australia. Aggregated and de-identified data on rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all-cause gastroenteritis (AGE) from July 1998–June 2009 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare database. The baseline incidence (July 1998–June 2006) of RVGE hospitalizations before RV vaccine introduction in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT) were 33.75, 42.93 and 288.67 per 10?000 child-years, respectively among children aged 0–11 mo. Following RV vaccine introduction in NSW, the ACT and the NT, incidence of RVGE hospitalizations reduced to 13.06, 17.35 and 47.52 per 10?000 child-years, respectively, during July 2007–June 2008 and 3.87, 8.40 and 122.79 per 10,000 child-years, respectively, during July 2008–June 2009 among children aged 0–11 mo. Reductions in RVGE and AGE were also observed in all children below 5 y of age in NSW and the ACT. Overall reduction in hospitalizations due to RVGE and AGE was observed following RV vaccine introduction into the NIP in Australia. PMID:23733041

Pendleton, Annmarie; Galic, Maja; Clarke, Christopher; Ng, Su Peing; Ledesma, Emilio; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran; Liu, Yanfang

2013-01-01

142

Sixteen years age limit for learner drivers in Sweden--an evaluation of safety effects.  

PubMed

Through a reform implemented in Sweden, September 1993, the age limit for practising car driving was lowered from 17 1/2 to 16 years while the licensing age remained 18. The purpose of lowering the age limit was to give the learner drivers an opportunity to acquire more experience as drivers before being allowed to drive on their own. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reform in terms of accident involvement and data were therefore obtained from the national register of police reported accidents. The results show that after the reform there was a general reduction in the accident risk (accidents per 10 million km) of novice drivers with approximately 15%. Additional analyses show that the reduction of accident risk in the group who utilised the new age limit was approximately 40%, whereas those who did not utilise the prolonged training period did not benefit at all. Between 45 and 50% of the age population were found to utilise the reform. The accident reduction does not seem to be just an initial first year effect since the results were similar over 3 years of novice drivers during their first 2 years with a licence. These results suggest that the reform has been beneficial for the safety of novice drivers in Sweden. The results also suggest a potential for additional safety improvements if more young learner drivers can be brought to utilise the low age limit. PMID:10576673

Gregersen, N P; Berg, H Y; Engström, I; Nolén, S; Nyberg, A; Rimmö, P A

2000-01-01

143

Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.  

PubMed

Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

2013-07-12

144

Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3-8 years  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Rise, P; Moreno, L A; Molnar, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

2014-01-01

145

Disease burden of pneumonia in Korean adults aged over 50 years stratified by age and underlying diseases  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims This study was conducted to assess the disease burden of pneumonia according to age and presence of underlying diseases in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods We performed a retrospective, observational study and collected data targeting patients with CAP (? 50 years) from 11 hospitals. Disease burden was defined as total per-capita medical fee, severity (CURB-65), hospital length of stay (LOS), and mortality. Results Of the 693 enrolled subjects, elderly subjects (age, ? 65 years) had a higher mean CURB-65 score (1.56 vs. 0.25; p < 0.01) and higher mortality than nonelderly subjects (4.4% [n = 21] vs. 0.5% [n = 1]; p = 0.00). In addition, the total cost of pneumonia treatment was higher in elderly patients compared to in nonelderly patients (KRW 2,088,190 vs. US $1,701,386; p < 0.01). Those with an underlying disease had a higher CURB-65 score (1.26 vs. 0.68; p < 0.01), were much older (mean age, 71.24 years vs. 64.24 years; p < 0.01), and had a higher mortality rate than those without an underlying disease (3.5% [n = 20] vs. 1.7% [n = 2]; p = 0.56). Total per-capita medical fees were higher (KRW 2,074,520 vs. US $1,440,471; p < 0.01) and hospital LOS was longer (mean, 8.38 days vs. 6.42 days; p < 0.01) in patients with underlying diseases compared to those without. Conclusions Due to the relatively high disease burden in Korea, particularly in the elderly and in those with an underlying disease, closer and more careful observation is needed to improve the outcomes of patients with CAP. PMID:25378975

Lee, Jung Yeon; Yoo, Chul Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Ki Suck

2014-01-01

146

Comparison of benefit and mortality of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients aged ?75 years versus those <75 years.  

PubMed

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy decreases arrhythmic and all-cause mortality in patients at high risk of sudden death. However, its clinical benefit in elderly patients is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of ICD treatment in elderly patients and to identify markers of successful ICD therapy and risk factors of mortality. We performed multivariate analysis of a prospective long-term database from 2 tertiary care centers including 936 consecutive patients with an ICD. Predictors of ICD therapy and risk factors for mortality were assessed in patients ?75 years old at ICD implantation compared to younger patients. Mean follow-up time was 43 ± 40 months. Rates of ICD therapy were similar in the 2 age groups. No significant predictors of ICD therapy could be identified in older patients. Median estimated survival was 132 months in patients <75 years and 81 months in those ?75 years old (p = 0.006). Decreased ejection fraction (hazard ratio 1.62 per 10% decrease, p = 0.03) and impaired renal function (hazard ratio 1.57 per 10 ml/kg/m(2) decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate, p = 0.02) were independent risk factors of mortality in patients ?75 years old. However, mortality of older patients was similar to that of the age-matched general population irrespective of delivery of ICD therapy. In conclusion, ICD therapy is effective for treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias in all age groups. However, prevention of sudden cardiac death may have limited impact on overall mortality in older patients. Despite a similar rate of appropriate ICD therapies, risk of death is increased 1.6-fold in ICD recipients ?75 years old compared to younger patients. Patients with decreased ejection fraction and impaired renal function are at highest risk. PMID:22154315

Brüllmann, Simon; Dichtl, Wolfgang; Paoli, Ursula; Haegeli, Laurent; Schmied, Christian; Steffel, Jan; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Hintringer, Florian; Seifert, Burkhard; Duru, Firat; Wolber, Thomas

2012-03-01

147

Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%), rotavirus (18.1%) and norovirus (13.7%). The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%). V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%), while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21345186

2011-01-01

148

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009  

MedlinePLUS

... Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 Years in the United States, 1998–2009 On ... differences between population subgroups of children aged 5–17 years. Keywords: race, ethnicity, poverty status, National Health ...

149

Percentage of Children Aged 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability, United States, 2007--2009  

MedlinePLUS

... MMWR website . QuickStats: Percentage of Children Aged 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability,* ... above shows the percentage of children aged 5-17 years ever receiving a diagnosis of learning disability, ...

150

Recurrence and follow-up after urinary tract infection under the age of 1 year  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the risk factors for recurrence and the value of routine follow-up by monthly urine cultures in a group\\u000a of children who had their first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) under 1 year of age, we performed a retrospective\\u000a survey of 262 children (134 girls, 128 boys) who were treated for their first UTI while aged

Matti Nuutinen; Matti Uhari

2001-01-01

151

Significance of Silent Infarcts in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Aged 80 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The significance of silent infarcts (SIs) is unknown in very elderly patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Fifty patients aged 80 years and older with first-ever acute ischemic stroke were studied. The conventional risk factors for stroke, the scores of age-related white matter changes, and the findings on echocardiography were compared between patients with and without SIs. Results:

Yang-Ki Minn; Soo-Jin Cho; Ju-Hun Lee; Su-Yeon Kim; Chul-Ho Kim; Ki-Han Kwon; Byung-Chul Lee

2005-01-01

152

Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency of Hong Kong Children Aged 6–9 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the fundamental motor skill proficiency of Hong Kong children ages 6–9. Ninety-one male and 76 female Chinese students (mean age = 7.6 years) from six local primary schools in Hong Kong participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition (TGMD-2) was administrated to assess the mastery of gross motor skills by an experienced physical

Agnes Wai-Yin Pang; Daniel Tik-Pui Fong

2009-01-01

153

Methods for Predicting Age0 Crappie Year-Class Strength in J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the precision and efficiency of larval townets and trap nets and correlated estimates to hydrologic parameters (temperature and spring discharge) during 1998–2002 to determine the best method for predicting year-class strength of age-0 white crappie Pomoxis annularis and black crappie P. nigromaculatus in J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee. Both larval townet and fall trap-net samples effectively sampled age-0

R. Todd St. John; William Patrick Black

2004-01-01

154

U.S. Health spending by age, selected years through 2004.  

PubMed

This paper examines variations in health spending by children, working-age adults, and seniors for selected years between 1987 and 2004. Seniors spent far more per person than children or working-age adults, but the relative gap between the age groups has not changed much since 1987 except for those age eighty-five and older. Since the inception of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, the proportion of children's health spending financed by public sources has increased, while the share paid for out of pocket has decreased. The future age-mix is expected to have a major impact on nursing home spending growth while minimally affecting overall Medicare spending growth. PMID:17986478

Hartman, Micah; Catlin, Aaron; Lassman, David; Cylus, Jonathan; Heffler, Stephen

2008-01-01

155

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.  

PubMed

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments. PMID:20032926

2009-12-25

156

Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. Results Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11) if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised). Conclusions These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen. PMID:25251831

Thompson, John M. D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A.

2014-01-01

157

Eating Attitudes Test in Boys and Girls Aged 6–18 Years: Decrease in Concerns with Eating in Boys and the Increase in Girls with Their Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns with eating were studied in 130 Japanese boys and 125 girls aged 6–18 years using the Simplified Eating Attitudes Test (s-EAT). The s-EAT scores in girls slightly increased with age. The mean scores in girls at age 10 years or older were significantly higher than in boys of the same age, suggesting that pubertal girls have more concerns with

Takehiko Ohzeki; Hiroko Otahara; Keiichi Hanaki; Hiroko Motozumi; Kazuo Shiraki

1993-01-01

158

Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Childhood Behavior Problems at 3 and 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated behavior problems in children who were prenatally exposed to methamphetamine (MA) at ages 3 and 5 years. METHODS: The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle study, a prospective, longitudinal study of prenatal MA exposure and child outcome, enrolled subjects postpartum in Los Angeles, California; Honolulu, Hawaii; Des Moines, Iowa; and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Prenatal exposure was determined by maternal self-report and/or meconium results. Exposed and comparison groups were matched on race, birth weight, public health insurance, and education. Mothers in the comparison group denied use and had a negative meconium screen for amphetamines. Prenatal exposures to tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana occurred in both groups. At ages 3 and 5 years, 330 children (166 exposed and 164 comparison) were assessed for behavior problems by using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist. General linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of prenatal MA exposure, including heavy exposure (?3 days per week), age, and the interaction of exposure and age on behavior problems with adjustment for other drugs of abuse and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: MA exposure was associated with increased emotional reactivity and anxious/depressed problems at both ages and externalizing and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder problems by age 5 years. Heavy exposure was related to attention problems and withdrawn behavior at both ages. There were no effects of MA on the internalizing or total behavior problems scales. CONCLUSIONS: This first report of behavior problems in patients as young as 3 years associated with MA exposure identifies an important public health problem. Continued follow-up can inform the development of preventive intervention programs. PMID:22430455

Derauf, Chris; Smith, Lynne M.; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Neal, Charles; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Lin, Hai; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lester, Barry M.

2012-01-01

159

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

160

Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children under two years of age: evidence based?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Appropriate use of antibiotics is one of the major issues in medicine today. In most countries, acute otitis media in children is treated with antibiotics; however, the efficacy of antibiotic use in every acute otitis media is a controversial issue. It may be worthwhile looking for special risk groups that benefit more from antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Children under two years of age with acute otitis media are at risk of poor outcome. AIM: To assess whether the current high prescription rates of antibiotics for acute otitis media in children under two years of age (being a risk group for poor outcome) are based on an established increased efficacy. METHOD: Systematic literature review and a quantitative analysis with an assessment of the methodological quality of published trials, comparing antibiotic treatment with non-antibiotic treatment in acute otitis media in children aged under two years. RESULTS: Six trials were included. Trials from before 1981 had a poor methodological quality. Four were suitable for the quantitative analysis. Only two of them were truly placebo-controlled. Of these two, one included only recurrent acute otitis media and the other included only non-severe episodes. With these restricted data, no statistically significant difference was found between antibiotic-treated children and controls under two years of age with acute otitis media, judged on the basis of clinical improvement within seven days (common odds ratio = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.83-2.08). CONCLUSION: The current high prescription rates of antibiotics among children under two years of age with acute otitis media are not sufficiently supported by evidence from published trials. New randomized placebo-controlled trials using reliable methodology are needed in this young age group. PMID:10198511

Damoiseaux, R A; van Balen, F A; Hoes, A W; de Melker, R A

1998-01-01

161

Self-Esteem Development From Age 14 to 30 Years: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the development of self-esteem in adolescence and young adulthood. Data came from the Young Adults section of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which includes 8 assessments across a 14-year period of a national probability sample of 7,100 individuals age 14 to 30 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases during adolescence and continues to increase

Ruth Yasemin Erol; Ulrich Orth

2011-01-01

162

Age-related changes in os calcis ultrasonic indices: A 2-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed repeated ultrasound measurements approximately 2 years apart (average 23 months ±3 months) on the os calcis of 113 healthy postmeno-pausal women recruited from two large prospective cohort studies named OFELY and EPIDOS. Group A (from OFELY) consisted of 88 women aged 52–72 (63±5) years, randomly selected from a large insurance company, and group B (from EPIDOS) consisted of

A. M. Schott; D. Hans; P. Garnero; E. Sornay-Rendu; P. D. Delmas; P. J. Meunier

1995-01-01

163

Student Engagement at Two-Year Institutions: Age and Generational Status Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

For students to be successful in either two-year or four-year colleges, they need to be engaged in their college experiences. In this investigation, we analyzed data, over 40,000 cases obtained from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement, concerning student engagement as it was related with student age and with student generational status. Statistically significant differences were found in the

Angela M. Gibson; John R. Slate

2010-01-01

164

Firearm-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years--United States, 1980-1991.  

PubMed

In 1991, deaths from suicide and homicide combined were the third leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 65 (YPLL-65) in the United States. Firearms were used in 60.1% of all suicides, in 67.8% of all homicides, and in less than 2.0% of unintentional injury deaths. Firearm-related death rates increased during the late 1980s, particularly among adolescents and young adults. To characterize trends in premature mortality attributed to firearm-related injuries, annual mortality data were analyzed for 1980-1991 (the most recent years for which complete data were available). This report summarizes the results of the analysis. PMID:8065292

1994-08-26

165

Iron deficiency anaemia in Jamaican children, aged 1-5 years, with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine, using a combination of measures, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in children under five years-of-age who have sickle cell disease (SCD) and attend the Sickle Cell Clinic (SCU) of the Tropical Medicine Research Institute. Materials and Methods: Children with homozygous sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS) or doubly heterozy- gous

L King; M Reid; TE Forrester

2005-01-01

166

FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

167

Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

2007-01-01

168

Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

Dorfman, Lorraine T.

2009-01-01

169

A Longitudinal Study of Cardiovascular Stability in Active Men Aged 45 to 65 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional studies have shown that a decrease in cardiovascular function occurs with age but don't reveal if the decline can be forestalled by exercise. This study followed 15 active men serially for twenty years to determine the type and rate of cardiovascular function decline. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

Kasch, Fred W.; And Others

1988-01-01

170

Pill Swallowing Ability and Training in Children 6 to 11 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread view that children have difficulty swallowing pills, data are limited. In an observational cohort study, pill swallowing ability (small oral tablet) was assessed in children age 6 to 11 years. A total of 113 of 124 subjects (91%) swallowed a tablet using an ordinary cup or a patented pill cup. All 57 subjects who initially said they

E. O. Meltzer; M. J. Welch; N. K. Ostrom

2006-01-01

171

Interactive Whiteboards, Interactivity and Play in the Classroom with Children Aged Three to Seven Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the current use of interactive whiteboards in the teaching and learning of children aged three to seven years in Wales, UK. It considers both teachers' and children's reflections regarding the use of this "novel" technology. Observations in 30 classrooms with interactive whiteboards (IWB) and interviews with teachers and…

Morgan, Alex

2010-01-01

172

Interactive whiteboards, interactivity and play in the classroom with children aged three to seven years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current use of interactive whiteboards in the teaching and learning of children aged three to seven years in Wales, UK. It considers both teachers’ and children’s reflections regarding the use of this ‘novel’ technology. Observations in 30 classrooms with interactive whiteboards (IWB) and interviews with teachers and children from these classroom settings are analysed to develop

Alex Morgan

2010-01-01

173

Maryland Special Education Data on Exiting Students Aged 14-21, School Year 1993-94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs and charts present data on students aged 14-21 exiting special education services in Maryland during the 1993-1994 school year. Reasons for leaving special education are analyzed by local education areas and by disability, with specific charts devoted to students with mental retardation, speech or language impairments, serious emotional…

Maryland State Dept. of Education. Baltimore. Div. of Planning, Results and Information Management.

174

Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

2009-01-01

175

Economic Burden of Obesity in Youths Aged 6 to 17 Years: 1979-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine the trend of obe- sity-associated diseases in youths and related economic costs. Methods. Using a multiyear data file of the National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1979 -1999, we analyzed the changes in obesity-associated diseases and economic costs in youths (6 -17 years of age) over time. Diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea, and gallbladder disease were exam- ined to explore

Guijing Wang; William H. Dietz

2002-01-01

176

First Mothering Over 35 Years: Questioning the Association of Maternal Age and Pregnancy Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women having a first baby at 35+ years are commonly considered to be “at risk” for pregnancy complications. This understanding appears to be based primarily on age, and curerntly many healthy women are included in this category. There is clear evidence to suggest that, for these women, being considered “at risk” is anxiety provoking.In this Australian qualitative study of first

M. Carolan; S. Nelson

2007-01-01

177

An anthropometric survey of Indian schoolchildren aged 3–5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergartens of age group 3–5 years, a distinct and small subgroup of Indian schoolchildren, need special emphasis on human factors. The paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on schoolchildren. These data, previously lacking in India, can be of benefit for the designers of kindergartens. A set of 81 different body dimensions was taken from a sample of

G. G. Ray; S. Ghosh; V. Atreya

1995-01-01

178

Children's Terms & Conditions All children under the age of 16 years are considered children  

E-print Network

Children's Terms & Conditions · All children under the age of 16 years are considered children · Children must be accompanied by a competent adult at all times within the centre, unless for specific children's programmes and courses · Children are only permitted to use the swimming pool with an adult

O'Mahony, Donal E.

179

Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

2012-01-01

180

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

181

Epilepsy in patients with spastic cerebral palsy: correlation with MRI findings at 5 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between epilepsy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with spastic cerebral palsy at five years of age. We studied 14 patients with congenital anomaly and 116 with perinatal injury. The patients with perinatal injury were subdivided into two groups; those with preterm type injury alone (group P),

Akihisa Okumura; Fumio Hayakawa; Toru Kato; Kuniyoshi Kuno; Kazuyoshi Watanabe

1999-01-01

182

The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age  

E-print Network

perception Gaze following a b s t r a c t Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n = 18/age) viewed pho- tographs

Maurer, Daphne M.

183

Behavioral Outcomes and Evidence of Psychopathology Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Age 20 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Information on the mental health of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) chil- dren in young adulthood is sparse. We thus sought to examine gender-specific behavioral outcomes and evi- dence of psychopathology in a cohort of VLBW young adults at 20 years of age. Methods. We compared a cohort of 241 survivors among VLBW infants who were born

Maureen Hack; Eric A. Youngstrom; Lydia Cartar; Mark Schluchter; H. Gerry Taylor; Daniel Flannery; Nancy Klein; Elaine Borawski

2010-01-01

184

A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur

Sandra A. Brown; Matthew McGue; Jennifer Maggs; John Schulenberg; Ralph Hingson; Scott Swartzwelder; Christopher Martin; Tammy Chung; Susan F. Tapert; Kenneth Sher; Ken C. Winters; Cherry Lowman; Stacia Murphy

2008-01-01

185

Alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure in Korean adults aged 50 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of the association between alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and carotid atherosclerosis by evaluating the effects of alcohol intake on carotid artery enlargement. METHODS: The study population consisted of 4302 community-dwelling Koreans (1577 men and 2725 women) aged 50 years and over. All the subjects

Young-Hoon Lee; Min-Ho Shin; Sun-Seog Kweon; Sung-Woo Choi; Hye-Yeon Kim; So-Yeon Ryu; Bok-Hee Kim; Jung-Ae Rhee; Jin-Su Choi

2009-01-01

186

Birth defects among surviving children under seven years of age in Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the developed countries. They are also of increasing concern in many developing countries, such as China. However, prevalence and causes of birth defects in China are inadequately understood.^ The purpose of the present study was to estimated prevalence of birth defects in surviving children under seven years of age in

Baoguang Wang

1997-01-01

187

Optic Pathway Hypothalamic Gliomas in Children under Three Years of Age: The Role of Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Optic pathway\\/hypothalamic gliomas (OPHGs) tend to occur in young children. Treatment options consist of surgical resection, radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Due to complications induced by surgery and RT, chemotherapy has gained significant recognition for the treatment of OPHG in young children. Chemosensitivity of OPHG in very young children under 3 years of age has not been well documented.

