Science.gov

Sample records for age 9-10 years

  1. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  2. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. PMID:26093070

  3. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 910 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Paula; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Jones, Andrew; Harvey, Ian; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedn

    2011-01-01

    Objective Poor diet in childhood increases risk of obesity but the relationship between access to food and childrens food choice is underexplored. We determined relationships between distance to and density of food outlets on childrens food choice. Design Children (n 1721) aged 910 years who participated in a cross-sectional study from a sample of state and private schools across urban and rural areas. Food consumption was reported using a short validated FFQ. A Geographic Information System was used to determine proximity to local food outlets. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine associations between food consumption and distance to and density of local food outlets. Setting Norfolk, England. Subjects Boys (n 754) and girls (n 967) aged 910 years. Results The impact of distance to or density of food outlets on food choice was small after adjustment. Living further away from a supermarket increased portions of fruit (011 portions/week per 1 km increase in distance to nearest supermarket, P<005) and vegetables (011 portions/week, P<005) consumed. Living closer to convenience stores was also associated with an increased consumption of crisps, chocolate and white bread. Density of supermarkets was associated with both an increase in vegetable intake (031 portions/week, P<005) and unhealthy foods. Conclusions Distance to and density of food outlets are both associated with childrens food choice, although the impact appears to be small and the relationship is complex. However, the effects of individual foods combined could be important, particularly as even small differences in intake can impact on body weight over time. PMID:20082745

  4. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year... Conservationist, be in the public interest. (e) If a 10-year cost-share agreement is terminated in accordance...

  5. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year... agreement would, as determined by the State Conservationist, be in the public interest. (e) If a...

  6. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year... agreement would, as determined by the State Conservationist, be in the public interest. (e) If a...

  7. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year... agreement would, as determined by the State Conservationist, be in the public interest. (e) If a...

  8. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. (a)...

  9. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  10. Reducing depression in 9-10 year old children in low SES schools: a longitudinal universal randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare M; Nesa, Monique

    2013-12-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOP-PTS) is an innovative curriculum-based mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. The program is aimed at preventing depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in middle primary school children aged 9-10 years. Students from 22 low SES primary schools (N = 910) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline, post-test, 6 months and 18 months. The intervention group received the program implemented by teachers and the control group received their regular Health Education curriculum. Students completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, and attribution style. At risk students were further assessed with the computerised Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Parents reported on their children's externalising and internalising problems at home. Children in the intervention condition reported a significant pre-post reduction in depressive symptoms, and there was a significant pre-post reduction in parent-reported emotional difficulties which was maintained at 6 month follow-up; no changes were evident in the control group. Both groups showed significant improvements in child-reported anxiety and attribution style, and significant improvements in parent-reported pro-social behaviours. For both groups, there were no significant post-baseline changes in incidence and recovery rates for depression, anxiety, or internalising symptoms. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has the potential to treat depressive symptomatology in the immediate term but the effects were not sustained. There is also evidence of improved emotional resilience up to 6 months following the program. Further follow-up to investigate longer term effects is needed. PMID:24185214

  11. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  12. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume III. Family/Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.

  13. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

  14. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

  15. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 910 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 910 years in 20067) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (?7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (?32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (?813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 89 am, 35 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  16. How Children Aged 9-10 Understand Bible Stories: A Study of Children at a Church-Aided and a State Primary School in the Midlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Howard

    2004-01-01

    This article details the Bible Story Project's (BSP) initial work in examining how children understand stories. It draws on the insights of both developmental thinking and experiential learning, with awareness of the growing need to release the authentic "voice of the child". The context is found in Year 5 children in two contrasting inner city…

  17. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  18. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  19. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  20. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  1. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  2. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  3. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  4. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  5. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  6. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  7. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  8. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  9. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p < 0.05 significance level. Most had a bachelor's degree (31%) or some college (29%), about half were white, 66% were married, about 30% of households participated in assistance programs, and 82% were female. At program conclusion, participants significantly improved meal planning, prioritizing healthy meal choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes. PMID:26970294

  10. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby grows, including parenting tips. Patient/parent education handouts are available for your child’s regular check-up visit with your healthcare provider from 2-5 days of age until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate - Children over 5 . The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides ...

  11. Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging. PMID:16594786

  12. Contraception at age 35 years and older.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, C

    1998-12-01

    About 85% of all births in the US occur to women under 35 years of age. According to the US National Survey of Family Growth, women aged 35-39 years expect to have an additional 0.3 births while those 40-44 years anticipate only 0.1 additional births. Thus, there is a need to protect women age 35 years and over from unwanted pregnancy until menopause occurs. Sterilization continues to be the most common choice for married women older than 30 years. The IUD may be an excellent alternative to sterilization. Oral contraceptive (OC) use declines in women over 35 years because of concerns about increased cardiovascular risk. However, new studies have indicated myocardial risk in older women is mainly limited to women with other cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, the OC-related benefits of protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, reduced menstrual blood loss, and increased bone density are especially important to women over 35 years. Since it is impossible to diagnose menopause within the pill-free week, OC users should stop the pill for a month at around 50 years of age to allow accurate follicle-stimulating hormone measurement. PMID:9917950

  13. The benzene-sensitized cycloreversion of 9,10-peroxy,9,10-dimethylanthracene in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, B.; Glauser, W. A.

    1986-08-01

    Rates of 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA) formation have been determined for N 2-purged solutions of 9,10-peroxy-9, 10-dimethylanthracene (DMAPO) and benzene ( B) in dichloromethane at 254 nm as a function of concentration of DMAPO and of B. The rate equation is integrated to accommodate time-dependent absorption of the actinic radiation by DMA, necessary even for cycloreversions of 1%. The data are quantitatively consistent with triplet benzene sensitized adiabatic cycloreversion from the endoperoxide triplet (T π) state with an estimated efficiency of 0.16 ± 0.06.

  14. Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19460581

  15. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identify impacts of proposed actions. 9.10 Section 9.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed actions. (a) Purpose....

  16. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  17. Major changes in a rhythmic ball-bouncing task occur at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  18. 22 CFR 9.10 - Mandatory declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agency to declassify and release information shall result in a prompt declassification review of the information in accordance with procedures set forth in 22 CFR 171.20-25. Mandatory declassification review... 9.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.10...

  19. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Girls 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Girls NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mother’s Stature Date Age Father’s Stature Weight Stature BMI* AGE (YEARS) in cm 160 62 155 60 150 58 145 56 140 S 54 ...

  20. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  1. Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.

    PubMed

    Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

  2. 9,10-Diarylanthracenes as stable electrochemiluminescent emitters in water.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Palani; Schmittel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Two hydrophilic diarylanthracenes, explicitly 9,10-bis(N-methylimidazolium-3-propoxyphenyl)anthracene (DAA1) and 9,10-bis(N-methylimidazolium-3-propoxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl)anthracene (DAA2), are synthesized and fully characterized. Both are found to be soluble in aqueous medium and to exhibit optical properties similar to those of the parent 9,10-diphenylanthracene, whose solubility is virtually negligible in water. The detailed analysis of their photochemical stability as well as electrochemical and electrochemiluminescent properties reveals that the sterically highly shielded anthracene DAA2 shows inertness toward reactions with singlet oxygen and OH(-) ions during photo- and electrochemical initiation and stable ECL emission in aqueous medium. PMID:22950444

  3. The Photolysis Of The Endoperoxide Of 9,10-Diphenylanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, W.; Shimidt, R.; Brauer, H.-D.

    1980-02-01

    During the photolysis of the endoperoxide of 9,10-diphenylanthracene, two different reactions are observed, depending on the irradiation wavelength: (i) Excitation of the S 1 band causes a homolytic cleavage of the peroxide bridge with a quantum yield Q2 = 0.08. (ii) Irradiation of the S 2 band leads to an adiabatic photocleavage of the endoperoxide into 9,10-diphenylanthracene and singlet molecular oxygen with a quantum yield Q1 = 0.28. Both reaction pathways confirm the theory of Kearns and Khan concerning the photolysis of endoperoxides

  4. Career Exploration Curriculum Supplement for Grades 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The supplement to the Career Exploration Curriculum Guide: 9-10 presents concrete approaches that school districts in Ohio are utilizing to implement and integrate career exploration throughout the curriculum. The lessons and units in the supplement contain objectives, learning activities, suggested teaching procedures, and resource lists.…

  5. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  6. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  7. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  8. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingling; Li, Feng; Wang, Junli; Shen, Lixiao; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA. Results In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 14.69–419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g). All of the children were divided into three groups, 1–2 years (12–24 months), 2–3 years (24–36 months), 3–4 years (36–48 months), with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g), 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g), 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g), respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1–2 years, 2–3 years and 3–4 years (P = 0.016). In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1–2 years and children aged 3–4 years (P = 0.007). A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005) in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed. Conclusion Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years), and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4 years and adults. PMID:26950440

  9. Surgical mortality in patients more than 80 years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan-Kheil, A M; Khan, H N

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Patients aged >80 years account for a considerable proportion of the population admitted to hospital under general surgeons. We aimed to establish the prevalence of mortality in patients aged >80 years who underwent emergency general, vascular and urological surgery within a 13-month period at a large teaching hospital in the UK. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis was carried out of all patients aged ?80 years admitted on acute on-call emergency under general, vascular or urological surgeons. Patient demographics (including comorbidities and sex) were recorded. American Society of Anesthesiologists scores were reviewed from anaesthetic records. The outcome measure was 30-day mortality for those who had undergone emergency general, vascular or urological surgery. Results A total of 4,069 patients were admitted under general, vascular and urological surgeons during the study period. Of these patients, 521 were aged >80 years. Sixty-three patients underwent emergency surgery and 12 died <30 days after surgery (mortality = 19%). The most common procedure was laparotomy (20 cases). The most common co-morbidity was cardiac disease, which included hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and hypercholesterolemia. A considerable proportion of patients also had malignant disease and arthritis. Conclusions The present study suggests that emergency surgery should not be denied to subjects aged >80 years based on age alone. Mortality varies according to the type of emergency procedure. Mortality was highest after laparotomy and vascular surgery whereas, for more routine procedures such as hernia repair and abscess drainage, survival was almost 100% after 30 days. PMID:26672811

  10. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  11. Crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Zaitseva, Natalia; Payne, Steve; Shah, Kanai S.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we report on the crystal growth and characterization of 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Crystals of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) were grown by the solution growth technique as well as the vertical Bridgman method. In case of the solution growth technique, several organic solvents were investigated including heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and p-xylene. The largest crystals of the highest quality were obtained from toluene and xylene. In the case of vertical Bridgman, evacuated silica ampoules were used to grow large single crystals of DPA. Crystals grown by this method exhibit excellent scintillation properties. Radioluminescence spectra of DPA crystals exhibit a broad emission band peaking at 475 nm. DPA crystals show high light yields of up to 20,000 ph/MeV and a fast scintillation decay of less than 20 ns. Fast neutron detection was achieved using a 252Cf source.

  12. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  13. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits. PMID:22448608

  14. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better. PMID:22448609

  15. Vitrectomy in patients over 90 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Tetsuya; Ide, Tomoyuki; Chikuda, Makoto; Machida, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate vitrectomy procedures performed in patients over 90 years of age at the Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital (Koshigaya, Japan). Patients and methods Vitrectomies were performed in nine eyes of nine patients who were over 90 years of age between May 2010 and March 2015. Factors such as the underlying vitreoretinal disease, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), surgical time, postoperative body position, need for a second surgery, systemic disease, and intraoperative changes in systemic conditions have been evaluated. Results The most common cause of the underlying vitreoretinal disease was vitreous hemorrhage derived from age-related macular degeneration and posterior dislocation of the lens secondary to a posterior capsular rupture (two cases each). The mean values for the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA were 2.15 preoperatively and 1.46 postoperatively (P=0.020, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mean surgical time was 109 minutes. Prone position was needed in two cases, and no second surgeries were needed. The most common cause of systemic disease was hypertension, which was found in six cases. Transient hypertension was found in two cases during surgery, and these patients were treated using intravenous calcium blocker injections. Conclusion Patients over 90 years of age who underwent vitrectomy procedures did not have serious problems, except transient hypertension during surgery. The BCVA significantly improved. These results indicated that vitrectomies could be performed successfully in patients over 90 years of age. PMID:26869759

  16. Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

    2009-03-01

    Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development. PMID:19209081

  17. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  18. Rejuvenating immunity: "anti-aging drug today" eight years later.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2015-08-14

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding "a turning point" in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  19. Aging in Prader-Willi syndrome: twelve persons over the age of 50 years.

    PubMed

    Sinnema, Margje; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Maaskant, Marian A; Boer, Harm; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-06-01

    The life expectancy of persons with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has increased in recent years. Because of the paucity of reports on older persons with PWS, the natural history, the onset, and type of age-related problems are poorly understood. Twelve persons with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of PWS aged over 50 years are described (4 deletion; 8 mUPD). Data on physical, behavioral, psychiatric, and aging characteristics were collected through semi-structured interviews with the individuals with PWS and their main carers. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, dermatological, and orthopedic problems were common physical complaints in older people with PWS. Functioning in activities of daily living, psychological functioning, physical functions, and care dependence were substantially worse in the older age group (50+) compared to the control group (18-49 years). Seven out of eight persons with mUPD had a history of psychiatric illness. Behavioral problems were observed in the older age group. Given the combination of age-related physical morbidity, physical appearance, behavioral and psychiatric problems, and functional decline in our cohort, we hypothesize that premature aging occurs in PWS. The care for older people with PWS requires a lifespan approach that recognizes the presence, progression, and consequences of specific morbidity. Special medical surveillance of people with PWS from 40 years onwards would ensure that intervention and support is offered with respect to specific areas of decline at the earliest possible time. PMID:22585395

  20. A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene from Dendrobium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ningdong; Yang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene,1,5-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) was isolated and identified from the whole plants of Dendrobium moniliforme, as well as 24 known compounds including hircinol (2), (2R*,3S*)-3-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-phenanthro[4,3-b]furan-5,11-diol (3), diospyrosin (4), aloifol I (5), moscatilin (6), 3,4'-dihydroxy-3',4,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (7), gigantol (8), 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (9), longicornuol A (10), N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (11), paprazine (12), N-trans-feruloyl 3'-O-methyldopamine (13), moupinamide (14), dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (15), dihydrosinapyl dihydro-p-coumarate (16), 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (17), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), vanillin (19), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (20), vanillic acid (21), protocatechuic acid (22), (+)-syringaresinol (23), β-sitosterol (24) and daucosterol (25). Compounds 3, 4, 13, 16, 17 and 20 were isolated from the Dendrobium genus for the first time, and compounds 2, 5, 7, 9-12, 14, 15, 18, 21 and 22 were originally obtained from D. moniliforme. PMID:26132274

  1. Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients Over 65 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Aida; Resic, Halima; Celik, Damir; Masnic, Fahrudin; Ajanovic, Selma; Prohic, Nejra; Beciragic, Amela; Grosa, Emir; Smajlovic, Ajdin; Mujakovic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the statistics the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is getting older. In 2013 the average life span for women was 73.6 years and 68.1 for men. The chronic hemodialysis program is mainly reserved for elderly patients with high mortality risk. The most common cause of hemodialysis mortality relates to cardiovascular diseases (60.2%), regardless of frequent innovations and improvement of hemodialysis procedures. The aim of the study: was to determine the mortality rate by age groups with comments on the presence of non-traditional predictors (anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CRP, vascular access and PTH) in dialysis patients in the follow-up period of 36 months. Methods: The study included all patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis treatment at the Clinic of Hemodialysis of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (CCUS). Results: Out of a total number of hemodialysis patients (n=232), the specific mortality rate in patients under 65 years of age was 16.8%, and 50.5% in patients over 65 years of age. According to the age groups the mortality rate in elderly patients is as follows: from 65 to 74 years (45.1%), from 75 to 84 years (55.0%), over ≥85 years (75.0%). The most frequent vascular access in patients under and above 65 is arteriovenous fistula (79.6% and 62.1 %), temporary hemodialysis catheter (11.7% and 43.8 %) and long-term hemodialysis catheter (8.8% and 4.2 %). In the age group under 65 years of age the temporary hemodialysis catheter is significantly and more frequently used in diseased patients in respect to survivors (34.8% vs. 7.0%) [χ2(2)=15.769, p=0.001]. Diseased patients from the age group over 65 had a significantly lower mean value of haemoglobin in blood (M=100.9±17.5 g/L) in respect to survivors (M=109.2±17.1)[t(93)=2.339; p=0.021], lower mean value of albumin in blood (Me=32.0; IQR=29.0 do 35.0) in respect to survivors (Me=34.0; IQR=32.0 to 38.0) [U=762.5; p=0.006], and higher mean value of CRP in blood (Me=19.3 mg/L; IQR=6.6 to 52.0) in respect to survivors (Me=7.8; IQR=4.0 to 16.7) [U=773.5; p=0.008]. Diseased patients belonging to the age group over 65 had lower mean value of PTH, but without statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusion: older age, temporary vascular access, anaemia and hypoalbuminemia are strong predictors of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Old age does not present contraindication for hemodialysis treatment, and treatment of terminal renal illness should not be abandoned. PMID:26005383

  2. [Anesthetic management of elderly patients aged 90 years or older].

    PubMed

    Murakawa, Tokuaki; Anzawa, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Yasunori; Sakai, Ichiro; Matsuki, Akitomo

    2004-02-01

    The authors experienced 55 cases of anesthetic management in 52 elderly surgical patients, 14 men and 38 women, aged 90 to 101 years with an average of 92.1 +/- 2.1 years for the past ten years. Surgical procedures included 38 cases of orthopedic, 14 cases of general surgical and 3 cases of ophthalmic operations. Thirteen cases out of them were emergency. General, epidural, spinal, and local anesthesia were applied in 34 cases, 18 cases, 2 cases, and one case out of these elderly patients, respectively. These general anesthesia consisted of total intravenous anesthesia with propopol, fentanyl and ketamine in 27 cases, sevoflurane with nitrous oxide in 4 cases, isoflurane with nitrous oxide or air in 2 cases, and thiopental anesthesia in one case. The elderly patients had past history of heart disease, dementia, hypertension, cerebral infarction/hemorrhage, diabetes mellitus and others. Their preoperative examinations revealed anemia, hypoproteinemia, renal hypofunction, serum electrolytes imbalance, and others. Vasopessors were given to 42% of the patients during anesthesia and surgery. Their postoperative complications included myocardial infarction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, hypotension following anemia, transient hemiparesis, delirium and so on. Two patients developed myocardial infarction postoperatively and died thereafter. The authors suggest that appropriate anesthetic management for elderly patients aged 90 years or older requires proper preoperative evaluation, sufficient vigilance of hemodynamics with direct arterial pressure measurement, reliable preparation of medical agents, and awareness of impairment of circulatory function and others by aging. PMID:15011425

  3. Fungal oxidation of (+-)-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene: formation of diastereomeric benzo(a)pyrene 9,10-diol 7,8-epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cerniglia, C.E.; Gibson, D.T.

    1980-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans oxidized (+-) trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)-pyrene to a complex mixture of metabolites which were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Two of the metabolites were identified as (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..,9..cap alpha..,10..beta..-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene and (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..,9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene. A third product gave absorption and mass spectra consistent with a diol-epoxide structure. Hydrolysis of this compound gave (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..,9..beta..,10..cap alpha..-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene as the major identifiable product with a minor unidentified tetraol. Synthetic (+-)-9..cap alpha..,10..beta..-dihydroxy-7..beta..,8..beta..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene gave the same hydrolysis products and had the same retention time on high-pressure liquid chromatography as did the fungal metabolite. The trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene recovered at the end of the experiment showed no optical activity, indicating that both enantiomers were metabolized by the fungus. The results suggest that C. elegans oxidized (+-)-trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene to diastereomeric benzo(a)pyrene 9,10-diol 7,8-epoxides.

  4. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  5. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  6. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  7. Psychopathic traits and physiological responses to aversive stimuli in children aged 9-11 years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-07-01

    Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or un-signaled white-noise bursts. Using multilevel regression models, both larger HR acceleration and fewer NS-SCR were found to be significantly associated with psychopathic traits during anticipation of signaled white-noise bursts. However, two divergent patterns appeared for HR and SCR: (1) larger HR acceleration was specific to the callousness-disinhibition factor of psychopathic traits while reduced NS-SCR was only associated with the manipulative-deceitfulness factor; (2) the negative association between the manipulative-deceitfulness factor and NS-SCR was only found in boys but not in girls. These findings replicated what has been found in psychopathic adults, suggesting that autonomic deficits present in children at risk may predispose them to later psychopathy. The divergent findings across psychopathic facets and sexes raised the possibility of different etiologies underlying psychopathy, which may in turn suggest multiple treatment strategies for boys and girls. PMID:22228313

  8. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  9. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  10. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients. PMID:25656458

  11. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  12. Treating feverish illness in children aged under five years.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Penny

    2014-12-01

    Fever is the most likely reason for a child to be taken to the doctor and, occasionally, the signs may indicate the start of serious illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has issued a quality standard for the care of feverish illness in children aged under five years, designed to ensure that no such cases are missed. Carers, usually parents, should be offered written and verbal advice if it is judged that they can safely take the child home and are happy to do so. The traffic light system is designed to assist assessment of the child on presentation and throughout the illness journey. PMID:25487400

  13. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. [Myocardial infarction in patients aged 70 years and over].

    PubMed

    Dutoit, A; Mahieu, G; Petit, A; Cabaret, P; Jacquemart, T; Rihani, R; Graux, P; Cornaert, P; Croccel, L

    1990-09-01

    109 subjects aged 70 years (58 women, 51 men; average age 77 years) were hospitalized in the CICU (Cardiology Intensive Care Unit) over the period stretching from 1984 to 1986. The average length of stay in the CICU was 1 week, completed by an average stay of 5 days in the cardiology department. 100 per cent of the patients were followed up. Of the clinical parameters made evident by this study, the authors note that hypertension was the predominant risk factor (52.2 per cent); a history of coronary disease was noted in 60.5 per cent; 26.6 per cent of the patients were hospitalized before the 6th hour, chest pain being typical in 78 per cent versus painless in 11 per cent of patients; topographically, the infarction was anterior in 55 per cent, posterior in 40.4 per cent, and around the circumference in 4.6 per cent of cases; 80.8 per cent of the infarctions were transmural versus 19.2 per cent of infarctions without the Q wave--the latter accounted for a higher hospital mortality rate (38 per cent versus 27.3 per cent). The main complications were disturbances in rhythm (60.6 per cent) and LVI (56.9 per cent). Complications on the form of infections were noted in 15.6 per cent. Apart from the usual indicators of severity (cardiogenic shock, VF, LVI), infarction of the RV and AF had a serious effect on the prognosis. latrogenic disease accounted for 18.9 per cent. From the point of view of prognosis, hospital mortality was 30 per cent; mortality after one year was 44 per cent and 47.7 per cent after 2 years (in a group of 76 subjects).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2264704

  15. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  16. Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 4564 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Anderson, Lynda A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Eugene, Nola; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of setting the stage for this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a life-course perspective is presented to assist in understanding the importance of cancer prevention for adults in midlife, a period roughly spanning 20 years between ages 45 and 64 years. Drawing on disciplinary perspectives from the social sciences and public health, several life-course themes are delineated in this article: how specific life transitions present unique opportunities for interventions to inform policy and practice that can improve population health outcomes; how interventions can be focused on those at particular life stages or on the entire life course; and how the onset and progression of chronic conditions such as cancer are dependent on a complex interplay of critical and sensitive periods, and trajectory and accumulation processes. A translational research framework is applied to help promote the movement of applied public health interventions for cancer prevention into practice. Also explored are differences that can affect people at midlife relative to other age cohorts. Specifically, cancer-related risks and care networks are examined, with examples of public health strategies that can be applied to cancer prevention and control. As a conclusion, select methodologic issues and next steps for advancing research and practice are identified. PMID:24512925

  17. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Relationship between age and elite marathon race time in world single age records from 5 to 93 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were (i) to investigate the relationship between elite marathon race times and age in 1-year intervals by using the world single age records in marathon running from 5 to 93 years and (ii) to evaluate the sex difference in elite marathon running performance with advancing age. Methods World single age records in marathon running in 1-year intervals for women and men were analysed regarding changes across age for both men and women using linear and non-linear regression analyses for each age for women and men. Results The relationship between elite marathon race time and age was non-linear (i.e. polynomial regression 4th degree) for women and men. The curve was U-shaped where performance improved from 5 to ~20 years. From 5 years to ~15 years, boys and girls performed very similar. Between ~20 and ~35 years, performance was quite linear, but started to decrease at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference increased non-linearly (i.e. polynomial regression 7th degree) from 5 to ~20 years, remained unchanged at ~20 min from ~20 to ~50 years and increased thereafter. The sex difference was lowest (7.5%, 10.5 min) at the age of 49 years. Conclusion Elite marathon race times improved from 5 to ~20 years, remained linear between ~20 and ~35 years, and started to increase at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference in elite marathon race time increased non-linearly and was lowest at the age of ~49 years. PMID:25120915

  19. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within-pair difference in physical fitness was also predictive of within-pair difference in lateral ventricle size. There was a weak independent effect of self-reported physical activity. Conclusion Leg power predicts both cognitive ageing and global brain structure, despite controlling for common genetics and early life environment shared by twins. Interventions targeted to improve leg power in the long term may help reach a universal goal of healthy cognitive ageing. PMID:26551663

  20. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  1. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less

  2. A comparative analysis of the health status of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica: Are there differences across municipalities?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Since 1990, the number of older men (60+ years) in Jamaica has increased to in excess of 100 000, while there are 30 000 men aged 73+ years. This is despite the fact that men have higher mortality and morbidity rates than women and seek medical treatment less frequently than women. There exists, however, a dearth in literature regarding this phenomenon and, therefore, this study has endeavoured to reduce this gap. Objectives The aims of this study were to, (1) model the health status of men aged 60–72 years in Jamaica, (2) model the health status of men aged 73+ years in Jamaica and (3) examine the disparity in health status of the two groups in order to ascertain the factors that influence the good health status of elderly men. Method A sample of 1432 men aged 60+ years were extracted from a survey of 25 018 Jamaicans. Secondly, a sub-sample of 633 men aged 73+ years was extracted from the 1432 men aged over 60. The data from which those samples were extracted is called the Jamaica survey of living conditions (JSLC). The JSLC began in 1988 from a model of the World Bank's Living conditions survey and is a nationally cross-sectional probability sample. The current study used descriptive statistics to provide background information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and logistic regressions were utilised to examine the factors that predict good health of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica. Results The average age of the sample of men aged 60+ years was 71.14 years (SD = 5.64 years) and 78.5 years for the sample of men aged 73+ years (SD = 7.97 years). Approximately 63% of men aged 60–72 years indicated that their health was good compared to 53.3% for men aged 73+ years. Rural men recorded the least health status across the age cohorts. With regard to predictors of good health, the same factors were found to determine approximately 27% of the variability in good health. Ownership of health insurance was found to be the most influential predictor of good health and positive affective psychological condition the least significant predictor of good health for men aged 73+ years and second to last of five factors for older men. Conclusion The highest self-reported good health was indicated by men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years who dwelled in towns other than Kingston, the capital. The least good health was experienced by rural men. For older men, health insurance coverage does not indicate preventative health, but preparation for curative ill-health.