Michele Madeira Silva; Stewart Goldman; Gesina Keating; Mary Anne Marymont; John Kalapurakal; Tadanori Tomita

2000-01-01

188

Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

2013-01-01

189

Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella

Annicka M Reuss; Marcel Feig; Lutz Kappelmayer; Anette Siedler; Tim Eckmanns; Gabriele Poggensee

2010-01-01

190

Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

Liu, Chiung-ju

2010-01-01

191

Risk Factors for Serious Suicide Attempts among Youths Aged 13 through 24 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine associations between a series of sociodemographic factors, childhood experiences, and mental disorders and risk of serious suicide attempt in young people aged 13 through 24 years and to explore the joint relationship between these factors and vulnerability to serious suicide attempt.

ANNETTE L. BEAUTRAIS; PETER R. JOYCE; ROGER T. MULDER

1996-01-01

192

The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

2012-01-01

193

Maxillofacial injuries in a group of South Africans under 18 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective — To find out the incidence of maxillofacial injuries in South African children aged 18 years or less. Design — Retrospective study of casenotes. Setting —Six teaching hospitals affiliated to the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, serving a population of about 5 million people. Subjects — All 326 children treated for facial injuries in the maxillofacial and oral departments of

Y. Bamjee; J. F. Lownie; P. E. Cleaton-Jones; M. A. Lownie

1996-01-01

194

Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to…

Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

2008-01-01

195

Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r ac t Background Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death. Methods We randomly assigned 3845 patients from Europe, China, Australasia, and Tunisia who

Nigel S. Beckett; Ruth Peters; Astrid E. Fletcher; Jan A. Staessen; Lisheng Liu; Dan Dumitrascu; Vassil Stoyanovsky; Riitta L. Antikainen; Yuri Nikitin; Craig Anderson; Alli Belhani; Françoise Forette; Chakravarthi Rajkumar; Lutgarde Thijs; Winston Banya; Christopher J. Bulpitt

2008-01-01

196

Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

2013-01-01

197

Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death for children 3-14 years of age.  

E-print Network

Relevance · Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death for children 3-14 years of age in passenger safety. · General Programming in Passenger Safety (Including Health and Safety Fairs) Agents can access the Traffic Safety Program Toolkit at http://fcs.tamu.edu/safety/ passenger

198

Adult outcome of normal children who are short or underweight at age 7 years.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the adult growth outcome (at age 23) of children who are short or underweight at age 7 years in whom no identifiable pathological cause exists for their poor growth. DESIGN--Longitudinal follow up of a birth cohort. SETTING--The national child development study (1958 birth cohort) of Great Britain. SUBJECTS--523 children with a height or a weight below the fifth centile at age 7. Of these, 70 (13.4%) were excluded because they had a longstanding illness that could account for their poor growth. The remaining 453 subjects, who were followed to age 23, provided the base group from which those with additional data, such as parental height, were obtained. RESULTS--55/174 (31.6%) boys who were short at age 7 became short men; 60/211 (28.4%) girls who were short at age 7 became short women. Among boys who were underweight at age 7, 46/160 (28.7%) were still underweight at age 23, while 61/200 (30.5%) girls underweight at age 7 became underweight women. Having short parents did not increase the probability of being small as an adult. Children with delayed puberty were as likely to remain small as those in whom puberty was not delayed. CONCLUSIONS--One in three normal children who was short or underweight at age 7 became a short or underweight adult. This informs the management of short children and may be valuable when prolonged growth hormone treatment for short stature is being considered. PMID:7711536

Greco, L.; Power, C.; Peckham, C.

1995-01-01

199

Depression, anxiety, and within-person variability in adults aged 18 to 85 years.  

PubMed

Mild depression and anxiety were investigated in relation to measures of within-person (WP) variability and mean reaction time from psychomotor, executive function, visual search, and word recognition tasks in a continuous age range (18-85 years, M=50.33, SD=20.37) of 300 community-dwelling adults. Structural equation modeling identified a significant Age x Depression interaction in relation to visual search for measures of WP variability but not for mean reaction time. Older more depressed adults exhibited greater variability. WP variability in executive function and other cognitive constructs covaried, and the significant Age x Depression interaction with visual search was accounted for by WP variability in executive control. The findings suggest that age- and depression-related reductions in attentional resources may contribute to increased variability in visual search and that variability in executive control may be the mechanism underlying these effects. PMID:19140655

Bunce, David; Handley, Rowena; Gaines, Stanley O

2008-12-01

200

Melanoma in adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years): United States, 1999-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive melanoma of the skin is the third most common cancer diagnosed among adolescents and young adults (aged 15-39 years) in the United States. Understanding the burden of melanoma in this age group is important to identifying areas for etiologic research and in developing effective prevention approaches aimed at reducing melanoma risk. Methods Melanoma incidence data reported from 38 National Program of Cancer Registries and/or Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results statewide cancer registries covering nearly 67.2% of the US population were used to estimate age-adjusted incidence rates for persons 15-39 years of age. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to compare rates between demographic groups. Results Melanoma incidence was higher among females (age-adjusted incidence rates = 9.74; 95% confidence interval 9.62-9.86) compared with males (age-adjusted incidence rates = 5.77; 95% confidence interval 5.68-5.86), increased with age, and was higher in non-Hispanic white compared with Hispanic white and black, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and Asian and Pacific Islanders populations. Melanoma incidence rates increased with year of diagnosis in females but not males. The majority of melanomas were diagnosed on the trunk in all racial and ethnic groups among males but only in non-Hispanic whites among females. Most melanomas were diagnosed at localized stage, and among those melanomas with known histology, the majority were superficial spreading. Limitations Accuracy of melanoma cases reporting was limited because of some incompleteness (delayed reporting) or nonspecific reporting including large proportion of unspecified histology. Conclusions Differences in incidence rates by anatomic site, histology, and stage among adolescents and young adults by race, ethnicity, and sex suggest that both host characteristics and behaviors influence risk. These data suggest areas for etiologic research around gene-environment interactions and the need for targeted cancer control activities specific to adolescents and young adult populations. PMID:22018066

Weir, Hannah K.; Marrett, Loraine D.; Cokkinides, Vilma; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Patel, Pragna; Tai, Eric; Jemal, Ahmedin; Li, Jun; Kim, Julian; Ekwueme, Donatus U.

2012-01-01

201

Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

2014-01-01

202

Safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients 80 years of age and older  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary tract diseases. The ERCP is an invasive procedure that does not increase complications in the elderly. Few studies have assessed the safety of ERCP in the elderly. Life expectancy is rising, which causes an increasing demand for ERCP in the elderly. Aim To show that therapeutic ERCP is safe and we compared the level of complications among the elderly (> 80 years of age) and the level among a younger group (< 65 years of age). Material and methods The study was designed retrospectively. The details of all patients 80 years of age and older undergoing ERCP were analysed. One hundred and fifty patients were included in each of the groups: > 80 years of age, older group A; and < 65 years of age, younger group B. Results In group A, 4 cases (2.7%) of bleeding (all mild) was observed, and perforation was not observed. The ERCP-related mild pancreatitis was observed in 7 patients (4.6%). There were no cases of mortality during procedures of ERCP in group A. In group B 6 bleeding cases (4%) (all mild) were observed. Perforation was not observed in group B. ERCP-related mild pancreatitis occurred in 11 patients (7.3%). There were no cases of mortality during procedures of ERCP in group B. Our study showed that ERCP is a safe and effective procedure in elderly patients. Conclusions Outcomes of ERCP for diagnostic and therapeutic success, and complication rates, are similar to those in younger patients. The ERCP is effective and safe in the elderly. PMID:25276254

Behlul, Baydar; Sezgin, Vatansever; Altay, Kandemir; Mustafa, Celik; Cem, Cekic; Bilge, Ormeci; Fatih, Aslan; Emrah, Alper; Zafer, Buyrac; Kadir, Aksoz; Belkis, Unsal

2014-01-01

203

Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age.  

PubMed

We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group: median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years). The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but different in age. After careful arthroscopic evaluation of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear, rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy were performed in all patients. Pre- and post-operatively, each patient was evaluated for range of motion, shoulder score (UCLA), and SF-36 self-administered questionnaire. Comparing pre- versus post-operative status at a minimum 24 months follow-up, forward elevation, internal and external rotation, modified UCLA rating system scores, and SF-36 scores improved significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. At the last follow-up, strength improved significantly in both groups, with non-significant intergroup difference. The Popeye sign was detected in 13/28 (46%) of the patients in the over 65 group and in 11/28 (39%) in the under 65 group (? = 0.29) with non-significant difference between the two groups. In selected active patients older than 65, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair associated with biceps tenotomy (when necessary) can yield clinical and related quality of life outcomes similar to those of patients younger than 65 years. PMID:20182868

Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

2010-12-01

204

Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37–43 years of age (mean 40.3 years, SD 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had experienced moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in the first year of life (n=77) with healthy controls, who were former classmates of the index cases and were matched for age, sex and handedness in childhood (n=57). The previously malnourished participants had been rehabilitated, with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, and study participants were followed longitudinally from childhood to 40 y. Group comparisons were adjusted for childhood and adolescent standard of living, with and without correcting for IQ. Results At the broad domain or factor level, previously malnourished participants had higher scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than did the healthy controls At the sub-domain or facet level, previously malnourished participants reported more anxiety, vulnerability, shyness and lowered sociability, less intellectual curiosity, greater suspiciousness of others, a more egocentric than altruistic orientation, and a lowered sense of efficacy or competence. Conclusions Malnutrition limited to the first year of life with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, is associated with a significant overrepresentation of adult personality trait scores outside of the average range. This outcome has important implications for a variety of important life and mental health outcomes. PMID:23488644

Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

2013-01-01

205

Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles. PMID:24316574

Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

2014-03-01

206

Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Aim Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females) younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years). The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females) older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years). Results The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001), pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001), treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001), and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084). Conclusion Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia represent a frequent cause of venous thrombosis among young female patients. Inferior vena cava abnormalities should be excluded in young patients with spontaneous proximal venous thrombosis especially when recurrent venous thrombosis or resistance to anticoagulation are observed. PMID:22454560

Kreidy, Raghid; Salameh, Pascale; Waked, Mirna

2012-01-01

207

Motor skills in extremely low birthweight children at the age of 6 years.  

PubMed

Fifty three children aged 6 years old who had weighed less than 1251 g at birth without cerebral palsy and receiving mainstream education, were entered into a controlled study of motor skills. The index and control children were matched by age, sex, and school. The index group were considered by their teachers to have similar academic performances to their index group were considered by their teachers to have similar academic performances to their controls, although two index cases were receiving remedial teaching. On the test of motor impairment extremely low birthweight children had significantly more motor difficulties than controls. In addition, the index group had more minor neurological signs, lower intelligence quotients, and more adverse behavioural traits. The higher motor impairment scores among index children were independent of differences in intelligence quotient between the two groups. There was no association between impairment score and the presence or degree of periventricular haemorrhage or periventricular leucomalacia on neonatal cerebral ultrasound. Children with Apgar scores at five minutes of less than 7 had significantly higher impairment scores compared with those whose scores were 7 or more. Three perinatal factors (Apgar score at five minutes, neonatal septicaemia, and abnormal movements) explained 32% of the variance in impairment score at the age of 6 years. In children who do not have cerebral palsy perinatal factors may still be important in the development of motor skills. The presence of subtle neuromotor impairments at 6 years of age has implications for schooling that need further evaluation. PMID:2476079

Marlow, N; Roberts, B L; Cooke, R W

1989-06-01

208

Dietary fluoride intake of children aged 3-7 years in remote areas of Thailand.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to measure dietary fluoride intake in children aged 3-7 years, to correlate dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water for use in schools and to estimate fluoride gained from the daily diet. Fifty food samples were collected in 45 schools under the jurisdiction of the Border Patrol Police Department. The schools were sampled by multiple stratified cluster random sampling. The food samples were weighed, then measured for fluoride content by a microdiffusion method. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary fluoride in each age group was compared by Student's t test. Analysis for the relationship between dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water was done using Kendall's tau-b. Our results showed that the mean of dietary fluoride in lunch was 0.08 +/- 0.1 ppm. There were no differences when comparing dietary fluoride between different regions of Thailand (p = 0.07). No correlation was found between dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water used in different schools (r(tau) = 0.017, p = 0.85). The daily dietary fluoride intake in children aged 3-6 years was 0.002-0.004 mgF/kg bw/day, in children aged 7 years was 0.003-0.004 mgF/kg bw/day in boys and 0.002-0.004 mgF/kg bw/day in girls. PMID:11289025

Chuckpaiwong, S; Nakornchai, S; Surarit, R; Soo-ampon, S

2000-09-01

209

Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

2012-07-01

210

Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Texas Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: For > 50 years, polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) have been used worldwide, mainly as surfactants and emulsifiers, and human exposure to some PFCs is widespread. Objectives: Our goal was to report PFC serum concentrations from a convenience sample of Dallas, Texas, children from birth to < 13 years of age, and to examine age and sex differences in PFC concentrations. Methods: We analyzed 300 serum samples collected in 2009 for eight PFCs by online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in > 92% of participants; the other PFCs measured were detected less frequently. Overall median concentrations of PFOS (4.1 ng/mL) were higher than those for PFOA (2.85 ng/mL), PFNA (1.2 ng/mL), and PFHxS (1.2 ng/mL). For PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, we found no significant differences (p < 0.05) by sex, significantly increasing concentrations for all four chemicals by age, and significantly positive correlations between all four compounds. Conclusions: We found no significant differences in the serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS by sex, but increasing concentrations with age. Our results suggest that these 300 Texas children from birth through 12 years of age continued to be exposed to several PFCs in late 2009, years after changes in production of some PFCs in the United States. PMID:22182702

Malik-Bass, Noor; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Colacino, Justin A.; Gent, Tyra L.; Hynan, Linda S.; Harris, T. Robert; Malla, Sunitha; Birnbaum, Linda

2011-01-01

211

A Complete Census of the Bright z~9-10 Galaxies in the CANDELS Data Set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, we have only limited information on the spectral properties, stellar masses, and luminosity function of galaxies at z~9-10. While the new Frontier Fields Initiative will significantly improve our knowledge of the prevalence of fainter sources at these epochs, no comparable HST programs exist to study the properties of the brighter z~9-10 galaxies. This is unfortunate given that the brighter z~9-10 candidates are more amenable to follow-up study with facilities such as Spitzer and ALMA and the existence of only 8 reasonably reliable bright candidates (only 3 visible to ALMA). Fortunately, we can rectify this situation by using the existing HST+Spitzer observations over the full CANDELS program to identify all plausible z~9-10 candidates in that data set, but which lack sufficiently deep 1-micron observations to be secure. Here we propose to follow up each of these candidates with WFC3/IR at 1-micron F105W to determine which are likely at z~9-10 and thereby almost certainly doubling the number of bright, reliable z~9-10 candidates known to ~17 galaxies. Our follow-up strategy is very efficient, e.g., >~10x more efficient as tiling the relevant CANDELS fields with 1-micron F105W data and ~40x more efficient as searches in fields with no pre-existing data. The large samples of bright z~9-10 galaxies we will select with our program will be used to solidify current conclusions about the evolution of the bright end of the UV luminosity function, to quantify evolution in the mean spectral properties and stellar masses of galaxies from z~10, and as targets for follow-up studies on dust emission from galaxies with ALMA.

Bouwens, Rychard

2014-10-01

212

Neurological and functional outcomes of subdural hematoma evacuation in patients over 70 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease entity treated by neurosurgical intervention. Although the incidence increases in the elderly population, there is a paucity of studies examining their surgical outcomes. Objectives: To determine the neurological and functional outcomes of patients over 70 years of age undergoing surgical decompression for subdural hematoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 45 patients above 70 years who underwent craniotomy or burr holes for acute, chronic or mixed subdural hematomas. We analyzed both neurological and functional status before and after surgery. Results: Forty-five patients 70 years of age or older were treated in our department during the study period. There was a significant improvement in the neurological status of patients from admission to follow up as assessed using the Markwalder grading scale (1.98 vs. 1.39; P =0.005), yet no improvement in functional outcome was observed as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score. Forty-one patients were admitted from home, however only 20 patients (44%) were discharged home, 16 (36%) discharged to nursing home or rehab, 6 (13%) to hospice and 3 (7%) died in the postoperative period. Neurological function improved in patients who were older, had a worse pre-operative neurological status, were on anticoagulation and had chronic or mixed acute and chronic hematoma. However, no improvement in functional status was observed. Conclusion: Surgical management of SDH in patients over 70 years of age provides significant improvement in neurological status, but does not change functional status. PMID:24250154

Mulligan, Patrick; Raore, Bethwel; Liu, Shuling; Olson, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

213

Pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease children under 10 years of age.  

PubMed

Despite the finding of elevated Tricuspid Regurgitant Velocity (TRV) in children below 5 years of age, the prevalence and evolution of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) in young children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are unclear. In order to identify predictive factors of precocious PH development, SCD children > or =3 years old, at steady state, underwent annual echocardiography and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI). Patients receiving chronic transfusion were excluded. Thirty-seven of seventy-five patients were > or =3 years, with measurable TRV. In our young population (mean age 6.2 years) of mainly African, HbS/HbS patients, 8/37 (21.6%) had TRV > or =2.5 m/s, 8% being only 3 years old. Significant correlation was found between precocious TRV elevation and high platelet and reticulocyte counts and frequent acute chest syndromes (ACS). In multivariate analysis, ACS was the only variable predicting TRV > or =2.5 m/s. TDI of the 37 patients showed signs of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. At follow-up all eight patients with high TRV displayed further increase and seven more developed TRV > or =2.5 m/s. PH seems to begin in children earlier than expected. Factors involved in its early onset might be different from the ones causing its development in older children or adults. African children might benefit from early screening and re-assessment once a year. PMID:20553267

Colombatti, Raffaella; Maschietto, Nicola; Varotto, Elena; Grison, Alessandra; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Meneghello, Linda; Teso, Simone; Carli, Modesto; Milanesi, Ornella; Sainati, Laura

2010-09-01

214

Gait initiation: the first four steps in adults aged 20-25 years, 65-79 years, and 80-91 years.  

PubMed

Transitioning from standing to walking requires equilibrium to be maintained while a forward propulsive force is generated. The ability to manage these competing demands is compromised by the progressive sensory, neural and motor declines associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to establish the age-related changes in the first four steps of gait in three age groups: 20-25 years old (yo) (N=19), 65-79 yo (N=11), and 80-91 yo (N=18). Participants stood comfortably and then walked at a self-selected pace for 3.2m. Gait speed and step length (SL) both significantly decreased with each age category at each of the first four steps. However, the gait speed changes suggest that older groups control speed in a principled manner across the four steps, which was similar to the speed control of 20-25 yo. With successive steps, 20-25 yo demonstrated a progressive decrease in SL variability, but SL variability of the two older groups did not change. Step width (SW) did not change as a function of age, but SW variability was higher for the two older groups. Higher SL and SW variability may reflect more errors in foot placement and/or decreased center of mass control in the older groups. Further, it appears that AP COM control improves with successive steps in young adults while ML COM control decreases with successive steps in all age groups. When comparing the two older groups, healthy 80-91 yo walked slower with a shorter SL, but did not demonstrate changes associated with falls (SL and/or SW variability). PMID:24074729

Muir, B C; Rietdyk, S; Haddad, J M

2014-01-01

215

Suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescents aged 12-16 years: a 17-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The prevalence of suicidal ideation/behavior in 1983 or 1987 and its association with future mental health in 2001 were evaluated in a provincially representative sample of Canadian adolescents (n = 1,248) aged 12 to 16 years. Approximately 13.3% (95% CI = 11.5-15.3) of adolescents self-reported suicidal ideation/behavior. Adolescent agreement with parent (? = .07) and teacher (? = .05) reports at baseline was low because adults identified so few subjects. In adulthood, the associations between adolescent self-reports of suicidal behavior/ideation and major depression and other mental health indicators were explained by respondent sex and adolescent emotional problems reported in 1983/1987. Adolescents with suicidal behavior/ideation often are not recognized by their parents and teachers and may be at risk for persistent psychiatric problems attributable to coexisting mental health problems early-on. PMID:24494741

Joffe, Benjamin I; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Duncan, Laura; Boyle, Michael H

2014-10-01

216

Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection among children between the ages of 4 and 12 years in Taiwan.  

PubMed

To determine risk factors responsible for primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in Taiwan, samples of blood for antibody to CMV were obtained from 362 children aged 4 to 12 years: 58% were found to be positive for anti-CMV IgG antibody. Logistic regression analysis showed that seropositivity correlated with age, method of delivery, duration of breast feeding, and younger age of mother. Neither socioeconomic status nor crowded living conditions showed significant correlation with CMV seropositivity. Primary CMV infection in Taiwan appears to be less related to socioeconomic status shown in western countries, and, since the majority of pregnant women were seropositive in Taiwan, two of the major sources of primary CMV transmission are infected breast milk and the infected genital tract. PMID:1320100

Shen, C Y; Chang, W W; Chang, S F; Chao, M F; Huang, E S; Wu, C W

1992-05-01

217

Trunk extensor and flexor strength capacity in healthy young elite athletes aged 11-15 years.  

PubMed

Differences in trunk strength capacity because of gender and sports are well documented in adults. In contrast, data concerning young athletes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess the maximum trunk strength of adolescent athletes and to investigate differences between genders and age groups. A total of 520 young athletes were recruited. Finally, 377 (n = 233/144 M/F; 13 ± 1 years; 1.62 ± 0.11 m height; 51 ± 12 kg mass; training: 4.5 ± 2.6 years; training sessions/week: 4.3 ± 3.0; various sports) young athletes were included in the final data analysis. Furthermore, 5 age groups were differentiated (age groups: 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 years; n = 90, 150, 42, 43, and 52, respectively). Maximum strength of trunk flexors (Flex) and extensors (Ext) was assessed in all subjects during isokinetic concentric measurements (60°·s(-1); 5 repetitions; range of motion: 55°). Maximum strength was characterized by absolute peak torque (Flexabs, Extabs; N·m), peak torque normalized to body weight (Flexnorm, Extnorm; N·m·kg(-1) BW), and Flexabs/Extabs ratio (RKquot). Descriptive data analysis (mean ± SD) was completed, followed by analysis of variance (? = 0.05; post hoc test [Tukey-Kramer]). Mean maximum strength for all athletes was 97 ± 34 N·m in Flexabs and 140 ± 50 N·m in Extabs (Flexnorm = 1.9 ± 0.3 N·m·kg(-1) BW, Extnorm = 2.8 ± 0.6 N·m·kg(-1) BW). Males showed statistically significant higher absolute and normalized values compared with females (p < 0.001). Flexabs and Extabs rose with increasing age almost 2-fold for males and females (Flexabs, Extabs: p < 0.001). Flexnorm and Extnorm increased with age for males (p < 0.001), however, not for females (Flexnorm: p = 0.26; Extnorm: p = 0.20). RKquot (mean ± SD: 0.71 ± 0.16) did not reveal any differences regarding age (p = 0.87) or gender (p = 0.43). In adolescent athletes, maximum trunk strength must be discussed in a gender- and age-specific context. The Flexabs/Extabs ratio revealed extensor dominance, which seems to be independent of age and gender. The values assessed may serve as a basis to evaluate and discuss trunk strength in athletes. PMID:24149756

Mueller, Juliane; Mueller, Steffen; Stoll, Josefine; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

2014-05-01

218

Skin sensitization to common allergens in Turkish wheezy children less than 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Infants and small children with asthma are not commonly skin tested, as allergy is not considered to be a major cause of infantile asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of skin test positivity to various allergens in wheezy children less than 3 years of age. We evaluated 161 patients with infantile asthma (median age 20 months) and 100 healthy controls (median age 18 months). Infantile asthma was defined as three or more episodes of wheezing in a child less than 3 years of age, whose symptoms improved on treatment with beta-agonist and anti-inflammatory agents. All children were skin tested to house dust mites (HDM), pollens, molds, and cow milk extracts using prick technique. One hundred and eighteen (73.3%) children In the patient group tested positive to HDM, 84 (52.1%) to pollens, 37 (22.9%) to molds, and 16 (10%) to cow milk. Sensitization rates to HDM were significantly higher in the patient group than In the healthy controls. Sensitization rates to pollens were not statistically different between the two groups. There was no association between family history of atopy and frequency of sensitization to allergens in the wheezy and control groups. We concluded that skin sensitization to allergens was common In wheezy infants. The prevalence of sensitization to indoor allergens was higher than to outdoor or food allergens. PMID:15565945

Emin, Ozkaya; Nermin, Güler; Ulker, One?; Gökçay, Gülbin

2004-01-01

219

MR Volumetry of Hippocampus in Normal Adult Malay of Age 50 Years Old and Above  

PubMed Central

Background: Hippocampal volume is affected by several psychiatric illnesses of old age, as well as by normal aging. It is important to have a normal data in a population to assist in diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine hippocampal volume in normal Malay people aged 50 years old and older. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of the normal Malay population aged 50 to 77 years. We included 43 participants, representing 19 men and 24 women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a GE Signa Horizon LX 1.0 Tesla. Oblique coronal images of temporal lobes were obtained and hippocampal volumetry was done manually and normalised with intracranial volume. Results: Mean right and left hippocampal volumes (HCVs) were 3.43 cm³ (SD 0.32) and 3.26 cm³ (SD 0.34), with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). Total mean HCVs exhibited no significant difference between men and women (P = 0.234). The means of the normalised right and left HCVs were 3.42 cm³ (SD 0.31) and 3.26 cm³ (SD 0.32). Conclusion: The mean right and left hippocampal volumes were significantly different in this study. Men had slightly larger mean HCVs but the difference was not statistically significant. It was found that normalisation further reduces the mean volume difference between the genders. PMID:24043993

EMBONG, Muhammad Fadli; YAACOB, Ruwaida; ABDULLAH, Mohd Shafie; ABDUL KARIM, Ahmad Helmy; GHAZALI, Anis Kausar; JALALUDDIN, Win Mar @ Salmah

2013-01-01

220

Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.  

PubMed

The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies. PMID:23054474

Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

2012-01-01

221

Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

2012-08-31

222

Endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients 70 years of age and older  

PubMed Central

Background: An increasing number of elderly patients present with intracranial aneurysms. In addition to female gender, an older age is associated with a higher risk of developing a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and these patients often fare poorly in terms of long-term outcome. It is often thought that elderly patients would especially benefit from endovascular aneurysm treatment. We assessed the clinical outcomes in elderly patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) who were treated by endovascular procedures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of elderly patients treated with coil embolization for RIAs. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. The rates of procedural complications and adverse events were also recorded. Results: During a period of 5 years, 162 patients with 183 intracranial aneurysms were treated in our hospital by means of an endovascular approach. Among them, 51 patients (31.5%) with a ruptured aneurysm were aged 70 years or older. These patients aged 70-91 years (mean age, 74 years) were treated by coil embolization for RIAs. Among them, seven had a Hunt and Hess (HH) grade of I or II, 42 had an HH grade of III or IV, and 2 had an HH grade of V. Endovascular treatment resulted in 32 complete occlusions (62.7%), 15 neck remnants (22%), and 4 body fillings (7.9%). Procedural complications occurred in five patients (9.8%). The outcomes were good or excellent in 17 patients (33.3%). Three patients (5.8%) who died had an HH grade of IV or V. Rebleeding occurred during follow-up in one patient (1.9%). Conclusions: Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective in the elderly. However, the morbidity and mortality rates are higher in patients with high HH grades. This finding suggests that the timing of treatment should be based on the patient's initial clinical status. PMID:25101199

Watanabe, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takao; Koyama, Shunichi; Ohashi, H. Tomoo; Okada, Hirohumi; Ichimasu, Norio; Kohno, Michihiro

2014-01-01

223

Prospective Study of Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Children Less Than 3 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children under the age of 3 years are due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Epidemiological, host, and viral factors eventually account for the severity of LRTIs, but they do not completely explain it. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was recently identified in children with LRTIs. In a population-based prospective multicenter study (the PRI.DE study, conducted

Brigitte Konig; Wolfgang Konig; Ralf Arnold; Herrmann Werchau; Gabriele Ihorst; Johannes Forster

2004-01-01

224

Lung function in white children aged 4 to 19 years: I--Spirometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--A study was performed to produce reference standards for spirometric lung function in white children and to calculate standard deviation scores adjusted for gender and pubertal stage. METHODS--A cross sectional study was made of 772 white children aged 4.6 to 18.8 years (455 male) tested on an OHIO 840 spirometer and assessed anthropometrically and pubertally. RESULTS--Before puberty there was a

M Rosenthal; S H Bain; D Cramer; P Helms; D Denison; A Bush; J O Warner

1993-01-01

225

A cohort-sequential latent growth model of physical activity from ages 12 to 17 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite serious public health implications of decreased physical activity during adolescence, few longitudinal studies have\\u000a been conducted to determine the trajectory and important correlates of physical activity change during this period.Purpose: This study examines change in physical activity from ages 12 to 17 years and the influences of personal, family, peer, and\\u000a demographic factors on activity patterns.Methods: Data were

Susan C. Duncan; Terry E. Duncan; Lisa A. Strycker; Nigel R. Chaumeton

2007-01-01

226

Bone Densitometry in Canadian Children 8–17 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Normative bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) values for the total body (TB), proximal femur (PF),\\u000a and antero-posterior lumbar spine (LS) were obtained from a large cross-sectional sample of children and adolescents who were\\u000a 8–17 years of age. There were 977 scans for the TB, 892 for the PF, and 666 for the LS; bone mineral

R. A. Faulkner; D. A. Bailey; D. T. Drinkwater; H. A. McKay; C. Arnold; A. A. Wilkinson

1996-01-01

227

Percentiles for body mass index in U.S. children 5 to 17 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: It has been recommended that body mass index (BMI) (weight in kilograms\\/height in meter2) be used routinely to evaluate obesity in children and adolescents. This report describes the distribution of BMI in children and adolescents in the United States. Methods: Standardized measurements of height and weight from 9 large epidemiologic studies including 66,772 children age 5 to 17 years

Bernard Rosner; Ronald Prineas; Jennifer Loggie; Stephen R. Daniels

1998-01-01

228

Investigating Health and Diabetes Perceptions Among Hmong American Children, 9–18 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

After immigrating to the United States (US), obesity and diabetes have increased among the Hmong. Therefore, this study investigated\\u000a how Hmong children perceive health and diabetes risk so that appropriate interventions may be planned. Hmong children (N = 335), ages 9–18 years participated in this study. A survey used Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) as the theoretical framework\\u000a and silhouette drawing instrument. Heights and

Urvashi Mulasi-Pokhriyal; Chery Smith

2011-01-01

229

Prenatal exposures to cocaine and alcohol and physical growth patterns to ageyears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and two primarily African American\\/Caribbean children (classified by maternal report and infant meconium as 38 heavier, 74 lighter and 89 not cocaine-exposed) were measured repeatedly from birth to ageyears to assess whether there is an independent effect of pre-natal cocaine exposure on physical growth patterns. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome identifiable at birth were excluded. At birth,

Julie C. Lumeng; Howard J. Cabral; Katherine Gannon; Timothy Heeren; Deborah A. Frank

2007-01-01

230

Lung volumes in healthy boys and girls, 6–15 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), and its subdivisions, inspiratory capacity (IC) and expiratory reserve\\u000a volume (ERV) were measured by spirometry in 140 healthy children (74 boys and 66 girls), aged 6–15 years.\\u000a \\u000a Total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were calculated on the measured lung volumes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The coefficient of variation was calculated on three successive determinations of

H. von der Hardt; R. Nowak-Beneke

1976-01-01

231

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy and Child Weight at AgeYears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the importance of pregnancy weight gain as a predictor of overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] >85th percentile)\\u000a in offspring at ageyears and if its influence varies by maternal BMI. Methods Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 208 mother-child pairs from an earlier observational\\u000a cohort study on postpartum weight retention. Results In the

Christine M. Olson; Myla S. Strawderman; Barbara A. Dennison

2009-01-01

232

Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.  

PubMed

Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) and <50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0) kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7) nmol/L (21.4 [10.7] ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50 nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2) nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2) nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2014-01-01

233

Percentile values for flexibility tests in youths aged 6 to 17 years: Influence of weight status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of weight status on flexibility performance in Spanish youths (1475 boys and 1237 girls) aged 6–17 years, and to provide percentile values for two flexibility tests. Flexibility was assessed by the sit-and-reach and shoulder stretch tests. Participants were categorized as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Girls had significantly

José Castro-Piñero; María José Girela-Rejón; José Luis González-Montesinos; Jesús Mora; Julio Conde-Caveda; Michael Sjöström; Jonatan R. Ruiz

2011-01-01

234

Risk Factors for Liver Dysfunction in Middle Aged Men based on Four Year Health Examination Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk Factors for Liver Dysfunction in Middle Aged Men based on Four Year Health Examination Data: Kumiko TAJIMA, et al. Department of Public Health, Gunma University School of Medicine—In order to develop a better lifestyle improvement program, the relationship between lifestyle and changes in liver function were compared through data-linkage of a self-administered questionnaire to the results of annual health

Kumiko TAJIMA; Kazuo TAKEUCHI; Shosuke SUZUKI

1998-01-01

235

Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

2014-03-19

236

Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

2014-01-01

237

eProst ID: 20090686 Approval Date: 9/10/2010  

E-print Network

to participate if: You are the primary caregiver of an older adult who is > 50 yrs You are 21 years of age-being of caregivers and the ability of caregivers to balance employment and work responsibilities. You are eligible or older You are currently employed full or part time at the University of Miami or Jackson Health System

Shyu, Mei-Ling

238

Suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years worldwide: changes in the past two decades.  

PubMed

Background Limited research is focused on suicides in children aged below 15 years. Aims To analyse worldwide suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years in two decades: 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Method Suicide data for 81 countries or territories were retrieved from the World Health Organization Mortality Database, and population data from the World Bank data-set. Results In the past two decades the suicide rate per 100 000 in boys aged 10-14 years in 81 countries has shown a minor decline (from 1.61 to 1.52) whereas in girls it has shown a slight increase (from 0.85 to 0.94). Although the average rate has not changed significantly, rates have decreased in Europe and increased in South America. The suicide rates remain critical for boys in some former USSR republics. Conclusions The changes may be related to economic recession and its impact on children from diverse cultural backgrounds, but may also be due to improvements in mortality registration in South America. PMID:25104833

Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

2014-10-01

239

Influenza vaccination: the persuasiveness of messages among people aged 65 years and older.  

PubMed

About 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 years and older. Vaccination remains the primary option for preventing influenza infection. This study examined the efficacy of messages designed to increase the uptake of influenza vaccination. Two messages, narrative and didactic, were created based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The study employed a one-factor between-subjects experimental design with participants assigned randomly to three conditions: no message, didactic communication, and narrative communication. Participants were 311 Italian people aged 65 years or older. The results showed that, compared to no message and didactic communication, narrative communication was related to higher risk perception of influenza, to higher perception of the efficacy of the vaccine, and to self-efficacy related to vaccination, controlling for social trust, previous flu shot, and demographic variables. There were no differences among the three conditions with respect to the intention to receive the influenza vaccine. Findings suggest that narrative communication based on EPPM may have a persuasive effect on people aged 65 years or older. PMID:21957983

Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Zani, Bruna

2012-01-01

240

Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.  

PubMed

The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

2013-01-01

241

Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children  

PubMed Central

The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

2013-01-01

242

Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters--Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population. PMID:23983630

El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Tuma, Mazin; El-Hennawy, Hany; AbdulRahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Asim, Mohammad; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

2013-01-01

243

Cytotoxicity of endodontic sealers after one year of aging in vitro.  

PubMed

The in vitro cytotoxic response to endodontic sealers was assessed for one year. AH-Plus (AHP), Epiphany (EPH), EndoRez (ER), Guttaflow (GF), InnoEndo (IN), and Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS) were exposed to mouse osteoblasts and human monocytes after curing, 52 weeks of aging, and after resurfacing post-aging; cellular response was estimated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. The effect of materials on TNF? secretion from activated (LPS) and inactivated monocytes also was measured. Cell responses were compared with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc analysis (? = 0.05). Initially, all materials except GF suppressed osteoblastic SDH activity compared with Teflon (Tf) controls. SDH activity in cells exposed to some aged sealers improved significantly; but IN and ER remained cytotoxic. When aged materials were resurfaced then tested, AHP, ER, GF, and IN did not change. EPH and PCS were more toxic. Monocytes responded similarly to the osteoblasts. No endodontic sealer activated monocytic TNF? secretion (p > 0.05 vs. -LPS Tf-controls). LPS-activated monocytes exposed to unresurfaced AHP and IN significantly suppressed TNF? secretion. When activated monocytes were exposed to the resurfaced sealers, differential suppression of TNF? secretion was observed for three of the four sealers tested (EPH, IN, and PCS). The results suggest that long-term aging may be a useful adjunct to in vitro assessment of these materials. PMID:22807227

Brackett, Martha Goël; Lewis, Jill B; Kious, Andrew R; Messer, Regina L W; Lockwood, Petra E; Brackett, William W; Wataha, John C

2012-10-01

244

Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. Results A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. Conclusion The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health. PMID:24380060

Jung, Yun-Hoa

2013-01-01

245

Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13-15 years classified by skill level  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1?years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer?specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15?years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant predictors of soccer skill (29% of the total explained variance), highlighting the inter?relationship of growth, maturity and functional characteristics of youth soccer players. PMID:17224444

Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, Joao; Cumming, Sean P

2007-01-01

246

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  

E-print Network

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Almulhem, Ahmad

247

The effects of house moves during early childhood on child mental health at age 9 years  

PubMed Central

Background Residential mobility is common in families with young children; however, its impact on the social development of children is unclear. We examined associations between the number, timing and type of house moves in childhood and child behaviour problems using data from an ongoing longitudinal study. Methods Complete data on residential mobility and child behaviour was available for 403 families. Three aspects of mobility were considered: (a) number of house moves from birth to <2?years, 2 to <5?years and 5 to 9?years; (b) lifetime number of house moves; and (c) moves associated with different housing trajectories characterized by changes in housing tenure. The primary outcomes were internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems at 9?years derived from Achenbach’s Child Behaviour Checklist. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of the housing variables on internalizing and externalizing behaviour problem scores with adjustment for a range of sociodemographic and household covariates. Results Moving house ?2 times before 2?years of age was associated with an increased internalizing behaviour score at age 9?years. This association remained after adjustment for sociodemographic and household factors. There was no association between increased residential mobility in other time periods and internalizing behaviour, or mobility in any period and externalizing behaviour. There was no effect of lifetime number of moves, or of an upwardly or downwardly mobile housing trajectory. However, a housing trajectory characterized by continuous rental occupancy was associated with an increased externalizing behaviour score. Conclusions These findings may suggest that there is a sensitive period, in the first few years of life, in which exposure to increased residential mobility has a detrimental effect on mental health in later childhood. PMID:22853693

2012-01-01

248

Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

2000-01-01

249

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our ?ndings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

2013-01-01

250

Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school  

PubMed Central

Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n?=?3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n?=?1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

2014-01-01

251

In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age. PMID:23092909

Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cezar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

2012-01-01

252

Public Information about the 2014 FESAC Strategic Planning (SP) Panel: Strategy At the 9-10 April 2014 FESAC meeting, the DOE Office of Science (SC) issued a  

E-print Network

-FES's formulation of its ten-year strategic plan for the fusion energy sciences programPublic Information about the 2014 FESAC Strategic Planning (SP) Panel: Strategy At the 9-10 April 2014 FESAC meeting, the DOE Office of Science (SC) issued

253

Seroprevalence of antipolio antibodies among children <15 years of age in border provinces in China.  

PubMed

Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals <15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ?8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China. PMID:23677325

Wang, HaiBo; Cui, Hui; Ding, ZhenGrong; Ba, Pian; Zhu, ShuangLi; Wen, Ning; Hao, LiXin; Ning, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, De; Xu, WenBo; Zhang, Yong; Fan, ChunXiang; Yu, WenZhou; Liang, XiaoFeng; Luo, HuiMing

2013-07-01

254

Seroprevalence of Antipolio Antibodies among Children <15 Years of Age in Border Provinces in China  

PubMed Central

Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals <15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ?8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China. PMID:23677325

Wang, HaiBo; Cui, Hui; Ding, ZhengRong; Ba, Pian; Zhu, ShuangLi; Wen, Ning; Hao, LiXin; Ning, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, De; Xu, WenBo; Zhang, Yong; Fan, ChunXiang; Yu, WenZhou; Liang, XiaoFeng

2013-01-01

255

Outcome of patients with osteosarcoma over 40 years of age: Is angiogenesis a marker of survival?  