  3. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    PubMed

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences. PMID:26485784

  4. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA + idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  5. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept. PMID:17296029

  6. Comparison of facial trauma in late middle age (55-64 years) and old age (older than 65 years).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to compare facial trauma of late-middle-age patients (55-64 years, LM group) and old-age patients (>65 years old, OL group). The goal of this study was to evaluate the natural history of facial trauma in geriatric patients.The medical record of patients older than 55 years seeking treatment for facial trauma between March 2006 and February 2009 were reviewed, and parameters were collected. Seven hundred seventy-two patients (553 male, 219 female) were analyzed. There were 438 patients of the LM group (55-64 years old) and 334 patients of the OL group (>65 years old).In men (n = 553), the number of patients within the LM group (n = 336, 60.8%) was greater than the number in the OL group (n = 217, 39.2%). Of the 219 women, the number within the OL group (n = 117, 53.4%) was greater than that within the LM group (n = 102, 46.6%) (P = 0.000, χ). Facial lacerations comprised a significantly higher proportion in the OL group (79.3%) than that in the ML group (70.1%), whereas facial bone fractures were more frequent in the ML group (29.9%) than in the OL group (20.7%), which was significant (P = 0.004, χ). Assault and automobile accidents were significantly more frequent in the ML group (n = 65 [15.1%] and n = 31 [7.2%], respectively) than the OL group (n = 20 [6.0%] and n = 11 [3.3%]), whereas falls and pedestrian accidents were more significantly frequent in the OL group (n = 30 [9.0%] and n = 23 [6.9%], respectively) than in the LM group (n = 30 [7.0%] and n = 19 [4.4%]) (P = 0.000, χ). During the hours of the day, between 4 to 6 PM and 6 to 8 PM, injuries occurred more frequently in the OL group (14.5% and 12.4%, respectively) than in the LM group (10.5% and 11.0%, respectively). At the times of 8 to 10 PM and 10 PM to midnight, however, injuries occurred more frequently in the LM group (17.1%, 12.1%, respectively) than in the OL group (12.1% and 8.2%, respectively) (P = 0.03, χ). Frequency of injuries at home within the OL group (n = 68, 22.2%) was significantly higher than within the LM group (n = 55, 14.4%) (P = 0.001, χ), whereas frequency of injuries at the workplace of the LM group (n = 47, 12.3%) was significantly higher than that of the OL group (n = 16, 5.2%) (P = 0.001, χ). Alcohol ingestion at the time of injury was significantly more frequent in the LM group (n = 146, 34.1%) than in the OL group (n = 57, 17.3%) (P = 0.000, χ). In regard to diabetes, the OL group (35.6%) showed a higher prevalence than that of the LM group (25.4%; odds ratio, 2.65).Prevention of injury is important for elderly patients. It is worthy of notice that more than one fourth (26.8%) were in a drunken state at the time of injury. There were no significant differences in the days of hospitalization or in the interval from injury to operation. However, there were significant differences in the place of the injuries, causes of injuries, and time of injuries, which is important in the prevention of injuries. Attention should be paid to assault and automobile accidents in the LM group and to falls and pedestrian injuries in the OL group. Thus, injury prevention should be prepared for differently for both LM and OL groups. PMID:23714909

  7. Excessive crying at 3 months of age and behavioural problems at 4 years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3 months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3 months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4 years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  8. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  9. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,

  10. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other...

  11. omega-Hydroxylation of Z9-octadecenoic, Z9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10-dihydroxystearic acids by microsomal cytochrome P450 systems from Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Pinot, F; Salaün, J P; Bosch, H; Lesot, A; Mioskowski, C; Durst, F

    1992-04-15

    A microsomal fraction from etiolated Vicia sativa seedlings incubated aerobically with [1-14C]oleic acid (Z9-octadecenoic acid) or [1-14C]9,10-epoxystearic acid or [1-14C]9,10-dihydroxystearic acid catalyzed the NADPH-dependent formation of hydroxylated metabolites. The chemical structure of compounds formed from oleic, 9,10-epoxystearic or 9,10-dihydroxystearic acids was established by gas chromatography/mass spectra analysis to be 18-hydroxyoleic acid, 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxystearic acid and 9,10,18-trihydroxystearic acid, respectively. The reactions required O2 and NADPH and were inhibited by carbon monoxide. As expected for monooxygenase reactions involving cytochrome P450, inhibition could be partially reversed by light and all three reactions were inhibited by antibodies raised against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke. The omega-hydroxylation of the three substrates was enhanced in microsomes from clofibrate induced seedlings. PMID:1567426

  12. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years. PMID:26208617

  13. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  14. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  15. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  16. 702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-07-22

    This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

  17. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult

  18. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  19. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  20. Short-Term Outcomes of Hip Fractures in Patients Aged 90 Years Old and Over Receiving Surgical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Hsuan-Chih; Li, Yi-Ju; Lee, Wei-Jing; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The knowledge about short-term outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing surgery for hip fracture in Asian is limited. Methods The patients with hip fractures who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty and open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) for management during the period from 2008 to 2012 were identified and their medical record was retrospectively reviewed. Results During the study period, a total of 101 patients underwent surgery for management of hip fractures, and the age of patients ranged from 90 to 96 years. The sites of hip fracture were intertrochanteric (n = 57, 56.4%) and the neck of the femur (n = 44, 43.6%). Most of the patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists scores of 3(n = 55) or 4 (in 44 patients). 80.2% (n = 81) underwent the operation within one day after admission; however, there were 13 patients (12.9%) that underwent surgery 48 or more hours later. ORIF and hemiarthroplasty were performed for 63 (62.4%) and 38 (37.6%) patients, respectively. Overall, the 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 9.9% (10/101) and 17.3% (13/75), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the 30-day mortality was significantly associated only with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Odds ratio, 11.13, 95% confidence interval, 1.275–97.881, P = .029). Conclusions The short-term outcome of surgical management for Asian nonagenarians with hip fractures is favorable in selected patients. PMID:25978368

  1. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ. PMID:22281686

  2. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  3. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  4. Patients Aged 80 Years or Older are Encountered More Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ding, Ding; Pu, Shi-Yun; Liu, Qin-Hui; Li, Hong; Dong, Bi-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Yan; He, Jin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are prominent prescribing issues in elderly patients. This study was to investigate the different prevalence of PIM use in elderly inpatients between 65–79 years of age and 80 years or older, who were discharged from Geriatric Department in West China Hospital. Methods: A large-scale cohort of 1796 inpatients aged 65 years or over was recruited. Respectively, 618 patients were 65–79 years and 1178 patients were 80 years or older. Updated 2012 Beers Criteria by the American Geriatric Society was applied to assess the use of PIM among the investigated samples. Results: A review of the prescribed medications identified 686 patients aged 80 years or older consumed at least one PIM giving a rate of 58.2%. Conversely, 268 (43.4%) patients aged 65–79 years consumed at least one PIM (χ2 = 40.18, P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older had higher hospitalization expenses, length of stay, co-morbidities, medical prescription, and mortality than patients aged 65–79 years (all with P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older were prescribed with more benzodiazepines, drugs with strong anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin. In multiple regression analysis, PIM use was significantly associated with female gender, age, number of diagnostic disease, and number of prescribed medication. Conclusions: The finding from this study revealed that inpatients aged 80 years or older encountered more PIM use than those aged 65–79 years. Anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin are medications that often prescribed to inpatients aged 80 years or older. Doctors should carefully choose drugs for the elderly, especially the elderly aged 80 years or older. PMID:26712428

  5. Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years.

    PubMed

    Truscott, J G

    1997-10-01

    Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheffield). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93 years. The data are presented in 5-year bands and show a mean fall of 0.36% per year for BUA and 0.08% per year for SOS in the 60 years following the attainment of peak bone mass. This fall in BUA compares with that observed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of 0.32% per year and 0.44% per year, respectively, for the age range 25-65 years. PMID:9404204

  6. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  7. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Chang, M N; Chabala, J C; Chiu, S H; Eline, D; Hucker, H B; Sweeney, B M; White, S D; Arison, B H; Smith, J L

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone. PMID:2906599

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of new 1,8-diaza-2,9,10-anthracenetrione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gesto, C; de la Cuesta, E; Avendaño, C; Emling, F

    1992-08-01

    Diels-Alder heterocycloaddition reactions of 2,5,8-quinolinetriones and 1-azadienes afford 1,8-diaza-2,9,10-anthracenetriones, which are simple analogues of the antitumoral antibiotic diazaquinomicin A. Cytotoxicity in this series and antitumor activity of the lead compound, 6-methyl-1,8-diaza-2,9,10-anthracenetrione, are reported. PMID:1403729

  9. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.L.; Chang, M.N.; Chabala, J.C.; Chiu, S.H.; Eline, D.; Hucker, H.B.; Sweeney, B.M.; White, S.D.; Arison, B.H.; Smith, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone.

  10. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  11. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  12. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in

  13. Incidental prostate cancer in transurethral resection of prostate specimens in men aged up to 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Marlon; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Perera, Nayomi; Bolton, Damien; Clouston, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The identification of prostate cancer (PC) is important in men aged ≤ 65 years. We examined complete transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) specimens to quantify the incidence and nature of PC in men aged ≤ 65 years. Methods A prospective multi-institutional database included TURP specimens. The cohort was stratified into two groups according to age. For men aged ≤ 65 years, the entire specimen was submitted for histological analysis, while the TURP specimens from men aged > 65 years were sampled following standard guidelines. Results A total of 923 men were included, with 224 in the younger group. PC was identified in 13.4% in men aged ≤ 65 years, compared with 28.7% the older group. The younger group had a lower proportion of Gleason score ≥ 7 (30% compared with 40%) and higher rates of pT1a (57% compared with 43%). In men aged ≤ 65 years with cancer, tumor was identified in one block in 15 of 30 cases (50%). Following diagnosis, 4/30 underwent radical prostatectomy, 5/30 underwent curative radiotherapy, 10/30 androgen deprivation, and 1/30 received palliative radiotherapy. Conclusion Incidental PC in men aged ≤ 65 years is not uncommon. Our results suggest that TURP specimens in men aged ≤ 65 years should be completely assessed. Underidentification of cancer may occur as a result of increasing use of laser prostatectomy and the consequent loss of tissue for pathological examination. PMID:27014658

  14. Speech Defects in Children Aged 7 Years: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Neville R.; Peckham, Catherine; Sheridan, Mary

    1973-01-01

    A series of screening procedures applied on a national scale by doctors, teachers, and health visitors showed that between 10% and 13% of British 7-year-old children born in one week in 1958 were reported as having an appreciable degree of speech impairment. Between 1% and 2% had a marked speech defect though hearing normally. This latter group of speech-defective children were more often male and of poor family background, and more were born towards the end of a long family. They were often at a disadvantage educationally and had more clumsiness and defects of vision and visuomotor co-ordination than the rest of the sample. The methods used for screening provided a reliable guide in the selection of children who require further investigation. PMID:4685316

  15. [Influenza vaccination now from 60 years of age onwards].

    PubMed

    Galama, J M D

    2008-10-18

    Currently, general practitioners and occupational health physicians in The Netherlands face the question whether their patients should be vaccinated against influenza. This follows the addition of two new groups to the list of persons to be vaccinated: those over sixty and people working in health care and health institutions with direct patient contact. These developments stir the hidden resistance to influenza vaccination. It should be clear to everyone that there is no doubt that the vaccination is efficacious and safe. However, the influenza activity in The Netherlands has been low over the last years, which limits the disease burden to be prevented byvaccination. Under these circumstances, the proportion of flu-like symptoms caused by other agents such as respiratory syncytial virus is increased, which may lead to the false impression that the influenza vaccine is not effective. A new pandemic may come at any time, and only then will the efforts to prevent influenza pay off. PMID:19009882

  16. Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11–13 and 15–17 years. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. Subjects: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11–13 or 15–17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. Measurements: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. Results: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15–17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15–17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15–17 years old. Conclusions: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11–13 and 15–17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11–13 and 15–17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength. PMID:14608433

  17. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  18. Subjective duration of every three-year period for 3 to 18 years of age, estimated by students.

    PubMed

    Ando, Y; Tsuruta, H; Motokawa, A; Matsushima, T; Saifuddin, K

    1999-12-01

    Results indicated that both subjective time durations, one day and three years, are well described by the normal distribution if the time scale is logarithmic rather than linear. A remarkable finding obtained here is that in reference to the mean subjective time duration of the junior high school (three years), the mean subjective time durations for each of the three-year periods before elementary school were significantly longer than unity (about 1.2), and the subjective duration of the three year period of the senior high school is significantly shorter (about 0.8). When subjects transferred to other elementary schools at 6 to 11 years of age, the mean subjective time duration of the periods below 11 years of age was much longer, more than 1.3. PMID:11957321

  19. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  20. Outcome at 7 Years of Children Diagnosed with Autism at Age 2: Predictive Validity of Assessments Conducted at 2 and 3 Years of Age and Pattern of Symptom Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony; Taylor, Emma; Drew, Auriol; Cockerill, Helen; Brown, Jo-Anne; Baird, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the predictive validity of symptom severity, cognitive and language measures taken at ages 2 and 3 years to outcome at age 7 in a sample of children diagnosed with autism at age 2. Method: Twenty-six children diagnosed with autism at age 2 were re-assessed at ages 3 and 7 years. At each age symptom severity, cognitive and…

  1. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  2. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  3. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  4. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  5. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  6. Crystal structure of 9,10-bis-(1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-9,10-di-hydro-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Lee, Semin; Bertke, Jeffery A; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structure of the well-studied 9,10-bis-(1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-9,10-di-hydro-anthracene mol-ecule, C20H12S4, (I), also known as exTTF, is reported. The mol-ecular structure of (I) consists of a di-hydro-anthracene moiety with two 1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene substituents. This is a saddle-shaped mol-ecule, which inter-acts with a close neighbor through various ?-? and C-H?? contacts to form a 'dimer'. These 'dimers' inter-act through a series of C-H?S and C-H?? contacts to construct a complex three-dimensional extended structure. PMID:26870408

  7. Remote substituent effects on the photooxygenation of 9,10-diarylanthracenes: strong evidence for polar intermediates.

    PubMed

    Fudickar, Werner; Linker, Torsten

    2008-04-21

    Two different reaction pathways in the photooxygenation of 9,10-diarylanthracenes are identified, with strong evidence for polar (forward, singlet oxygen addition) and radical (backward, thermolysis) intermediates. PMID:18379688

  8. Ten-year echo/doppler determination of the benefits of aerobic exercise after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Muster, Alexander J; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D

    2010-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (+/-3) and 77 (+/-2) years (mean +/- SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO(2max) and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. PMID:19765066

  9. Ten-Year Echo/Doppler Determination of the Benefits of Aerobic Exercise after the Age of 65 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muster, Alexander J.; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D.

    2011-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (±3) and 77 (±2) years (mean ±SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO2max and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. PMID:19765066

  10. 9,10-Dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene derivatives from tetrafluoropyridazine

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Graham; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Howard, Judith A K; Christopher, John A; Miller, David D

    2010-01-01

    Summary Reaction of tetrafluoropyridazine with catechol gives a tricyclic 9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene system by a sequential nucleophilic aromatic substitution ring annelation process, further extending the use of perfluoroheteroaromatic derivatives for the synthesis of unusual polyfunctional heterocyclic architectures. The tricyclic scaffold reacts with amines and sodium ethoxide providing a short series of functional 9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene systems. PMID:20563272

  11. Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years?

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I.; Wang, Nina J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 year of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 year of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR 2.1, CI 1.3–3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR 1.8, CI 1.1–2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during preschool age independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children’s first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel. PMID:25385683

  12. Flexibility of older adults aged 55-86 years and the influence of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; McDonald, Matthew W; Little, Robert M D; Paterson, Donald H

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55-86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, 71 9 years; 231 women, 72 8 years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes. PMID:23862064

  13. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age. PMID:23551758

  14. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. PMID:24164982

  15. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  16. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well

  17. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  18. C-Functionalized, air- and water-stable 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracenes: efficient blue to red emitting luminophores.

    PubMed

    Reus, Christian; Weidlich, Sabine; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2013-08-28

    9,10-Dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) provides a versatile scaffold for the development of boron-doped organic luminophores. Symmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are obtained through the condensation of 4-bromo-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene or 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene with BBr3 in hexane. Unsymmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are formed via an electrophilic solvent activation reaction if the synthesis is carried out in o-xylene. Mechanistic insight has been achieved by in situ NMR spectroscopy, which revealed C-halogenated 1,2-bis(dibromoboryl)benzenes to be the key intermediates. Treatment of the primary 9,10-dibromo-DBAs with MesMgBr yields air- and water-stable C-halogenated 9,10-dimesityl-DBAs (2-Br-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,6-Br2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3-Cl2-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3,6,7-Cl4-DBA(Mes)2). Subsequent Stille-type C-C-coupling reactions give access to corresponding phenyl, 2-thienyl, and p-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl derivatives, which act as highly emissive donor-acceptor dyads or donor-acceptor-donor triads both in solution and in the solid state. 2-Thienyl was chosen as a model substituent to show that already a variation of the number and/or the positional distribution of the donor groups suffices to tune the emission wavelength of the resulting benchtop stable compounds from 469 nm (blue) to 540 nm (green). A further shift of the fluorescence maximum to 594 nm (red) can be achieved by switching from 2-thienyl to p-aminophenyl groups. A comparison of the optoelectronic properties of selected C-substituted DBA(Mes)2 derivatives with those of the isostructural anthracene analogues unveiled the following: (i) The DBA core is a much better electron acceptor. (ii) The emission colors of DBAs fall in the visible range of the spectrum (blue to orange), while anthracenes emit exclusively in the near-ultraviolet to blue wavelength regime. (iii) DBAs show significantly higher solid-state quantum yields. PMID:23899377

  19. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Felicia W.; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  20. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health. PMID:26286042

  1. Understanding average speed: a study on students aged 11 to 12 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Massara, C. I.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents research aimed at designing a strategy to help students aged 11 to 12 years understand the concept of speed. In our approach the work of students is based on experimental activities integrated with Logo programming.

  2. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  3. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related

  4. Three Years of the New Minimum Drinking Age Law: The Search for the "Spillover Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.; Watson, Zarus E. P.

    Raising the legal drinking age nationally was designed to decrease highway deaths, but it has not seemed to have affected the drinking behavior of 18-20 year old college students. In August of 1995, the Louisiana legislature raised the legal minimum drinking age to 21. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects of a change in legal…

  5. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  6. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  7. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  8. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  9. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  10. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  11. Cost Effectiveness of HIV Screening in Patients Over 55 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Gillian D.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Holodniy, Mark; Owens, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although HIV infection is more prevalent in people <45, a significant number of infections occur in older individuals. Recent guidelines recommend HIV screening of patients aged 1364. The cost-effectiveness of HIV screening patients aged 5575 years is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To examine the costs and benefits of HIV screening in patients aged 5575 years. DESIGN Markov model. DATA Derived from the literature. TARGET POPULATION Patients aged 5575 with unknown HIV status. TIME HORIZON Lifetime. PERSPECTIVE Societal. INTERVENTIONS HIV screening program for patients aged 5575 years compared to current practice. OUTCOME MEASURES Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, incremental cost-effectiveness. RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS For a 65-year-old patient, HIV screening using traditional counseling costs $55,440/QALY compared with current practice when the prevalence of HIV was 0.5% and they did not have a sexual partner-at-risk. In sexually-active patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $30,020/QALY. At a prevalence of 0.1%, HIV screening cost <$60,000/QALY for patients <75 years old with a partner-at-risk if less costly streamlined counseling is used. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening depended on HIV prevalence, age of the patient, counseling costs, and whether the patient was sexually active. Sensitivity analyses with other variables did not change our results substantially. LIMITATIONS Uncertainty regarding effects of age on HAART toxicity, efficacy, and AIDS mortality. Sensitivity analyses exploring these variables did not qualitatively affect our results. CONCLUSIONS If the tested population has a prevalence of ?0.1%, HIV screening in individuals between 5575 years old reaches conventional levels of cost-effectiveness when counseling is streamlined and if the screened patient has a partner at risk. HIV screening of patients with advanced age is economically attractive in many circumstances. PMID:18559840

  12. Reactions of 4,5-dihydropyrene, 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene, 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, and 9,10-dihydroanthracene with 1,1'-binaphtyl

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, E.A.; Chuang, N.S.R.; Morris, T.H.

    1987-04-01

    1,1'-binaphthyl has been shown to react with various H-donors used in coal liquefaction at a high temperature (470C) to form perylene in various amounts. This study involved syntheses and isolation of two model H-donors 4,5-dihydropyrene and 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene. Reactions involved 1,1'-binaphthyl and these two H-donors as well as two other commercial H-donors 1,4-dihydronaphthalene and 9,10-dihydroanthracene. Reactions were run for 1,2,3, and 5 hours at 470C and gas chromatographic analyses were used to study the kinetics. A gradual increase in perylene occurred at different rates depending on the H-donor used. Deuterated PNA's were reacted with 1,1'-binaphthyl and H-donor. The mixtures were then analyzed by 200 MHz H NMR which gave unique adsorptions for each kind of hydrogen present. The results showed the method effective and a mechanism most consistent with a bimolecular reaction between a low concentration reactive hydroaromatic and binaphtyl with exchanges of varying extents of the hydrogens of all the aromatic compounds.

  13. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  14. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  15. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  16. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  17. Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

  18. Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Subdimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Method Data were collected from 6,328 mother–child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Results Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. Conclusions The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. PMID:23972698

  19. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. PMID:26690809

  20. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  1. Patients aged over 75 years enrolled in Phase I clinical trials: the Gustave Roussy experience.

    PubMed

    Helissey, Carole; Biondani, Pamela; Roquet, Florian; Lanoy, Emilie; Mir, Olivier; Varga, Andrea; Massard, Christophe; Gazzah, Anas; Ribrag, Vincent; Bahleda, Ratislav; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Angevin, Eric; Deutsch, Eric; Soria, Jean-Charles; Hollebecque, Antoine

    2016-02-15

    Although a third of all cancers are diagnosed after the age of 75, only 9% of elderly people are recruited in clinical trials, because of fear of the risk of toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare the tolerance and efficacy observed in Phase I trials among patients aged over 75 years with that observed in younger patients. Patients treated from 2007 to 2012 at Institut Gustave Roussy in Phase I trials were included. The conditional Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the occurrence of AE and overall survival in a subpopulation of elderly people (EP, aged >75 years) matched with patients aged <75 years (YP) according to the same Phase I protocol and the same Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) prognostic score. Among the 32 EP and the 158 YP, 63% and 61% experienced Grade 3-4 AEs and dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 6% and 11% in each group respectively. Age over 75 years was neither associated with a greater risk of high toxicity (HR=0.90 [CI95%, 0.47-1.70], p = 0.74) nor of death (HR=0.86; CI95%: 0.38-1.93; p = 0.71). Age over 75 years had no impact on the occurrence of either high toxicity or of death. PMID:26370299

  2. Age-associated differences on structural brain MRI in nondemented individuals from 71 to 103 years.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixuan; Wen, Wei; Jiang, Jiyang; Crawford, John D; Reppermund, Simone; Levitan, Charlene; Slavin, Melissa J; Kochan, Nicole A; Richmond, Robyn L; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-04-01

    Successful brain aging in the oldest old (≥90 years) is underexplored. This study examined cross-sectional brain morphological differences from 8th to 11th decades of life in nondemented individuals by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Two hundred seventy-seven nondemented community-dwelling participants (71-103 years) from Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and Sydney Centenarian Study comprised the sample, including a subsample of 160 cognitively high-functioning elders. Relationships between age and magnetic resonance imaging-derived measurements were studied using general linear models; and structural profiles of the ≥90 years were delineated. In full sample and the subsample, significant linear negative relationship of gray matter with age was found, with the greatest age effects in the medial temporal lobe and parietal and occipital cortices. This pattern was further confirmed by comparing directly the ≥90 years to the 71-89 years groups. Significant quadratic age effects on total white matter and white matter hyperintensities were observed. Our study demonstrated heterogeneous differences across brain regions between the oldest old and young old, with an emphasis on hippocampus, temporoposterior cortex, and white matter hyperintensities. PMID:26973107

  3. Epidemiology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in persons aged 50 years or older.

    PubMed

    Ship, J A; Wolff, A; Selik, R M

    1991-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has afflicted persons of all ages, yet only recently has attention been devoted to AIDS in older persons. To examine the epidemiology of AIDS in persons greater than or equal to 50 years old in the United States, we analyzed cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The number reported annually in persons greater than or equal to 50 years old increased from 13 in 1981 to 3,562 in 1989. Through December 1989, 11,984 had been reported, representing 10% of all cases. Although male homosexual contact accounted for most cases in persons aged 50-69, blood transfusion became a more common means of exposure with increasing age, accounting for 28% of cases in persons aged 60-69 and 64% of cases in individuals aged greater than or equal to 70. The proportion of women increased from 6.1% in persons with AIDS aged 50-59 to 28.7% of those aged greater than or equal to 70. The proportion of AIDS diagnoses made in the same month as death increased from 16% in persons aged 50-59 to 37% in those aged greater than or equal to 80, suggesting either more rapid progression of disease or increasing delay in diagnosis. As the incidence in older persons continues to increase, clinicians caring for older patients must become more familiar with AIDS. PMID:1984059

  4. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years. PMID:26744840

  5. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  6. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  7. Comorbidities among the HIV-Infected Patients Aged 40 Years or Older in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Liu, Wen-Chun; Yang, Shan-Ping; Luo, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART. Methods We reviewed medical records of all HIV-infected patients aged 40 years or older who had been followed at a university hospital for HIV care in Taiwan between January and December 2013. A standardized case record form was used to collect information on demographics and clinical characteristics, comorbidity, cART, and concurrent medications. Results During the study period, 610 patients aged 40 to 49 years (mean, 44.1) and 310 aged 50 years or older (mean, 58.8) sought HIV care at this hospital. Compared with patients aged 40 to 49 years, those aged 50 years or older were significantly more likely to be female (15.9% vs 3.8%); to have received cART (97.7% vs 94.8%) and a lower plasma HIV RNA load (1.6 vs 1.7 log10 copies/ml); and to have diabetes mellitus (18.4% vs 4.6%), hypertension (31.0% vs 10.8%), hyperlipidemia (29.4% vs 11.6%), coronary artery disease (6.8% vs 0.5%), and an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (11.5% vs 2.7%); and were significantly less likely to have syphilis. Other than HIV infection, patients aged 50 years or older were more likely to have been receiving two or more concurrent medications than those aged 40 to 49 years (22.9% vs 6.4%). Conclusions Our findings show a significant proportion of the HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older have multiple comorbidities that may increase the risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. Issues of poly-pharmacy among the HIV-infected patients who are aging should be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions. PMID:25119532

  8. 15 CFR 9.10 - Coordination with State and local programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination with State and local... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.10 Coordination with State and local programs. The Department of Commerce will establish and maintain an...

  9. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Suchmore » cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.« less

  10. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  11. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP)...

  12. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP)...

  13. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP)...

  14. 12 CFR 9.10 - Fiduciary funds awaiting investment or distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... has investment discretion, the bank shall obtain for funds awaiting investment or distribution a rate... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiduciary funds awaiting investment or... FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.10 Fiduciary funds awaiting investment...

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of a Series of Alpha-Hydroxy Ethers from 9,10-Epoxystearates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several novel alpha-hydroxy ethers were synthesized by treatment of isobutyl 9,10-epoxystearate with a number of aliphatic alcohols in the presence of acid catalyst in good overall yield from oleic acid. The materials low temperature behavior was analyzed through cloud point and pour point determi...

  16. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  17. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  18. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had

  19. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  20. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart

  1. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  2. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students

  3. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  4. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  5. Aerobic fitness norms for males and females aged 6 to 75 years: a review.

    PubMed

    Shvartz, E; Reibold, R C

    1990-01-01

    An extensive literature review was performed of studies where VO2max was measured directly in healthy, untrained subjects in the USA, Canada and 7 European countries to establish absolute (L/min) and relative (ml.kg-1.min-1) VO2max norms in males and females aged 6-75 years. Mean norms (L/min) in males show an increase from 1.0 L/min at age 6 years, to 2.0 and 3.4 L/min at ages 12 and 18 years, respectively, after which they decline with age to 3.2, 2.7, and 1.6 L/min for ages 30, 50, and 75 years, respectively. The corresponding values for females aged 6, 12, 18, 30, 50, and 75 years are 0.9, 1.8, 2.2, 1.8, and 1.1 L/min, respectively. Sex differences in relative VO2max are smaller than the above. Mean values for males for the above age groups are 47.5, 50, 48, 35, and 25 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, with corresponding values for females of 42.5, 44, 41, 28, and 17.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. These norms (L/min) are slightly lower than Robinson's 1938 data on males; they are only 1.5% lower compared with Astrand's adult males norms; but 2.5 to 10% lower than Astrand's norms for adult females. Present norms (ml.kg-1.min-1) for middle aged and older women are 25% lower than the corresponding Astrand's norms. PMID:2405832

  6. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  7. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  8. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  9. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading

  10. A two-centre study on facial morphology in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Bartzela, T N; Katsaros, C; Bronkhorst, E M; Rizell, S; Halazonetis, D; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare craniofacial morphology and soft tissue profiles in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate at 9 years of age, treated in two European cleft centres with delayed hard palate closure but different treatment protocols. The cephalometric data of 83 consecutively treated patients were compared (Gothenburg, N=44; Nijmegen, N=39). In total, 18 hard tissue and 10 soft tissue landmarks were digitized by one operator. To determine the intra-observer reliability 20 cephalograms were digitized twice with a monthly interval. Paired t-test, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression models were applied for statistical analysis. Hard and soft tissue data were superimposed using the Generalized Procrustes Analysis. In Nijmegen, the maxilla was protrusive for hard and soft tissue values (P=0.001, P=0.030, respectively) and the maxillary incisors were retroclined (P<0.001), influencing the nasolabial angle, which was increased in comparison with Gothenburg (P=0.004). In conclusion, both centres showed a favourable craniofacial form at 9-10 years of age, although there were significant differences in the maxillary prominence, the incisor inclination and soft tissue cephalometric values. Follow-up of these patients until facial growth has ceased, may elucidate components for outcome improvement. PMID:21474284

  11. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially valuable tool for both constraining the age distribution in sampled waters and investigating recharge transients.

  12. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5?mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4?oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ?2?hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72?hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value?=?0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (?16?hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ?70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%. PMID:23868556

  13. [PFTing in children aged 3-5 years : which material, which measurements].

    PubMed

    Beydon, N

    2010-04-01

    Lung function testing in children 3 to 5years of age is possible using equipment and techniques suitable for this age group. The use of different techniques will depend on the child's ability as well as on the technician's skill to use specific techniques. This review will detail the techniques that are easily available for routine lung function assessment in private practice or in hospital laboratory. PMID:20189366

  14. U.S. Health spending by age, selected years through 2004.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Micah; Catlin, Aaron; Lassman, David; Cylus, Jonathan; Heffler, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines variations in health spending by children, working-age adults, and seniors for selected years between 1987 and 2004. Seniors spent far more per person than children or working-age adults, but the relative gap between the age groups has not changed much since 1987 except for those age eighty-five and older. Since the inception of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, the proportion of children's health spending financed by public sources has increased, while the share paid for out of pocket has decreased. The future age-mix is expected to have a major impact on nursing home spending growth while minimally affecting overall Medicare spending growth. PMID:17986478

  15. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  16. H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brnken, Sandra; Sipil, Olli; Chambers, Edward T.; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E.; Kami?ski, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M.; Stutzki, Jrgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H+) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D+ and para-H2D+, have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D+ is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D+ emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H+ work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D+ clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years.

  17. H2D(+) observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Brünken, Sandra; Sipilä, Olli; Chambers, Edward T; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E; Kamiński, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Stutzki, Jürgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-11

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H(+)) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D(+) and para-H2D(+), have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D(+) is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D(+) emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H(+) work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D(+) clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years. PMID:25409140

  18. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  19. Cementless total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis in patients aged 55 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Eskelinen, Antti; Paavolainen, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Background Cemented total hip arthroplasty has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with osteoarthritis. We analyzed survival rates of the most common cementless designs used in this age group in Finland. Patients and methods Inclusion criteria permitted 10,310 replacements (8 designs) performed in patients aged 55 years or older to be selected for evaluation. The risk of revision of each of the 8 implants was compared with that of a group comprising 3 cemented designs as the reference (9,549 replacements). Survival analyses were performed overall and separately for 3 age cohorts: 55–64 years (6,781 replacements), 65–74 years (8,821 replacements), and 75 years or older (4,257 replacements). Results In all patients aged 55 years or more, the Bi-Metric stem had a higher survival rate for aseptic loosening at 15 years than the cemented reference group: 96% (95% CI: 94–98) vs. 91% (CI: 90–92). However, the 15-year survival rates of the Bi-Metric/Press-Fit Universal (71% (CI: 67–75)) and the Anatomic Mesh/Harris-Galante II (72% (CI: 67–78)) total hip replacements were lower than that of the reference group (86% (CI: 84–87)). Information was scarce for patients aged 75 years or more. Interpretation Cementless proximal porous-coated stems are a good option for elderly patients. Even though biological fixation is a reliable fixation method in THA, polyethylene wear and osteolysis remain a serious problem for cementless cup designs with unplugged screw holes and low-quality liners. PMID:20180718

  20. Early Child Care and Adiposity at Ages 1 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Sara E.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Haines, Jess; Finkelstein, Jonathan; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The majority of infants in the United States are in non-parental child care, yet little is known about the effect of child care on development of obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between child care attendance from birth to 6 months and adiposity at 1 and 3 years of age. METHODS We studied 1138 children from a prospective cohort of pregnant women and their offspring. The main exposure was time in child care from birth to 6 months of age, overall and by type of care: (1) child care center; (2) someone else’s home; and (3) child’s own home by nonparent. The main outcomes were weight-for-length (WFL) z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age. RESULTS A total of 649 (57%) infants attended child care; 17% were cared for in a center, 27% in someone else’s home, and 21% in their own home by a nonparent. After adjustment for confounders, overall time in child care was associated with an increased WFL z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age but not skinfold thicknesses. Center and own home care were not associated with the outcomes, but care in someone else’s home was associated with an increase in both the 1- and 3-year outcomes. CONCLUSION Child care in the first 6 months of life, especially in someone else’s home, was associated with an increased WFL z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age. PMID:19651579

  1. Body mass index gain between ages 20-40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Methods Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Results Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m2) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors in multivariate analyses (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). Conclusions These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. PMID:25434910

  2. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

  3. The Association of APOE Genotype with Cognitive Function in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2011-01-01

    APOE genotype is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated whether APOE genotype was associated with cognitive function in predominantly middle-aged persons. In a population-based cohort of 4,135 persons aged 35 to 82 years (mean age (SD), 55 (12) years), cognitive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points). APOE genotype (rs429358 and rs7412) was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The mean RFFT score (SD) of the total cohort was 69 (26) points. Unadjusted, the mean RFFT score in homozygous APOE ε4 carriers was 4.66 points lower than in noncarriers (95% confidence interval, -9.84 to 0.51; p = 0.08). After adjustment for age and other risk factors, the mean RFFT score in homozygous APOE ε4 carriers was 5.24 points lower than in noncarriers (95% confidence interval, -9.41 to -1.07; p = 0.01). The difference in RFFT score was not dependent on age. There was no difference in RFFT score between heterozygous APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers. The results indicated that homozygous APOE ε4 carriers aged 35 years or older had worse cognitive function than heterozygous carriers and noncarriers. PMID:22110642

  4. Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18 PMID:22828268

  5. Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John M. D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. Results Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11) if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised). Conclusions These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen. PMID:25251831

  6. Effects of Age and Life Transitions on Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcome Over Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, common life transitions, treatment, and social support on outcomes 5–9 years after alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment intake. Method: Participants were patients from a large outpatient AOD treatment program in an integrated health plan. There were 1,951 participants interviewed at intake, of whom 1,646 (84%) completed one or more telephone follow-up interviews at 5, 7, and 9 years. Measures included AOD use based on the Addiction Severity Index; treatment; and changes in marital, employment, and health status in the years between each follow-up. We compared participants by age group (18–39, 40–54, and >55 years old at intake) and examined factors (time invariant and time varying) associated with outcomes at 5, 7, and 9 years by fitting mixed-effects logistic random intercept models. Results: Changes in marital, employment, and health status varied significantly by age. Factors associated with remission across Years 5–9 included being in the middle-aged versus younger group (p < .001); female gender (p < .001); not losing a partner to separation, divorce, or death (p < .001); not experiencing a decline in health (p = .021); having any close friends supportive of recovery (p < .001); and not having any close friends who encourage AOD use (p < .001). Additional predictors, including employment changes, varied by drug versus alcohol abstinence outcome measures. Conclusions: Negative life transitions vary by age and are associated with worse outcomes. Older age and social support are associated with long-term AOD remission and abstinence. Findings inform treatment strategies to enhance recovery across the life span. PMID:22456251

  7. Tunneling spectroscopy study of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride on Au(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toerker, M.; Fritz, T.; Proehl, H.; Sellam, F.; Leo, K.

    2001-09-01

    The organic molecule 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) deposited on Au(1 0 0) has been investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). For this purpose, highly ordered ultrathin PTCDA films have been prepared by organic molecular beam epitaxy. Single point current-voltage spectroscopy at fixed tip-sample separations has been performed in UHV on closed PTCDA monolayers as well as on PTCDA islands. The normalized differential conductivity curves calculated from these I- V data reveal a pronounced peak at +0.8 to 0.9 V sample bias. No peak in the normalized differential conductivity was observed for uncovered gold regions. The STS results indicate tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital at adequate bias voltages.

  8. Subergorgiaols A-L, 9,10-secosteroids from the South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia rubra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Ping; Cao, Fei; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Min; Liu, Hai-Juan; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Twelve new 9,10-secosteroids designated as subergorgiaols A-L (1-12), along with four known analogues (13-16), were isolated from the gorgonian Subergorgia rubra collected from the South China Sea. Their planar structures and the relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by a dimolybdenum tetraacetate [Mo2(AcO)4] induced circular dichroism (ICD) procedure and the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-12 represent the first series of 9,10-secosteroids characterized with a hydroxy group at C-8, which are 8-OH derivatives of astrogorgiadiols/calicoferols. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against the cervical carcinoma cell line (CaSki) with an IC50 value of 2.4 μM, and 6 showed toxicity toward brine shrimp Artemia salina with an LC50 value of 2.0 μM. PMID:25528195

  9. Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2013-11-22

    Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended. PMID:24264493

  10. Fluorescent PET probes based on perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetraesters.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Rajeev K; Knorr, Gergely; Westerveld, Nick; Jager, Wolter F

    2016-01-27

    Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetraester-based fluorescent PET probes with aniline receptors attached either at the peri- or the bay-positions have been synthesized. By attaching aniline receptors at the bay position, pH-sensitive "light-up" probes, with fluorescence quantum yields ΦF > 0.75 and fluorescent enhancements FE > 500 in ethanol, have been obtained. PMID:26740333

  11. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (≥ 40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ≥ 40 years (n = 405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: < 30 y; II: 30–34 y; III: 35–39 y). Results: Pregnant women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ≥ 40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ≥ 40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ≥ 40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  12. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  13. Screening for refractive errors at age 1 year: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Traynar, M J; Walker, C; Wilson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Cycloplegic refraction of 1-year-old children is technically possible and is acceptable to mothers as a method for screening children for visual defects. The range of refractions found in a sample of 186 1-year-old children is reported. Prediction of which children are significantly at risk for squint and/or amblyopia is possible on the basis of refractions at age 1 year according to the criteria selected for an 'abnormal' refraction. Bilateral hypermetropia and/or astigmatism or anisometropia at age 1 year was significantly (P less than 1 in 10 000) associated with a child eventually being found to have squint or amblyopia. Both the age of screening and criteria of abnormality will probably need modification. +2.50 or more D hypermetropia in any one meridian of either eye at age 1 year was even more significantly (P = 0.000 000 05%) associated with squint and/or amblyopia. The possibility that meridional hypermetropia could be the basic defect in squint and amblyopia is discussed. PMID:435441

  14. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains. PMID:25998719

  15. Changes of olfactory abilities in relation to age: odor identification in more than 1400 people aged 4 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, A; Schriever, V A; Gudziol, V; Hummel, C; Hähner, A; Iannilli, E; Sinding, C; Aziz, M; Seo, H S; Negoias, S; Hummel, T

    2015-08-01

    The currently presented large dataset (n = 1,422) consists of results that have been assembled over the last 8 years at science fairs using the 16-item odor identification part of the "Sniffin' Sticks". In this context, the focus was on olfactory function in children; in addition before testing, we asked participants to rate their olfactory abilities and the patency of the nasal airways. We reinvestigated some simple questions, e.g., differences in olfactory odor identification abilities in relation to age, sex, self-ratings of olfactory function and nasal patency. Three major results evolved: first, consistent with previously published reports, we found that identification scores of the youngest and the oldest participants were lower than the scores obtained by people aged 20-60. Second, we observed an age-related increase in the olfactory abilities of children. Moreover, the self-assessed olfactory abilities were related to actual performance in the smell test, but only in adults, and self-assessed nasal patency was not related to the "Sniffin' Sticks" identification score. PMID:25238811

  16. Abnormal sensory reactivity in preterm infants during the first year correlates with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Chorna, Olena; Solomon, Jessica E; Slaughter, James C; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensory experience is the basis for learning in infancy. In older children, abnormal sensory reactivity is associated with behavioural and developmental disorders. We hypothesised that in preterm infants, abnormal sensory reactivity during infancy would be associated with perinatal characteristics and correlate with 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of infants with birth weight ≤1500 g using the Test of Sensory Function in Infants (TSFI) in the first year. Infants with gestational age ≤30 weeks were tested with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID III) at 24 months. Results Of the 72 participants evaluated at 4–12 months corrected age (median 8 months), 59 (82%) had a least one TSFI score concerning for abnormal sensory reactivity. Lower gestational age was associated with abnormal reactivity to deep pressure and vestibular stimulation (p<0.001). Poor ocular-motor control predicted worse cognitive and motor scores in early childhood (OR 16.7; p=0.004), but was tightly correlated to the presence of severe white matter injury. Poor adaptive motor function in response to tactile stimuli predicted worse BSID III motor (p=0.01) and language scores (p=0.04) at 2 years, even after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Abnormal sensory reactivity is common in preterm infants; is associated with immaturity at birth, severe white matter injury and lower primary caregiver education; and predicts neurodevelopmental delays. Early identification of abnormal sensory reactivity of very preterm infants may promote parental support and education and may facilitate improved neurodevelopment. PMID:25053637

  17. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  18. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65 254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years. PMID:26862123

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening in US Seniors Ages 76-84 Years.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Shapiro, Jean A; Kobrin, Sarah; Nadel, Marion R; Zapka, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends patient-physician discussions about the appropriateness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among adults ages 76-84 years who have never been screened. In this study, we used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine patterns of CRC screening and provider recommendation among seniors ages 76-84 years, and made some comparisons to younger adults. Nationally-representative samples of 1379 adults ages 76-84 years and 8797 adults ages 50-75 years responded to questions about CRC screening status, receipt of provider recommendation, and discussion of test options; 22.7% (95% CI 20.1-25.3) of seniors ages 76-84 had never been tested for CRC and therefore were not up-to-date with guidelines; 3.9% (95% CI 2.0-7.6) of these individuals reported a recent provider recommendation for screening. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of never having been tested was significantly greater for seniors of other/multiple race or Hispanic ethnicity; with high school or less education; without private health insurance coverage; who had ? 1 doctor visit in the past year; without recent screening for breast, cervical, or prostate cancer; with no or unknown CRC family history; or with ? 1 chronic disease. Among the minority of respondents ages 50-75 and 76-84 reporting a provider recommendation, 73.2% indicated that the provider recommended particular tests, which was overwhelmingly colonoscopy (? 89 %). Nearly one-quarter of adults 76-84 have never been screened for CRC, and rates of provider recommendation in this group are very low. Greater attention to informed CRC screening discussions with screening-eligible seniors is needed. PMID:25716518

  20. [Overall goal of 20% reduction in age-adjusted cancer mortality under 75 years of age--is it achievable within 10 years?].

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-11-01

    The Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs has stated an overall goal to decrease the age-adjusted cancer mortality of people under 75 years of age by 20% within the next 10 years. The announced basis for the estimation and my view on the possibilities are shown here. The estimated goal of a 20% reduction is to be achieved as the sum of each reduction of 10% by the natural course, 1.6% by a 50% decrease in smokers, 4.0% by a screening rate of 50%, and 4.7% from the nationwide standardization of cancer cure. Each component has hurdles to overcome, and it will be difficult to achieve the targets but for dramatic changes in our social environment such as a massive hike in tobacco tax, a smoking ban in the workplace and public places, a law mandating cancer screening, and reform of the medical-care system. Meanwhile, an approximate 10% reduction was observed during 2000 to 2005. Therefore, 20% reduction would be achievable even without any cancer control action. PMID:19011327

  1. Silicosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years--United States, 1968-2005.

    PubMed

    2008-07-18

    Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica occurs in construction, mining, manufacturing, and other industries and can result in silicosis and other lung diseases. Classic (chronic) silicosis results from exposure to relatively low concentrations of respirable crystalline silica for >/=years. Exposure to higher concentrations of silica for 5-10 years can cause accelerated silicosis, and symptoms of acute silicosis can sometimes develop within weeks of initial exposure to extreme concentrations of silica. Deaths in young adults from acute or accelerated silicosis generally reflect more recent and intense exposures. Silicosis is incurable, but preventable through effective control and elimination of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To characterize recent trends in premature mortality attributed to silicosis in the United States, CDC analyzed annual mortality data from 1968-2005, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL) and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. During 1968-2005, total annual YPLL attributed to silicosis (17,130) declined 90.2%, from 1,441 (mean per decedent: 7.7 YPLL) to 141 (mean per decedent: 11.8), with an annual average of 8.6 YPLL per decedent for the period. However, the proportion of YPLL attributable to young silicosis decedents increased; an estimated 3,600-7,300 new silicosis cases occur annually. Hazard surveillance, workplace-specific interventions, and further silicosis prevention and elimination efforts, especially among young adults, are needed. PMID:18636065

  2. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940–1989

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people’s services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about ‘all age’ or ‘old age’ services and inform decision-making on future mental health services. PMID:26191440

  3. Work Satisfaction and Retirement Plans of Orthopaedic Surgeons 50 Years of Age and Older

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jeffrey; Watkins-Castillo, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Retirement age and practice patterns before retirement are important for making accurate workforce predictions for orthopaedic surgeons. A survey of orthopaedic surgeons 50 years of age and older therefore was conducted by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in cooperation with the Association of American Medical Colleges Center for Workforce Studies. The survey focused on three questions: (1) At what age do orthopaedic surgeons retire? (2) Do they stop working abruptly or do they work part time before retirement? (3) What are the major factors that determine when an orthopaedic surgeon retires? According to the survey, the median retirement age for orthopaedic surgeons was 65 years. Nineteen percent of orthopaedic surgeons worked part time before retirement. Decreasing reimbursement and increasing malpractice costs were consistently cited as factors that strongly influenced retirement plans. Career satisfaction was high and was the strongest factor that kept the respondents in the workforce. The option to work part time would have the most impact on keeping orthopaedic surgeons working past the age of 65 years. Level of Evidence: Level IV Economic and Decision Analyses. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196399

  4. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  5. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-06-22

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Women's higher level of social development at onset is associated with a better medium-term functional and social outcome. Prodromal schizophrenia and depression are equal in length and diagnostically distinguishable only after the onset of positive symptoms. The sex difference in age at onset, invariable across cultures and ethnicities, is explained by a protective effect of oestrogen, which down-regulates D2 receptors. A higher genetic load antagonizes this effect. Long-term symptom-related illness course exhibits a plateau after three years, the positive symptom dimension after two years, the depressive and the negative dimensions do so after three to five years. The most prevalent symptom is depressive mood. Male first episodes are more frequent and more severe in the first half of life, female ones in the second half. Aetiological conclusions will be drawn. PMID:26110118

  6. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    PubMed

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females. PMID:12012629

  7. Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Millán, I; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A

    2013-12-01

    In the elderly, malnutrition is highly prevalent and a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the fat-soluble vitamin status and potential determinants in patients >65 years of age. Serum vitamins A, D and E were determined by liquid chromatography in 166 patients. Gender, age, season, hospitalization, nutritional markers (albumin and cholesterol), acute-phase reactants (ferritin and C-reactive protein) and renal function (creatinine and glomerular filtrate) were assessed as potential determinants. Prevalence of vitamin deficiency was highly variable, ranging from 0 (vitamin E/cholesterol ratio) to 94% (for vitamin D in hospitalized patients). Vitamin status did not differ according to gender, but age, season, hospitalization, a poor nutritional status and impaired renal function, and the presence of acute-phase response significantly affected serum levels of vitamin A, E and D. In conclusion, in subjects >65 years both demographic and clinical factors determined the fat-soluble vitamin status. PMID:24129364

  8. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  9. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to…

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  11. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  12. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a

  13. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  14. [Parenting Renewal. Leaflets and Lessons for Parents of Children Five to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Instructional materials on parenting skills for parents of children 5 to 12 years of age are provided, with teaching guides for extension service agents. Organized as a series of nine leaflets followed by nine corresponding lessons, leaflets for parents concern: (1) an overview of the leaflets; (2) readiness: guiding normal development; (3)…

  15. Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

  16. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants

  17. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  18. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the

  19. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall apply to all occupations other than the following: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing... revised text is set forth as follows: § 570.33 Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years... age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations, including occupations requiring...