PubMed Central

Background Osteosarcoma predominantly afflicts young people in their second and third decades of life. When osteosarcoma arises in patients older than 40 years, the prognosis is usually poorer compared to their younger counterparts. Although the clinical, histopathologic features and prognostic indicators are well defined for young patients, much less is known about affected adults. The purpose of this study is to describe our institution's experience with the management of osteosarcoma in patients greater than 40 years and also evaluate, by immunohistochemical analysis, the prognostic significance of microvessel density, as a marker of intratumoural angiogenesis. Methods A retrospective clinicopathological analysis was performed on 11 patients over the age of 40 years that were treated at our institution between 1996 and 2004. Archival pre-treatment biopsy tissue was retrieved for immunohistochemical staining against two endothelial cell markers (CD31 and CD34) and also against VEGF. Angiogenesis was assessed by determining the intratumoural microvessel density (MVD) and the degree of VEGF expression in these specimens. This was correlated with patient outcome in terms of local recurrence, metastasis and death. Histological results were also compared to a group of patients less than 40 years of age. Results Of the 11 patients, 9 were male and 2 were female and the mean age was 58 years (range, 42–85). In 7 patients, osteosarcoma arose secondarily from Paget's disease of the bone. The most common site involved was the humerus (7) followed by the femur (2) then pelvis (1) and ulna (1). At the time of diagnosis, 4 patients had metastatic disease. Preoperative chemotherapy was given to 4 patients, with a good response in 3 patients. Six patients underwent limb-sparing surgery, 4 had amputations and 1 was treated with radiotherapy alone. The mean follow up time was 31.5 months (range, 8–81). At this time, 4 patients (36%) had developed lung metastases and 5 patients (46%) had died. Overall survival was 54.5%. Intratumoural MVD was higher in patients over 40 years, although not statistically significant (p = 0.111, CD31; p = 0.134, CD34). VEGF was uniformly expressed in all sections, however no relationship was found between the degree of expression and patient age. Conclusion The prognosis for older patients with osteosarcoma is generally poor. Initial presentation is commonly associated with metastatic disease and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is often avoided because of its side effects. Increased intratumoural vascularity may contribute to the poorer prognosis in these patients, however further studies are needed. PMID:16551370

Ek, Eugene TH; Ojaimi, Joseline; Kitagawa, Yasuyuki; Choong, Peter FM

2006-01-01

256

April 9-10, 2003 HAPL Program Meeting, SNL, Albuquerque, N.M. 1 Lowering Target Initial Temperature to  

E-print Network

April 9-10, 2003 HAPL Program Meeting, SNL, Albuquerque, N.M. 1 Lowering Target Initial Temperature National Laboratory, Albuquerque, N. M. April 9-10, 2003 #12;April 9-10, 2003 HAPL Program Meeting, SNL, Albuquerque, N.M. 2 Target Survival During Injection · Target heat source: energy exchange from chamber

Raffray, A. René

257

Assessment of Dental Age of Children Aged 3.5 to 16.9 Years Using Demirjian's Method: A Meta-Analysis Based on 26 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background A method for assessing dental maturity in different populations was first developed in 1973 by Demirjian and has been widely used and accepted since then. While the accuracy for evaluating dental age using Demirjian’s method compared to children’s chronological age has been extensively studied in recent years, the results currently available remain controversial and ambiguous. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before July 12th, 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian’s method for estimating chronological age in children. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 26 studies with a total of 11,499 children (5,301 boys and 6,198 girls) aged 3.5 to 16.9 years. Overall, we found that Demirjian’s method overestimated dental age by 0.35 (4.2 months) and 0.39 (4.68 months) years in males and females, respectively. A subgroup analysis by age revealed that boys and girls between the ages of 5 to 14 were given a dental age estimate that was significantly more advanced than their chronological age. Differences between underestimated dental ages and actual chronological ages were lower for male and female 15- and 16-year-old subgroups, though a significant difference was found in the 16-year-old subgroup. Conclusions Demirjian’s method’s overestimation of actual chronological tooth age reveals the need for population-specific standards to better estimate the rate of human dental maturation. PMID:24367690

Yan, Jin; Lou, Xintian; Xie, Liming; Yu, Dedong; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Yilin

2013-01-01

258

Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

Miyamoto, David T. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-07-15

259

Importance of Presurgical Breast MRI in Patients 60 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective: To demonstrate the importance of presurgical bilateral breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in women 60 years of age and older. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained with waiver of informed consent for this retrospective review. From December 2003 to December 2011, all patients 60 years and older who had presurgical bilateral breast MRI were reviewed, revealing 1268 presurgical MRI examinations; 310 had a new lesion identified by MRI. Cases were excluded due to incomplete or missing data, resulting in 243 patients with 272 findings eligible for analysis. Data recorded included patient demographics, core biopsy method and pathology, type of surgery, and surgical pathology results. Results: Of 1268 exams performed in this population, 272 (21.5%) patients with suspicious MRI findings underwent needle biopsy. Malignancy was found in 114 (42%), benign findings in 127 (47%), and atypia in 31 (11%). Of the malignancies, 83 were in the ipsilateral breast and 31 in the contralateral breast to the original diagnosis. Of the ipsilateral findings, 47 were in the same quadrant as the primary diagnosis, 28 in a different quadrant, and 8 were metastatic lymph nodes. Of the 31 atypical findings, 14 were contralateral to the primary diagnosis and 17 were ipsilateral. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent surgical excision; 111 changed their surgical management as a lesion was seen on MRI and was diagnosed as cancer on needle biopsy. Conclusions: Among the patients aged 60 years and above who had presurgical bilateral breast MRI, we found additional cancers in 9.0% (n = 114/1268) and atypia in 2.4% (n = 31/1268). A change in management as a result of the MRI-detected lesion occurred in 8.8% (n = 111/1268). These results demonstrate that performing presurgical bilateral breast MRI is of value in women 60 years of age and above. PMID:25250195

Destounis, Stamatia V; Arieno, Andrea L; Morgan, Renee C

2014-01-01

260

Clinicoradiological features of tuberculous meningitis in patients over 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a debilitating form of CNS tuberculosis with a high morbidity and mortality in spite of treatment. The diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and laboratory features. The classical CT features of basal exudates, hydrocephalus, infarcts and granulomas have been mostly reported in younger individuals. Our aim was to study imaging features of TB meningitis in adults over the age of 50?years. Materials and methods Clinical, imaging and laboratory features of 53 adult patients over the age of 50?years (sixth to eighth decades) were studied retrospectively. Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical and laboratory features. Results Imaging features were the conspicuous absence of typical features of TBM (ie, basal meningeal enhancement, hydrocephalus, infarcts/granulomas were seen in only a minority of patients). Conclusions CT features of TBM in elderly patients were few, atypical and non?contributory for diagnosis, probably because of age related immune senescence. Strong clinical suspicion and correlation with laboratory findings is necessary for early diagnosis. PMID:17220292

Srikanth, S G; Taly, A B; Nagarajan, K; Jayakumar, P N; Patil, S

2007-01-01

261

Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

2011-03-01

262

Infant Formula with Docosahexaenoic Acid, Maternal Smoking, and Body Mass Index of Children To Six Years of Age  

E-print Network

supplementation on growth of term infants to age six. The study aim was to determine if DHA supplementation in formula consumed from birth to one year and maternal smoking affects growth of children through six years. Anthropometric measures and maternal...

Currie, Lindsey Marie

2012-05-31

263

Effective 9/10/2014 1 TITLE IX POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITING SEXUAL ASSAULT  

E-print Network

Effective 9/10/2014 1 TITLE IX POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITING SEXUAL ASSAULT AND OTHER sexual assault, unwanted sexual contact, and sexual harassment. While all these behaviors are abhorrent and damaging, Rice views sexual assault as particularly so and will sanction that behavior most severely

264

Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting April 9-10, 2014  

E-print Network

Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting April 9-10, 2014 Hilton Rockville Hotel and Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike; Rockville, MD 20852-1699 (301) 468-1100 AGENDA April 9 7:15 p.m. Public Comments 5:00 p.m. Adjourn #12;Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting April 9

265

Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 9/10/09 FACE-TO-FACE  

E-print Network

, HWB 102 G. ROUNDTABLE H. Judy expressed concern about communication of health benefit changesProfessional Staff Committee MINUTES 9/10/09 FACE-TO-FACE LOCATION HWB TIME Noon CHAIR Shellie to help votes. C. Subcommitte Updates a. Communications i. Name change from "pro staff" to "administrative

Hemmers, Oliver

266

OUCL GS Rev 27/9/10 REQUEST FOR CONFERENCE FUNDING  

E-print Network

OUCL GS Rev 27/9/10 REQUEST FOR CONFERENCE FUNDING Please complete all parts of this form, get your of the event for which funding is requested and you will need a statement of support from your supervisor. Please ensure that you have explored all other options before applying for departmental funding

Oxford, University of

267

Synthesis of regioisomerically pure 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

The perylene derivative 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetrabutylester has been obtained in regioisomerically pure form, by employing a highly efficient, scalable, and robust synthesis starting from commercially available perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic bisanhydride. Subsequently, this compound is utilized for the synthesis of extremely valuable and versatile regioisomerically pure intermediates, namely, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dibutylester monoanhydride, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic bisanhydride, and 1,7-dibromoperylene monoimid monoanhydride. These compounds possess at least one anhydride functionality in addition to the 1,7 bromo substituents and thus allow for a virtually limitless attachment of substituents both at the "peri" and the "bay" positions. The intermediate 1,7-dibromoperylene monoimide monoanhydride is of special interest as it provides access to unsymmetrically imide-substituted 1,7-dibromoperylene derivatives, which are not accessible by previously known procedures. Finally, substitution of the 1,7 bromine atoms in the bay area by phenoxy groups, which is a generally applied reaction for 1,7-dibromoperylene bisimides, was proven to be equally effective for a 1,7-dibromoperylene tetraester and a 1,7-dibromoperylene diester monoimid. PMID:24984205

Sengupta, Sanchita; Dubey, Rajeev K; Hoek, Rob W M; van Eeden, Sjoerd P P; Gunba?, D Deniz; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Jager, Wolter F

2014-07-18

268

MICB 410 -Immunology Class: 9:10 10:00 am; MWF HS 411  

E-print Network

MICB 410 - Immunology Class: 9:10 ­ 10:00 am; MWF HS 411 Prof: Dr. Scott Wetzel (SC216, ph: 243 7 22 T Cell Antigen Recognition and the Immunological Synapse 8 24, 27 T Cell Effector Functions 8, III, IV) 13 14 Immunodeficiencies and HIV 12 (pgs. 507-546) 17, 19 Immunological Tolerance

Vonessen, Nikolaus

269

Comparison of usefulness of Sokolow and Cornell criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy in subjects aged <20 years versus >30 years.  

PubMed

The use of electrocardiography in sports or military screening is considered an effective tool for diagnosing potentially fatal conditions. The present study was designed to compare the yield of electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) criteria for the diagnosis of LVH and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in subjects aged <20 years and >30 years. The association between the electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria for LVH (ECG-LVH) and echocardiographic findings was compared in 4 groups of air force academy candidates: (1) young candidates undergoing echocardiography because of ECG-LVH findings (n = 666); (2) young candidates without ECG-LVH findings undergoing routine echocardiography (n = 4,043); (3) older designated aviators undergoing echocardiography because of ECG-LVH findings (n = 196); and (4) older designated aviators undergoing routine echocardiography without ECG-LVH findings (n = 1,098). The predictive value of ECG-LVH findings for echocardiographic LVH, left ventricular mass, posterior wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness were compared among the 4 groups. The ECG criteria in young subjects correlated with the left ventricular mass and posterior wall thickness but not with the interventricular septal thickness. In older subjects, these criteria correlated with left ventricular mass, interventricular septal, and posterior wall thickness. The positive and negative predictive value of ECG-LVH findings for the echocardiographic diagnosis of LVH in young subjects was 6.0% and 99.0%, respectively. In older subjects the positive and negative predictive value of ECG-LVH findings was 34% and 93%, respectively. In conclusion, ECG criteria are probably a useful tool for exclusion of LVH in young and older subjects; however, their low positive predictive value would probably lead to unnecessary echocardiographic tests, particularly in young subjects. PMID:22534054

Grossman, Alon; Prokupetz, Alex; Koren-Morag, Nira; Grossman, Ehud; Shamiss, Ari

2012-08-01

270

Radium retention in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age  

SciTech Connect

Retention of /sup 226/Ra was substantially lower in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age compared to corresponding values for young adult beagles injected at 17 months of age. As with young adults, the percentage retention in mature dogs given about 10 ..mu..Ci/kg exceeded that in mature dogs given 4 ..mu..Ci/kg or less. Measured /sup 222/Rn//sup 226/Ra ratios in bone were similar in mature and young adults. Roughly 66% of the injected radium was excreted by mature dogs during the first 3 weeks, about two-thirds of the total excretion appearing in the feces. Distribution of /sup 226/Ra within the skeleton was similar in mature and young adult beagles.

Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jones, C.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

1983-04-01

271

Health and nutritional status of boys aged 6 to 12 years in a children observation home.  

PubMed

One hundred and ninety two boys in the age group 6 to 12 years, living in a Children Observation Home in Delhi were studied for their nutritional status and morbidity profile. Body Mass Index (BMI), an age-independent index was used to grade the nutritional status according to which, 36.7% of the boys were found to be malnourished. Signs of specific nutritional deficiencies were observed in 13.5% of the boys. Morbidity in some form or the other was present in 148 (60%) boys. Skin disease was the commonest morbidity (31.7%), followed by diseases of the oral cavity (16.1%), acute respiratory infections (8.6%) and diseases of the ear (9.9%). Need for health promotional activities is stressed to reduce the morbidity and improve the health status of these children. PMID:9119431

Chhabra, P; Garg, S; Sharma, N; Bansal, R D

1996-01-01

272

Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years  

PubMed Central

Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a ‘mini-ice age’ with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times. PMID:20236963

Balazik, Matthew T.; Garman, Greg C.; Fine, Michael L.; Hager, Christian H.; McIninch, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

273

Structural and Functional Reorganization of the Corpus Callosum between the Age of 6 and 8 Years  

PubMed Central

The establishment of an efficient exchange of information between the cerebral hemispheres is of crucial importance in the developing functionally lateralized brain. The corpus callosum, the major connection between the cerebral hemispheres, grows constantly throughout childhood and adolescence. However, behavioral studies suggest the existence of a critical time period for callosal functional development starting around the age of 6 years. In the present longitudinal study, examining a cohort of 20 children at the age of 6 and 8 years, we assessed the relationship between structural and functional callosal development during this time period. The structural development was quantified by calculating the increase in callosal thickness using a shape-based computational analysis of the mid-sagittal corpus callosum as obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. The functional development was assessed with a speech discrimination task based on the dichotic presentation of consonant–vowel syllables. The statistical analysis revealed that children whose callosal isthmus increased in thickness over the course of 2 years showed a decrease in interhemispheric information transfer. However, children exhibiting a decrease in isthmus thickness revealed an increase in information transfer. These results might indicate a refinement process of the callosal connections to optimize the neuronal communication between the developing cerebral hemispheres. PMID:20847151

Luders, Eileen; Specht, Karsten; Ofte, Sonja H.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth

2011-01-01

274

The relationship between expressive language level and psychological development in children with autism 5 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age of detection of autism varies and may be linked to differences in the severity of disturbance and any associated retardation. Symptom intensity, overall language level, age of recognition of first disturbances and level of psychological development were examined in 222 children with pervasive developmental disorder with a mean age of 5 years. Results showed a positive correlation between

R. Pry; A. Petersen; A. Baghdadli

2005-01-01

275

Age changes in personality traits and their heritabilities during the adult years: evidence from Australian twin registry samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short versions of four Eysenck personality scales had been included in questionnaires given to several adult samples from the Australian Twin Registry, comprising altogether some 5400 pairs. Means and regressions with age are compared for three samples at average ages of 23, 37, and 61 years, and for two samples of retested individuals, one tested twice at average ages of

J. C Loehlin; N. G Martin

2001-01-01

276

The novel small molecule ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist ZZ-204G is analgesic  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is inadequately managed with currently available classes of analgesic drugs. Recently, peptide antagonists of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were shown to be analgesic. The present study was conducted to characterize a novel small molecule, non-peptide antagonist at nicotinic receptors. The tetrakis-quaternary ammonium compound ZZ-204G was evaluated for functional activity on cloned nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In-vivo efficacy was assessed in rat models of tonic inflammatory pain (formalin test), neuropathic pain (chronic constriction nerve injury), and thermal nociception (tail flick test). ZZ-204G was an antagonist at nicotinic receptors inhibiting the ?9?10 subtype with an IC50 of 0.51 (0.35–0.72) nM. Antagonist activity at other nicotinic subtypes (?1?1??, ?2?2, ?2?4, ?3?2, ?3?4, ?4?2, ?4?4, ?6/?3?2?3, ?6/?3?4 and ?7) was 10–1000-fold lower than at the ?9?10 subtype. In competition binding assays, the ki of ZZ-204G at ?-aminobutyric acid(A), serotonin(3), ?-aminobutyric acid(B), ?- and ?-opioid receptors was 1000- to >10,000- fold lower than at ?9?10 nicotinic receptors. Parenteral administration of ZZ-204G dose-dependently decreased nociceptive behaviors (paw flinches) in the formalin test and mechanical hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. ZZ-204G was not antinociceptive in the tail flick assay. Results from the rotarod assay indicated that lower doses of ZZ-204G that were analgesic did not alter motor function. In summary, ZZ-204G represents a prototype small molecule antagonist for ?9?10 nicotinic receptors and provides a novel molecular scaffold for analgesic agents with the potential to treat chronic inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:21944926

Holtman, Joseph R.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Dowell, Cheryl; Wala, Elzbieta P.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Crooks, Peter A.; McIntosh, J. Michael

2011-01-01

277

Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

2011-01-01

278

Sensitization to hen's egg at the age of twelve months is predictive for allergic sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens at the age of three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specific predictors for atopic sensitization in early infancy are prerequisites for preventive intervention studies. Objective: To identify predictors of allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens in infancy, 1314 children in five German cities were followed up from birth (1990) to the age of 3 years. Methods: BLOOD samples were taken from cord blood and at follow-up visits at the ages

Renate Nickel; Michael Kulig; Johannes Forster; Renate Bergmann; Carl Peter Bauer; Susanne Lau; Irene Guggenmoos-Holzmann; Ulrich Wahn

1997-01-01

279

Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ?70 years.  

PubMed

Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ?70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; P<0.001) for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ?4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; P<0.001), and 48% for the high-fit individuals (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69; P<0.001). These findings suggest that exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. PMID:24821944

Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

2014-07-01

280

Greater Than Age-Related Changes in Brain Diffusion of HIV Patients After 1 Year  

PubMed Central

Chronic infection with HIV is associated with neuroinflammation. Prior diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies demonstrated increased mean diffusion (MD) and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter (WM) and subcortical brain regions of HIV patients. The current study aims to detect whether there are greater than age-related brain changes in HIV patients after a 1-year follow-up period using DTI. Thirty-nine antiretroviral-stable HIV subjects and 32 HIV-seronegative (SN) controls were evaluated, with neuropsychological tests and DTI, at baseline and after 1 year. MD and FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and in six other subcortical and white matter regions were evaluated bilaterally. Compared to SN controls, HIV subjects had significantly higher MD in the frontal WM (p=0.0104) and lower FA in the parietal WM (p=0.006). After 1 year, HIV subjects showed increase in MD in frontal and parietal WM, putamen, and genu; HIV subjects also showed greater increased genu diffusion than SN controls (p=0.005). Changes in global cognitive deficit score correlated with changes in MD in the genu and FA in the parietal and frontal WM and putamen (multiple regression, p=0.0008). Lastly, normal age-dependent changes in frontal WM diffusion and FA in genu and putamen were not observed in HIV subjects. Since increased MD may reflect increased neuroinflammation, our findings suggest greater than normal age-related inflammatory changes in the genu of these HIV patients, which may contribute to the cognitive deficits. Measurements of MD in the genu may be useful for monitoring disease progression in HIV brain infection. PMID:18709469

Wong, Victoria; Nakama, Helanna; Watters, Michael; Ramones, Darlene; Miller, Eric N.; Cloak, Christine; Ernst, Thomas

2009-01-01

281

Quantitative sex differentiation of morphological characteristics in children aged 11 to 14 years.  

PubMed

Sex is one of major factors of individual variability. In kinesiology, we explore and record changes brought on by growth and development, so we will use a sample of 1020 subjects, at the age of powerful changes caused by sexual maturation, to investigate differences in morphological characteristics of children and to determine the significance of differences based on sex. The aim of this transversal research was to determine the sex differentiation of morphological characteristics in 5th and 8th grade students of elementary school as well as structural differences between the sexes. Differential sex differences in the structure of morphological parameters surely exist, and in their basis lies in a different temporal, or periodical onset of development phases, while multivariate analysis of variance for each age removes any doubt about these differences being more than obvious. Differences in the structure of discriminant function in children aged 11 are conditioned primarily by diverse structuring of transverse dimensions, in a way that boys are distinctly superior in knee diameter, and girls in bicristal diameter. As early as the age of 11, it can clearly be recognized that pre-puberty had already progressed in girls, which is then followed by puberty. At the age of 12 girls are already experiencing a puberty spurt, which is manifested in further development of bicristal diameter and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton, particularly of lower extremities. Thirteen year old boys are on the verge of a puberty spurt, which is manifested through the development of longitudinal dimensionality, and to a lesser extent, of transverse dimensionality of the skeleton. Secondary discriminant distinctiveness can be observed continuously across all variables assessing the dimension of deposition of fat reserves, and also, absolute values of measures of subcutaneous fat tissue are more prominent in female students. It is indicative that subcutaneous fat deposits are still secondary determinants in distinguishing groups of children according to sex, in a way that this dimension is continuously expressed more perceptibly in girls. PMID:23914502

Pavi?, Renata; Kati?, Ratko; Cular, Drazen

2013-05-01

282

Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age

Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

2006-01-01

283

The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged

Paul R. Ford; Christopher Carling; Marco Garces; Mauricio Marques; Carlos Miguel; Andrew Farrant; Andreas Stenling; Jansen Moreno; Franck Le Gall; Stefan Holmström; John H. Salmela; Mark Williams

2012-01-01

284

Adenoidectomy versus chemoprophylaxis and placebo for recurrent acute otitis media in children aged under 2 years: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of adenoidectomy compared with long term chemoprophylaxis and placebo in the prevention of recurrent acute otitis media in children aged between 10 months and 2 years. Design Randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Setting Oulu University Hospital, a tertiary centre in Finland. Participants 180 children aged 10 months to 2 years with recurrent acute otitis media.