  20. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  1. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  2. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  3. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  4. Children Who Were Very Low Birthweight: Cognitive Abilities and Classroom Behavior at Five Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nancy K.

    1988-01-01

    Sixty-two very low-birthweight children were evaluated at five years of age on cognitive abilities and visual motor integration. The subjects, enrolled in regular classrooms, scored lower than controls on measures of visual perceptual/visual motor function and had more problems including attending to tasks, following directions, and passivity.…

  5. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])

  6. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  7. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  8. Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Saayman, Gert

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fatal injuries in children has been reported to be highest among children aged 1 to 4 years. Major causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, falls, and intentional or inflicted injury (such as nonaccidental injury syndrome). This study reviewed the profile of children (under 5 years of age) who had been admitted to a large urban medicolegal mortuary (in Pretoria, the capital city of South Africa), after having suffered fatal head injuries. This study was conducted over a 5-year period (from January 2004 through December 2008), and a total of 107 cases were identified for inclusion. These cases constituted nearly a fifth of admissions in this age group. The male-to-female ratio was 56%:44%, and the peak age of injury was less than 1 year. Most head injuries were sustained in road traffic accidents (70%) followed by falls (10%) and other types of blunt force injuries (9%). Only 1 case of nonaccidental injury syndrome (child abuse) was found. The great majority of deaths were deemed to have been accidental in nature (91%) with 6 (6%) homicides. Urgent review pertaining to the use of child restraint devices and the safety of pedestrians is required, and the institution of childhood injury registers could aid in reducing childhood fatalities in South Africa. PMID:25072811

  9. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Prevention of Dental Caries in Children From Birth Through Age Five Years. ... Children’ s Oral Health ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Tooth Decay — Early Childhood ( MedlinePlus) May 2014 Task Force FINAL ...

  10. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  11. Modeling the Development Process of Dialogical Critical Thinking in Pupils Aged 10 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Marie-France; Lafortune, Louise; Pallascio, Richard; Splitter, Laurance; Slade, Christina; de la Garza, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    This research project investigated manifestations of critical thinking in pupils 10 to 12 years of age during their group discussions held in the context of Philosophy for Children Adapted to Mathematics. The objective of the research project was to examine, through the pupils' discussions, the development of dialogical critical thinking…

  12. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  13. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  14. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL...

  15. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  16. Spinal dysraphism. A study of patients over the age of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Shinoto, A; Kamegaya, M; Shinada, Y

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients over the age of 10 years, exhibiting cutaneous manifestations on the back suspected to be due to spinal dysraphism, and neurologic deficits, were studied to analyze neurologic appearance. Neurologic deficits appeared by age 5 in 26 patients. No patient complained of low-back pain or sciatica. Paralytic deformities of the lower extremities were divided into four grades for evaluation: A = no deformity, with only urinary disturbance (four cases); B = toe-limited deformity (two cases); C = toe and foot-limited deformity (six cases); D = toe, foot, ankle, and lower limb deformity (18 cases). Patients with slight neurologic disturbance, either Grade A or without urinary disturbance, were seen among the patients who had undergone a release operation by age 2, although neurologic appearance in patients in severe grades was not related to the age at release operation. Also, the release operation was thought to be effective in preventing low-back pain or sciatica. PMID:1750003

  17. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  18. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

  19. Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis arterial age versus framingham 10-year or lifetime cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Villines, Todd C; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-12-01

    Methods to improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction include incorporation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) within risk models and considering longer time horizons such as evaluation of lifetime cardiovascular risk (LTR). We compared the accuracy of 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS), LTR, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) arterial age-adjusted 10-year risk for prediction of incident CHD events in men in the Prospective Army Coronary Calcium Project. We studied 1,633 healthy men (mean age 43 years, range 40 to 50 years, mean FRS 4.6%) with electron-beam computed tomography for CAC. Events (CHD death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome with nonelective coronary revascularization) were prospectively assessed over 5.6 ± 1.5 years. Predicted risk using 10-year FRS for CHD and cardiovascular disease, LTR, and MESA arterial age were evaluated in relation with CAC and CHD events. CAC prevalence was strongly related to LTR, increasing in a graded fashion from 10.1% to 66.7% across 8 categories of increasing LTR. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, MESA arterial age (area under curve 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93) had the largest area under the curve but similar areas under the curve were observed for 10-year risk (CHD 0.74, 0.61 to 0.86; cardiovascular disease 0.70, 0.59 to 0.82), LTR (0.68, 0.49 to 0.76), and LTR with CAC as a covariate (0.76, 0.63 to 0.89). Inclusion of family history of CHD or body mass index did not improve model accuracy. In conclusion, increasing LTR was associated with increasingly prevalent CAC in this low-risk cohort and inclusion of CAC improved the accuracy of LTR for short-term event prediction. PMID:22921999

  20. Quantifying the Stellar Mass Density of the Universe out to z~9-10: Ultra-Deep Spitzer Observations of Two Highly Magnified z~9-10 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Zheng, Wei; Moustakas, Leonidas; Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Donahue, Megan; Labbe, Ivo; Smit, Renske; Zitrin, Adi

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of the stellar mass in galaxies to increasingly high redshifts provide us one of the most powerful ways of gauging early galaxy build-up. Combining ultra- deep IRAC imaging observations with deep WFC3/IR observations have allowed astronomers both to identify and estimate masses for sources out to redshifts as high as z~8. However, it has been difficult to extend such studies to even higher redshifts due to the incredible faintness and rarity of typical z~9-10 galaxies. One method for stepping beyond the normal S/N limitations is to take advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to magnify faint z>8 sources, but to do so, we must know where the magnified sources lie. Fortunately, utilizing the huge investment of HST time in the 524-orbit CLASH program, we have been able to identify 100s of z~5-8 galaxies and even 4 extremely tantalizing z~9-11 galaxy candidates. To extend our measurement of galaxy masses to the earliest possible times, we require ultra-deep Spitzer observations on these candidates to accurately measure their rest-frame optical properties. While two of the z~9-11 candidates are the subject of deep IRAC observations as a result of an approved program, the other two will not be the subject of such observations. Given the considerable galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the mass-to-light ratio, ultra-deep Spitzer observations are needed for all four z~9-11 candidates to establish the typical properties of galaxies in this epoch. We propose to obtain such observations over the two z~9 candidates lacking such observations. Not only will our proposed observations substantially improve our ability to estimate the stellar mass density at z~9-11, but it will play a pivotal role in characterizing the stellar masses and other properties of 20-30 other gravitationally lensed z~4-8 galaxies behind these clusters.

  1. Personality and risk for Alzheimer's disease in adults 72 years of age and older: a 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Paul R; Chapman, Benjamin P; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Bamonti, Patricia; Robbins, John; Jerant, Anthony F; Franks, Peter

    2011-06-01

    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 26(2) of Psychology and Aging (see record 2011-05802-001). This article contains an error in the Discussion, under the Implications, Caveats, Future Directions heading. The third paragraph includes the sentences that should have been removed. The corrected paragraph appears in the correction.] We conducted secondary analyses to determine the relationship between longstanding personality traits and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) among 767 participants 72 years of age or older who were followed for more than 6 years. Personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI. We hypothesized that elevated Neuroticism, lower Openness, and lower Conscientiousness would be independently associated with risk of AD. Hypotheses were supported. The finding that AD risk is associated with elevated Neuroticism and lower Conscientiousness can be added to the accumulating literature documenting the pathogenic effects of these two traits. The link between lower Openness and AD risk is consistent with recent findings on cognitive activity and AD risk. Findings have implications for prevention research and for the conceptualization of the etiology of AD. PMID:20973606

  2. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  3. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  4. Safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients 80 years of age and older

    PubMed Central

    Behlül, Baydar; Sezgin, Vatansever; Altay, Kandemir; Mustafa, Çelik; Cem, Çekiç; Bilge, Örmeci; Fatih, Aslan; Emrah, Alper; Zafer, Buyraç; Kadir, Aksöz; Belkis, Ünsal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary tract diseases. The ERCP is an invasive procedure that does not increase complications in the elderly. Few studies have assessed the safety of ERCP in the elderly. Life expectancy is rising, which causes an increasing demand for ERCP in the elderly. Aim To show that therapeutic ERCP is safe and we compared the level of complications among the elderly (> 80 years of age) and the level among a younger group (< 65 years of age). Material and methods The study was designed retrospectively. The details of all patients 80 years of age and older undergoing ERCP were analysed. One hundred and fifty patients were included in each of the groups: > 80 years of age, older group A; and < 65 years of age, younger group B. Results In group A, 4 cases (2.7%) of bleeding (all mild) was observed, and perforation was not observed. The ERCP-related mild pancreatitis was observed in 7 patients (4.6%). There were no cases of mortality during procedures of ERCP in group A. In group B 6 bleeding cases (4%) (all mild) were observed. Perforation was not observed in group B. ERCP-related mild pancreatitis occurred in 11 patients (7.3%). There were no cases of mortality during procedures of ERCP in group B. Our study showed that ERCP is a safe and effective procedure in elderly patients. Conclusions Outcomes of ERCP for diagnostic and therapeutic success, and complication rates, are similar to those in younger patients. The ERCP is effective and safe in the elderly. PMID:25276254

  5. Safety, efficacy, and life satisfaction following epilepsy surgery in patients aged 60 years and older.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Sandra; Eliashiv, Dawn; Walshaw, Patricia D; Engel, Jerome; Fried, Itzhak; Moseley, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Despite its potential to offer seizure freedom, resective epilepsy surgery (RES) is seldom performed in patients 60 years of age or older. Demonstrating successful outcomes including an improved quality of life may raise awareness about the advantages of referring this underrepresented population for specialized evaluation. Accordingly, the authors investigated outcomes and life fulfillment in patients with an age ≥ 60 years who had undergone RES. METHODS All patients who, at the age of 60 years or older, had undergone RES for medically refractory focal onset seizures at the authors' center were evaluated. A modified Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) tool was administered postoperatively (maximum score 32). Seizure outcomes were classified according to the Engel classification system. RESULTS Twelve patients underwent RES. The majority of patients (9 [75%] of 12) had at least 1 medical comorbidity in addition to seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.1 years. At the time of the final follow-up, 11 (91.7%) of 12 patients were documented as having a good postsurgical outcome (Engel Class I-II). Half (6 of 12 patients) were completely seizure free (Engel Class IA). Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) data were available for 11 patients. Following surgery, the mean LLF score was 26.7 ± 6. Eight patients (72.7%) noted excellent satisfaction with their RES, with 5 (45.5%) noting postoperative improvements in overall health. CONCLUSIONS Resective epilepsy surgery is safe and effective in patients with an age ≥ 60 years. Over 90% had a good surgical outcome, with 50% becoming completely seizure free despite 1 or more medical comorbidities in the majority. The study data indicated that an advancing age should not negatively influence consideration for RES. PMID:26381254

  6. Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group: median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years). The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but different in age. After careful arthroscopic evaluation of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear, rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy were performed in all patients. Pre- and post-operatively, each patient was evaluated for range of motion, shoulder score (UCLA), and SF-36 self-administered questionnaire. Comparing pre- versus post-operative status at a minimum 24 months follow-up, forward elevation, internal and external rotation, modified UCLA rating system scores, and SF-36 scores improved significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. At the last follow-up, strength improved significantly in both groups, with non-significant intergroup difference. The Popeye sign was detected in 13/28 (46%) of the patients in the over 65 group and in 11/28 (39%) in the under 65 group (χ = 0.29) with non-significant difference between the two groups. In selected active patients older than 65, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair associated with biceps tenotomy (when necessary) can yield clinical and related quality of life outcomes similar to those of patients younger than 65 years. PMID:20182868

  7. Number word use in toddlerhood is associated with number recall performance at seven years of age.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20-26 months and started to produce the number words 1-10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  8. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles. PMID:24316574

  9. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (P<0.001) and all three respiratory symptoms (P<0.001) after adjusting for smoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  10. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color additive is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No. 6737-68-4)....

  11. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color additive is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No. 6737-68-4)....

  12. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color additive is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No. 6737-68-4)....

  13. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color additive is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No. 6737-68-4)....

  14. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. (a) Identity. The color additive is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS Reg. No. 6737-68-4)....

  15. Laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair on patients over 75 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this prospective study, we aimed at comparing the laparoscopic and conventional open inguinal hernia repair procedures in the population over 75 years of age. Materials and methods: The medical data of 108 patients over 75 years of age who presented with inguinal hernia and underwent surgical treatment between July 2008 and December 2012 in Safa Hospital, General Surgery Department were prospectively recorded. Results: The mean age of patients in the open procedure group (n=75) and in the laparoscopic group (n=33) was 82 and 81 years, respectively. The mean American Society of Anaesthesiologists score was 2-7 in the open group and 2-4 in the laparoscopic group (P<0.005). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to perioperative complications. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Similar to the outcome of open procedure, laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair can safely be performed without an increase in morbidity and mortality in the advanced age population. PMID:26309692

  16. Clinical presentation in patients more than 80 years of age at the start of peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Keita; Inoue, Tsutomu; Kojima, Eriko; Sato, Takahiko; Tsuda, Masahiro; Kikuta, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Takane, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    The age of new dialysis patients is rapidly increasing. In the present study, we examined clinical presentation in new peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients 80 years of age or older at our hospital. Data were collected from the records of patients newly starting continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) therapy between January 2005 and July 2010. During that period, 11 patients 80 years of age or older (average age: 83.1 +/- 3.8 years) were introduced to PD therapy. The reason for dialysis was hypertensive nephrosclerosis in 8 patients, and chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and an unknown primary disease in 1 patient each; there were no cases of diabetic nephropathy. At dialysis start, average serum creatinine was 6.1 +/- 1.4 mg/dL, arterial wall calcification was found by computed tomography or chest radiography in 10 of 11 patients (90.9%), and aortic or mitral valve calcification, or both, was found by echocardiography in 3 patients (27.3%). By the end of January 2011, 8 patients had died. Average survival after the start of PD was 31.9 +/- 22.3 months. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis, a cause less often seen in younger patients, was the most common primary disease among our elderly dialysis patients. As we previously reported, vascular and valvular calcification are important factors for determining prognosis; however, no significant relationships were observed in the present study, probably because almost all the patients had such calcifications. PMID:22073833

  17. Peak flow rate in normal Indonesian children aged 8 to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Santoso, H

    1991-01-01

    Although normal values for peak flow rates have been available for Caucasian children and Indonesian adults for several years, similar reliable standard values are not available for Indonesian children. It is the objective of this study to assess the measurements of peak flow rate obtained from a sample of healthy Indonesian school children in Denpasar aged 8 to 15 years. The relationship between peak flow rate (PFR), age, weight and height was studied in 304 male and 254 female children ranging from 8-15 years of age at 2 primary and junior high schools in Denpasar. Strict criteria of "normality" were employed in the selection of the subjects. Measurements were taken with the subject standing and the highest value of three peak expiratory rate manouvers was recorded. Regression analysis was used to calculate the predicted normal value of PFR and also to assess the relationship of PFR to age and weight. The results are recorded in a normogram. Possible cause of the differences between our findings and those of other authors are discussed. In conclusion the author is of the opinion that the normogram (Godfrey) supplied with the Mini Wright apparatus can be used in predicting normal values of PFR for Indonesian children. PMID:1852470

  18. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Semen and sperm reference ranges for men 45 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Overstreet, James W; Sikka, Suresh C; Denne, Jonathan; Ahuja, Sanjeev; Hoover, Amy M; Sides, Gregory D; Cordell, William H; Harrison, L Mark; Whitaker, J Steven

    2006-01-01

    The most widely used reference values for human semen and sperm variables were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to help assess the fertility status of men interested in reproduction (typically a younger population). In this retrospective analysis, data from a large population of men aged 45 years or older were analyzed to derive semen and sperm reference ranges for an older population. Baseline semen samples were obtained from 1174 men with no or mild erectile dysfunction (ED) during the screening phase of two clinical trials evaluating the effects of a drug on human spermatogenesis. The median values and 95% reference ranges for 4 measured semen and sperm parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology) and 1 derived parameter (total sperm count) were calculated for the population and by age quartile. These references ranges were compared to established WHO reference values. Associations between the semen and sperm parameters and smoking status, alcohol use, and serum hormone concentrations were also analyzed. The mean age was 52.9 years (range: 45-80). Median semen volume, sperm motility, and sperm morphology parameters declined significantly with age. Only 46% of study subjects had baseline values for semen and sperm parameters that met or surpassed all the WHO reference values. This is the first study to statistically derive semen reference ranges from a large population of men aged 45 years or older. The observation that less than half the men in this study met all 4 WHO reference values for measured semen and sperm parameters underscores the need for age-specific reference ranges. PMID:16452528

  20. 9,10-diarylanthracenes as molecular switches: syntheses, properties, isomerisations and their reactions with singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zehm, Daniel; Fudickar, Werner; Hans, Melanie; Schilde, Uwe; Kelling, Alexandra; Linker, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A series of 9,10-diarylanthracenes with various substituents at the ortho positions have been synthesised by palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions. Such compounds exhibit interesting physical properties and can be applied as molecular switches. Despite the high steric demand of the substituents, products were formed in moderate-to-good yields. In some cases, microwave conditions further improved yields. Bis-coupling afforded two isomers (syn and anti) that do not interconvert at room temperature. These products were easily separated and their relative stereochemistries were unequivocally assigned by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. The syn and anti isomers exhibit different physical properties (e.g., melting points and solubilities) and interconversion by rotation around the aryl-aryl axis commences at <100 degrees C for fluoro-substituted diarylanthracenes and at >300 degrees C for alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted diarylanthracenes. The reactions with singlet oxygen were studied separately and revealed different reactivities and reaction pathways. The yields and reactivities depend on the size and electronic nature of the substituents. The anti isomers form the same 9,10-endoperoxides as the syn species, occasionally accompanied by unexpected 1,4-endoperoxides as byproducts. Thermolysis of the endoperoxides exclusively yielded the syn isomers. The interesting rotation around the aryl-aryl axis allows the application of 9,10-diarylanthracenes as molecular switches, which are triggered by light and air under mild conditions. Finally, the oxygenation and thermolysis sequence provides a simple, synthetic access to a single stereoisomer (syn) from an unselective coupling step. PMID:19006168

  1. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  2. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  3. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  4. Intercorrelation of Electronic, Structural, and Morphological Properties in Nanorods of 2,3,9,10-Tetrafluoropentacene.

    PubMed

    Savu, Sabine-A; Sonström, Andrea; Bula, Rafael; Bettinger, Holger F; Chassé, Thomas; Casu, M Benedetta

    2015-09-01

    We evidence the intercorrelation of electronic, structural, and morphological properties in nanorods of a substituted fluorine-based pentacene, 2,3,9,10-tetrafluoropentacene, deposited on gold single crystals by using photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations. Our investigations show changes in the XPS spectroscopy lines, and NEXAFS features correlate with the specific structure of the assemblies and their morphology. Consequently, the chemical structure affects not only the molecular electronic structure and the way the molecules assemble in a film but also the film morphology leading to specific thin film electronic properties. PMID:26287576

  5. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yunxia; Niu, Lianbin

    2009-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Förster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  6. Environmental exposure to metals and children's growth to age 5 years: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Renee M; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Vahter, Marie

    2013-06-15

    In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001-2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were -0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.60, -0.06) for high (≥95th percentile) arsenic exposure and -0.57 kg (95% CI: -0.88, -0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (≤5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were -0.50 cm (95% CI: -1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and -1.6 cm (95% CI: -2.4, -0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (-0.67 kg, 95% CI: -0.82, -0.53) and height (-1.3 cm, 95% CI: -1.7, -0.89). PMID:23676282

  7. Environmental Exposure to Metals and Children's Growth to Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Vahter, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001–2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were −0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.60, −0.06) for high (≥95th percentile) arsenic exposure and −0.57 kg (95% CI: −0.88, −0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (≤5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were −0.50 cm (95% CI: −1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and −1.6 cm (95% CI: −2.4, −0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (−0.67 kg, 95% CI: −0.82, −0.53) and height (−1.3 cm, 95% CI: −1.7, −0.89). PMID:23676282

  8. Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Golley, Rebecca K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brazionis, Laima; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Lynch, John W

    2012-07-01

    Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years. PMID:22810299

  9. A CHC Theory-Based Analysis of Age Differences on Cognitive Abilities and Academic Skills at Ages 22 to 90 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Johnson, Cheryl K.; Liu, Xin

    2008-01-01

    Age differences for nine age groups between 22 and 25 years and 81 and 90 years were evaluated, covarying educational attainment, on five Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities: fluid reasoning (Gf), crystallized ability (Gc), quantitative knowledge (Gq), reading (Grw-Reading), and writing (Grw-Writing). Data were from the adult portions of the…

  10. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  11. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65–100 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-01-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS). We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion. Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65–100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  12. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  13. Coronary artery bypass grafting in young patients under 36 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D J; Basamania, C; Graeber, G M; Deshong, J L; Burge, J R

    1986-06-01

    Results of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients under age 36 who were operated upon between 1970 and 1980 at two large medical centers were compared to matched control patients, age 45 to 59 years, and 60 years and over. Patient follow-up ranged from one to 13 years (average five years). Event-free survival was significantly worse in the young group (37 percent) vs the middle aged group (61 percent, p less than 0.01) and vs the elderly group (59 percent, p less than 0.02). Failure of the operation was due to failure to improve or worsening of Canadian Cardiovascular Society anginal class, need for reoperation, subsequent myocardial infarction, or death due to cardiac causes. Risk of failure of CABG surgery in young patients was increased with the presence of cardiac risk factors. Because of the high rate of long-term failure of CABG surgery in young patients, its use in this group needs to be reevaluated relative to current aggressive medical therapy for angina. PMID:3486752

  14. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  15. Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Díaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Purpose of the study Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. Materials and methods We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Results Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease. PMID:23580357

  16. Falls Among Persons Aged ≥65 Years With and Without Severe Vision Impairment - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fung; Stevens, Judy A; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an estimated 2.8 million persons aged ≥65 years in the United States reported severe vision impairment* defined as being blind or having severe difficulty seeing, even with eyeglasses. Good vision is important for maintaining balance as well as for identifying low-contrast hazards, estimating distances, and discerning spatial relationships. Conversely, having poor vision increases the risk for falls (1,2). Falls among older adults are common and can cause serious injuries, disabilities, and premature death (1,3). To date, no state-level investigations have examined the annual prevalence of falls among persons with and without severe vision impairment. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with and without self-reported severe vision impairment. Overall, 46.7% of persons with, and 27.7% of older adults without, self-reported severe vision impairment reported having fallen during the previous year. The state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with severe vision impairment ranged from 30.8% (Hawaii) to 59.1% (California). In contrast, the prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years without severe vision impairment ranged from 20.4% (Hawaii) to 32.4% (Alaska). Developing fall-prevention interventions intended for persons with severe vision impairment will help states manage the impact of vision impairment and falls on health care resources, and can inform state-specific fall prevention initiatives. PMID:27148832

  17. Advanced Colorectal Adenomas in Patients Under 45 Years of Age Are Mostly Sporadic

    PubMed Central

    Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Watson, Rao; Goodwin, Jonathan; Safar, Elyas; Chokshi, Reena V.; Azar, Riad R.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of advanced adenomas in younger individuals is a criterion for Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the utility of screening advanced adenomas for loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression to identify suspected LS remains unclear. Aims Determine the prevalence of MMR defects to understand whether these patients harbor a defined genetic risk for CRC. Methods The study cohort included adult patients ≤45 years of age with advanced adenomas (villous histology, ≥1 cm in diameter, ≥3 polyps of any size) endoscopically removed between 2001 and 2011. Clinical records were reviewed along with detailed pathological review and immunohistochemical MMR analysis. Results A total of 76 (40.1 % male, age 40.6 ± 5.4 years) patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Indications for colonoscopy were gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding 39 (51.3 %), CRC in a first-degree relative 17 (22.4 %) and somatic GI symptoms 20 (26.3 %). Index colonoscopy revealed a median of 1 adenoma (range 1–4), mean diameter of 12.9 ±7.1 mm, 40 (52.6 %) with villous histology. The mean follow-up duration was 3.3 ± 2 years. Recurrent adenomas developed in 24 (31.6 %), of which 8 (10.5 %) were advanced adenomas; none of these patients developed CRC. One of 66 (1.5 %) adenomas available for immunohistochemical (IHC) testing revealed loss of MLH1 and PMS2. Conclusions IHC screening of advanced adenomas from patients younger than 45 years of age identified potential LS in one of 64 patients. The low yield of IHC screening in this population suggests that universal IHC screening of advanced adenomas from patients younger than 45 years of age for MMR defects is not an efficient strategy for identifying LS subjects. PMID:24925148

  18. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  19. [Patients with neoplastic disease or older than 80 years of age: dialysis survival].