Petri Koivunen; Matti Uhari; Jukka Luotonen; Aila Kristo; Risto Raski; Tytti Pokka; Olli-Pekka Alho

2004-01-01

285

Is gluten challenge really necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in children younger than age 2 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: In the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), gluten challenge is recommended for children under the age of 2 years at initial biopsy. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of gluten challenge in this group of children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included children aged 2 years or younger who were analysed for possible CD and

Victorien M Wolters; Cissy van de Nadort; Susan AM Gerritsen; CM Frank Kneepkens; Fiebo JW Ten Kate; Caroline FM Gijsbers; Joachim J Schweizer; Peter GJ Nikkels; Marc A Benninga; Roderick HJ Houwen

2009-01-01

286

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Pregnant Women Aged 30 to 34 Years Old at Phramongkutklao Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the prevalence of GDM in pregnant women aged 30 to 34 years old who were screened by glucose challenge test (GCT) at Phramongkutklao Hospital Material and Method: The cross-sectional data were collected from 1332 pregnant women aged between 30- 34 years who attended the antenatal care clinic and delivered at Phramongkutklao Hospital from March, 2003 to January,

287

Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

Lichota, Malgorzata

2008-01-01

288

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults August 28, 2007  

E-print Network

Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults 326 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN YOUTHS 12 YEARS OF AGE AND ADULTS K E Y P O I N T S : M A N A G I N for therapy is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome

Levin, Judith G.

289

Sex education: the effect of a peer programme on pupils (aged 13-14 years) and their peer leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992 and 1993, 66 selected, trained peer leaders (aged 16-17 years) worked with 38 secondary school classes in the Southwest of England. Questionnaires elicited the views of the class teachers (N = 12), peer leaders (N = 54) and pupils (N = 884; 98 per cent). The majority of the pupils (aged 13-14 years), including those with low self-esteem

F. A. Phelps; A. R. Mellanby; N.J. Crichton; J. H. Tripp

1994-01-01

290

Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

2014-01-01

291

Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection for elderly patients at least 80 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been used recently for successful en bloc resection of even large lesions, although\\u000a no consensus appears in medical literature concerning its application to elderly patients. This prospective cohort study aimed\\u000a to evaluate the efficacy and safety of colorectal ESD for patients 80 years of age or older.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Colorectal ESD procedure findings were compared with clinical outcomes,

Toshio UraokaReiji; Reiji Higashi; Jun Kato; Eisuke Kaji; Hideyuki Suzuki; Shin Ishikawa; Mitsuhiro Akita; Tomoko Hirakawa; Shunsuke Saito; Keisuke Hori; Yoshiro Kawahara; Robert J. Mead; Kazuhide Yamamoto

292

Spinal cord tumors in children under the age of 3 years: a retrospective Canadian review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tumors of the spinal cord are exceedingly rare in infancy and only a paucity of literature exists describing the spectrum\\u000a of this disease and its management. The objectives of our study were to describe the demographic characteristics of spinal\\u000a cord tumors (SCT) in children less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and to review their treatment and outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A national

Shayna Zelcer; Daniel Keene; Ute Bartels; Anne-Sophie Carret; Bruce Crooks; David D. Eisenstat; Chris Fryer; Lucie Lafay-Cousin; Donna L. Johnston; Valerie Larouche; Albert Moghrabi; Beverly Wilson; Mariana Silva; Josee Brossard; Eric Bouffet

2011-01-01

293

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50 years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

Ju, Yo-El S.

2014-01-01

294

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

Ju, Yo-El S

2013-08-01

295

The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34 years aged Lithuanian population: 18-year incidence study based on prospective databases  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian males and females during 1991 - 2008 Methods A contact system with general practitioners covering 100% of the 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian population was the primary data source. Reports from regional endocrinologists and statistical note-marks of State patient insurance fund served as secondary sources for case ascertainment. Results The average age-standardized incidence rate was 8.30 per 100,000 persons per year (95% Poisson distribution confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.71) during 1991 - 2008 and was statistically significantly higher among males (10.44 per 100,000 persons per year, 95% CI 9.82-11.10) in comparison with females (6.10 per 100,000, 95% CI 5.62-6.62). Male/female rate ratio was 1.71 (95% CI 1.63-1.80). Results of the linear 1991 - 2008 regression model showed that the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly over the time (r = -0.215, p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data demonstrated the male predominance in primary incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged population in Lithuania. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly during 1991-2008. PMID:22011463

2011-01-01

296

BMI at 4 years of age is associated with previous and current protein intake and with paternal BMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To evaluate possible associations between body mass index (BMI) at 4 years of age, current and previous dietary intakes and parental BMI.Methods:A follow-up of dietary intake and anthropometry in 127 4-year-old children corresponding to 54% of children who completed an initial intervention study at 18 months of age.Results:Fourteen percent of the girls and 13% of the boys were overweight (age-adjusted

I Öhlund; O Hernell; A Hörnell; H Stenlund; T Lind

2010-01-01

297

Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

DiNucci, James M.

298

Body scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of body scale on the grip configurations used by young children (6-12 years old) to displace cubes that varied systematically in size (L) and mass (M). It was determined if the scaling relation we had developed for adults K = log Lc + ((log Mc)/(a + bLh + cMh)) where L(c) and M(c) is the length side and mass of the cubes, respectively, and L(h) and M(h) are the length and mass of the hand, respectively, it would also predict the change in grip configurations across this age range in a fashion consistent with the principle of similitude. The statistical and scaling analyses revealed that the invariant body-scaled relation that specified the adult grip transitions also held for the 6- to 12-year-old children. PMID:10797251

Cesari, P; Newell, K M

2000-05-01

299

[Classification of the instrument of assessment of children between 0 and 3 years of age].  

PubMed

One of the difficulties described in epidemiological studies about psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age appears during the assessment phase. In fact, the assessment of indicators of particular difficulties in children is hampered by the rapid processes of transformation of behavior that cross all areas of child development. The aim of this article was to provide an overview as complete as possible of all instruments used in the assessment phase of children 0-3 years. The literature shows a number of tools for evaluation and diagnosis of psychopathology that have been divided into four categories: mental development tests, interviews with parents, questionnaires and rating scales, evaluation of the parent-child assessment of specific diagnostic entities. The main features of each instrument are described. PMID:22992534

Zaccagnino, M; Mattei, P; Merlini, A; Rossi, A; Fazzi, E

2012-10-01

300

Serum markers of GH and insulin action in 12-year-old children born small for gestational age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our aim was to determine whether markers of growth hormone and insulin action differ between children born small for gestational age (SGA) and those born of an appropriate size for gesta- tional age (AGA). Design: Fifty-five SGA children and their 55 age- and sex-matched AGA control subjects were studied in a case-control setting at 12 years of age. Methods:

Sirpa Tenhola; Pirjo Halonen; Jarmo Jaaskelainen; Raimo Voutilainen

2005-01-01

301

Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4-6 Years  

PubMed Central

Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3–4) in Japanese preschool children. Methods The SDQ 3–4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week interval between June and July 2012. Cronbach’s ? and correlation coefficients were used to examine internal consistency and test-retest reliability, respectively. Results Of 393 parents who returned their responses at Time 1 (response rate 52.1%), 383 were used for analysis after excluding 10 responses with missing data. Their children’s mean age was 4.7 (standard deviation 0.7) years. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s ?) was good for the total difficulties score (0.74) and the prosocial behavior scale (0.70). However, it was slightly worse for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales (0.61–0.66) and poor for the peer problems scale (0.45). Of the 383 included respondents at Time 1, 211 parents returned their responses at Time 2 (response rate: 55.1%). Test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients) was good (0.73–0.82), except for the peer problems scale (0.58). Conclusions The results support the reliability of the SDQ 3–4 being satisfactory for the total difficulties score and prosocial behavior scale and being acceptable for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales in Japanese preschool children aged 4–6 years. PMID:25373462

Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

2014-01-01

302

Neurodevelopmental outcome in ECMO vs near-miss ECMO patients at 5 years of age.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of children at 5 years of age who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and those who were critically ill but did not meet ECMO criteria, identified as near-miss ECMO. In one of the longest studies of its kind, we compared the neurodevelopmental outcome of 76 5-year-old ECMO-treated children with 20 5-year-old near-miss ECMO patients with similar primary diagnoses. The two groups were compared for demographic data, level of ventilatory support, and degree of hyperventilation. The comprehensive assessment protocol included an assessment of intelligence (IQ), attainment of preacademic and early academic skills, and parents' report of adaptive behavior. Both groups had similar demographic data and primary diagnosis. The near-miss ECMO patients required increased ventilatory support but not significantly more than the ECMO patients. The cognitive outcome was similar in both groups with mean estimated Full-Scale IQ in the normal range for near-miss and ECMO groups (89 and 97, respectively). Rates of severe mental handicap (FSIQ < 70) (near-miss = 11%, ECMO = 12%) and risk for school failure (near-miss = 38%, ECMO = 37%) were also similar. More parents of near-miss ECMO patients reported immature adaptive skills than did parents of ECMO patients, although the numbers were small in each group. Rates of parent-reported child behavior problems were similar in both groups. ECMO and near-miss ECMO patients have similar cognitive and adaptive outcomes at 5 years of age. A significant number in each group are at risk of school failure and should be closely followed up. PMID:10752007

Rais-Bahrami, K; Wagner, A E; Coffman, C; Glass, P; Short, B L

2000-03-01

303

Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6-8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults. PMID:24089678

Pearce, Mark S.; James, Peter W.; Franco-Villoria, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Jones, Angela R.; Basterfield, Laura; Drewett, Robert F.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Adamson, Ashley J.

2013-01-01

304

Oxidation and Wear of 100-Mrad Cross-linked Polyethylene Shelf-aged for 30 Years  

PubMed Central

Some previous studies suggest that aging influences wear and oxidatively degraded nonsterilized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibits decreased wear resistance. We therefore asked whether shelf-aging storage conditions influenced degradation and wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE. We examined oxidation and wear of 100-Mrad gamma-irradiated UHMWPE (100-Mrad polyethylene) cups shelf-aged for 30 years without (n = 2) or with (n = 2) packages. The oxidation index of the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene surface (4) was higher than that of the packaged one (2.7). The packaged 100-Mrad polyethylene cup exhibited a high wear resistance with a steady wear rate of 0.5 mg/106 cycles. In contrast, the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene exhibited an extremely high initial wear rate of 187.9 mg/106 cycles over the first 0.25 × 106 cycles with a subsequently reduced wear rate of 5 mg/106 cycles after 5 × 106 cycles. Packaging over long periods inhibits surface oxidation and maintains the wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE cups. PMID:18196416

Oonishi, Hironobu; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Kyomoto, Masayuki

2008-01-01

305

Physical fitness percentiles for Portuguese children and adolescents aged 10-18 years.  

PubMed

This study aimed to produce age- and sex-specific physical fitness reference data for Portuguese youth; to report the prevalence of youth in the healthy zone of physical fitness according to the FITNESSGRAM(®) criteria; to verify the agreement between the Portuguese physical fitness percentiles and the FITNESSGRAM(®) healthy zones. In 2008, 22,048 Portuguese children and adolescents (10-18 years) were evaluated. Physical fitness (curl-ups, push-ups, 20-m shuttle run and modified-back-saver-sit-and-reach tests) was evaluated using the FITNESSGRAM(®) Test Battery 8.0. Smoothed percentile curves were estimated using Cole's LMS method. Boys consistently outperformed girls in every physical fitness test, except for the modified-back-saver-sit-and-reach tests. In both sexes and for all physical fitness tests, higher percentile values were observed at older ages. The 50th percentile of all physical fitness tests had the highest accuracy to discriminate between under healthy zone and healthy zone of the FITNESSGRAM(®). Portuguese schools and physical education teachers may considerer the 50th percentile for age and sex or the FITNESSGRAM(®) criteria for classifying participants in the healthy zone as acceptable cut-offs, above which youth should be considered fit. These reference values can be used as normative data and for baseline values for subsequent surveillance of the physical fitness of Portuguese youth. PMID:24825623

Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza Monica; Baptista, Fatima; Sardinha, Luis B

2014-01-01

306

Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ? 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ?29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ?29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

2014-05-16

307

Trends in AIDS Incidence in Individuals Aged 50 Years or Older in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1982-2011: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three temporal components of AIDS incidence (i.e., age, period and cohort) on individuals aged 50 or older living in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods: Age-specific incidence rates were calculated from 1982–2011. Negative binomial and Poisson models were used to analyze the risk of AIDS by age, period and cohort. Results: The risk of AIDS in men was 2.45 times higher than in women, regardless of age and period (p-value < 0.001). The incidence of AIDS in individuals older than 69 years was 7-fold lower than in those aged 50–59 years (p-value < 0.001). A decreasing trend in AIDS risk was observed from the youngest cohort (?1940) to the oldest (1910–1919). From 1982 to 2006, we could detect an increasing trend in AIDS risk in the population aged 50 years or older. A peak in rates was detected in the period from 2002–2006. The incidence rates in 2002–2006 were six times higher than those in 1987–1991 (p-value < 0.001), independent of age and sex (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: An increase of AIDS risk in older people was detected. This group should not be neglected by public health programs. PMID:25075880

Apratto Junior, Paulo Cavalcante; Barros, Monica Bastos de Lima; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Andrade, Monica Kramer de Noronha; Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Vincent, Beatriz Rodrigues Lopes; Lino, Valeria Teresa Saraiva; Rodrigues, Nadia Cristina Pinheiro

2014-01-01

308

A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

2014-01-01

309

Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen–associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:24891679

Celakovska, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerova, K; Vaneckova, J

2014-01-01

310

Laparoscopic Surgery in Elderly Patients Aged 65 Years and Older with Gynecologic Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The study was conducted to characterize the use of the laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients. Methods. The medical records of elderly patients aged ?65 years who underwent laparoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed for diseases, surgical procedures, histological diagnosis, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and reasons for presentation. Results. Of the 405 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery between January 2005 and March 2012, 41 (10.1%) were aged ?65 years. The most common disease treated by surgery was ovarian tumor, followed by uterine prolapse. Histological diagnosis of ovarian tumor specimens obtained from 23 patients included serous cystadenoma (44.0%), mature cystic teratoma (20.0%), mucinous cystadenoma (20.0%), and endometrioma (4%). In contrast, in the non-elderly group, the most common histological diagnosis was endometrioma (42.9%), followed in order by mature cystic teratoma (28.3%), serous cystadenoma (18.0%), and mucinous cystadenoma (4.7%). While 23.7% of the non-elderly patients required emergency laparoscopic surgery, none of the elderly patients required emergency surgery. Only 1 of 27 patients who underwent surgery for an ovarian or adnexal mass presented with abdominal pain. No one developed serious intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusion. Laparoscopic surgery can be safely performed in elderly patients. It should be noted, however, that few elderly patients with benign pelvic mass manifest symptoms before undergoing surgery. PMID:23227353

Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Oride, Aki; Miyazaki, Kohji

2012-01-01

311

Acute ethanol toxicity from ingesting mouthwash in children younger than 6-years of age.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to analyze reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) of suspected overingestion of ethanol from mouthrinses by children younger than 6 years of age between 1989 and 1994. Annual incidence rates of reported ethanol exposures attributed to mouthrinses were calculated. Lethal and toxic amounts of several mouthrinses were calculated using peak blood ethanol concentrations of 500 and 50 mg per 100 mL, respectively. In 1994, there were 2937 calls reported by poison control centers related to ethanol-containing mouthrinses, an estimated incidence of 168 reported exposures per 100,000 children younger than 6 years of age. A 15-kg child who ingests 212 mL (7.2 oz.) of Listerine (26.9% ethanol) ingests 57 mL (1.9 oz.) of ethanol, which is potentially lethal. Approximately one-tenth that amount of ethanol can produce a toxic reaction. Physicians, dentists, and other health care providers should inform parents of the dangers associated with accidental ingestion of mouthrinse and encourage them to keep mouthrinse out of the reach of children. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require readily visible warning labels and child-resistant caps for containers with potentially toxic volumes of ethanol. The American Dental Association (ADA) should re-evaluate its acceptance criteria for advertising cosmetic mouthrinses in its publications and consider including child-resistant caps and warning labeling. PMID:9348605

Shulman, J D; Wells, L M

1997-01-01

312

[Incidence of scrotal disease diagnosed with ultrasonography in 60 asymptomatic patients over 70 years of age].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to detect by ultrasounds the presence of scrotal pathology in a selected group of elderly men asymptomatic for scrotal pathology. From September 1990 to September 1992, 60 patients aged between 70 and 86 years (mean age 78 years) who were seen in the Department of Medicine for non-urogenital diseases were studied by 7.5 MHz linear probe. In 51.6% of patients (31 cases) an ultrasound pathology was detected with prevalence of cystic pathology of the epididymis (15 cases, 25%); in 12 patients (20%) more echographic pathologies were detected. The following abnormalities were observed: 3 cases of enlargement of the scrotal wall, 6 cases of left varicocele, 15 cases of hydrocele, 1 intratesticular area with altered echostructural pattern, 3 intraparenchymal cysts of the testis, 3 retractile testes, 2 dilatations of intratesticular blood-vessels, 15 cysts of the epididymis and 12 cases of increased size of the head of the epididymis. The authors discuss the results and conclude that high incidence of epididymis and testicular nonmalignant pathology are present in their patients; the authors suggest periodical clinical examination and, in selected patients, examination by ultrasound of the genital apparatus, in elderly patients might be useful because often scrotal pathology might be underestimated for socio-cultural reasons. PMID:7974081

Pepe, F; Pepe, P

1994-06-01

313

Lifestyle in adults aged 35 years who were born with open spina bifida: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background and Methods From 1963 to 1971, 117 babies with open spina bifida were treated non-selectively from birth. In 2002 we reviewed all the survivors by postal questionnaire and telephone call. The aims were to find out how many were living independently in the community or were in open employment or drove a car. In addition to these achievements we recorded health, medication and admissions to hospital and asked how much daily help they needed. Results Ascertainment was 100%. There had been 63 deaths, mainly of the most severely affected. The mean age of the 54 survivors was 35 years. The outcome in terms of disability ranged from apparent normality to total dependency. It reflected both the neurological deficit, which had been recorded in infancy in terms of sensory level, and events in the CSF shunt history. Overall about 2 in 5 of the survivors lived independently in the community, 2 in 5 drove a car, 1 in 5 was in competitive employment and 1 in 5 could walk 50 metres. Conclusion Although those who survived to age 35 years tended to be less disabled, 2 in 5 continued to need daily care. PMID:15679938

Hunt, Gillian M; Oakeshott, Pippa

2004-01-01

314

Rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 50 years of age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of rotator cuff tears and the clinical outcome of rotator cuff repair in patients under 50 years of age. Sixty-eight patients (72 shoulders) aged < 50 years, who underwent repair of rotator cuff tears were evaluated. We analyzed the cause of injury, tear size, time from symptom onset to surgery, and rate that patients returned to previous jobs and sports. Postoperative results were assessed by pain, strength, range of motion, and UCLA scoring system. Most of the injuries were caused by an unambiguous traumatic event. The tear size generally was medium or large, while the time from symptom onset to surgery was shorter than that seen in a mixed population. The postoperative outcomes generally were good to excellent, and the rate that patients returned to previous jobs and sports was high. The findings suggest that a good outcome after early repair in younger patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears can be expected. PMID:23162954

Lin, Yi-Pin; Huang, Tung-Fu; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Liu, Chien-Lin

2012-10-01

315

Changes in visual acuity from 4 to 12 years of age in children operated for bilateral congenital cataracts  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the long term effects of age at surgery on the development of visual acuity (VA) by measuring VA from preschool age to puberty. Furthermore, to report the VA levels at 12 years of age in a geographically based cohort of operated congenital bilateral cataracts. Methods: All children born in four western counties of Sweden between January 1980 and December 1993 who were diagnosed with congenital cataracts were included in a longitudinal prospective study. The monocular VA of the better eye in 38 subjects was analysed at 4, 7, 10, and 12 years of age, with 20 total and 18 partial cataracts. The mean follow up time was 9.3 years after surgery. Results: The final value of VA was 0.4 or above for approximately 50% of the subjects at 12 years of age. Visual acuity improved to a considerable extent after school age, especially in children who underwent surgery between the ages of 7 weeks and 1 year. Results for partial cataracts were favourable compared to those for total cataracts, reaching a mean of approximately 0.5 at age 12. The mean VA in the group of total congenital cataracts operated on before 7 weeks of age achieved higher values of VA at 4 years of age compared to children with total cataracts operated on between 7 weeks and 1 year of age. However, no statistically significant difference in VA results among these groups could be proved. Conclusion: Visual acuity improves to a considerable extent after school age in children with delayed visual development caused by congenital cataracts. Surgery within 7 weeks results in a more rapid development of VA, initially. PMID:12446371

Magnusson, G; Abrahamsson, M; Sjostrand, J

2002-01-01

316

Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

2013-01-01

317

Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium intakes in Japanese children aged 3 to 5 years.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary intake was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia-tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3-5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency. PMID:18818164

Shibata, Tomiko; Murakami, Taeko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Narita, Naoki; Goshima, Miho; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru

2008-01-01

318

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children's Intelligence at 8-11 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

319

Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p?0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ? 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

2014-01-01

320

Cervical Screening at Age 50-64 Years and the Risk of Cervical Cancer at Age 65 Years and Older: Population-Based Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is little consensus, and minimal evidence, regarding the age at which to stop cervical screening. We studied the association between screening at age 50–64 y and cervical cancer at age 65–83 y. Methods and Findings Cases were women (n?=?1,341) diagnosed with cervical cancer at age 65–83 y between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012 in England and Wales; age-matched controls (n?=?2,646) were randomly selected from population registers. Screening details from 1988 onwards were extracted from national databases. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) for different screening histories and subsequent cervical cancer. Women with adequate negative screening at age 65 y (288 cases, 1,395 controls) were at lowest risk of cervical cancer (20-y risk: 8 cancers per 10,000 women) compared with those (532 cases, 429 controls) not screened at age 50–64 y (20-y risk: 49 cancers per 10,000 women, with OR?=?0.16, 95% CI 0.13–0.19). ORs depended on the age mix of women because of the weakening association with time since last screen: OR?=?0.11, 95% CI 0.08–0.14 at 2.5 to 7.5 y since last screen; OR?=?0.27, 95% CI 0.20–0.36 at 12.5 to 17.5 y since last screen. Screening at least every 5.5 y between the ages 50 and 64 y was associated with a 75% lower risk of cervical cancer between the ages 65 and 79 y (OR?=?0.25, 95% CI 0.21–0.30), and the attributable risk was such that in the absence of screening, cervical cancer rates in women aged 65+ would have been 2.4 (95% CI 2.1–2.7) times higher. In women aged 80–83 y the association was weaker (OR?=?0.49, 95% CI 0.28–0.83) than in those aged 65–69 y (OR?=?0.12, 95% CI 0.09–0.17). This study was limited by an absence of data on confounding factors; additionally, findings based on cytology may not generalise to human papillomavirus testing. Conclusions Women with adequate negative screening at age 50–64 y had one-sixth of the risk of cervical cancer at age 65–83 y compared with women who were not screened. Stopping screening between ages 60 and 69 y in women with adequate negative screening seems sensible, but further screening may be justifiable as life expectancy increases. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24453946

Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

2014-01-01

321

Tolerability of Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years and Older  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the rate of treatment deviations during combined modality therapy for rectal cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of consecutively treated patients with rectal cancer aged 75 years and older treated with combined modality therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2002 to 2007. The primary endpoint was the rate of treatment deviation, defined as a treatment break, dose reduction, early discontinuation of therapy, or hospitalization during combined modality therapy. Patient comorbidity was rated using the validated Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 Test (ACE-27) comorbidity index. Fisher's exact test and the Mantel-Haenszel trend test were used to identify predictors of treatment tolerability. Results: Thirty-six eligible patients had a median age of 79.0 years (range, 75-87 years); 53% (19/36) had no or mild comorbidity and 47% (17/36) had moderate or severe comorbidity. In all, 58% of patients (21/36) were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and 33% (12/36) with postoperative CRT. Although 92% patients (33/36) completed the planned radiotherapy (RT) dose, 25% (9/36) required an RT-treatment break, 11% (4/36) were hospitalized, and 33% (12/36) had a dose reduction, break, or discontinuation of concurrent chemotherapy. In all, 39% of patients (14/36) completed {>=}4 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, and 17% (6/36) completed therapy without a treatment deviation. More patients with no to mild comorbidity completed treatment than did patients with moderate to severe comorbidity (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.66). The rate of deviation did not differ between patients who had preoperative or postoperative CRT (19% vs. 17%, p = 1.0). Conclusions: The majority of elderly patients with rectal cancer in this series required early termination of treatment, treatment interruptions, or dose reductions. These data suggest that further intensification of combined modality therapy for rectal cancer should be performed with caution in elderly patients, who require aggressive supportive care to complete treatment.

Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek; Kobayashi, Wendy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Clark, Jeffrey [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2011-12-01

322

Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day’s school lunch reported by 6–8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child’s intake of the previous day’s lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children’s recalls and teachers’ records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Findings Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6–8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson’s correlations r=0.92, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement between child-reported and weighed intakes but confirmed systematic differences between teacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Conclusions Children 6–8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake. Parents were not able to report on their children’s school lunches consumed on the previous day. PMID:24047239

2013-01-01

323

The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995–2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller

Sunyoung Pak

2010-01-01

324

Behavioral and Emotional Problems Among Turkish Children at Ages 2 to 3 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective Within the framework of the Mental Health Surveys of Turkey, the authors investigated the distribution and prevalence of parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a nationally representative sample of 2- to 3-year-old children. Method A cross-sectional population-based survey from October 1996 through March 1997 using a self-weighted and equal probability sample of Turkish toddlers (N = 638) was conducted. The Child Behavior Checklist Total Problem scores and Household Questionnaire reports by parent informant source (response rate 94.3%) were examined for the effects of child gender, age, urban/suburban/rural residence, and geographic region using multiple regression analyses. Results Overall, the total problem scores placed 11.9% of the children in the clinically significant range and 18.6% of the children in the borderline range. Urban residence was significantly correlated with the Total Problem scores, Internalization and Externalization scores, and six Child Behavior Checklist syndrome scale scores. The child's age, gender, or parental employment status did not affect Total Problem scores. With respect to the Child Behavior Checklist syndrome scale, girls had higher Anxious/Depressed scores than boys, and 2-year-olds had higher Somatic Complaints scores than the 3-year-old children. None of the children with reported emotional and behavioral problems were referred to any mental health services. Conclusion As part of a national mental health policy in Turkey, there is an urgent need to develop early childhood intervention services that emphasize home visits, center-based child care in the community, and caregiver and provider education and training. PMID:15608547

EROL, NESE; SIMSEK, ZEYNEP; ONER, OZGUR; MUNIR, KERIM

2011-01-01

325

Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. PMID:23201765

Scott, Jane A.; Chih, Tsz Ying; Oddy, Wendy H.

2012-01-01

326

The physical maps for sequencing human chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20 and X  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed maps for eight chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, X and (previously) 22), representing one-third of the genome, by building landmark maps, isolating bacterial clones and assembling contigs. By this approach, we could establish the long-range organization of the maps early in the project, and all contig extension, gap closure and problem-solving was simplified by containment within

P. Deloukas; A. Dunham; S. G. Gregory; S. J. Humphray; A. J. Mungall; M. T. Ross; N. P. Carter; I. Dunham; C. E. Scott; K. J. Ashcroft; A. L. Atkinson; K. Aubin; D. M. Beare; G. Bethel; N. Brady; J. C. Brook; D. C. Burford; W. D. Burrill; C. Burrows; A. P. Butler; C. Carder; J. J. Catanese; C. M. Clee; S. M. Clegg; V. Cobley; A. J. Coffey; C. G. Cole; J. E. Collins; J. S. Conquer; R. A. Cooper; K. M. Culley; E. Dawson; F. L. Dearden; R. M. Durbin; P. J. de Jong; P. D. Dhami; M. E. Earthrowl; C. A. Edwards; R. S. Evans; C. J. Gillson; J. Ghori; L. Green; R. Gwilliam; K. S. Halls; S. Hammond; G. L. Harper; R. W. Heathcott; J. L. Holden; E. Holloway; B. L. Hopkins; P. J. Howard; G. R. Howell; E. J. Huckle; J. Hughes; P. J. Hunt; S. E. Hunt; M. Izmajlowicz; C. A. Jones; S. S. Joseph; G. Laird; C. F. Langford; M. H. Lehvaslaiho; M. A. Leversha; O. T. McCann; L. M. McDonald; J. McDowall; G. L. Maslen; D. Mistry; N. K. Moschonas; V. Neocleous; D. M. Pearson; K. J. Phillips; K. M. Porter; S. R. Prathalingam; Y. H. Ramsey; S. A. Ranby; C. M. Rice; J. Rogers; L. J. Rogers; T. Sarafidou; D. J. Scott; G. J. Sharp; C. J. Shaw-Smith; L. J. Smink; C. Soderlund; E. C. Sotheran; H. E. Steingruber; J. E. Sulston; A. Taylor; R. G. Taylor; A. A. Thorpe; E. Tinsley; G. L. Warry; A. Whittaker; P. Whittaker; S. H. Williams; T. E. Wilmer; R. Wooster; C. L. Wright

2001-01-01

327

Varying electronic structural forms of ruthenium complexes of non-innocent 9,10-phenanthrenequinonoid ligands.  

PubMed

Bis(acetylacetonato)ruthenium complexes [Ru(acac)2(Q1-3)], 1-3, incorporating redox non-innocent 9,10-phenanthrenequinonoid ligands (Q1 = 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1; Q2 = 9,10-phenanthrenequinonediimine, 2; Q3 = 9,10-phenanthrenequinonemonoimine, 3) have been characterised electrochemically, spectroscopically and structurally. The four independent molecules in the unit cell of 2 are involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding and ?-? interactions, leading to a 2D network. The oxidation state-sensitive bond distances of the coordinated ligands Q(n) at 1.296(5)/1.289(5) Å (C-O), 1.315(3)/1.322(4) Å (C-N), and 1.285(3)/1.328(3) Å (C-O/C-N) in 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and the well resolved (1)H NMR resonances within the standard chemical shift range suggest DFT supported variable contributions from valence formulations [Ru(III)(acac)2(Q?(-))] (spin-coupled) and [Ru(II)(acac)2(Q(0))], respectively. Complexes 1-3 exhibit one oxidation and two reduction steps with comproportionation constants Kc? 10(7)-10(22) for the intermediates. The electrochemically generated persistent redox states 1(n) (n = 0, 1-, 2-) and 2(n)/3(n) (n = 1+, 0, 1-, 2-) have been analysed by UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry and by EPR for the paramagnetic intermediates in combination with DFT and TD-DFT calculations, revealing significant differences in the oxidation state distribution at the {Ru-Q} interface for 1(n)-3(n). In particular, the diminished propensity of the NH-containing systems for reduction results in the preference for Ru(II)(Q(0)) relative to Ru(III)(Q?(-)) (neutral compounds) and for Ru(II)(Q?(-)) over the Ru(III)(Q(2-)) alternative in the case of the monoanionic complexes. PMID:24306621

Mandal, Abhishek; Kundu, Tanaya; Ehret, Fabian; Bubrin, Martina; Mobin, Shaikh M; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

2014-02-14

328

Redox processes in the iron(III)/9,10-phenanthraquinone system.  

PubMed

With the use of the model complexes [(PQ)FeCl(CH(3)O)](+), [(phen)FeCl(CH(3)O)](+), and [(PQ)(phen)FeCl(CH(3)O)](+), where PQ is 9,10-phenanthraquinone and phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, the reactivity of phenanthraquinone in complexes with iron(III) is investigated. It is shown that 9,10-phenanthraquinone takes part in redox processes occurring at iron and thereby allows the oxidation of methanolate to formaldehyde. The oxidation is driven by the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) and 9,10-phenanthraquinone to the semihydroquinone radical or semiquinolate, if the hydrogen atom is transferred from methanolate to chlorine rather than PQ. 1,10-Phenanthroline, on the other hand, acts as an innocent ligand, and the [(phen)FeCl(CH(3)O)](+) complex shows a typical two-state reactivity. The reactivity of [(PQ)(phen)FeCl(CH(3)O)](+) reveals that the hexacoordination of iron energetically facilitates the oxidation of methanolate, and therefore it is proposed that, in the presence of suitable reductants, the mixture of iron(III) and 9,10-phenanthraquinone can lead to the generation of the semihydroquinone radicals, species responsible for the toxicity of PQ. The fragmentation of [(PQ)(phen)FeCl(CH(3)O)](+) also demonstrates a strong binding of phen toward iron(III), which is a reason for using phen as an iron chelator in biochemistry. The structures and reactivities of the complexes are investigated by means of mass spectrometry, infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra, and density functional theory calculations. PMID:19928842

Milko, Petr; Roithová, Jana

2009-12-21

329

Ribavirin enhances myeloid-derived suppressor cell differentiation through CXCL9/10 downregulation.  

PubMed

Abstract Elevation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was observed in some viral infectious diseases. In this study, we studied whether ribavirin, a widely used clinical antiviral drug, could impact the differentiation of human MDSCs in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ribavirin treatment (5-20?µg/ml) significantly enhanced the differentiation of monocytic MDSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The ribavirin-generated MDSCs were immune-suppressive toward autologous T cells. The mRNA expression of some cytokines was further examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We observed a significant down-regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and CXCL10 mRNA in ribavirin-generated MDSCs, when compared with control. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from clinical chronic hepatitis C patients subjected to ribavirin therapy also displayed a similar suppression in CXCL9/10 mRNA expression. Administration of recombinant CXCL9/10 proteins clearly counteracted the effect of ribavirin on MDSCs. In summary, this study showed that ribavirin enhanced human MDSCs differentiation in vitro, which may be attribute to the down-regulation of CXCL9/10 expression. PMID:25255161

Dong, Jingyin; Wei, Jianyang; Zhong, Limei; Yang, Qiong; Tuo, Jiuling; Zhou, Pan; Fang, Jie; Cai, Weiping; Sun, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Jie

2014-12-01

330

In-hospital and 12-month outcomes after acute coronary syndrome treatment in patients aged<40 years of age (from the Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes).  

PubMed

We aimed to compare the characteristics and in-hospital and 12-month outcomes in patients aged>40 and <40 years with acute coronary syndrome. The analysis involved 789 patients aged<40 years and 63,057 patients aged?40 years enrolled in the ongoing Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes from October 2003 to December 2009. Patients aged<40 years with acute coronary syndrome differed from older patients in their clinical characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcome. The older patients more frequently had pulmonary edema (2.9% vs 0.4%, p<0.0001) and cardiogenic shock (4.7% vs 2.8%, p=0.011) on admission. For the younger patients, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention were performed more often (71.5% vs 60.5%, p<0.0001 and 51.5% vs 47.7%, p=0.04, respectively). The younger patients had a lower mortality rate than the older patients during hospitalization (1.5% vs 5.2%, p<0.0001) and during 12-month follow-up period (4.1% vs 13.4%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age<40 years was one of the strongest factors associated with lower mortality during the 12 months after discharge (hazard ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.62, p<0.0001). In conclusion, younger patients had more favorable in-hospital and 1-year outcomes than older patients, and the age<40 years was revealed to be one of the strongest factors associated with lower mortality during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:24878122

Trzeciak, Przemys?aw; Gierlotka, Marek; G?sior, Mariusz; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Hawranek, Micha?; Lekston, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian; Polo?ski, Lech

2014-07-15

331

Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria.  

PubMed

Binge eating is common in middle childhood (6-12 years) and often presents in concert with disordered eating attitudes, emotional distress, overweight and adiposity. Binge eating is also predictive of excessive weight gain and is associated with energy intake. However, few children meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for binge eating disorder, thereby making treatment recommendations a challenge. We propose criteria for a new diagnosis, Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children age 12 years and younger, for further study. The criteria put forward are a revision of Marcus and Kalarchian's [Marcus, M.D., & Kalarchian, M.A. (2003). Binge eating in children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34 Suppl, S47-S57.] provisional binge eating disorder research criteria for children 14 years and younger, and are based upon the evolving literature in children with binge and loss of control eating episodes. A rationale for the new criteria set is provided, and future research directions are proposed. PMID:18549996

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Marcus, Marsha D; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

2008-08-01

332

Excessive 5-year weight gain predicts metabolic syndrome development in healthy middle-aged adults  

PubMed Central

AIM: To quantitatively examine the impacts of an easy-to-measure parameter - weight gain - on metabolic syndrome development among middle-aged adults. METHODS: We conducted a five-year interval observational study. A total of 1384 middle-aged adults not meeting metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria at the initial screening were included in our analysis. Baseline data such as MetS-components and lifestyle factors were collected in 2002. Body weight and MetS-components were measured in both 2002 and 2007. Participants were classified according to proximal quartiles of weight gain (WG) in percentages (%WG ? 1%, 1% < %WG ? 5%, 5% < %WG ? 10% and %WG > 10%, defined as: control, mild-WG, moderate-WG and severe-WG groups, respectively) at the end of the follow-up. Multivariate models were used to assess the association between MetS outcome and excessive WG in the total population, as well as in both genders. RESULTS: In total, 175 (12.6%) participants fulfilled MetS criteria within five years. In comparison to the control group, mild-WG adults had an insignificant risk for MetS development while adults having moderate-WG had a 3.0-fold increased risk for progression to MetS [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-5.1], and this risk was increased 5.4-fold (95% CI, 3.0-9.7) in subjects having severe-WG. For females having moderate- and severe-WG, the risk for developing MetS was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.03-12.4) and 5.5 (95% CI, 1.4-21.4), respectively. For males having moderate- and severe-WG, the odds ratio for MetS outcome was respectively 3.0 (95% CI, 1.6-5.5) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.6-10.2). CONCLUSION: For early-middle-aged healthy adults with a five-year weight gain over 5%, the severity of weight gain is related to the risk for developing metabolic syndrome. PMID:21537445

Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Jong-Dar; Chen, Pau-Chung

2011-01-01

333

Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: epileptic and paretic outcome at one year of age  

PubMed Central

Background The issue concerning neurologic outcome in patients with perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (H.I.E) has inspired many studies which tried to identify adequate prognostic factors. Our work aims to find among neonatal parameters: - factors which help to predict the risk to develop both Cerebral Palsy (CP) and secondary Epilepsy at one year of age in subjects affected by perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy, - correlations between the neonatal parameters and the variable severity of above mentioned sequelae. Methods We have recruited 32 subjects, whose history and neuroimages suggested a perinatal H.I.E and we have retrospectively analysed clinical-instrumental parameters at birth and at one year of age. Results At one year cut-off, 9 patients developed both secondary epilepsy and CP (28%), whereas the other subjects showed only motor delay (31%), only secondary epilepsy (3%) or only CP (38%). Patients with both the severest sequelae were essentially term infants (only 2/9 were pre-term infants), with normal weight (only 3 LBW) and 7 of them with early pathologic EEG and neuroimages pointing out cortex injuries (typical of term infants). A statistic analysis showed the following correlations: birth weight and global prognosis (?2 = 14,03; p = 0,04); neonatal clinical pattern and CP's severity (?2 = 14,03; p = 0,0009); early EEG and CP's severity (?2 = 4,32; p = 0,04); epileptic onset age and CP and Epilepsy's severity (F = 16,01; p = 0,005). Birth weight represented a predictive factor of early neurological outcome (<1,5 kg birth weight neonates are not at risk of both epilepsy and CP); neonatal clinical pattern and early EEG were correlated with variable severity of CP; an epileptic exordium in the first 6 months led up to a more severe epileptic and paretic outcome. Conclusion From a clinical point of view it is of crucial importance to have some parameters which enable to discriminate patients at risk of more severe sequelae from those at risk of moderate severity outcome. PMID:19497095

Allemand, Federico; Reale, Federica; Sposato, Marco; Allemand, Alessandro

2009-01-01

334

Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

2008-01-01

335

Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in

John A. Morrison; Charles J. Glueck; Ping Wang

2010-01-01

336

Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in

John A. Morrison; Charles J. Glueck; Ping Wang

2009-01-01

337

Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11-15 years  

PubMed Central

Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

2013-01-01

338

A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

2009-01-01

339

Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.  

PubMed

Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers. PMID:24611320

Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujevi?, Darko

2013-12-01

340

Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

2014-06-01

341

Parenting children under three years of age in a south Indian setting.  

PubMed

A cross sectional study design to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of mothers regarding parenting of children less than 3 years of age was conducted with 120 mothers from both rural and urban areas of South India. Mothers were interviewed in their homes using a structured questionnaire. The nutritional status of their children was assessed by Anthropometry IAP (Indian Academy of Paediatrics) classification and Waterloo's classification were used to assess their children's nutritional status, and the Thiruvananthapuram Development Screening Chart [TDSC] was used to assess the children's development. The majority of mothers had moderately adequate knowledge regarding parenting. The mother's level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05) with their practice and attitude. The study brought out the association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge, attitude, and practice of mothers and its impact on growth and development of their children. Results provide direction for nurses in developing better life style education and parenting training programs. PMID:18041330

Thomas, Shibi; Vijayakumar, Chellarani; Siva, Rajeshwari; Isaac, Rita

2007-01-01

342

Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7-10 years in South Sinai, Egypt.  

PubMed

Hearing loss among schoolchildren in developing countries is reported to be a significant health problem. Data on child hearing loss in South Sinai, a remote governorate of Egypt, are lacking. Middle ear diseases and hearing impairment were assessed among 453 primary-school children aged 7-10 years in South Sinai (906 ears). Otoscopic examination, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA) were done. Ear disease was found in 27.5% of the ears examined. The commonest cause was secretory otitis media (10.8%), followed by occluded earwax (9.5%). Mild and moderate hearing loss affected 8.5% of the sample, while sensorineural hearing loss affected 2.4%; only 0.4% had moderate and severe hearing loss. Hearing impairment affects 19.3% of this age group in South Sinai. None of the children with hearing impairment had been previously diagnosed or was receiving treatment and support. Hearing and middle ear screening at schools is recommended for early detection and management of middle ear and hearing problems. PMID:22574480

Yamamah, G; Mabrouk, A; Ghorab, E; Ahmady, M; Abdulsalam, H

2012-03-01

343

Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

Shi Lei [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)], E-mail: lshi@wfubmc.edu; Molina, Doris P. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Michael E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Wheeler, Kenneth T. [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2008-06-01

344

Suicide ideation and acceptability among females aged 15 to 34 years in rural China.  