    PubMed

    Perino, G C; Prioli, G P; Salomone, M; Marciello, A; Anania, P; Piccoli, G B; Ragni, R

    1996-03-01

    In several European countries, including Italy, the resident population is ageing. This process is at the basis of the progressive increase in incidence of new elderly patients starting dialysis and, to a lesser degree, of patients affected by severe comorbid conditions, such a neoplasia. The aim of the study was an analysis of the situation in Piedmont (Northern Italy, 4,400,000 inhabitants): out of 4483 new entries in 1981-1993, 192 were aged 80 years and 87 were affected by renal neoplasia or by multiple myeloma. Incidence of patients aged 80 increased throughout the period; use of high tolerance techniques increased in the meantime allowing an improvement in survival results. The high incidence of vasculopathic patients and the high rates of death from cachexia pinpoint how much still has to be done in the field of prevention, even before dialysis starts. PMID:8848765

  20. Serum deprivation alters lipid profile in HN9.10e embryonic hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Lazzarini, Andrea; Lazzarini, Remo; Floridi, Emanuela; Cataldi, Samuela; Floridi, Alessandro; Albi, Elisabetta

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the mechanism of apoptosis is important to improve the use of stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules involved in the regulation of cell fate. In HN9.10e embryonic hippocampal cells, serum deprivation induces apoptosis preceded by sphingomyelinase activation and raise of ceramide levels. Increasing evidence indicates that individual ceramide species regulated by specific pathways in distinct subcellular compartments might carry out distinct cellular functions, but the ceramides species involved in embryonic hippocampal cell death induced by growth factor deprivation are unknown. In the present paper, by using the UFLC-MS/MS methodology, we have investigated the effect of serum deprivation on the lipid profile in HN9.10e cells. At 48h of serum deprivation, we detected a decrease in cholesterol and increase in sphingosine-1-phoshate 18:1, phosphatidylcholine 18:1 18:0, sphingomyelin 18:1 16:0 and in ceramides 18:1 16:0; we also found an increase in saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio in sphingomyelin. We hypothesize that the rearrangement of sphingo- and glycerolipids with increase of saturated fatty acids in serum-deprivated, neural cells might represent a cellular response aimed at holding cholesterol inside the cells. PMID:25556686

  1. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity. PMID:26429780

  2. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  3. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25922262

  4. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada-Del Cid, Nancy C; Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Ordoñez-Rivas, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric ocular trauma is common and the leading cause of non congenital unilateral blindness. The information in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this case series is to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age who visited Hospital Dr. Rodolfo Robles Valverde in Guatemala City in 2010. In this study 119 patients were included. School-aged (7-9 years) male gender was the most affected. Closed globe injury was the commonest. The most frequent objects causing the lesions were: wooden objects, toys and chemicals. Trauma occurred most frequently at home. Twenty one of the patients were surgically intervened. Education and prevention programs for pediatric ocular trauma are necessary. PMID:26294157

  5. Omalizumab for the treatment of severe persistent allergic asthma in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Burch, J; McKenna, C; Wright, K; Griffin, S; Woolacott, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group report into the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of omalizumab for the treatment of severe persistent asthma in children aged 6-11 years, based upon the evidence submission from Novartis Pharmaceutical UK Ltd to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal process. The manufacturer's submission was generally considered to be of good quality. The submission was based primarily on a preplanned subgroup IA-05 EUP (European Union Population) from the IA-05 trial, with outcomes including the number of clinically significant (CS) and clinically significant severe (CSS) exacerbations. Omalizumab therapy was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the rate of CS exacerbations, but the reduction in the rate of CSS exacerbations was not statistically significant. The benefit in terms of CS exacerbations was achieved mainly in patients with more than three exacerbations per year at baseline. The manufacturer found no previous published cost-effectiveness studies of omalizumab in children aged 6-11 years, so their de novo economic evaluation formed the basis of the submitted economic evidence. The economic model was considered appropriate for the decision problem. The results from the model indicated that omalizumab in addition to standard therapy compared with standard therapy alone did not appear cost-effective in either the overall population or a subgroup of patients hospitalised in the year prior to enrollment, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of £ 91,169 and £ 65,911 per quality-adjusted life-year, respectively. These findings were found to be robust across a wide range of alternative assumptions through one-way sensitivity analyses. The guidance issued by NICE states that omalizumab is not recommended for the treatment of severe persistent allergic asthma in children aged 6-11 years. PMID:21609649

  6. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  7. Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task: From 5 to 89 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Beitz, Kevin M.; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Davis, Hasker P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the role of frequency bias and expected value on the learning processes driving performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in individuals between 5 and 89 years of age. As in previous studies, children performed poorly on the IGT, were increasingly influenced by frequency of losses during learning, and constantly changed their decisions. Decision-making strategies changed after childhood from erratic behavior to more consistent strategies that promoted expected value of deck choices. Performance deficits as well as a loss frequency bias were found in older adults. However, age-related deficits were distinct between children and older adults. Cognitive modeling analysis indicated that older adults were more likely to forget about recent outcomes and were more consistent than children when selecting decks. Cognitive ability was associated with a modeling parameter for memory as well as IGT performance, suggesting the involvement of a cognitive component in young and middle-aged adult decision making. The interactions of modeling parameters suggested that cognitive changes were the cause of lowered performance in older adults. These analyses suggest critical developments in decision processes during the adolescent years and decline in a cognitive process leading to decision-making deficits after age 60. PMID:24512562

  8. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. PMID:25790469

  9. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  10. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Celina, Mathias C.; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  11. The Effect of Preimplantation Genetic Screening on Implantation Rate in Women over 35 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mina; Saeidi, Hojatolah; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Advanced maternal age (AMA) is an important factor in decreasing success of assisted reproductive technology by having a negative effect on the success rate of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), particularly by increasing the rate of embryo aneuploidy. It has been suggested that the transfer of euploid embryos increases the implantation and pregnancy rates, and decreases the abortion rate. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is a method for selection of euploid embryos. Past studies, however, have reported different results on the success of pregnancy after PGS in AMA. Investigating the pregnancy rate of ICSI with and without PGS in female partners over 35 years of age referred to infertility centers in Tehran. Materials and Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 150 couples with the female partner over age of 35 were included. Fifty couples underwent PGS and the remaining were used as the control group. PGS was carried out using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. Results of embryo transfer following PGS were evaluated and compared with those in the control group. Results Implantation rates obtained in the PGS and control groups were 30 and 32% respectively and not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion PGS for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y does not increase implantation rate in women over 35 years of age and therefore the regular use of PGS in AMA is not recommended. PMID:27054114

  12. A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball

    PubMed Central

    Schorer, Jörg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745

  13. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies. PMID:23054474

  14. A new dimension to relative age effects: constant year effects in German youth handball.

    PubMed

    Schorer, Jörg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term 'relative age effect' due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear 'constant year effects' in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745

  15. Health-risk behaviors among persons aged 12-21 years--United States, 1992.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    Health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems (e.g., injuries and sexually transmitted diseases) or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease and cancer). This report uses national data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), conducted as part of the 1992 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to examine the prevalence of selected self-reported health-risk behaviors among persons aged 12-21 years. PMID:8145713

  16. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3 Section 117.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of...

  17. Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) and <50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0) kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7) nmol/L (21.4 [10.7] ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50 nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2) nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2) nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

  18. Mapping Region-Specific Longitudinal Cortical Surface Expansion from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex develops rapidly and dynamically in the first 2 years of life. It has been shown that cortical surface expansion from term infant to adult is highly nonuniform in a cross-sectional study. However, little is known about the longitudinal cortical surface expansion during early postnatal stages. In this article, we generate the first longitudinal surface-based atlases of human cortical structures at 0, 1, and 2 years of age from 73 healthy subjects. On the basis of the surface-based atlases, we study the longitudinal cortical surface expansion in the first 2 years of life and find that cortical surface expansion is age related and region specific. In the first year, cortical surface expands dramatically, with an average expansion of 1.80 times. In particular, regions of superior and medial temporal, superior parietal, medial orbitofrontal, lateral anterior prefrontal, occipital cortices, and postcentral gyrus expand relatively larger than other regions. In the second year, cortical surface still expands substantially, with an average expansion of 1.20 times. In particular, regions of superior and middle frontal, orbitofrontal, inferior temporal, inferior parietal, and superior parietal cortices expand relatively larger than other regions. These region-specific patterns of cortical surface expansion are related to cognitive and functional development at these stages. PMID:22923087

  19. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  20. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gi-Doo; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Ahreum; Park, Chan-Mi; Lee, Young-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Ha-Young; Park, Eun-Ji; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  1. Patellar tendon or hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Tarun; Nagraj, Raghu; Kumar, Malhar N; Chandy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury consists of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring graft. Satisfactory results have been reported so far in the younger age group. Dilemma arises regarding the suitability of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. This retrospective analyses the outcome of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above. Materials and Methods: 55 patients aged 50 years and above presented to our institution with symptomatic ACL tear and were managed with arthroscopic reconstruction with patellar tendon/hamstring graft. 22 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with bone- patellar tendon-bone graft and the remaining 33 with a hamstring graft. Evaluation of functional outcome was performed using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scoring in the preoperative period, at the end of 1 year and at the final followup. Radiographic evaluation was performed using the Kellgren–Lawrence grading system. Results: The mean preoperative IKDC score was 39.7 ± 3.3. At the end of 1-year following the operation, the mean IKDC score was 73.6 ± 4.9 and at the final followup was 67.8 ± 7.7. The mean preoperative Lysholm score was 40.4 ± 10.3. At the end of 1-year following the intervention, the mean Lysholm score was 89.7 ± 2.1 and at final followup was 85.3 ± 2.5. Overall, 14 out of 42 patients who underwent radiographic assessment showed progression of osteoarthritis changes at the final followup after the intervention. Conclusion: In our study, there was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and Lysholm scores following the intervention. There was a slight deterioration in the scores at the final followup but the overall rate of satisfaction was still high and most of the patients were able to do their routine chores and light exercises suitable for their age group. Around one-third of patients show progression of radiographic changes in the postoperative period and this requires long term evaluation. PMID:26806968

  2. Pre-natal exposures to cocaine and alcohol and physical growth patterns to age 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Cabral, Howard J.; Gannon, Katherine; Heeren, Timothy; Frank, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and two primarily African American/Caribbean children (classified by maternal report and infant meconium as 38 heavier, 74 lighter and 89 not cocaine-exposed) were measured repeatedly from birth to age 8 years to assess whether there is an independent effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on physical growth patterns. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome identifiable at birth were excluded. At birth, cocaine and alcohol exposures were significantly and independently associated with lower weight, length and head circumference in cross-sectional multiple regression analyses. The relationship over time of pre-natal exposures to weight, height, and head circumference was then examined by multiple linear regression using mixed linear models including covariates: child’s gestational age, gender, ethnicity, age at assessment, current caregiver, birth mother’s use of alcohol, marijuana and tobacco during the pregnancy and pre-pregnancy weight (for child’s weight) and height (for child’s height and head circumference). The cocaine effects did not persist beyond infancy in piecewise linear mixed models, but a significant and independent negative effect of pre-natal alcohol exposure persisted for weight, height, and head circumference. Catch-up growth in cocaine-exposed infants occurred primarily by 6 months of age for all growth parameters, with some small fluctuations in growth rates in the preschool age range but no detectable differences between heavier versus unexposed nor lighter versus unexposed thereafter. PMID:17412558

  3. Individual differences in cognitive ability at age 20 predict pulmonary function 35 years later

    PubMed Central

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Kremen, William S; Grant, Michael D; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J; Jacobson, Kristen C; Franz, Carol E

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor pulmonary function is associated with mortality and age-related diseases, and can affect cognitive performance. However, extant longitudinal studies indicate that early cognitive ability also affects later pulmonary function. Despite the multifaceted nature of pulmonary function, most longitudinal studies were limited to a single index of pulmonary function: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). In this study, we examined whether early adult cognitive ability predicted five different indices of pulmonary function in mid-life. Methods Mixed modelling tested the association between young adult general cognitive ability (mean age=20), measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), and mid-life pulmonary function (mean age=55), in 1019 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Pulmonary function was indexed by per cent predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%p), FEV1%p, maximum forced expiratory flow (FEFmax%p), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV%p), and by the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC), an index of lung obstruction. Results After adjusting for smoking, pulmonary disease, occupation, income and education, age 20 AFQT was significantly (p<0.05) associated with mid-life FVC%p (β=0.10), FEV1%p (β=0.13), FEFmax%p (β=0.13), and MVV%p (β=0.13), but was not significantly associated with FEV1/FVC (β=0.03, p=0.34). Conclusions Early adult cognitive ability is a predictor of multiple indices of aging-related pulmonary function 35 years later, including lung volume, airflow and ventilator capacity. Cognitive deficits associated with impaired aging-related lung function may, thus, be partly pre-existing. However, results also highlight that early life risk factors may be differentially related to different metrics of later-life pulmonary health. PMID:25273357

  4. [Age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates for selected countries: latest available years].

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    Age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates for selected countries are reported. This statistics was prepared by Yamaguchi and Bando of Population Information Division, Institute of Population Problems of Japan, from UN Demographic Yearbook, 1985. It should serve as good research material for comparative analysis, for it shows some recent drastic changes in fertility rates in some parts of the world. The countries are listed by major regions following UN method. Total fertility rates are calculated with total female population aged 15 to 49 as the denominator. Fertility rates are listed for only those countries which have at least 100 births in that particular year. If age-specific column births were below 30, then the fertility rate is marked with a special symbol. The last table shows changes in total fertility rates among selected nations from 1950 to 1984. Neither Africa nor South America is represented in this table. Some drawbacks concerning the statistical data include methods and rates of birth registration, handling of causes of death before registration and/or within 24 hours of births, method of defining maternal age, etc. Fertility rates are based on the data collected at birth registration, not at birth. Hence high fertility rate at ages 45-49 may represent a high registration rate rather than a high birth rate. Mothers' age distribution for legitimate births differs from that for illegitimate births. More mothers' ages are unknown in cases of illegitimate births. Urban/rural fertility rates are influences by each country's definition of the terms and by the use of census data or dynamic statistics. PMID:12155026

  5. Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

  6. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  7. Age and impaired subjective support. Predictors of depressive symptoms at one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Blazer, D; Hughes, D C; George, L K

    1992-03-01

    We followed a cohort of subjects (predominantly inpatients) suffering a major depressive episode in midlife and late-life for 1 year (N = 118). In this follow-up study, we examined three hypotheses. a) Elder subjects suffering major depression, compared with middle-aged subjects, will more likely report endogenous symptoms and less likely report decreased life satisfaction symptoms at 1-year follow-up. b) Impaired social support during the index episode will predict poor life satisfaction, but not endogenous symptoms at 1-year follow-up, regardless of age. c) Impaired social support during the index episode will be more predictive of decreased life satisfaction symptoms in midlife, compared with late life, at 12-month follow-up. The first two hypotheses were not supported, but the third hypothesis was. Both decreased life satisfaction and endogenous symptoms at outcome were significantly predicted by impaired social support during the index episode. Impaired social support predicted a poor outcome from an episode of major depression in both middle life and late life in controlled analyses. However, the effect of impaired subjective social support was conditional on age. Subjective social support appears to have a decreasing influence on the report of both endogenous and decreased life satisfaction symptoms for older individuals. PMID:1588335

  8. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  9. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia in patients aged ≥ 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Jie; Tan, Yu-Yong; Wang, Xue-Hong; Liu, De-Liang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia in patients aged ≥ 65 years. METHODS: From November 2011 to August 2014, 15 consecutive patients (aged ≥ 65 years) diagnosed with achalasia were prospectively recruited and all underwent POEM at our institution. Eckardt score, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, esophageal diameter, SF-36 questionnaire, and procedure-related complications were used to evaluate the outcomes. RESULTS: All 15 patients were treated successfully by POEM, with a median operation time of 55 min. Median myotomy length was 10 cm. Three patients underwent circular myotomy and 12 full-thickness myotomies. Symptoms remitted in all cases during post-POEM follow-up of 6-39 mo. Eckardt score reduced significantly (pre-operation vs post-operation: 8.0 vs 1.0, P < 0.05). Median LES pressure decreased from 27.4 to 9.6 mmHg (P < 0.05). Median diameter of the esophagus was significantly decreased (pre-operation vs post-operation: 51.0 mm vs 30.0 mm, P < 0.05). Only one patient had reflux, which was resolved with oral proton pump inhibitors. No serious complications related to POEM were found. The quality of life of the 15 patients improved significantly after POEM. CONCLUSION: POEM is a safe and effective technique for treatment of achalasia in patients aged ≥ 65 years, with improvement in symptoms and quality of life. PMID:26290645

  10. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

  11. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the strength of association between age, gender, ethnicity, family history of disease and refractive error and the risk of developing glaucoma or ARM? Clinical Need A routine eye exam serves a primary, secondary, and tertiary care role. In a primary care role, it allows contact with a doctor who can provide advice about eye care, which may reduce the incidence of eye disease and injury. In a secondary care role, it can via a case finding approach, diagnose persons with degenerative eye diseases such as glaucoma and or AMD, and lead to earlier treatment to slow the progression of the disease. Finally in a tertiary care role, it provides ongoing monitoring and treatment to those with diseases associated with vision loss. Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve, which causes gradual loss of peripheral (side) vision, and in advanced disease states loss of central vision. Blindness may results if glaucoma is not diagnosed and managed. The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) ranges from 1.1% to 3.0% in Western populations, and from 4.2% to 8.8% in populations of African descent. It is estimated up to 50% of people with glaucoma are aware that they have the disease. In Canada, glaucoma disease is the second leading cause of blindness in people aged 50 years and older. Tonometry, inspection of the optic disc and perimetry are used concurrently by physicians and optometrists to make the diagnosis of glaucoma. In general, the evidence shows that treating people with increased IOP only, increased IOP and clinical signs of early glaucoma or with normal-tension glaucoma can reduce the progression of disease. Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is a degenerative disease of the macula, which is a part of the retina. Damage to the macula causes loss of central vision affecting the ability to read, recognize faces and to move about freely. ARM can be divided into an early- stage (early ARM) and a late-stage (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The prevalence of AMD increases with increasing age. It is estimated that 1% of people 55 years of age, 5% aged 75 to 84 years and 15% 80 years of age and older have AMD. ARM can be diagnosed during fundoscopy (ophthalmoscopy) which is a visual inspection of the retina by a physician or optometrist, or from a photograph of the retina. There is no cure or prevention for ARM. Likewise, there is currently no treatment to restore vision lost due to AMD. However, there are treatments to delay the progression of the disease and further loss of vision. The Technology A periodic oculo-visual assessment is defined “as an examination of the eye and vision system rendered primarily to determine if a patient has a simple refractive error (visual acuity assessment) including myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, anisometropia or astigmatism.” This service includes a history of the presenting complaint, past medical history, visual acuity examination, ocular mobility examination, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, ophthalmoscopy, and tonometry (measurement of IOP) and is completed by either a physician or an optometrist. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, INAHTA and the Cochrane Library. The search was limited to English-language articles with human subjects, published from January 2000 to March 2006. In addition, a search was conducted for published guidelines, health technology assessments, and policy decisions. Bibliographies of references of relevant papers were searched for additional references that may have been missed in the computerized database search. Studies including participants 20 years and older, population-based prospective cohort studies, population-based cross-sectional studies when prospective cohort studies were unavailable or insufficient and studies determining and reporting the strength of association or risk- specific prevalence or incidence rates of either age, gender, ethnicity, refractive error or family history of disease and the risk of developing glaucoma or AMD were included in the review. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to summarize the overall quality of the body of evidence. Summary of Findings A total of 498 citations for the period January 2000 through February 2006 were retrieved and an additional 313 were identified when the search was expanded to include articles published between 1990 and 1999. An additional 6 articles were obtained from bibliographies of relevant articles. Of these, 36 articles were retrieved for further evaluation. Upon review, 1 meta-analysis and 15 population-based epidemiological studies were accepted for this review Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Age Six cross-sectional studies and 1 prospective cohort study contributed data on the association between age and PAOG. From the data it can be concluded that the prevalence and 4-year incidence of POAG increases with increasing age. The odds of having POAG are statistically significantly greater for people 50 years of age and older relative to those 40 to 49 years of age. There is an estimated 7% per year incremental odds of having POAG in persons 40 years of age and older, and 10% per year in persons 49 years of age and older. POAG is undiagnosed in up to 50% of the population. The quality of the evidence is moderate. Gender Five cross-sectional studies evaluated the association between gender and POAG. Consistency in estimates is lacking among studies and because of this the association between gender and prevalent POAG is inconclusive. The quality of the evidence is very low. Ethnicity Only 1 cross-sectional study compared the prevalence rates of POAG between black and white participants. These data suggest that prevalent glaucoma is statistically significantly greater in a black population 50 years of age and older compared with a white population of similar age. There is an overall 4-fold increase in prevalent POAG in a black population compared with a white population. This increase may be due to a confounding variable not accounted for in the analysis. The quality of the evidence is low. Refractive Error Four cross-sectional studies assessed the association of myopia and POAG. These data suggest an association between myopia defined as a spherical equivalent of -1.00D or worse and prevalent POAG. However, there is inconsistency in results regarding the statistical significance of the association between myopia when defined as a spherical equivalent of -0.5D. The quality of the evidence is very low. Family History of POAG Three cross-sectional studies investigated the association between family history of glaucoma and prevalent POAG. These data suggest a 2.5 to 3.0 fold increase in the odds having POAG in persons with a family history (any first-degree relative) of POAG. The quality of the evidence is moderate. Age-Related Maculopathy Age Four cohort studies evaluated the association between age and early ARM and AMD. After 55 years of age, the incidence of both early ARM and AMD increases with increasing age. Progression to AMD occurs in up to 12% of persons with early ARM. The quality of the evidence is low Gender Four cohort studies evaluated the association between gender and early ARM and AMD. Gender differences in incident early ARM and incident AMD are not supported from these data. The quality of the evidence is lows. Ethnicity One meta-analysis and 2 cross-sectional studies reported the ethnic-specific prevalence rates of ARM. The data suggests that the prevalence of early ARM is higher in a white population compared with a black population. The data suggest that the ethnic-specific differences in the prevalence of AMD remain inconclusive. Refractive Error Two cohort studies investigated the association between refractive error and the development of incident early ARM and AMD. The quality of the evidence is very low. Family History Two cross-sectional studies evaluated the association of family history and early ARM and AMD. Data from one study supports an association between a positive family history of AMD and having AMD. The results of the study indicate an almost 4-fold increase in the odds of any AMD in a person with a family history of AMD. The quality of the evidence, as based on the GRADE criteria is moderate. Economic Analysis The prevalence of glaucoma is estimated at 1 to 3% for a Caucasian population and 4.2 to 8.8% for a black population. The incidence of glaucoma is estimated at 0.5 to 2.5% per year in the literature. The percentage of people who go blind per year as a result of glaucoma is approximately 0.55%. The total population of Ontarians aged 50 to 64 years is estimated at 2.6 million based on the April 2006 Ontario Ministry of Finance population estimates. The range of utilization for a major eye examination in 2006/07 for this age group is estimated at 567,690 to 669,125, were coverage for major eye exams extended to this age group. This would represent a net increase in utilization of approximately 440,116 to 541,551. The percentage of Ontario population categorized as black and/or those with a family history of glaucoma was approximately 20%. Therefore, the estimated range of utilization for a major eye examination in 2006/07 for this sub-population is estimated at 113,538 - 138,727 (20% of the estimated range of utilization in total population of 50-64 year olds in Ontario), were coverage for major eye exams extended to this sub-group. This would represent a net increase in utilization of approximately 88,023 to 108,310 within this sub-group. Costs The total cost of a major eye examination by a physician is $42.15, as per the 2006 Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services.(1) The total difference between the treatments of early-stage versus late-stage glaucoma was estimated at $167. The total cost per recipient was estimated at $891/person. Current Ontario Policy As of November 1, 2004 persons between 20 years and 64 years of age are eligible for an insured eye examination once every year if they have any of the following medical conditions: diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus. Persons between 20 to 64 years of age who do not have diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus may be eligible for an annual eye examination if they have a valid “request for major eye examination” form completed by a physician (other than that who completed the eye exam) or a nurse practitioner working in a collaborative practice. Persons 20-64 years of age who are in receipt of social assistance and who do not have one of the 8 medical conditions listed above are eligible to receive an eye exam once every 2 years as a non-OHIP government funded service. Persons 19 years of age or younger and 65 years of age or older may receive an insured eye exam once every year. Considerations for Policy Development As of July 17, 2006 there were 1,402 practicing optometrists in Ontario. As of December 31, 2005 there were 404 practicing ophthalmologists in Ontario. It is unknown how many third party payers now cover routine eye exams for person between the ages of 20 and 64 years of age in Ontario. PMID:23074485

  12. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  13. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity. PMID:19913844

  14. Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill level

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1 years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer‐specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant predictors of soccer skill (29% of the total explained variance), highlighting the inter‐relationship of growth, maturity and functional characteristics of youth soccer players. PMID:17224444

  15. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  16. Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

  17. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

  18. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  19. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  20. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Izabela; Oleśniewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; Sołtysik, Mariusz; Błaszczuk, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders. Material and methods In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied. Results The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. Conclusion The respondents’ sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result. PMID:26170646

  1. Head injury from falls in children younger than 6 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, P; Trefan, L; Houston, R; Hughes, J; Pearson, G; Edwards, R J; Hyde, P; Maconochie, I; Parslow, R C; Kemp, A M

    2015-01-01

    The risk of serious head injury (HI) from a fall in a young child is ill defined. The relationship between the object fallen from and prevalence of intracranial injury (ICI) or skull fracture is described. Method Cross-sectional study of HIs from falls in children (<6 years) admitted to UK hospitals, analysed according to the object fallen from and associated Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or alert, voice, pain, unresponsive (AVPU) and CT scan results. Results Of 1775 cases ascertained (median age 18 months, 54.7% boys), 87% (1552) had a GCS=15/AVPU=alert. 19.3% (342) had a CT scan: 32% (110/342) were abnormal; equivalent to 5.9% of the overall population, 16.9% (58) had isolated skull fractures and 13.7% (47) had ICI (49% (23/47) had an associated skull fracture). The prevalence of ICI increased with neurological compromise; however, 12% of children with a GCS=15/AVPU=alert had ICI. When compared to falls from standing, falls from a person's arms (233 children (mean age 1 year)) had a significant relative OR for a skull fracture/ICI of 6.94 (95% CI 3.54 to 13.6), falls from a building (eg, window or attic) (mean age 3 years) OR 6.84 (95% CI 2.65 to 17.6) and from an infant or child product (mean age 21 months) OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.36 to 5.65). Conclusions Most HIs from a fall in these children admitted to hospital were minor. Infants, dropped from a carer's arms, those who fell from infant products, a window, wall or from an attic had the greatest chance of ICI or skull fracture. These data inform prevention and the assessment of the likelihood of serious injury when the object fallen from is known. PMID:26297697

  2. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in childrens intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  3. Seroprevalence of antipolio antibodies among children <15 years of age in border provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, HaiBo; Cui, Hui; Ding, ZhenGrong; Ba, Pian; Zhu, ShuangLi; Wen, Ning; Hao, LiXin; Ning, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, De; Xu, WenBo; Zhang, Yong; Fan, ChunXiang; Yu, WenZhou; Liang, XiaoFeng; Luo, HuiMing

    2013-07-01

    Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals <15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ≥8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China. PMID:23677325

  4. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  5. Infants under 1 year of age have a significant risk of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Tobin, Sean; Dickson, William A; Potokar, Tom S

    2008-09-01

    A wealth of data exists concerning paediatric burn epidemiology in general, but very little exists specifically in infants under 1 year of age, a special group in which mobility begins to develop. A retrospective study of all burn admissions of infants under 1 year old to The Welsh Centre for Burns from January 2003 to January 2006 was performed. During the 3-year period there were 104 new burns cases identified which represents 11.8% of all paediatric admissions. 63.5% (66) were treated as inpatients and 36.5% (38) treated as out-patients. Burns increased in frequency with increasing age and occurred mainly in the home. Scalds were the commonest type of burn in 65% (68) whilst the second most common was contact burns which accounted for 30% (31). The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drinks (39%) and the most common source of contact burn was radiators/hot water pipes (30%). The mean TBSA was 2.3%, (range 0.5-38%). The frequency of burns in the under 1 year old population highlights a need for emphasis of burn prevention directed to this group. Special attention is needed to look at the specific aetiology of these burns. Starting points for prevention should address the number of burns surrounding hot drinks and bottle warming practices in the case of scalds and the dangers of household radiators and hot water pipes in the case of contact burns. PMID:18378092

  6. Cohort study of peanut and tree nut sensitisation by age of 4 years.

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, S. M.; Stevens, M.; Matthews, S.; Ridout, S.; Twiselton, R.; Hide, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to peanuts and tree nuts in all children born during one year in one geographical area. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with structured review at ages 1, 2, and 4 years. SETTING: All children born on the Isle of Wight between January 1989 and February 1990. SUBJECTS: Of 1456 children originally included, 1218 were reviewed at age 4 years. Of these, 1981 had skin prick tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive skin test results, clinical atopic disease, and risk factors for the development of atopy. RESULTS: 15 of 1218 (1.2%) children were sensitised to peanuts or tree nuts (13 to peanuts). Six had had allergic reactions to peanuts (0.5% of the population), one to hazelnuts, and one to cashew nuts; three had had anaphylactic reactions. Seven children had positive skin test results or detectable IgE to peanuts without clinical symptoms. Two children who reacted to peanut in infancy had lost their sensitivity by 4 years. Family history of atopy, allergy to egg (odds ratio 9.9, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 47.9, and eczema (7.3, 2.1 to 26.1) were important predictors for peanut allergy. CONCLUSIONS: IgE mediated allergy to peanuts is common in early childhood. In many the allergy persists but a minority may develop tolerance. PMID:8789974

  7. Identifying Hail Signatures in Satellite Imagery from the 9-10 August 2011 Severe Weather Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Rachel L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Cole, Tony A.; Bell, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms can produce large hail that causes property damage, livestock fatalities, and crop failure. However, detailed storm surveys of hail damage conducted by the National Weather Service (NWS) are not required. Current gaps also exist between Storm Prediction Center (SPC) hail damage estimates and crop-insurance payouts. NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to support NWS damage assessments, particularly to crops during the growing season. The two-day severe weather event across western Nebraska and central Kansas during 9-10 August 2011 offers a case study for investigating hail damage signatures by examining changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery. By analyzing hail damage swaths in satellite imagery, potential economic losses due to crop damage can be quantified and further improve the estimation of weather impacts on agriculture without significantly increasing manpower requirements.

  8. Identifying the low-lying electronic states of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, Inés; González, Leticia; Lauer, Alexandra; Freyer, Wolfgang; Fidder, Henk; Heyne, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    The electronic excited states of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide giving rise to singlet oxygen generation ( 1O 2) or homolytic O-O cleavage have been unambiguously characterized using multi-configurational second order perturbation theory MS-CASPT2/CASSCF, with inclusion of solvent interactions, femtosecond polarization resolved UV/IR pump-probe, and steady-state fluorescence experiments. The S 1 state, responsible for homolytic O-O cleavage, is observed at 34 400 cm -1. Determination of the transition dipole moment direction of the 37 000 cm -1 band, confirms the assignment of the S 4 state, from which 1O 2 is generated, and allows assigning the other electronic states. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that APO can emit after electronic excitation.

  9. Assessment of Dental Age of Children Aged 3.5 to 16.9 Years Using Demirjian’s Method: A Meta-Analysis Based on 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jin; Lou, Xintian; Xie, Liming; Yu, Dedong; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    Background A method for assessing dental maturity in different populations was first developed in 1973 by Demirjian and has been widely used and accepted since then. While the accuracy for evaluating dental age using Demirjian’s method compared to children’s chronological age has been extensively studied in recent years, the results currently available remain controversial and ambiguous. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before July 12th, 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian’s method for estimating chronological age in children. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 26 studies with a total of 11,499 children (5,301 boys and 6,198 girls) aged 3.5 to 16.9 years. Overall, we found that Demirjian’s method overestimated dental age by 0.35 (4.2 months) and 0.39 (4.68 months) years in males and females, respectively. A subgroup analysis by age revealed that boys and girls between the ages of 5 to 14 were given a dental age estimate that was significantly more advanced than their chronological age. Differences between underestimated dental ages and actual chronological ages were lower for male and female 15- and 16-year-old subgroups, though a significant difference was found in the 16-year-old subgroup. Conclusions Demirjian’s method’s overestimation of actual chronological tooth age reveals the need for population-specific standards to better estimate the rate of human dental maturation. PMID:24367690

  10. Differential changes and interactions of autonomic functioning and sleep architecture before and after 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, C C H

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesize that the time when age-related changes in autonomic functioning and in sleep structure occur are different and that autonomic functioning modulates sleep architecture differently before and after 50 years of age. Sixty-eight healthy subjects (aged 20 to 79 years old, 49 of them women) were enrolled. Correlation analysis revealed that wake after sleep onset, the absolute and relative value of stage 1 (S1; S1%), and relative value of stage 2 (S2) were positively correlated with age; however, sleep efficiency, stage 3 (S3), S3%, and rapid-eye-movement latency (REML) were negatively correlated with age. Significant degenerations of sleep during normal aging were occurred after 50 years of age; however, significant declines of autonomic activity were showed before 50 years of age. Before 50 years of age, vagal function during sleep was negatively correlated with arousal index; however, after 50 years of age, it was positively correlated with S1 and S1%. In addition, sympathetic activity during wake stage was positively related to S2% only after 50 years of age. Our results imply that the age-related changes in autonomic functioning decline promptly as individuals leave the younger part of their adult life span and that age-related changes in sleep slowly develop as individuals enter the older part of their adult life span. Furthermore, while various aspects of sleep architecture are modulated by both the sympathetic and vagal nervous systems during adult life span, the sleep quality is mainly correlated with the sympathetic division after 50 years of age. PMID:26728397

  11. Correlation of Smoking and Myocardial Infarction Among Sudanese Male Patients Above 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Elkhader, Bahaaedin A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Ali Omer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To find an association between smoking and the development of myocardial infarction in male patients above forty years of age presenting at the echocardiology department of Sudan heart center Khartoum. A prospective cohort study was carried out at the echocardiography department of Sudan Heart Center in Khartoum-Sudan between July 2012 and June 2014. The study population comprised a total of 168 adult male patients who underwent cardiac ultrasound scanning. Out of a total of 144 cases, 65% (94) of patients were smokers, 74% of the 94 cases smoked for more than 10 years, and 26% of the 94 cases smoked for less than 10 years. With this study it was concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction. This study showed that patients with myocardial infarction are more likely to have a past history of smoking. PMID:27081418

  12. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  13. [Bronchiolitis among infants under 1 year of age in France: epidemiology and factors associated with mortality].

    PubMed

    Che, D; Nicolau, J; Bergounioux, J; Perez, T; Bitar, D

    2012-07-01

    Little information is available on the characteristics of infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis in France. An analysis of hospital records (PMSI) was conducted at the national level to describe the cases of bronchiolitis that require hospitalization among infants under 1 year of age and the factors associated with death. The analysis of all admissions that occurred during 2009, for which the diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis was recorded in the PMSI database for infants aged less than 1 year, was performed. Cases were described according to age, sex, underlying conditions (including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, and congenital heart disease), length of hospital stay, recurrent admissions, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), and use of assisted ventilation. Factors associated with death during hospitalization were studied by logistic regression. The hospitalization rate was 35.8 per 1000 infants under 1 year in 2009 in France. Approximately 10% of hospitalized infants required ICU admission. Twenty-two infants died. The estimated case-fatality rate was 0.08% among hospitalized infants and 0.56% for those hospitalized in the ICU. Mortality among all infants under 1 year was 2.6/10(5) in France. Factors associated with death were bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=6.7, 95% CI [1.5-29.8]), hospitalization in an ICU (OR=6.46, 95% CI [2.4-17.4]), and the use of assisted ventilation (OR=6.2, 95% CI [2.2-17.1]). This study has enabled the quantification of the rate of hospitalization and mortality, and a better description of infants who need hospitalization. The results are consistent with international literature, but further prospective analysis will be needed to better describe the cases at higher risk, aiming to improve their management. PMID:22652519

  14. Risk and protective factors for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ruth H.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Machulda, Mary M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine risk and protective factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among persons 85 years and older. Methods: Participants in the population-based prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were comprehensively evaluated at baseline and at 15 monthly intervals to determine incident MCI. At baseline, lifestyle factors in midlife and late life were assessed by self-reported questionnaire; vascular and comorbid conditions were abstracted from participants' medical records. Results: Of 256 participants who were cognitively normal at enrollment (median age 87.3 years, 62% women), 121 developed MCI at a median 4.1 years of follow-up. Predictors of MCI were APOE ε4 allele (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89; p = 0.008), current depressive symptoms (HR 1.78; p = 0.02), midlife onset of hypertension (HR 2.43; p = 0.005), increasing number of vascular diseases (HR 1.13; p = 0.02), and chronic conditions from the Charlson Comorbidity Index (HR 1.08; p = 0.006). Models were adjusted for sex and education, with age as the time variable. The risk of MCI was reduced for participants who reported engagement in artistic (HR 0.27; p = 0.03), craft (HR 0.55; p = 0.02), and social (HR 0.45; p = 0.005) activities in both midlife and late life, and in the use of a computer in late life (HR 0.47; p = 0.008). Conclusions: Chronic disease burden increases risk of MCI, whereas certain lifestyle factors reduce risk in persons 85 years and older. This implies that preventive strategies for MCI may need to begin in midlife and should persist throughout late life. PMID:25854867

  15. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. PMID:26098169

  16. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001

  17. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  18. A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Model of Physical Activity from Ages 12-17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Susan C.; Duncan, Terry E.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite serious public health implications of decreased physical activity during adolescence, few longitudinal studies have been conducted to determine the trajectory and important correlates of physical activity change during this period. Purpose This study examined change in physical activity from ages 12-17 years, and the influences of personal, family, peer, and demographic factors on activity patterns. Methods Data were from 371 youth. The sample was 50.1% female; 76% White, 12% African American, 4% Hispanic, 2% Asian, 2% American Indian, and 4% other or mixed races. Mean age was 12.05 years (SD = 1.63) at Time 1. Multivariate latent growth curve modeling (LGM), a cohort-sequential design, and a multiple-group design by gender were employed. Results Youth physical activity declined significantly from ages 12-17. Boys had higher initial levels of physical activity than girls. Efficacy to overcome barriers, physically active friends, and friend social support all played roles in reducing the decline in physical activity. Early maturing boys, while more physically active initially, experienced a greater decline in physical activity compared to later-maturing boys. Conclusions These findings encourage further research on the etiology and development of youth physical activity using procedures such as LGM, to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with youth physical activity decline. PMID:17291173

  19. Fontan Completion for Younger than 3 Years of Age: Outcome in Patients with Functional Single Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Bezuska, Laurynas; Lebetkevicius, Virgilijus; Lankutis, Kestutis; Sudikiene, Rita; Sirvydis, Vytautas Jonas; Tarutis, Virgilijus

    2015-12-01

    Most single ventricle patients undergo Fontan procedure earlier in current era. However, optimal timing of Fontan completion after an intermediate staging surgery is controversial. We present children who had Fontan surgeries younger than 3years of age comparing the data with older patients. Between 2000 and 2013, 45 patients with functional single ventricle underwent extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) using GORE-TEX() conduit at a single institution. Children were divided into group A (age<36months; n=15) and group B (age?36months; n=30), and retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 2.9 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-4.4]years. There were two hospital deaths and one late death (all in group B, p=0.286). One TCPC was taken down in group A. The median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 90(IQR 46-140)h and 21(IQR 16-33)days for group A versus 65(IQR 45-115)h and 29 (IQR 20.8-38.5)days for group B, respectively (p=0.322 and p=0.057). Ventricular ejection fraction and GORE-TEX() conduit size were similar in both groups. The time of chest drain stay was significantly lower in group A (median 12days, IQR 7-22) than in group B (22days, IQR 16-32.5) (p=0.014). Extracardiac TCPC can be performed earlier with good intermediate results. Earlier Fontan procedure might be advantageous for reducing chest drains stay. PMID:26104382

  20. Color vision deficiencies in youths 12-17 years of age, United States.

    PubMed

    Slaby, D; Roberts, J

    1974-01-01

    Presented in this report are data on the prevalence of color vision deficiencies in American youths 12-17 years of age as estimated from the Health Examination Survey of 1966-70. The data are stratified by age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Comparisons are also made with the findings from the 1963-65 Health Examination Survey among children 6-11 years of age. Color vision deficiency, commonly called color blindness, manifests itself in everyday life in the confusion of, or blindness to, one or more primary colors, and its origins may be congenital or acquired. Congenital defects occur in two chief forms, total and partial. The former is very rare and is generally associated with nystagmus and a central scotoma. All colors appear as grays of differing brightness. The partial form is the most common type of color vision defect and is primarily an inherited condition transmitted through the mother, who is usually unaffected. It is probably due to the absence of one of the photopigments normally found in the foveal cones. In most cases reds and greens are confused. Acquired defects of color vision may often develop in, the course of ocular, mainly retinal, disease. Red-green defects are frequently characteristic of lesions of the optic nerve and optic pathways, while blue-yellow defects are more likely to result from lesions of the outer layers of the retina. PMID:25208588

  1. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  2. Good results with cemented total hip arthroplasty in patients between 40 and 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    de Kam, Daniël C J; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Veth, René P H

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip arthroplasties in young patients have lower long-term survival rates than in older patients. We evaluated the use of a unique treatment protocol in patients aged between 40 and 50 years. In all cases we used a cemented THA, and for acetabular deficiencies we also used impacted bone grafts together with a cemented cup. Methods In 140 consecutive patients who were between 40 and 50 years of age at index surgery, 168 cemented total hip prostheses were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 10 (2–19) years. Acetabular deficiencies were reconstructed with wire meshes and impacted bone grafts with a cemented cup (70 hips). During follow-up, 18 patients died (27 hips); in this group 3 hips (3 patients) had been revised. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. In all surviving patients, clinical assessment was performed with hip-score questions and all radiographs were evaluated. Results All clinical questionnaires showed an improved clinical hip score. 29 hips (17%) were revised after a mean of 8 (0.3–18) years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a survival of 88% (95% CI: 82–94) after 10 years with revision of either component for any reason. Survival with endpoint revision for aseptic loosening of either component was 94% (95% CI: 90–99) after 10 years. Interpretation Cemented implants in young patients have satisfying long-term results. Reconstruction of acetabular deficiencies with impacted bone grafts show promising results. PMID:20367411

  3. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  4. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  5. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea. PMID:26751798

  6. Age-related light scattering in rat lenses observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    Normal light scattering in the eye is determined primarily by the size of alpha-crystalline molecules. Ageing effects appear as an increase in normal lens light scattering in distinct layers. Subliminal effects of toxins on lens transparency can also cause an increase in light scattering due to protein molecule aggregation before visible opacities appear. Scheimpflug photography of the anterior eye segment with subsequent densitometric image analysis is the method of choice to evaluate such effects. To gain more insight into normal ageing and the potential effects of complex aerosols, a subset of Wistar rats (both sexes) belonging to a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was documented at baseline and after 2 years with a Topcon SL-45 Scheimpflug camera on Kodak T(max) 400 ISO film. The recording procedure, film development, and microdensitometric image analysis were all performed according to standard protocol. A second group from the same study was documented at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke or diesel engine exhaust. Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. At the baseline examination, there were no relevant differences between groups with respect to corneal density or density of defined layers in the lens capsule (1), epithelium and superficial cortex (2), deep cortex (3), supranuclear layer (4) and nucleus (5). At the 2-year examination, mean corneal density was significantly lower in females than in males. This same trend, although not significant, was also found in most layers of the lens. The most prominent differences in density over time were measured in lens layers 3 and 4, but neither corneal density nor lenticular density showed any consistent treatment-related effects in any of the layers. The data from the posttreatment period confirmed the results of the 2-year study. The depth of the anterior chamber increased constantly over the 2.5-year period, but again, treatment did not affect this. This study provided completely new data on age-related light scattering in the cornea and in defined layers of the lens in long-term toxicity studies in Wistar rats. PMID:12381887

  7. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A deficiency and anthropometric markers. Living in rural areas is a determining factor for the families health status. PMID:26398874

  8. Contextualizing change in marital satisfaction during middle age: an 18-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gorchoff, Sara M; John, Oliver P; Helson, Ravenna

    2008-11-01

    To address the need for longitudinal marital research that takes contextual factors into account, we investigated change in women's marital satisfaction over 18 years of middle age. We examined not only whether marital satisfaction changed, but also why and how it changed. Marital satisfaction increased in middle age, and increased marital, but not life, satisfaction was linked to the transition to an empty nest. More specifically, the transition to an empty nest increased marital satisfaction via an increase in women's enjoyment of time with their partners, but not via an increase in the quantity of that time with partners. Also, increasing marital satisfaction was not attributable to changing partners. Taken together, these findings support the utility of applying a contextualized approach focused on major life transitions to the study of long-term change in marital satisfaction. PMID:19076493

  9. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years.