PubMed

The suicide rate of females is very close to that of males in China, in contrast to Western societies, in which the rates of male suicide outnumber those of females by three to four times. This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation and prosuicide attitude (acceptability) among females of childbearing age. With the Chinese version of the Scale for Suicide Ideation and the General Social Survey questionnaire, we examined the demographic and psychological risk factors of suicide among Chinese rural young females aged 15 to 34 years. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the factors related to suicidal ideation and suicide acceptability. The prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and suicide acceptability among the sampled females are 22.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Education, depression, social support, hopelessness, and negative life events were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Ethnicity, education, abortion, and depression were significantly associated with suicide acceptability. There is statistical difference between suicide ideation and acceptability. The results indicate that mental disorder remains a major risk factor of suicidal ideation. Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics are associated with suicide acceptability. PMID:24469529

Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long

2014-02-01

345

Behavior problems at 5 years of age and maternal mental health in autism and intellectual disability.  

PubMed

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing children, but compared to children with ID only hyperactivity was significantly higher in children with ASD/ID. After controlling for ID and maternal mental health, the presence of ASD significantly increased the odds for hyperactivity, conduct problems and emotional symptoms. Negative maternal outcomes (serious mental illness, psychological distress, and physical health limitations) were not consistently elevated in ASD. The findings highlight the early age at which behavior problems emerge in ASD, and suggest that at this age , there may not be a clear disadvantage for maternal mental health associated with having a child with ASD in the family, over and above that conferred by child behavior problems. PMID:21710136

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M; Lancaster, Gillian A

2011-11-01

346

Fundamental motor skill proficiency of Hong Kong children aged 6-9 years.  

PubMed

This study investigated the fundamental motor skill proficiency of Hong Kong children ages 6-9. Ninety-one male and 76 female Chinese students (mean age = 7.6 years) from six local primary schools in Hong Kong participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2) was administrated to assess the mastery of gross motor skills by an experienced physical education instructor. The performance was videotaped, and it was rated by the same physical education instructor again (1 week apart) to show the reliability (0.88-0.97). Results showed that the participants were in general superior to the normative samples from the TGMD-2 manual, scoring a gross motor quotient (GMQ) of 56.8-80.9. Overall, 24% of the participants were rated as superior, 36% as above average, 47% as average, and 2% as below average. Excellent proficiency (>80% in every subitem) was observed in running, galloping, leaping, sliding, catching, and throwing skills. In comparing the results with other studies, we found that the participants were superior to the data reported in previous studies in United States, Brazil, and Australia. This study added valuable information to the establishment of a worldwide normative reference for the comparison of future studies in other countries. PMID:19731174

Pang, Agnes Wai-Yin; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui

2009-01-01

347

Postnatal Cadmium Exposure, Neurodevelopment, and Blood Pressure in Children at 2, 5, and 7 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse health effects of cadmium in adults are well documented, but little is known about the neuropsychological effects of cadmium in children, and no studies of cadmium and blood pressure in children have been conducted. Objective We examined the potential effects of low-level cadmium exposure on intelligence quotient, neuropsychological functions, behavior, and blood pressure among children, using blood cadmium as a measure of exposure. Methods We used the data from a multicenter randomized clinical trial of lead-exposed children and analyzed blood cadmium concentrations using the whole blood samples collected when children were 2 years of age. We compared neuropsychological and behavioral scores at 2, 5, and 7 years of age by cadmium level and analyzed the relationship between blood cadmium levels at 2 years of age and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 2, 5, and 7 years of age. Results The average cadmium concentration of these children was 0.21 ?g/L, lower than for adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), but comparable to concentrations in children < 3 years of age in NHANES. Except for the California Verbal Learning Test for Children, there were no differences in test scores among children in different cadmium categories. For children with detectable pretreatment blood cadmium, after adjusting for a variety of covariates, general linear model analyses showed that at none of the three age points was the coefficient of cadmium on Mental Development Index or IQ statistically significant. Spline regression analysis suggested that behavioral problem scores at 5 and 7 years of age tended to increase with increasing blood cadmium, but the trend was not significant. We found no significant associations between blood cadmium levels and blood pressure. Conclusion We found no significant associations between background blood cadmium levels at 2 years of age and neurodevelopmental end points and blood pressure at 2, 5, and 7 years of age. The neuropsychological or hypertensive effects from longer background exposures to cadmium need further study. PMID:20019909

Cao, Yang; Chen, Aimin; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Dietrich, Kim N.; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen; Rogan, Walter J.

2009-01-01

348

Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12-19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999-2008)  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. Objectives: We investigated children’s PFC serum concentrations and their associations with asthma-related outcomes. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum concentrations of eight PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), with self-reported lifetime asthma, recent wheezing, and current asthma using data from participants 12–19 years of age from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, PFOA was associated with higher odds of ever having received a diagnosis of asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39 for a doubling in PFOA], whereas for PFOS there were inverse relationships with both asthma and wheezing (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.04, and OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.02, respectively). The associations were attenuated after accounting for sampling weights. No associations were seen between the other PFCs and any outcome. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study provides some evidence for associations between exposure to PFCs and asthma-related outcomes in children. The evidence is inconsistent, however, and prospective studies are needed. Citation: Humblet O, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Balmes JR, Pinney SM, Hiatt RA. 2014. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 12–19 years of age: NHANES (1999–2008). Environ Health Perspect 122:1129–1133;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606 PMID:24905661

Humblet, Olivier; Diaz-Ramirez, Ledif Grisell; Balmes, John R.; Pinney, Susan M.

2014-01-01

349

Closed-Loop Insulin Therapy Improves Glycemic Control in Children Aged <7 Years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the possibility of improving nocturnal glycemic control as well as meal glycemic response using closed-loop therapy in children aged <7 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a randomized controlled crossover trial comparing closed-loop with standard open-loop insulin pump therapy performed in an inpatient clinical research center. Ten subjects aged <7 years with type 1 diabetes for >6 months treated with insulin pump therapy were studied. Closed-loop therapy and standard open-loop therapy were compared from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. on 2 consecutive days. The primary outcome was plasma glucose time in range (110–200 mg/dL) during the night (10:00 p.m.–8:00 a.m.). Secondary outcomes included peak postprandial glucose levels, incidence of hypoglycemia, degree of hyperglycemia, and prelunch glucose levels. RESULTS A trend toward a higher mean nocturnal time within target range was noted for closed- versus open-loop therapy, although not reaching statistical significance (5.3 vs. 3.2 h, P = 0.12). There was no difference in peak postprandial glucose or number of episodes of hypoglycemia. There was significant improvement in time spent >300 mg/dL overnight with closed-loop therapy (0.18 vs. 1.3 h, P = 0.035) and the total area under the curve of glucose >200 mg/dL (P = 0.049). Closed-loop therapy returned prelunch blood glucose closer to target (189 vs. 273 mg/dL on open loop, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery decreases the severity of overnight hyperglycemia without increasing the incidence of hypoglycemia. The therapy is better able to reestablish target glucose levels in advance of a subsequent meal. Younger children with type 1 diabetes may reap significant benefits from closed-loop therapy. PMID:23033237

Dauber, Andrew; Corcia, Liat; Safer, Jason; Agus, Michael S.D.; Einis, Sara; Steil, Garry M.

2013-01-01

350

Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50-70 years  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25?kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35?kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500?h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15?min from 1400 to 1700?h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired. PMID:24867909

Jayasinghe, S U; Torres, S J; Nowson, C A; Tilbrook, A J; Turner, A I

2014-01-01

351

Physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years and the influence of peers on these behaviours: a 1-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:This study investigated physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours over a 2-year period.Methods:A total of 106 (64 girls; 42 boys) children were investigated annually, over 2 years. Measures included physical activity (sealed pedometer), self-report measures of dietary intake and physical activity, and a peer influence questionnaire. Anthropometric measures

T Coppinger; Y M Jeanes; J Dabinett; C Vögele; S Reeves

2010-01-01

352

Mortality after Distal Radius Fracture in Men and Women Aged 50 Years and Older in Southern Norway  

PubMed Central

Increased mortality rates in patients sustaining hip and vertebral fractures are well documented; however in distal radius fracture patients the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine short- and long-term mortality in distal radius fracture patient in comparison with the background population. Patients aged ?50 years with distal radius fracture living in Southern Norway who suffered a fracture in the two year period 2004 and 2005 were included in the study. The mortality risk of the standard Norwegian population was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). The number of distal radius fractures was 883 (166 men and 717 women). Mean age was 69 years (men 65 years and women 70 years). After one year the overall mortality rate was 3.4% (men 5.4% and women 2.9%) and after five years 4.6% (men 4.0% and women 4.8%). The SMR for men and women compared to the Norwegian population for the first year was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 2.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.2), respectively, and after five years 1.7 (95% CI: 0.3, 3.0) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). Stratified on age groups (50–70 and >70 years) an increased SMR was only seen in female patients aged >70 years five years after the fracture (SMR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6). In conclusion, increased SMR was found in female patients aged >70 years five years after the distal radius fracture, but not in men or in women younger than 70 years. PMID:25380128

Øyen, Jannike; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Haugeberg, Glenn

2014-01-01

353

Year-class strength and feeding ecology of age-0 and age-1 paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Fort Peck Lake, Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The paddlefish Polyodon spathula stock that inhabits Fort Peck Lake, Montana, and spawns in the Missouri River is among the few remaining naturally-reproducing stocks. For effective management, information is needed on reproductive success and year-class strength, which entails an understanding of the distribution, abundance, and food habits of age-0 and age-1 fish. Sampling was conducted during the late summer

J. R. Kozfkay; D. L. Scarnecchia

2002-01-01

354

Prevalence of knee problems in the population aged 55 years and over: identifying the need for knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To determine the prevalence of knee problems in people aged 55 years and over and identify those who should be considered for knee arthroplasty.Design: Postal survey; questionnaires were sent to a multistage stratified probability sample of residents of North Yorkshire Health Authority aged 55 and over.Setting: A health district with a population of 210000 aged 55 and over.Results: An

Alan Tennant; Jon Fear; Anne Pickering; Micky Hillman; Alison Cutts; M A Chamberlain

1995-01-01

355

Range of Joint Movement in Female Dancers and Nondancers Aged 8 to 16 YearsAnatomical and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little data are available on changes that occur with age in joint range of motion in dancers and nondancers.Hypothesis: In dancers, joint range of motion will increase with age, whereas it will decrease in nondancers, independent of the joint studied.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: The study population included 1320 female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years,

Nili Steinberg; Israel Hershkovitz; Smadar Peleg; Gali Dar; Youssef Masharawi; Michael Heim; Itzhak Siev-Ner

2006-01-01

356

"A677 YEAR TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY FOR THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE" PETER IAN KUNIHOLM -MARYANNE W. NEWTON  

E-print Network

"A677 YEAR TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY FOR THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE" PETER IAN KUNIHOLM - MARYANNE W. NEWTON KUNIHOLM - MARYANNE W. NEWTON Relative construction date(s) for the Kultepe I1 buildings and therefore

Manning, Sturt

357

Suicide among Female Adolescents: Characteristics and Comparison with Males in the Age Group 13 to 22 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo characterize female suicides (n = 19) in an unselected nationwide youth suicide population aged 13 to 22 years (n = 116) and to compare them with male suicides with respect to variables indicating psychopathology and psychosocial functioning.

MAURI J. MARTTUNEN; MARKUS M. HENRIKSSON; HILLEVI M. ARO; MARTTI E. HEIKKINEN; ERKKI T. ISOMETSÄ; JOUKO K. LÖNNQVIST

1995-01-01

358

Quantifying the Stellar Mass Density of the Universe out to z~9-10: Ultra-Deep Spitzer Observations of Two Highly Magnified z~9-10 Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the stellar mass in galaxies to increasingly high redshifts provide us one of the most powerful ways of gauging early galaxy build-up. Combining ultra- deep IRAC imaging observations with deep WFC3/IR observations have allowed astronomers both to identify and estimate masses for sources out to redshifts as high as z~8. However, it has been difficult to extend such studies to even higher redshifts due to the incredible faintness and rarity of typical z~9-10 galaxies. One method for stepping beyond the normal S/N limitations is to take advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to magnify faint z>8 sources, but to do so, we must know where the magnified sources lie. Fortunately, utilizing the huge investment of HST time in the 524-orbit CLASH program, we have been able to identify 100s of z~5-8 galaxies and even 4 extremely tantalizing z~9-11 galaxy candidates. To extend our measurement of galaxy masses to the earliest possible times, we require ultra-deep Spitzer observations on these candidates to accurately measure their rest-frame optical properties. While two of the z~9-11 candidates are the subject of deep IRAC observations as a result of an approved program, the other two will not be the subject of such observations. Given the considerable galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the mass-to-light ratio, ultra-deep Spitzer observations are needed for all four z~9-11 candidates to establish the typical properties of galaxies in this epoch. We propose to obtain such observations over the two z~9 candidates lacking such observations. Not only will our proposed observations substantially improve our ability to estimate the stellar mass density at z~9-11, but it will play a pivotal role in characterizing the stellar masses and other properties of 20-30 other gravitationally lensed z~4-8 galaxies behind these clusters.

Bouwens, Rychard; Zheng, Wei; Moustakas, Leonidas; Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Donahue, Megan; Labbe, Ivo; Smit, Renske; Zitrin, Adi

2012-12-01

359

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis in 30 patients 60-78 years of age  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We analysed the results of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 30 patients aged 60–78 (median 65) years, with primary myelofibrosis or myelofibrosis evolving from antecedent polycythaemia vera or essential thrombocythaemia. Donors were human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings (N = 15) or unrelated individuals (N = 15). Various conditioning regimens were used, ranging from very low intensity (fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation) to high dose (busulfan plus cyclophosphamide). Stem cell sources were granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells in 29 patients and marrow in one patient. Sustained engraftment was documented in 27 of 30 patients. Day -100 mortality was 13%. With a median follow-up of 22 (range 0.5–69) months, 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 45% and 40%, respectively. Currently, 13 patients are surviving. Seven patients died with disease progression at 0.5–22 months, and 10 patients died from other causes at 1.5–37.5 months after HCT. While the selection of older patients for transplantation was probably biased, the present results are encouraging. Motivated older patients with myelofibrosis without substantial comorbid conditions should be offered the option of allogeneic HCT. PMID:21323890

Samuelson, Scott; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Heslop, Helen E; Popat, Uday; Carrum, George; Champlin, Richard E.; Storb, Rainer; Prchal, Josef T.; Gooley, Theodore A.; Deeg, H. Joachim

2011-01-01

360

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis in 30 patients 60-78 years of age.  

PubMed

We analysed the results of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 30 patients aged 60-78 (median 65) years, with primary myelofibrosis or myelofibrosis evolving from antecedent polycythaemia vera or essential thrombocythaemia. Donors were human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings (N = 15) or unrelated individuals (N = 15). Various conditioning regimens were used, ranging from very low intensity (fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation) to high dose (busulfan plus cyclophosphamide). Stem cell sources were granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells in 29 patients and marrow in one patient. Sustained engraftment was documented in 27 of 30 patients. Day -100 mortality was 13%. With a median follow-up of 22 (range 0·5 - 69) months, 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 45% and 40%, respectively. Currently, 13 patients are surviving. Seven patients died with disease progression at 0·5 -22 months, and 10 patients died from other causes at 1·5 -37.5 months after HCT. While the selection of older patients for transplantation was probably biased, the present results are encouraging. Motivated older patients with myelofibrosis without substantial comorbid conditions should be offered the option of allogeneic HCT. PMID:21323890

Samuelson, Scott; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Heslop, Helen E; Popat, Uday; Carrum, George; Champlin, Richard E; Storb, Rainer; Prchal, Josef T; Gooley, Theodore A; Deeg, H Joachim

2011-04-01

361

Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

2008-01-01

362

Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Six Potential Screening Instruments for Bipolar Disorder in Youths Aged 5 to 17 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficiency of six index tests as predictors of juvenile bipolar disorder in two large outpatient samples, aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, gathered from 1997 to 2002. Method: DSM-IV diagnosis was based on a semistructured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age

Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Demeter, Christine; DelPorto Bedoya, Denise; Price, Megan

2004-01-01

363

An Educational Way of Dealing with Tunneling, Motivation to Novelties, and Creative Mindies in 13-16 Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to inquire if tunneling of mind, motivation to novelties, and creative mindies in 4 age groups (13, 14, 15, and 16, years of age) have dynamic relationships. A creative mindy is a new organized mind shape not previously occurring. The subjects were 93 pupils of a secondary comprehensive school. Questionnaires were…

Laasonen, Raimo J.

364

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania ABSTRACT.--Diet of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is poorly known. Age, sex and time decrease the bobcat's ability to travel and hunt effectively. INTRODUCTION The diet of the bobcat (Lynx

McCay, Timothy S.

365

A Developmental Genetic Analysis of Adult Personality: Extraversion and Neuroticism From 18 to 59 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental genetic analyses were conducted on Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) scale scores from nearly 15,000 male and female Finnish twins, ages 18–53 at baseline, who were tested on 2 occasions, 6 years apart. Significant genetic effects on both traits were found, at all ages, in men and women, on each measurement occasion. For E, heritability was invariant across sex

Richard J. Viken; Richard J. Rose; Jaakko Kaprio; Markku Koskenvuo

1994-01-01

366

Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32?years of U.S. data by offender age groups.  

PubMed

Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research. PMID:25043923

Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

2014-01-01

367

Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Native American and Caucasian Children 1 to 5 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the validity of the Harvard Service Food Frequency Questionnaire (HFFQ) in the diet assessment of Native American and Caucasian children 1 to 5 years of age participating in the North Dakota WIC program. Methods: The 84-item HFFQ was administered twice to the parent or guardian of 131 Native American and 102 Caucasian children ages 1 to 5

Robin E. Blum; Esther K. Wei; Helaine R. H. Rockett; Jean D. Langeliers; Jill Leppert; Jane D. Gardner; Graham A. Colditz

1999-01-01

368

Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was…

Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

2010-01-01

369

Development of Sustained Attention Assessed Using the Continuous Performance Test among Children 6–15 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a widely used measure of sustained attention, which may rely on the efficiency of cognitive inhibition. We examined the relationships of age and sex with CPT performance among 341 randomly selected school children 6–15 years of age. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the hit rate, false alarm rate, and sensitivity of both the undegraded

Chaucer C. H. Lin; Chuhsing K. Hsiao; Wei J. Chen

1999-01-01

370

Histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of M. vastus lateralis in sedentary old people (age 65–89 years)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsies for histochemical and ultrastructural studies were taken from the M. vastus lateralis of 45 healthy sedentary men and women aged 65–89 years. With increasing age the histochemical reactions reveal changes in the fibre type distribution characterized by a decrease in the percentage and predominant atrophy of type II fibres.

Roberto Scelsi; Carla Marchetti; Paola Poggi

1980-01-01

371

Neonatal Cranial Ultrasound Lesions and Developmental Delays at 2 Years of Age Among Extremely Low Gestational Age Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND.Studies of the relationship between ultrasound images from preterm newborns and developmental delay most often are based on small samples defined by birth weight and exclude infants not testable with standardized assessments. METHODS.We evaluated associations between ultrasound-defined lesions of the brain and developmental delays at 24 months' corrected age in 1017 children born before the 28th postmenstrual week. Brain ultrasound

T. Michael O'Shea; Karl C. K. Kuban; Elizabeth N. Allred; Nigel Paneth; Marcello Pagano; Olaf Dammann; Lisa Bostic; Kara Brooklier; Donald J. Goldstein; Gail Hounshell; Cecelia Keller; Susan McQuiston; Alice Miller; Steve Pasternak; Susan Plesha-Troyke; Elaine Romano; Katherine M. Solomon; Amanda Jacobson; Sjirk Westra; Alan Leviton

2010-01-01

372

Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.  

PubMed

Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period. PMID:17666032

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

2007-11-01

373

Effect of birth season on circadian typology appearing in Japanese young children aged 2 to 12 years disappears in older students aged 18 to 25 years.  

PubMed

Several studies suggest that season of birth differentially affects the physiological characteristics of humans. Those living at relatively high latitude, such as Canada, Spain, and Italy (44°N-45°N), and born in the fall tended to be "morning-type" persons in comparison to those born in other seasons. There are relatively little data on the affect of season of birth on people residing at low latitude. Here the authors show that at low latitude, Kochi, Japan (33°N), the effect of season of birth on the morningness chronotype is confined to young children aged 1-12 yrs, disappearing in elderly persons. Only female participants aged 2-12 yrs born in the fall, especially in November, were significantly morning-typed (p < .001) in comparison to those born in the other seasons, whereas there were no such significant season-of-birth differences in morningness-eveningness preference among male participants. Moreover, both female and male participants aged 13-25 yrs showed no significant seasonal differences in morningness-eveningness preference. The small effects detected in this study might be due to smaller seasonal change in day length at the relatively lower latitude of Kochi. PMID:21819347

Harada, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Ryo; Wada, Kai; Nishihara, Risa; Kondo, Aska; Akimitsu, Osami; Noji, Teruki; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Nakade, Miyo; Krejci, Milada; Takeuchi, Hitomi

2011-08-01

374

Increasing trends in HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older: evidence from estimates and survey data  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the most recent 2013 UNAIDS estimates of HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older, and to validate these estimates using data from national household surveys. Design: Modelled estimates of HIV prevalence were validated against nationally representative household survey measures of HIV prevalence. Methods: The UNAIDS 2013 HIV estimates were used to compute HIV prevalence and number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older. Sex-specific HIV-prevalence rates by the 5-year age group were calculated from nationally representative household surveys conducted between 2003 and 2013, and were compared to prevalence rates from the modelled estimates. The ratios (Spectrum/Survey) of the prevalence rates from the two sources were analysed. Results: In 2013, an estimated 4.2 million (4.0–4.5 million) people aged 50 years and older were living with HIV. The global HIV prevalence among older individuals more than doubled in almost all the 5-year age groups since 1995. There was a relatively good agreement between the modelled HIV-prevalence rates and the survey-based rates among men and women aged 50–54 years (0.90 and 1.00 median ratio, respectively), whereas for 55–59 year-olds, the differences were more notable (ratios of 0.63 for men and 0.90 for women). Conclusion: Both data sources suggest HIV-prevalence rates among people aged over 50 have increased steadily in the recent years. Care and treatment services need to address the specific needs of older people living with HIV. Action is needed to incorporate older age groups into HIV surveillance systems. PMID:25222641

Mahy, Mary; Autenrieth, Christine S.; Stanecki, Karen; Wynd, Shona

2014-01-01

375

Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children agedyears 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

2013-01-01

376

Infant temperament and eating style predict change in standardized weight status and obesity risk at 6 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Little research has addressed the relationships among infant temperament, eating styles and obesity risk. To address this gap, we tested whether infant temperament and eating patterns at the age of 1 year are associated with a greater increase in standardized weight status, and greater obesity risk at 6 years of age.Design:A secondary, prospective analysis of the Colorado Adoption Study was

M S Faith; J B Hittner

2010-01-01

377

yielded age-specific-survival fractions (Lx) for females of each year class. Ro* for each year class  

E-print Network

. P. CHEEK. AND R. L. KROGER. 1973. Preliminary analyses of Atlantic menhaden, Bre· voortia tyrannus and movements of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, as inferred from back- calculated length frequencies. Chesapeake Sci. 13:161- 174. 1975. Age and size composition ofthe Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus

378

The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews with the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969 and 1971. Only selecte...

H. S. Parnes, A. V. Adams, P. Andrisani, A. I. Kohen, G. Nestel

1974-01-01

379

Birthweight and health and development at the age of 7 years.  

PubMed

This study was set up to compare the frequency of health, educational and behavioural problems in a geographically defined birth cohort of 7-year-old children grouped by weight at birth. The study design was based on a multi-stage postal survey, with sampling stratified by birthweight. It took place in the four counties of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire and Northamptonshire which make up the former Oxford region. We studied 1319 live births to women resident in the former Oxford region in 1985, including all those with birthweights under 1500 g, or whose weight was not recorded, and a sample of those who weighed 1500-2499 g, and of those who weighed 2500 g or more at birth. The children in the sample were traced through the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) and self-administered questionnaires were sent to their parents, general practitioners (GP) and teachers. Of the 1169 children who were alive at the age of 7 years and were successfully traced, 805 (75%) were followed up by postal survey. The use of health services, and of additional educational support was higher, and school performance was poorer among children who had weighed less than 1500 g at birth than among children who had weighed 2500 g or more, with the rates for children who had weighed 1500-2499 g falling in between. This survey method identifies the higher rate of health and educational problems in children weighing under 2500 g at birth, particularly those with birthweight under 1500 g, compared with other children. The method could be developed to provide a way of monitoring any changes over time in the prevalence of these problems. This information can be used to assess the health and educational needs of 7-year-old children in the population. PMID:8640964

Middle, C; Johnson, A; Alderdice, F; Petty, T; Macfarlane, A

1996-01-01

380

Maternal iron intake and iron status during pregnancy and child blood pressure at age 3 years  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data suggest that maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy leads to lower birth weight and sustained blood pressure elevation in the offspring. In humans, iron deficiency during pregnancy is common and is associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight. Data are lacking, however, regarding the effects of maternal iron intake and iron status during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. Our aim was to examine the extent to which lower maternal iron intake, haemoglobin level and mean cell volume (MCV) during pregnancy are associated with higher child systolic blood pressure (SBP) at age 3 years. Methods We studied 1167 participants in Project Viva, a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women and their children. We estimated first and second trimester maternal iron intake from food frequency questionnaires. We used an electronic laboratory database to identify haemoglobin and MCV levels in pregnancy. We measured child BP up to five times with a Dinamap and used mixed-effects regression models in our analysis. Results Mean (SD) child SBP at 3 years was 92.0 (9.9) mmHg. Adjusting for confounders, for each 10 mg increase in first trimester iron intake, child SBP was not lower, but was in fact 0.4 mmHg higher (95% CI 0.1, 0.7). For second trimester iron intake, and for first or second trimester haemoglobin and MCV levels, we did not find any appreciable association with 3 year SBP. Conclusions In contrast to animal studies, we did not find that lower maternal iron status during pregnancy was associated with higher offspring BP. PMID:18263646

Belfort, Mandy B; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken P; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W

2008-01-01

381

Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

2004-01-01

382

Off Label Use of Botulinum Toxin in Children under Two Years of Age: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The treatment of children with cerebral palsy with Botulinum Toxin is considered safe and effective, but is only approved for children older than two years of age. The effect of BoNT-A injection on juvenile skeletal muscle especially on neuromuscular junction density, distribution and morphology is poorly delineated and concerns of irreversible damage to the motor endplates especially in young children exist. In contrast, earlier treatment could be appropriate to improve the attainment of motor milestones and general motor development. This review systematically analyzes the evidence regarding this hypothesis. A database search, including PubMed and Medline databases, was performed and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in children younger than two years were identified. Two authors independently extracted the data and the methods of all identified trials were assessed. Three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of the analysis revealed an improvement in spasticity of the upper and lower extremities as well as in the range of motion in the joints of the lower limbs. However, evidence of an improvement of general motor development could not be found, as the assessment of this area was not completely specified for this patient group. Based on available evidence it can not be concluded that Botulinum Toxin treatment in children younger than two years improves the achievement of motor milestones. However, there is evidence for the reduction of spasticity, avoiding contractures and delaying surgery. Due to some limitations, the results of this review should be cautiously interpreted. More studies, long-term follow up independent high-quality RCTs with effectiveness analyses are needed. PMID:23296386

Druschel, Claudia; Althuizes, Henriette C.; Funk, Julia F.; Placzek, Richard

2013-01-01

383

Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (?1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

2011-01-01

384

Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ?40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ? the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity. PMID:21593807

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

2012-03-01

385

Conformational analysis of 9,10-dihydroanthracenes. Molecular mechanics calculations and /sup 13/C NMR  

SciTech Connect

The conformational analyses of 9, 10-dihydroanthracene and several of its methylated and ethylated derivatives are studied by empirical force field calculations (MM2 and MMPI). The computational results are considered in light of previous and current carbon NMR data. Model compounds are examined which involve fixed, planar, and boat-shaped conformations about the central ring, and these /sup 13/C NMR data are then compared with flexible systems. It is concluded that carbon chemical shifts and carbon-hydrogen coupling constants are consistent with the results of molecular mechanics calculations which indicate a greater tendency for planarity around the central ring than previously considered.

Rabideau, P.W.; Mooney, J.L.; Lipkowitz, K.B.

1986-12-24

386

Measles Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Children Aged 5-10 Years After Primary Measles Immunization Administered at 6 or 9 Months of Age  

PubMed Central

Background.?Given the high infant measles mortality rate, there is interest in whether a measles immunization regimen beginning at <12 months of age provides lasting immunity. Methods.?Measles-specific immune responses were evaluated in 70 children aged 5–10 years after primary measles vaccine administered at 6, 9, or 12 months. Results.?At 5–10 years of age, the stimulation index for measles T-cell proliferation was 11.4 (SE, 1.3), 10.9 (SE, 1.5), and 14.4 (SE 2.1) when the first measles dose was given at 6, 9, or 12 months, respectively. Neutralizing antibody concentration (geometric mean titer [GMT]) in those immunized at 6 months of age was 125 mIU/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 42–377) in the presence of passive antibodies (PAs) and 335 mIU/mL (95% CI, 211–531) in those without PAs; in those immunized at 9 months, GMTs were 186 mIU/mL (95% CI, 103–335) and 1080 mIU/mL (95% CI, 642–1827) in the presence and absence of PAs, respectively. The GMT was 707 mIU/mL (95% CI, 456–1095) when vaccine was administered at 12 months (P ? .04). Conclusions.?Measles-specific T-cell responses were sustained at 5–10 years of age regardless of age at time of primary measles immunization. Neutralizing antibody concentrations were lower in cohorts given the first vaccine dose at 6 months of age and in the presence of PAs; however, responses could be boosted by subsequent doses. Starting measles vaccination at <12 months of age may be beneficial during measles outbreaks or in endemic areas. PMID:23300162

Gans, Hayley A.; Yasukawa, Linda L.; Sung, Phillip; Sullivan, Barbara; DeHovitz, Ross; Audet, Susette; Beeler, Judy; Arvin, Ann M.

2013-01-01

387

[The influence of different massage techniques on the characteristics of biological age in the subjects above the age of 30 years].  

PubMed

This paper is designed to demonstrate the efficacy of different massage modalities used to decrease the biological age in relatively healthy subjects between 30 and 69 years of life. The study involved 78 subjects (67 women and 11 men). Each of them underwent a course of 10 sessions of massage of the collar and upper back regions for the prevention of premature ageing and the reduction of the biological age. Cryomassage was performed with the use of cryocare packs and vacuum massage on the Cerri apparatus (Italy). The control group was comprised of the subjects given no treatment. The main characteristics measured before and after therapy included biomarkers of ageing and biological age. The results of the study indicate that both cryogenic and vacuum massage effectively improves certain biomarkers of ageing; namely, such treatment reduces systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, increase pulmonary vital capacity and breath holding time in expiration, improves the sense of equilibrium, self-assessment of health condition, and concentration of attention. Taken together, these effects contribute to the reduction of the biological age of the subjects and prevent their premature ageing to a greater extent than in the untreated persons. PMID:23113367

Turova, E A; Konchugova, T V; Fadeeva, N I; Balaban, E I; Golovach, A V; Teniaeva, E A

2012-01-01

388

A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China’s largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. Methods A total of 13,532 children of 0?~?36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Results Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Conclusions Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas. PMID:24499429

2014-01-01

389

Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under  

PubMed Central

Background Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2010, MEDLINE (1950 to 2010 April week 4), EMBASE (1947 to 2010 week 18), CINAHL (up to 12 May 2010), PsycINFO (up to 12 May 2010) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (up to February 2011) were searched to identify eligible trials, as well as electronic trial registers (also up to February 2011). The reference lists of included trials were reviewed and handsearches of three international nutrition journals were also performed. Authors of all included trials were contacted in order to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials, of any intervention primarily targeting fruit and/or vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under and incorporating a biochemical or dietary assessment of fruit and/or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified papers. A third review author with expertise in review methodology resolved any disagreements regarding study eligibility. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements between review authors. Fixed-effect models were used to perform meta-analysis for the primary review outcomes where a sufficient number of trials with suitable data and homogeneity were identified. Main results Five trials, with 13 trial arms and 3967 participants were included in the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI ?0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

2014-01-01

390

Both BRAF V600E Mutation and Older Age (?65 Years) are Associated with Recurrent Papillary Thyroid Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was designed to examine the aggressive features of BRAF-positive papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and association with age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We compared the clinicopathologic parameters and BRAF V600E mutation status of 121 elderly (age ?65 years) PTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy from January 2007 to December\\u000a 2009 to a consecutive cohort of 98 younger (age <65 years) PTC patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Younger and elderly PTC

Gina M. Howell; Sally E. Carty; Michaele J. Armstrong; Shane O. LeBeau; Steven P. Hodak; Christopher Coyne; Michael T. Stang; Kelly L. McCoy; Marina N. Nikiforova; Yuri E. Nikiforov; Linwah Yip

391

Perceptions of five-year competitive categories: model of how relative age influences competitiveness in masters sport.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps < .001). Findings point to perceived psycho-social and physical factors that potentially explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key PointsThere are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes.Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes.Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes' continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training. PMID:24421732

Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Grove, J Robert

2013-01-01

392

Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5-6 Years  

PubMed Central

Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n?=?2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (p<0.001) with all body composition measures at the age of 5–6 years. The BMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

2013-01-01

393

Perceptions of Five-Year Competitive Categories: Model of How Relative Age Influences Competitiveness in Masters Sport  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps < .001). Findings point to perceived psycho-social and physical factors that potentially explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key Points There are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes. Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes’ continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training. PMID:24421732

Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W.; Grove, J. Robert

2013-01-01

394

Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2. PMID:19555967

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

395

77 FR 17386 - Significant New Use Rule for Hexabromocyclododecane and 1,2,5,6,9,10-Hexabromocyclododecane  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...New Use Rule for Hexabromocyclododecane and 1,2,5,6,9,10-Hexabromocyclododecane...Registry Number (CASRN) 25637-99-4) and 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecane...consider as I prepare my comments for EPA? 1. Submitting CBI. Do not submit...

2012-03-26

396

Relationship between dietary patterns and body mass index in Hispanic children ages 4--19 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In over 30 years, the prevalence of overweight for children and adolescents has increased across the United States (Barlow et al., 2007; Ogden, Flegal, Carroll, & Johnson, 2002). Childhood obesity is linked with adverse physiological and psychological issues in youth and affects ethnic\\/minority populations in disproportionate rates (Barlow et al., 2007; Butte et al., 2006; Butte, Cai, Cole, Wilson,

Cristina Morales

2009-01-01

397

Dairy intakes at age 10 years do not adversely affect risk of excess adiposity at 13 years.  

PubMed

Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

Bigornia, Sherman J; LaValley, Michael P; Moore, Lynn L; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R; Newby, P K

2014-07-01

398

Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123  

PubMed Central

Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

2014-01-01

399

Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years  

E-print Network

Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

Sheridan, Margaret

400

Purification of the molybdate-stabilized 9-10 S estradiol receptor from calf uterus.  

PubMed

The molybdate-stabilized calf uterine estradiol receptor has been purified to near-homogeneity by a three-step procedure. Initial purification by heparin-Sepharose chromatography provides a concentrated receptor extract in 40% yield with a 5-10-fold increase in purity. The inclusion of molybdate in phosphate-buffered cytosol enhances 9-10 S receptor stability in high salt and allows elution of the oligomeric receptor complex from heparin-Sepharose with 0.4 M KCl. A second affinity step utilizing estrone carboxymethyloxime coupled to diaminoethyl bis(2-hydroxypropoxy)butane-Sepharose Cl-4B increases purification by a further 1600-fold. High performance liquid chromatography gives homogeneous receptor which migrates on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a polypeptide of Mr approximately 89,000. The purified molybdate-stabilized receptor sediments at 9.3 +/- 0.2 S (n = 4) in glycerol gradients and has a Stokes radius of 74 +/- 3 A (n = 2) giving a calculated Mr approximately 290,000. These properties and the steroid-binding specificity of the purified receptor bear a close similarity to those found for the 9-10 S receptor in crude cytosol. PMID:3997805

Atrache, V; Ratajczak, T; Senafi, S; Hähnel, R

1985-05-25

401

Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

2011-01-01

402

Respiratory infections in children up to two years of age on prophylaxis with palivizumab  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744

Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amelia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin

2014-01-01

403

Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

2014-01-01

404

Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14-15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1(1/2)-5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, an on-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4-5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14-15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4-5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14-15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems. PMID:20390313

Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Beuker, Karin T; Buitelaar, Jan K

2010-08-01

405

Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14–15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1½–5 at ageyears, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, a non-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4–5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14–15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at ageyears and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4–5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14–15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems. PMID:20390313

Moricke, Esme; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Beuker, Karin T.

2010-01-01

406

Working memory skills and educational attainment: evidence from national curriculum assessments at 7 and 14 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The relationship between working memory skills and performance on national curriculum assess- ments in English, mathematics and science was explored in groups of children aged 7 and 14 years. At 7 years, children's levels of attainment in both English and mathematics were significantly associated with working memory scores, and in particular with performance on complex span tasks. At 14

Susan E. Gathercole; Susan J. Pickering; Camilla Knight; Zoe Stegmann

2004-01-01

407

Effects of a Regular Motor Activity on Somatic and Fitness Variables in Boys Aged 17-18 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness changes in semisedentary boys persuaded to undertake Nordic Walking activities throughout a school year. Material and methods: Two groups of schoolboys aged 17-18 years were studied: regularly attending physical education (PE) classes (Group A; n = 46) and those who avoided PE classes by submitting sick…

Piotrowska, Joanna

2011-01-01

408

Academic Achievement Over 8 Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one\\u000a setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met\\u000a symptom criteria for ADHD at 4–6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence\\u000a and other confounds were

Greta M. Massetti; Benjamin B. Lahey; William E. Pelham; Jan Loney; Ashley Ehrhardt; Steve S. Lee; Heidi Kipp

2008-01-01

409

Male Patients Above Age 60 have as Good Outcomes as Male Patients 50–59 Years Old at 1Year Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It is estimated that 25% of Americans older than 60 years are obese. Male gender and advanced age are indicators of increased\\u000a risk for bariatric surgery. Good results have been shown in patients older than 50, but nearly all published studies include\\u000a a large majority of females, and few include patients >60 years old. In this study, we examined the results of

Daniel Wool; Nina Bellatorre; Sherry Wren; Dan Eisenberg

2009-01-01

410

UK Naval Dockyards asbestosis study: survey of the sample population aged 50-59 years.  

PubMed Central

As part of a general morbidity study of all civilian employees in the four Royal Naval Dockyards, the clinical, radiological and physiological effects of exposure to asbestos in 1200 men aged 50-59 years were studied in detail. The sample included all men on the Register of Asbestos Workers, one in three of those currently in occupations where intermittent exposure to asbestos may occur, and one in 30 of the remainder. The conclusions are mainly in accord with those of the comprehensive morbidity study of all the civilian dockyard workers, and show that smoking played a large part in increasing prevalence rates of radiographic, clinical, and physiological abnormalities in this population. A sub-group of 39 men, who were working as asbestos laggers or sprayers before 1957, was identified. These men showed much more extensive disease than any other sub-group, yet, even so, the smokers were worse than the non-smokers. Of these smokers, 48% had small opacities of category 1/1 or more, 76% reported that they coughed during the day and 53% had crepitations; forced expiratory volume and transfer factor were also markedly reduced in these 21 smokers. Although asbestos exposure had been intermittent for the majority of the population, the prevalences of pleural thickening, small opacities, current respiratory symptoms and crepitations were shown to be related to duration of exposure to asbestos. PMID:508640

Rossiter, C E; Harries, P G

1979-01-01

411

Correlates of low-level lead exposure in urban children at 2 years of age  

SciTech Connect

The blood lead levels of a large number of US preschool children approach the value regarded as the upper limit of normal. To reduce the number of children whose levels increase into the range thought to be toxic, the antecedents and correlates of levels in the 0- to 25-micrograms/dL range must be identified. In a large longitudinal study of middle and upper-middle class children living in metropolitan Boston, we evaluated how well five sets of variables predicted children's blood lead levels at 2 years of age: environmental lead sources, mouthing activity, home environment/care giving, prior developmental status, and sociodemographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that only environmental lead sources and, to a lesser extent, mouthing activity accounted for significant portions of the variance in blood lead levels. Environmental lead sources were not significantly related to the home environment/care-giving variables or to sociodemographic characteristics. The most promising approach for achieving community-wide reductions in children's blood lead levels is reduction in the amount of lead in the proximate environment.

Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M.; Needleman, H.; Waternaux, C.

1986-06-01

412

Aging well: methanotrophic potential and community structure along a paddy soil chronosequence of 2000 years.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that rice paddies are anthropogenic methane sources and the inevitable need to increase rice production to sustain human population growth, it is pertinent to identify the effects of long term agriculture on the selection of methanotrophs. Methanotrophs play a crucial role in mitigating methane emission from rice paddies. Therefore, we analyzed the methanotroph community along a chronosequence of paddy soils from China covering recently reclaimed sites to paddies under permanent agriculture since 2000 years (Cheng et al., 2009; doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.016). Maximum potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) increased monotonically with age. Our results also showed that long-term agriculture imposes a selection pressure on different groups of methanotrophs. In contrast to younger soils, type Ib methanotrophs were observed to multiply in correspondence with increasing PMOR in ancient soils, while other groups showed a relatively stable community composition as revealed by pmoA-based fingerprints (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cloning and sequencing the pmoA (a key gene in methane oxidation), the soils were found to harbour known and putative methanotrophs, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and interestingly, sequences affiliated to Crenothrix, a methane oxidizer with an unusual pmoA (Stoecker et al., 2006; doi:10.1073/pnas.0506361103). In summary, long-term agriculture shapes the community and allows for an elevated level of potential methane oxidation.

Ho, Adrian; Frenzel, Peter

2010-05-01

413

Parental Characteristics Associated With Bullying Perpetration in US Children Aged 10 to 17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We identified factors associated with child bullying in the United States. Methods. We used the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health to examine associations among child, parent, and community factors and bullying perpetration among children aged 10 to 17 years, using bivariate and stepwise multivariable analyses. Results. African American and Latino children and children living in poverty and who had emotional, developmental, or behavioral (EDB) problems had higher odds of bullying, as did children of parents who felt angry with their child or who felt their child bothered them a lot or wa