    PubMed

    Trilling, David E

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties. PMID:26790001

  10. Risk factors for hip fracture in US men aged 40 through 75 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D R; Rimm, E B; Feskanich, D; Willett, W C

    1994-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined risk factors for hip fracture among men. This study analyzes data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective study of approximately 50,000 men who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years in 1986. Body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were not associated with hip fracture in this population. However, age and height were related to hip fracture. Men who were 65 and older had a significantly higher risk of sustaining a hip fracture than younger adults. Men 6 feet or taller were more than twice as likely to sustain a hip fracture as those under 5 feet, 9 inches. PMID:7977932

  11. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years

    PubMed Central

    Trilling, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto’s physical properties. PMID:26790001

  12. Suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescents aged 12-16 years: a 17-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Benjamin I; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Duncan, Laura; Boyle, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation/behavior in 1983 or 1987 and its association with future mental health in 2001 were evaluated in a provincially representative sample of Canadian adolescents (n = 1,248) aged 12 to 16 years. Approximately 13.3% (95% CI = 11.5-15.3) of adolescents self-reported suicidal ideation/behavior. Adolescent agreement with parent (κ = .07) and teacher (κ = .05) reports at baseline was low because adults identified so few subjects. In adulthood, the associations between adolescent self-reports of suicidal behavior/ideation and major depression and other mental health indicators were explained by respondent sex and adolescent emotional problems reported in 1983/1987. Adolescents with suicidal behavior/ideation often are not recognized by their parents and teachers and may be at risk for persistent psychiatric problems attributable to coexisting mental health problems early-on. PMID:24494741

  13. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1,407–1,507 m, 1,479–1,597 m, 1,423–1,654 m, and 1,433–1,666 m in 9- to 12-year-old boys and 1,262–1,362 m, 1,329–1,434 m, 1,392–1,501 m, and 1,415–1,526 m in 9- to 12-year-old girls correspond to a “medium” fitness level (i.e., P40 to P60) in this population. Conclusions The observed differences in physical fitness development between boys and girls illustrate that age- and sex-specific maturational processes might have an impact on the fitness status of healthy children. Our statistical analyses revealed linear (e.g., lower-extremity muscular power) and curvilinear (e.g., agility) models of fitness improvement with age which is indicative of timed and capacity-specific fitness development pattern during childhood. Lastly, the provided age- and sex-specific percentile values can be used by coaches for talent identification and by teachers for rating/grading of children’s motor performance. PMID:26544848

  14. Allotransplantation for patients age ≥40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.

    PubMed

    McClune, Brian L; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Hai-Lin; Antin, Joseph H; Artz, Andrew S; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Deol, Abhinav; Freytes, César O; Hamadani, Mehdi; Holmberg, Leona A; Jagasia, Madan H; Jakubowski, Ann A; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Lazarus, Hillard M; Miller, Alan M; Olsson, Richard; Pedersen, Tanya L; Pidala, Joseph; Pulsipher, Michael A; Rowe, Jacob M; Saber, Wael; van Besien, Koen W; Waller, Edmund K; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgun; Bacher, Ulrike; Chao, Nelson J; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cooper, Brenda W; Dehn, Jason; de Lima, Marcos J; Hsu, Jack W; Lewis, Ian D; Marks, David I; McGuirk, Joseph; Cairo, Mitchell S; Schouten, Harry C; Szer, Jeffrey; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Savani, Bipin N; Seftel, Matthew; Socie, Gérard; Vij, Ravi; Warlick, Erica D; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ≥40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ≥65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ≥65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ≥65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ≥65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ≥55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ≥55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL. PMID:24641829

  15. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

  16. Physical Activity and Mental Well-being in a Cohort Aged 60–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Black, Stephanie V.; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Kathryn R.; Brage, Soren; Kuh, Diana; Stafford, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although evidence suggests physical activity (PA) may be associated with mental well-being at older ages, it is unclear whether some types of PA are more important than others. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations of monitored total PA under free-living conditions, self-reported leisure-time PA (LTPA), and walking for pleasure with mental well-being at age 60–64 years. Methods Data on 930 (47%) men and 1,046 (53%) women from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development collected in 2006–2011 at age 60–64 were used in 2013–2014 to test the associations of PA (PA energy expenditure and time spent in different intensities of activity assessed using combined heart rate and acceleration monitors worn for 5 days, self-reported LTPA, and walking for pleasure) with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS; range, 14–70). Results In linear regression models adjusted for gender, long-term limiting illness, smoking, employment, socioeconomic position, personality, and prior PA, those who walked for >1 hour/week had mean WEMWBS scores 1.47 (95% CI=0.60, 2.34) points higher than those who reported no walking. Those who participated in LTPA at least five times/month had WEMWBS scores 1.25 (95% CI=0.34, 2.16) points higher than those who did not engage in LTPA. There were no statistically significant associations between free-living PA and WEMWBS scores. Conclusions In adults aged 60–64 years, participation in self-selected activities such as LTPA and walking are positively related to mental well-being, whereas total levels of free-living PA are not. PMID:26070782

  17. Cognitive deficits at age 22 years associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to mercury has been associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment. The present study aims to determine the extent to which methylmercury-associated cognitive deficits persist into adult age. In a Faroese birth cohort originally formed in 1986-1987 (N=1,022), prenatal methylmercury exposure was assessed in terms of the mercury concentration in cord blood and maternal hair. Clinical examinations of 847 cohort members at age 22 years were carried out in 2008-2009 using a panel of neuropsychological tests that reflected major functional domains. Subjects with neurological and psychiatric diagnoses were excluded from the data analysis, thus leaving 814 subjects. Multiple regression analysis included covariates previously identified for adjustment. Deficits in Boston Naming Test (BNT) and other tests of verbal performance were significantly associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration. Deficits were also present in all other tests applied, although most were not statistically significant. Structural equation models were developed to ascertain the possible differences in vulnerability of specific functional domains and the overall association with general intelligence. In models for individual domains, all of them showed negative associations, with crystallized intelligence being highly significant. A hierarchical model for general intelligence based on all domains again showed a highly significant negative association with the exposure, with an approximate deficit that corresponds to about 2.2 IQ points at a 10-fold increased prenatal methylmercury exposure. Thus, although the cognitive deficits observed were smaller than at examinations at younger ages, maternal diets with contaminated seafood were associated with adverse effects in this birth cohort at age 22 years. The deficits affected major domains of brain functions as well as general intelligence. Thus, prenatal exposure to this marine contaminant appears to cause permanent adverse effects on cognition. PMID:26109549

  18. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometry at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael; Nohr, Ellen A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-09-15

    Fetal exposure to the perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), has been associated with lower birth weight and lower weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in early infancy. It is, however, unclear if exposure to prenatal PFOS and PFOA has a lasting influence on growth. We estimated the associations between the maternal plasma level of PFOS or PFOA and the children's body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of overweight at 7 years of age. A total of 1,400 women were randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort among those who provided blood samples early in pregnancy and gave birth to liveborn singletons in 1996-2002. Weight and height information at 7 years was available for 811 children. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for analyses. Maternal PFOS and PFOA concentrations were overall inversely but nonsignificantly associated with the children's body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of overweight at 7 years of age. In conclusion, plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA in pregnant women did not seem to have any appreciable influence on their children's anthropometry at this point in childhood. PMID:23825166

  19. Utilization of home telemonitoring in patients 75 years of age and over with complex heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Geneviève; Azad, Nahid; Struthers, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a chart review on all patients who had received home telemonitoring after an admission for heart failure at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. During a 5 year period (2005-2009) a total of 645 patients had home monitoring. A total of 594 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study and were divided into two groups: Group 1 (<75 years of age) contained 350 patients and Group 2 (≥75 years of age) contained 244 patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in the mean duration of follow-up by the telemonitoring team: it was 126.5 days in Group 1 and 125.4 days in Group 2 (P = 0.89). There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of times that titration of diuretic medications occurred, the number of times that titration of cardiac medications occurred, the number of interventions for abnormal vital signs or the number of times that patients were called by the telemonitoring staff. Emergency room visits, hospitalizations and the number of deaths were also not different between two groups. Thus in the telemonitoring programme, the pattern of usage by older patients was similar to that of the younger ones. Based on the present study, the elderly do not require more resources nor do they require them for longer. PMID:23390212

  20. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance. PMID:23414426

  1. Aging and Physical Function in Type 2 Diabetes: 8 Years of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Clark, Jeanne M.; Evans, Mary; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Compared with adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus, those with the disease experience more limitations in their physical functioning (PF). Look AHEAD is a large multicenter trial that examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes compared with diabetes support and education (DSE). Although the current study compared treatment differences between ILI and DSE on PF, the primary goal was to examine whether this effect was moderated by age and history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. Methods. Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to either ILI or DSE. The mean (±SD) age and % females in ILI was 58.9 years (±6.9) and 59.8%; it was 58.6 years (6.8) and 59.5% in DSE. Analysis in 4,998 participants assessed the differential rates of decline in PF across a period of 8 years for the ILI and DSE groups. Results. ILI resulted in improved PF compared with DSE after 1 year (p < .0001) and was maintained across time. Within the ILI, older adults experienced greater improvements than younger adults (p < .0001). By year 2, persons in ILI with preexisting cardiovascular disease were no different in PF than in DSE participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. With the exception of persons who had a history of cardiovascular disease, ILI slowed the decline in PF with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite weight regain, an effect that was stronger for older than younger participants and could translate into reductions in falls and disability. PMID:24986062

  2. [The year 2000: one billion couples of child-bearing age].

    PubMed

    Lintong, L J

    1988-04-01

    Out of 1 billion couples there are only 124 million who use modern and effective contraceptives. World abortions number 33 million/year. 250 million sexually active women of child-bearing age in developing countries outside China do not use modern and effective contraceptives. Fertility control costs on the average US$2.5 billion a year in each developing country, 20% of which is assistance from developed countries. Expanding the family planning service to the 250 million sexually active child-bearing aged women costs an additional U.S. $5 billion yearly. A family planning accessibility survey was conducted by the Population Crisis Committee. PCC divided the countries into 2 categories: Developed and developing countries. The 110 countries (15 developed and 95 developing) covered 96% of the world population. The survey placed the countries in 5 classes according to accessibility levels: Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor. The developed countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, service to the poor and minorities, sex education in the schools, and family planning information and advertisement. The developing countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, performance of service and distribution, public information and education, private sector participation, government finance and policies. Of the 15 developed countries, 43% were excellent, 22% good, 24% fair, and 2% poor. Of the 95 developing countries, 5 were excellent, 10 good, 16 fair, and 64 either poor or very poor countries in respect to family planning accessibility. In the face of a population explosion in the year 2000, many countries lack of government support for family planning programs. After 30 years of world effort in population control, half of the world population still has no effective family planning services. PMID:12343749

  3. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females. PMID:25748440

  4. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

  5. Breastfeeding and risk of overweight and obesity at nine-years of age.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Whether breastfeeding is protective against the development of childhood overweight and obesity remains the subject of considerable debate. Although a number of meta-analyses and syntheses of the literature have concluded that the greater preponderance of evidence indicates that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity, these findings are by no means conclusive. The present study used data from the Growing Up in Ireland study to examine the relationship between retrospectively recalled breastfeeding data and contemporaneously measured weight status for 7798 children at nine-years of age controlling for a wide range of variables including; socio-demographic factors, the child's own lifestyle-related behaviours, and parental BMI. The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that being breastfed for between 13 and 25 weeks was associated with a 38 percent (p < 0.05) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine-years of age, while being breastfed for 26 weeks or more was associated with a 51 percent (p < 0.01) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine-years of age. Moreover, results pointed towards a dose-response patterning in the data for those breastfed in excess of 4 weeks. Possible mechanisms conveying this health benefit include slower patterns of growth among breastfed children, which it is believed, are largely attributable to differences in the composition of human breast milk compared with synthesised formula. The suggestion that the choice of infant feeding method has important implications for health and development is tantalising as it identifies a modifiable health behaviour that is amenable to intervention in primary health care settings and has the potential to improve the health of the population. PMID:22560796

  6. Evaluation of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in Canadians 40 years of age or more.

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, D W; Bjornson, G J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the side effects and immune responses after three serial doses of a new inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in people 40 years of age or more. DESIGN: Open, noncomparative trial. SETTING: A hospital, a regional laboratory and public health units in British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of 64 healthy adults aged 40 to 61 years who were seronegative for hepatitis A virus (HAV). All were staff or associates of the health facilities. Exclusion criteria included elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels, a history of liver disease and recent travel to areas of high risk for HAV infection. INTERVENTION: A formalin-inactivated, alum-adsorbed vaccine containing 720 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) units of antigen from HAV strain HM175 per 1.0-mL dose was injected intramuscularly into the delgoid area. The second and third doses were given 1 and 6 months later respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A detailed diary of any adverse effects for 3 days after each dose. HAV antibody levels in blood samples taken before and 30 days after each dose. RESULTS: All subjects completed the planned series of vaccinations and blood tests; symptom diaries were returned after 190 (99%) of 192 vaccinations. Local symptoms, most often soreness, were reported after 46% of the vaccinations but were mild and usually resolved within 24 hours. A temperature of more than 38.0 degrees C was never reported. Seroconversion occurred in all cases after the two primary doses, and the subjects were still seropositive at 6 months. After the booster dose the geometric mean titre was 2380 mIU/mL, all values being 200 mIU/mL or greater. CONCLUSION: In healthy adults 40 years of age or more the HAV vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. Final antibody levels were much higher than reported in people passively immunized against HAV with immune serum globulin. PMID:8431816

  7. Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lanata, Claudio F.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Olascoaga, Ana C.; Torres, Carla X.; Aryee, Martin J.; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5–13 pathogens, p<0·0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000–295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000–146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000–113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000–76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world. PMID:24023773

  8. Effectiveness of skin cancer screening for individuals age 14 to 34 years.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Schmitt J; Seidler A; Heinisch G; Sebastian G

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND:  Approximately 15 % of all cases of melanoma are diagnosed before age 35 years. In Germany, individuals ≥ 35 years are eligible for the national skin cancer screening program. The effectiveness of a population-based skin cancer screening in general and in particular for young adults is unclear.OBJECTIVES:  Assessment of the effectiveness of a skin cancer screening program and of risk factors for detection of a melanoma/atypical nevus in the setting of a screening for the age group 14 to 34 years.METHODS:  A total of 12,187 individuals age 14 to 34 years were screened in Saxony for skin cancer by a dermatologist in the program "Haut-Check 14-34 Jahre" of the AOK PLUS, a large German health insurance, between January and July 2009. Demographic, clinical and histopathological data and UV-exposure data were collected from each participant. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for the detection of a (histopathologically confirmed) melanoma or atypical nevus.RESULTS:  2.8 % of the eligible individuals participated in the skin cancer screening program with women being more likely to do so. In 1 072 individuals (8.8 %) screening included at least one excision of a skin lesion leading to the diagnosis of melanoma in two participants, melanoma in situ in four persons, and atypical nevus in 641 persons. Use of tanning beds, higher age, number of nevi, and previous cutaneous excision were independent risk factors for the detection of a melanoma or atypical nevus.CONCLUSIONS:  In 5.5 % of all cases skin cancer screening resulted in the excision of a malignant or atypical melanocytic lesion. It remains unclear what proportion of these cases would have been detected in routine care. The rate of excisions per newly diagnosed melanoma was 179 : 1. Further investigations are necessary to explore the reasons for this low diagnostic specificity. This study highlights the possibilities and limitations of routine data to evaluate screening programs and indicates the need to collect additional information on healthcare utilization behaviour.

  9. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yo-El S.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50 years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

  10. Aripiprazole for irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2010-09-29

    Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6-17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119

  11. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-01-01

    de Moura DR, Costa JC, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Matijasevich A, Halpern R, Dumith S, Karam S, Barros FC. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 211–221. Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay. PMID:20415750

  12. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  13. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  14. Predicting Curriculum and Test Performance at Age 11 Years from Pupil Background, Baseline Skills and Phonological Awareness at Age 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2007-01-01

    Background: Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive…

  15. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  16. Short Sleep Duration in the First Years of Life and Obesity/Overweight at Age 4 Years: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Halal, Camila S.E.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D.; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Fernando C.; Nunes, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether short sleep duration from the first year of life influenced weight at an early age. Study design During 2004, children born in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a cohort study. Sleeping habits during the previous 2 weeks were assessed, and the children were weighed and measured at 1-, 2-, and 4-year follow-ups. Overweight and obesity at 4 years were defined according to World Health Organization z-scores for body mass index for age. Short sleep duration was defined as fewer than 10 hours of sleep per night at any follow-up. Results Out of the 4263 live births, 4231 were recruited. The prevalence of short sleep duration at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age was 10.1%. At 4 years of age, 201 children were obese (5.3%), and 302 (8%) were overweight. Among short sleepers, the prevalence ratio for overweight/obesity after adjusting for maternal and children's characteristics was 1.32 (1.03; 1.70). Conclusions Children who slept for fewer than 10 hours per night at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age were more likely to be overweight or obese at 4 years of age, despite their sociodemographic and sleep characteristics. PMID:26541426

  17. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  18. Evidence-based portion sizes for children aged 1-4 years.

    PubMed

    More, Judy

    2013-05-01

    Existing guidelines on how to feed preschool children have left parents and carers unsure about how to offer a diet that will provide their young children with adequate nutrition but prevent excess weight gain. The consequences of malnutrition, such as iron deficiency anaemia and obesity, remain prevalent in this age group and giving parents more specific guidance will help address this. The evidence-based portion sizes from the Infant & Toddler Forum for 1-4-year-old-children have been calculated to meet, but not exceed, their energy requirements and provide all their nutrients, with the exception of vitamin D for which they need a daily supplement. These portion size ranges can be used as serving guides by parents, carers and staff in early years settings. Their use will both reassure parents who worry their preschool children are not eating enough and will help address excess energy intake by toddlers, which is the main cause of obesity. PMID:23724763

  19. Non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients aged 80 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Facktor, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is routinely performed with general anesthesia and double-lumen endotracheal intubation, but this technique may stress an elderly patient’s functional reserve. We chose to study the safety and efficacy of non-intubated VATS, utilizing local anesthesia, sedation, and spontaneous ventilation in the elderly. Methods The medical records of all patients aged 80 years and older who underwent VATS under local anesthesia and sedation during the time period 6/1/2002 to 6/1/2010 at Geisinger Health System (Pennsylvania, USA) and 10/1/2011 to 12/31/2014 at Sinai Hospital (Maryland, USA) were retrospectively reviewed. Unsuccessful attempts at this technique were eligible for inclusion but there were none. No patient was excluded based on comorbidity. Results A total of 96 patients ranging in age from 80 to 104 years underwent 102 non-intubated VATS procedures: pleural biopsy/effusion drainage with or without talc 73, drainage of empyema 17, evacuate hemothorax 4, pericardial window 3, lung biopsy 2, treat chylothorax 2, treat pneumothorax 1. No patient required intubation or conversion to thoracotomy. No patient required a subsequent procedure or biopsy. Complications occurred in three patients (3.1% morbidity): cerebrovascular accident, pulmonary embolism, prolonged air leak. One 94-year-old patient died from overanticoagulation and two 84-year-old patients died of their advanced lung cancers (3.1% morbidity). Conclusions Non-intubated VATS utilizing local anesthesia and sedation in the elderly is well tolerated and safe for a number of indications. PMID:26046042

  20. Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3–4) in Japanese preschool children. Methods The SDQ 3–4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week interval between June and July 2012. Cronbach’s α and correlation coefficients were used to examine internal consistency and test-retest reliability, respectively. Results Of 393 parents who returned their responses at Time 1 (response rate 52.1%), 383 were used for analysis after excluding 10 responses with missing data. Their children’s mean age was 4.7 (standard deviation 0.7) years. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) was good for the total difficulties score (0.74) and the prosocial behavior scale (0.70). However, it was slightly worse for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales (0.61–0.66) and poor for the peer problems scale (0.45). Of the 383 included respondents at Time 1, 211 parents returned their responses at Time 2 (response rate: 55.1%). Test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients) was good (0.73–0.82), except for the peer problems scale (0.58). Conclusions The results support the reliability of the SDQ 3–4 being satisfactory for the total difficulties score and prosocial behavior scale and being acceptable for the emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity scales in Japanese preschool children aged 4–6 years. PMID:25373462

  1. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infection among hospitalized children aged less than 5 years in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Al Obeidani, Idris; Al Busaidy, Suleiman Salim; Al Mahrouqi, Salim

    2012-12-31

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Omani children. We retrospectively reviewed cases admitted in children <5 years of age who were admitted in one of 4 tertiary care facilities within the Muscat Governorate. These cases represented nearly 95% of all IPD admissions recorded throughout the country from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2006. Cases of IPD were identified using the ICD-10 discharge code. Case definition required microbiological confirmation (i.e., isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or any other normally sterile biological fluid) or clinical diagnosis in the absence of a specimen. A total of 41 cases of IPD were identified. The annual incidence of IPD was 26.1 per 100,000 in children <2 years old and 18.6 per 100,000 in children <5 years old. Among the reported IPD cases, 22 (54%) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 15 (37%) of patients had a known comorbid medical condition. These results demonstrate that the incidence of IPD in Oman during 2006 was high compared to many of the neighboring countries and provides baseline data on the incidence of IPD in an era before the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). In light of evidence for a significant incidence of IPD, we recommended that a nationwide surveillance system be put in place to monitor the incidence of IPD in children <5 years of age in Oman and to document the impact of PCV. PMID:23228359

  2. Physiologic responses of men 49 to 65 years of age to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Pollock, M L; Dawson, G A; Miller, H S; Ward, A; Cooper, D; Headley, W; Linnerud, A C; Nomeir, M M

    1976-03-01

    A study was made of the effects of training for 30 minutes, three days a week for 20 weeks on certain physiologic measures of sedentary men between 49 and 65 years of age. Twenty-two subjects volunteered for the experimental group, and 8 others for the control group. Exercise sessions were conducted on a quarter-mile track and consisted of continuous bouts of walking and jogging. The average daily energy expenditures progressed from 228 to 365 kilocalories between weeks 4 and 20. For the same period, average exercise heart rates (HRs) progressed from 149 beats/minute (83 per cent maximum HR) to 155 beats/minute (91 per cent maximum HR). The experimental group showed significant increases in maximum oxygen intake (VO2 max) from 2.47 to 2.90 liters/minute (18 per cent) and in maximum pulmonary ventilation (VE max) from 105 to 121 liters/minute (BTPS), and decreases in resting HR, diastolic blood pressure, body weight, skinfold fat, and abdominal girth. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and heart volume remained unchanged. The control subjects showed no significant changes. Regression analysis, with use of age as a covariate, showed a small but significant inverse relationship with changes in VO2 max. It was concluded that men of the 49-65 age group respond favorably to endurance exercise and show a magnitude of change similar to that found in previous investigations of similar design with younger subjects. PMID:1249392

  3. [Cerebrovascular diseases in patients aged 15 to 40 years: neuropathological findings in 47 cases].

    PubMed

    Maggio, E M; Montemór-Netto, M R; Gasparetto, E L; Reis-Filho, J S; Tironi, F A; Torres, L F

    2001-12-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases in patients between 15 and 40 years old are not a frequent subject in Latin-American literature, especially when focusing on neuropathology. We analyzed 47 brains from necropsies performed from 1987 to 1997 and selected on a basis of age and the presence of vascular pathology. From the 47 analyzed brains, 26 belonged to females (55.3%). When distributed among age groups, 12.8% (n=6) affected patients from 15 to 20 yo, 51,1% (n=24) from 21 to 30 yo, 36,2% (n=17) from 31 to 40 yo. The underlying diseases were: cardiac and haemathologic (19.2%), pregnancy complications (12.76%), infections, diseases of blood vessels and neurological (10.1% each) amongst others. The neuropathological abnormalities included cerebral and/or cerebellar herniation (16%), cerebral edema (13.8%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (10%), recent cerebral infarction (9%), intraparenchymatous hemorrhage (8.14%), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (3%) and other events such as Sneddon syndrome and Lupus vasculitis. These findings express that the cerebrovascular phenomena in this age group are unique and closely related with the underlying disease. PMID:11733838

  4. Stability of P50 auditory sensory gating during sleep from infancy to 4 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sharon K.; Gillow, Sabreena J.; Ross, Randal G.

    2015-01-01

    The stability of cerebral inhibition was assessed across early childhood using a paired-click auditory sensory gating paradigm. The P50 ERP was measured during REM (or its infant analogue, active sleep) and NREM sleep in 14 children at approximately 3 months of age and again at approximately 4 years of age. Evoked response amplitudes, latencies, and the S2/S1 ratio of the amplitudes of the evoked responses were compared between the two visits. Significant reliability was found for the S2/S1 ratio (r = .73, p = .003) during REM but not non REM sleep (r = −.05, p = .88). A significant stimulus number by sleep stage interaction (F (1,12) = 17.1, p = .001) demonstrated that the response to the second stimulus decreased during REM but not NREM sleep. These findings suggest that this measure is stable during REM sleep across early childhood, is not affected by age, and is sleep-state dependent. P50 sensory gating is a biomarker which, if used properly, may provide a mechanism to further explore changes in the developing brain or may help with early screening for psychiatric illness vulnerability. PMID:25596494

  5. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Mark S.; James, Peter W.; Franco-Villoria, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Jones, Angela R.; Basterfield, Laura; Drewett, Robert F.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI) using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference). The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) (rho = 0.81). Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults. PMID:24089678

  6. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. PMID:26428662

  7. Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ≤ 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

    2014-05-16

    In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ≤29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ≤29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

  8. Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients over 80 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kihwan; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Chang Hyeun; Ban, Seung Pil; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kim, Beom Joon; Bang, Jae Seung; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Boram; Jeong, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke in patients over 80 years of age. Materials and Methods The records of 156 acute stroke patients aged over 80 years who were considered as candidates for EVT were analyzed. Fifty-six patients (35.9%, EVT group) underwent EVT and 100 patients (64.1%, non-EVT group) did not. Outcomes, in terms of functional outcomes and rates of symptomatic hemorrhage, in-hospital morbidity and mortality, were compared between groups. Each comparison was adjusted for age, time from onset, initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results More patients in the EVT group achieved good outcomes (mRS score of 0-2) at 3 months (35.7% vs. 11.0%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.779 [95% confidence interval 1.972-11.579], p = 0.001) and 12 months (35.7% vs. 14.0%, adjusted OR 3.705 [1.574-8.722], p = 0.003) after stroke. During admission, rates of hospital-acquired infection including pneumonia (12.5% vs. 29.0%, adjusted OR 0.262 [0.098-0.703], p = 0.008) and urinary tract infection (16.0% vs. 34.0%, adjusted OR 0.256 [0.099-0.657], p = 0.005) were significantly lower in the EVT group. More symptomatic hemorrhages (10.7% vs. 2.0%, adjusted OR 6.859 [1.139-41.317], p = 0.036) occurred in the EVT group, but no significant difference was observed in in-hospital mortality rate (12.5% vs. 8.0%, adjusted OR 1.380 [0.408-4.664], p = 0.604). Conclusion EVT improved functional outcome and reduced the risk of hospital-acquired infections in acute stroke patients over 80 years of age without increasing the risk of in-hospital mortality, although symptomatic hemorrhage occurred more frequently after EVT. PMID:26523252

  9. Cognitive Performance in Women Aged 50 Years and Older With and Without Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Persons with fibromyalgia (FM) report having cognitive dysfunction. Neuropsychological performance was compared across a variety of domains in 43 women with FM (M age = 63 years) and in 44 women without FM (M age = 65 years). Method. Measures included explicit memory (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease [CERAD] immediate/delayed recall, delayed recognition), aspects of executive function including interference/inhibition (Stroop Color/Word test), working memory (Digit Span Forward/Backward), set-shifting/complex sequencing (Trails B), monitoring (verbal fluency: naming animals), processing speed (Trails A, Digit Symbol Substitution Coding), and problem solving (Everyday Problems Test). Results. Women with FM performed more poorly than controls on executive function (Stroop Color/Word) and one processing speed measure (Digit Symbol Substitution Coding). Discussion. Results partly support altered cognitive function in FM. Mixed findings across cognitive domains among individuals with or without FM is consistent with the literature and suggest that factors beyond those typically controlled for (e.g., heterogeneity in FM) may be influencing findings. Future research is warranted. PMID:23275498

  10. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  11. Quantifying health aspects of passive smoking in British children aged 5-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to estimate the dose-response relations of height and respiratory symptoms to passive smoking in children aged 5-11 years. DESIGN--The study was an analysis of existing observational studies, comprising three samples: English representative; English inner city; Scottish representative. SETTING--Primary schools (children aged 5-11 years). PARTICIPANTS--The study population included 5002 English children from the representative sample (69.1% of total eligible), 2903 English inner city children (42.0%), and 3319 representative Scottish children (75.6%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--No significant relation was found between child's height and total parental smoking in the home. Relative risk for persistent wheeze on exposure to 20 cigarettes per day was 1.35, compared to no exposure. Risk of at least one respiratory condition attributable to passive smoking reached 8.1% in white English inner city children. CONCLUSIONS--The relation of child's height to passive smoking was not substantiated. The risk of respiratory conditions resulting from passive smoking, although small, is not negligible. PMID:1757759

  12. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  13. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents' observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children's language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children's outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available. PMID:20420353

  14. Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Čelakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Vaněčková, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen–associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:24891679

  15. Normative Data of Thyroid Volume-Ultrasonographic Evaluation of 422 Subjects Aged 0-55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Aydıner, Ömer; Karakoç Aydıner, Elif; Akpınar, İhsan; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish local normative data of thyroid volume assessed by ultrasonography in subjects aged 0-55 years living in İstanbul, Turkey. Methods: Subjects without any known history of thyroid disease, of major surgery and/or chronic disease were enrolled in the study and evaluated by physical examination and thyroid ultrasonography. Thyroid gland and isthmus at usual location, each lateral lobe volume with three dimensions, ectopic thyroid tissue and echogenicity of the gland were assessed. Results: Initially, 494 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects showing heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma (n=21) and/or nodule (n=51) in ultrasonography were excluded. Final analysis covered 422 subjects (216 males, 206 females). Thyroid volume was found to significantly correlate with height, weight, age and body surface area (r=0.661, r=0.712, r=0.772 and r=0.779, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). These correlations were even stronger in subjects younger than 18 years (r=0.758, r=0.800, r=0.815 and r=0.802, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). Conclusion: The study provides updated reference norms for thyroid volume in Turkish subjects which can be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with thyroid diseases. PMID:26316430

  16. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  17. Electroencephalographic (EEG) Photoparoxysmal Responses Under 5 Years of Age: Diagnostic Implications and Peculiarities.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Simona; Ragona, Francesca; Canafoglia, Laura; Freri, Elena; Saletti, Veronica; Casazza, Marina; Gilioli, Isabella; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Granata, Tiziana; Riva, Daria; Franceschetti, Silvana

    2015-11-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) photoparoxysmal response has been little investigated in very young patients. We studied 5055 patients aged less than 5 years with no acquired brain damage, who underwent EEG recording. We determined the prevalence and significance of photoparoxysmal response induced by 1 to 20 Hz photic stimulation. Fifty-three showed photoparoxysmal response and were diagnosed as having Dravet syndrome (11), epileptic encephalopathy with myoclonic seizures (8), neurodegenerative disorders (8), benign idiopathic epilepsies (9), and static disorders with a known or suspected genetic origin (17). Photoparoxysmal response occurred in response to 1 to 5 Hz trains in 41.5% subjects. In most patients with epileptic encephalopathies, photoparoxysmal response was a transient finding: in 53.2%, it failed to be replicated in the recordings performed more than 6 months after initial evaluation. Photoparoxysmal response is rare in patients aged less than 5 years and has some peculiarities such as occurrence with low-frequency stimuli. Its distribution in specific conditions indicates that photoparoxysmal response may be useful in diagnostic workup. PMID:25944474

  18. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents’ observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children’s language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children’s outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available. PMID:20420353

  19. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    PubMed

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account. PMID:22733677

  20. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Using Grafts From Donors Older Than the Age of 80Years.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, A V; Alvarez, M J; Mndez, C S M; Villegas, M T; MGraneroa, K; Becerra, A; Dominguez, M; Raya, A M; Exposito, M; Surez, Y F

    2015-11-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study between 2002 and 2014 to compare liver transplantation outcomes between recipients of grafts from donors older than and younger than the age of 80 years. Numerical variables were compared with the Student t test when their distribution was normal and the Mann-Whitney test when it was not, whereas categorical variables were compared with Pearson chi-squared test or Fisher test, as appropriate; P< .05 was considered significant. The study included 312 patients with organs from donors younger than 80 years of age and 17 with organs from older donors. The 2 recipient groups did not significantly differ in weight, height, gender, body mass index (BMI), CHILD or MELD score, intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital stay, need for intraoperative hemoderivatives, postreperfusion syndrome, biliary or vascular complications, ischemic cholangiopathy, number of repeat surgeries, graft rejection, retransplantation, or survival at 6 months. Although earlier studies considered livers from elderly donors to be suboptimal, our results support the proposition that octogenarian donors can be an excellent source of liver grafts. PMID:26680060

  1. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  2. Polyether precursors of molecular recognition systems based on the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, Anna; Cirocka, Anna; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Nakonieczna, Sandra; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel polyether derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was synthesized and characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, acid-base titration and complexometric titration. The results were compared with 1-NEt2AQ and 1-NHEtAQ - model compounds of alkylaminoanthraquinones. Acetonitrile and methanol were used as solvents for determination of spectroscopic and acid-base properties. Complexometric titrations were carried out exclusively in acetonitrile. Spectral characteristic of these compounds strongly depends on pH. Addition of acid causes the decrease of absorption intensity and in some cases also a shift of the visible range band. The weakest base is the compound (2), and the strongest - compound (1), both in methanol and acetonitrile solution. The introduction of an additional substituent in the position 8 of the anthraquinone compound increases its basicity. The presence of metal ions causes changes in intensity of absorption (decrease for compounds (2) and (3) and increase with bathochromic shift for (1) and (4)). For the determination of the coordination properties aluminum (III) ions were chosen. The highest complex stability constant with Al (III) ions is observed for compound (1), and the weakest for compound (3). The elongation of the polyether chain decreases the stability of the complex formed.

  3. Solvatochromism of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone: An electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-01-01

    Solvent effects play a vital role in various chemical, physical, and biological processes. To gain a fundamental understanding of the solute-solvent interactions and their implications on the energy level re-ordering and structure, UV-VIS absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory calculation studies on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in different solvents of diverse solvent polarity has been carried out. The solvatochromic analysis of the absorption spectra of PQ in protic dipolar solvents suggests that the longest (1n-π1*; S1 state) and the shorter (1π-π1*; S2 state) wavelength band undergoes a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively. It also indicates that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in the differential solvation of the S2 state relative to the ground state. Raman excitation profiles of PQ (400-1800 cm-1) in various solvents followed their corresponding absorption spectra therefore the enhancements on resonant excitation are from single-state rather than mixed states. The hyperchromism of the longer wavelength band is attributed to intensity borrowing from the nearby allowed electronic transition through vibronic coupling. Computational calculation with C2ν symmetry constraint on the S2 state resulted in an imaginary frequency along the low-frequency out-of-plane torsional modes involving the C=O site and therefore, we hypothesize that this mode could be involved in the vibronic coupling.

  4. Solvatochromism of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone: an electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-01-14

    Solvent effects play a vital role in various chemical, physical, and biological processes. To gain a fundamental understanding of the solute-solvent interactions and their implications on the energy level re-ordering and structure, UV-VIS absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory calculation studies on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in different solvents of diverse solvent polarity has been carried out. The solvatochromic analysis of the absorption spectra of PQ in protic dipolar solvents suggests that the longest (1n-π(1)*; S1 state) and the shorter (1π-π(1)*; S2 state) wavelength band undergoes a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively. It also indicates that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in the differential solvation of the S2 state relative to the ground state. Raman excitation profiles of PQ (400-1800 cm(-1)) in various solvents followed their corresponding absorption spectra therefore the enhancements on resonant excitation are from single-state rather than mixed states. The hyperchromism of the longer wavelength band is attributed to intensity borrowing from the nearby allowed electronic transition through vibronic coupling. Computational calculation with C2ν symmetry constraint on the S2 state resulted in an imaginary frequency along the low-frequency out-of-plane torsional modes involving the C=O site and therefore, we hypothesize that this mode could be involved in the vibronic coupling. PMID:25591351

  5. Characterization of the Role of β-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase in Macular Pigment Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Babino, Darwin; Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M Airanthi K; Kiser, Philip D; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation. PMID:26307071

  6. Photophysical properties and semiempirical calculations of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Daly, Samy A.; Awad, Mohamed K.; Abdel-Halim, Shakir T.; Dowidar, Dina A.

    2008-12-01

    The spectral behavior and fluorescence quantum yield of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME) have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are not sensitive to medium polarity. The dye exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostable. Crystalline solid of PTME gives excimer-like emission at 530 nm. The laser activity of PTME has been investigated. The dye solution in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) gives laser emission around 480 nm upon excitation by 337.1 nm nitrogen laser pulse. The excitation energy transfer from 7-dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarine (DMC) to PTME has also has been studied and the value of energy transfer rate constant, kET, and critical transfer distance, R0 indicate a Förster-type mechanism. The photodecomposition of PTME in chloromethane solvents has been also studied. We applied semiempirical MO calculations using (PM3 and ZINDO-CI) calculations to explain the geometric and electronic behaviors of the PTME molecule in both ground and excited states and make a correlation with the experimental observations.

  7. Numerical Simulation of the 9-10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, U. S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big Thompson 1976 storm event, conceptual models have been developed to explain the unusually high precipitation efficiency. In this study, the Black Hills storm is simulated using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Simulations with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initializations and different grid structures are presented. The conceptual models of storm structure proposed by previous studies are examined in light of the present simulations. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous initialization results capture the intense nature of the storm, but the inhomogeneous simulation produced a precipitation pattern closer to the observed pattern. The simulations point to stationary tilted updrafts, with precipitation falling out to the rear as the preferred storm structure. Experiments with different grid structures point to the importance of removing the lateral boundaries far from the region of activity. Overall, simulation performance in capturing the observed behavior of the storm system was enhanced by use of inhomogeneous initialization.

  8. Heat-affected zone and weld metal behavior of modern 9--10% Cr steels

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjak, H.; Letofsky, E.; Schuster, F.

    1996-12-31

    Basic investigations of the weldability of modern 9--10% Cr creep resistant steels for application in high efficiency and low emission thermal power generation plants were performed on a pipe P91 and a W-containing cast steel G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 1 1. Gleeble simulation, representing the manual metal arc welding process, were applied to produce HAZ-simulated microstructures. They were exposed to different PWHT-treatments and tested using hardness tests, metallographic investigations, constant strain rate tests, creep tests and toughness tests. Primary attention was given to the softening effect in the HAZ and its influence on the creep resistance of the welded material. The decrease shown by the W-modified version seems to be less pronounced than that observed in the P91 material. The preheating temperature during welding can be selected through determination of the M{sub s}-transformation behavior of the base materials and the welding deposit.

  9. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  10. Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.

    PubMed

    Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

    2011-10-26

    In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

  11. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. PMID:26257031

  12. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

  13. Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-02-01

    Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation. PMID:25599927

  14. The 6-min walk test: responses in healthy Canadians aged 45 to 85 years.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kylie; Wickerson, Lisa M; Woon, Lynda J; Abady, Afshin Heidar; Overend, Tom J; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2011-10-01

    We sought to describe responses to the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in healthy Canadian adults in order to facilitate interpretation of its results in patient populations. Seventy-seven healthy Canadians aged 45 to 85 years (65 ± 11 years, 40 females) completed this study. During a single visit, three 6MWTs were undertaken. The main outcome measure was 6-min walk distance (6MWD). Age, gender, height, and weight were recorded. In 61 (79%) participants, cardiorespiratory variables were collected during the third 6MWT using a calibrated portable gas analysis system. The 6MWD increased between the first and second test (615 ± 96 to 639 ± 98 m; p < 0.001) with no further improvement on the third test (638 ± 99 m; p = 0.945). The best 6MWD from the first 2 tests was 640 ± 99 m (range 416 to 880 m). A greater 6MWD was achieved by males compared with females (672 ± 94 vs. 611 ± 93 m; p = 0.005). The following equation accounted for 49% of the variance in 6MWD: 6MWD = 970.7 + (-5.5 × age) + (56.3 × gender), where females = 0, males = 1. The 6MWT elicited large cardiorespiratory responses with minimal symptoms. The rate of oxygen uptake measured at test-end was associated with the 6MWD (r = 0.802; p < 0.001). These data allow the 6MWD achieved in Canadian adults to be expressed as a percentage of the predicted value and provide researchers and clinicians with values for the expected cardiorespiratory responses in a healthy adult population for the purpose of comparison with patient populations. PMID:21967531

  15. A Randomized Trial of Atropine versus Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the visual acuity outcome at 15 years of age for children younger than 7 years when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomly assigned to patching (a minimum of 6 hours a day) or atropine eye drops (1% - one drop daily) for 6 months. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator. Two years after enrollment, an unselected subgroup of 188 children were enrolled into long-term follow-up. Main outcome measure Visual acuity at age 15 years with the electronic ETDRS© test in amblyopic and fellow eyes. Results Mean amblyopic-eye acuity, measured in 147 subjects, at age 15 years was 0.14 logMAR (approximately 20/25); 60% of amblyopic eyes were 20/25 or better and 33% 20/20 or better. Mean interocular acuity difference (IOD) at age 15 years was 0.21 logMAR (2.1 lines); 48% of subjects had an IOD of (2 or more lines and 71% had an IOD of 1 or more lines). Treatment (other than spectacles) was prescribed for 9 subjects (6%) between age 10 and 15 years. Mean IOD was similar at 10 and 15 years of age (2.0 and 2.1 logMAR lines, P=0.39). Better visual acuity at age 15 years was achieved in those who were <5 years old at the time of entry into the randomized trial (mean logMAR=0.09) compared with those who were 5 to <7 years old (mean logMAR=0.18, P<0.001). Comparing subgroups based on original treatment with atropine or patching, there were no significant differences in amblyopic- and fellow-eye visual acuities at age 15 years (P= 0.44 and 0.43, respectively). Conclusion At age 15 years most children treated for moderate amblyopia when <7 years old have good visual acuity, although mild residual amblyopia is common. The outcome is similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. The results indicate that improvement occurring with amblyopia treatment is maintained until at least age 15 years. Application to Clinical Practice Most children treated with patching and atropine eye drops for amblyopia when <7 years old have good visual acuity at age 15 years. Trial Registry Name Amblyopia Treatment Study: Occlusion versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Registration Number NCT00000170 URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000170 PMID:24789375

  16. One-Year Outcomes of Aflibercept in Recurrent or Persistent Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arcinue, Cheryl A.; Ma, Feiyan; Barteselli, Giulio; Sharpsten, Lucie; Gomez, Maria Laura; Freeman, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 6-month and 1-year outcomes of every 8 weeks (Q8W) aflibercept in patients with resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. Methods Retrospective review of patients with resistance (multiple recurrences or persistent exudation) to every 4 weeks (Q4W) ranibizumab or bevacizumab that were switched to Q8W aflibercept. Results Sixty-three eyes of 58 patients had a median of 13 (interquartile range (IQR), 7-22) previous anti Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (anti-VEGF) injections. At 6-months after changing to aflibercept, 60.3% of eyes were completely dry, which was maintained up to one-year. The median maximum retinal thickness improved from 355 microns to 269 microns at 6 months (p<0.0001) and 248 microns at one year (p<0.0001). There was no significant improvement in ETDRS visual acuity at 6 months (p=0.2559) and one-year follow-up (p=0.1081) compared with baseline. The mean difference in ETDRS visual acuity compared to baseline at 6 months was −0.05 logMAR (+2.5 letters) and 0.04 logMAR at 1 year (−2 letters). Conclusion Sixty percent of eyes with resistant AMD while on Q4W ranibizumab or bevacizumab were completely dry after changing to Q8W aflibercept at the 6-month and 1-year follow-ups, but visual acuity did not significantly improve. Only a third of eyes needed to be switched from Q8W to Q4W aflibercept due to persistence of fluid; Q8W dosing of aflibercept without the initial 3 monthly loading doses may be a good alternative in a select group of patients who may have developed ranibizumab or bevacizumab resistance. PMID:25461263

  17. Attitude toward own aging in midlife and early old age over a 12-year period: examination of measurement equivalence and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Miche, Martina; Elsässer, Valerie C; Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2014-09-01

    The Attitude Toward Own Aging Subscale (ATOA) is a frequently used measure of subjective aging. Although ATOA in midlife might assume a preparatory role for psychosocial adjustment in old age, research has been dominated by a focus on older adults. To enable a comparison of developmental trajectories of ATOA between middle-aged and young-old adults, we tested measurement invariance between age groups and over a 12-year study period. In addition, personality variables, health dimensions, and sociodemographic variables were investigated as predictors of developmental trajectories of ATOA. Data came from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE) with 2 birth cohorts (1930-1932: n = 500; 1950-1952: n = 501) followed over 12 years. Data analyses were conducted with confirmatory factor analysis for ordered-categorical variables and latent growth models. Support for the assumption of partial measurement invariance of ATOA was found in each age group, but not between age groups. Latent growth models revealed a steady decline in ATOA for young-old individuals, whereas ATOA trajectories in midlife were characterized by interindividual variation. Health variables predicted level of ATOA in the young-old. In midlife ATOA were shaped by a variety of factors. Future studies should be conducted with an awareness of differential item functioning of the ATOA scale across age groups. Furthermore, our results point to a greater modifiability of aging attitudes in middle-aged compared with young-old individuals, thus highlighting the importance of the midlife years in shaping developmental trajectories into old age. PMID:25244478

  18. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya-Beysolow, Iyabode

    2014-02-01

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2013, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2014, which include several changes from the 2013 immunization schedules. PMID:24500290

  19. Are restrained children under 15 years of age in cars as effectively protected as adults?

    PubMed Central

    Javouhey, E; Guérin, A‐C; Gadegbeku, B; Chiron, M; Floret, D

    2006-01-01

    Aim To compare the injury distribution between children and adults, injured as restrained car passengers. Methods Population based study of data from a French road trauma registry in 1996–2002. Children under 15 years old were compared with adult casualties according to the distribution of serious injuries in three distinct body regions (head, chest, and abdomen) when they were restrained car passengers. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to quantify the risk of AIS2+ injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale of 2 or more). Results Among the 7568 casualties who were injured as restrained car passengers in car accidents, 1033 were less than 15 years old. Overall, 35.4% of children and 25.2% of adults were unrestrained. For children and adults, the risk of fatality was significantly reduced when they were restrained, but the percentages of children with Injury Severity Score (ISS) ⩾16, were not significantly different between restrained and not restrained casualties. Compared to adults, restrained children aged 5–9 were 2.7 times (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.17 to 6.43) as likely to sustain an AIS2+ abdominal injury, and tended to be more at risk of AIS2+ head injuries, but were less at risk of AIS2+ chest injuries. Conclusions Children aged 5–9 years injured in road accidents as restrained car passengers were more likely to sustain an AIS2+ abdominal injury than adults. This emphasises the need to reinforce educational campaigns aimed not only at getting children into restraint systems, but also insisting on their correct use. PMID:16407436

  20. Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Chih, Tsz Ying; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. PMID:23201765

  1. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Gracely, Edward; Tran, Mary; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6%) of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7%) of the 628 control children (p = 0.1). Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4) months versus 23.6 (3.1) months (P = 0.6). Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4). The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes. PMID:22690192

  2. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and Child Behavior at Age 6–7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 6–7 years of age in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposure—both specific to PAH—in the same cohort. Methods: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 6–7 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 6–7 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. Results: In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m3) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior. PMID:22440811

  3. Prevention of overweight and obesity in children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; McCargar, Linda

    2009-08-01

    Although obesity was rarely observed among children 30 years ago, it is now evident among Canadian children of all ages. Currently, 15.2% of 2- to 5-year-old children are overweight, whereas 6.3% are obese. Limited data suggest that poor dietary and physical activity patterns are increasing obesity risk among these young children. Body weight and lifestyle behaviours are known to track from childhood to adulthood, thereby increasing the risk for obesity and other chronic diseases later in life. Intrauterine life, infancy, and the preschool years may all include critical periods that program the long-term regulation of energy balance, and therefore obesity-prevention strategies should be initiated in utero and continue throughout childhood and adolescence. Although single-strategy obesity-prevention initiatives have had limited success, programs that target multiple behaviours may help reduce body weight and body fat among young children. Parental involvement is key to the success of obesity-prevention programs at a young age, as parents have primary control over their children's food and activity environments. Accordingly, parental obesity is the best predictor of childhood obesity. Parents should be encouraged to teach and role model healthy lifestyle behaviours for their young children. Health professionals can also be involved in obesity prevention, as they are ideally placed to identify young children at risk for obesity. By calculating and plotting the body mass index for all children, and initiating obesity-prevention strategies in utero, health professionals can help curb the rise in overweight and obesity among young children. PMID:19767789

  4. A Randomized Trial of Atropine versus Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 10 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine the visual acuity outcome at 10 years of age for children less than 7 years of age when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomized to patching or atropine eye drops for 6 months. Two years after enrollment, a subgroup of 188 children entered long-term follow-up. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator; 89% of children were treated. Main outcome measure Visual acuity at age 10 years with the electronic ETDRS test. Results The mean amblyopic eye acuity, measured in 169 patients, at age 10 years was 0.17 logMAR (approximately 20/32) and 46% of amblyopic eyes were 20/25 or better. Age < 5 years at the time of entry into the randomized trial was associated with a better visual acuity outcome (P<0.001). Mean amblyopic and sound eye visual acuities at age 10 years were similar in the original treatment groups (P= 0.56 and 0.80, respectively). Conclusion At age 10 years the improvement of the amblyopic eye is maintained, although residual amblyopia is common following treatment initiated at 3 to <7 years of age. The outcome is similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. Application to Clinical Practice Patching and atropine eye drops produce comparable improvement in visual acuity that is maintained through age 10 years. Trial Registry Name Amblyopia Treatment Study: Occlusion Versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Registration Number NCT00000170 URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000170 PMID:18695096

  5. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-01-01

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures. PMID:26845417

  6. Factors Related to Completed Status and Seropositivity of Hepatitis A Immunization Among Children Aged 1–3 Years and 6–8 Years in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jee-Young; Ki, Mo Ran; Hwang, Hye-Jung; Sinny, Delacroix; Park, Young-Joon; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Moo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify factors associated with hepatitis A immunization status and seropositivity in Korean children. In-person interviews, reviewing their vaccination cards and testing hepatitis A antibody were conducted with 389 children aged 1–3 years and 544 children aged 6–8 years. In all age groups, earlier birth order was the only significant factor in children receiving either single or both doses of the vaccination. And completion of the second dose of vaccination was a prerequisite for increased seropositivity. Additionally, household income had a positive impact on seropositivity only in children aged 6–8 years. Our findings suggest that presence of an economic barrier is the underlying cause of the decreased hepatitis A vaccination services in Korea. Therefore, hepatitis A vaccine should be included in the essential National Immunization Program. PMID:24159538

  7. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional body mass leads to higher overall load, with disproportional impact on the midfoot area and longitudinal foot arch showing characteristic foot loading patterns. Already the feet of one and two year old children are significantly affected. Childhood overweight and obesity is not compensated by the musculoskeletal system. To avoid excessive foot loading with potential risk of discomfort or pain in childhood, prevention strategies should be developed and validated for children with a high body mass index and functional changes in the midfoot area. The presented plantar pressure values could additionally serve as reference data to identify suspicious foot loading patterns in children. PMID:26914211

  8. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  9. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA's showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  10. Correlation between tea consumption and prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Yang, J; Zhu, X S; Li, S C; Ho, P C

    2016-01-01

    By a cross-sectional epidemiology study, we attempted to correlate the consumption of tea and/or health supplements, living habits and socio-demographic factors to the prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents. Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face by clinical research assistants. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure at least 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at least 90  mmHg or self-reported history/treatment for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among the whole investigated population (N=1184, 58.27% females) was 49.73% and the prevalence increased to 66.47% in the sub-population aged ⩾60 years. High risk of hypertension was associated with age ⩾60 years (odds ratio (OR): 4.15-4.19, P<0.01), obesity (body mass index >25 kg m(-2), OR: 2.10-2.11, P<0.01), family history of hypertension (OR: 2.69-2.76, P<0.01), diabetes history (OR: 2.29-2.33, P<0.01), hyperlipidemia history (OR: 1.79-1.80, P<0.01), male (OR: 1.56-1.59, P<0.01) and coffee intake (OR: 1.44-1.46, P<0.05). In contrast, drinking green tea at least 150 ml per week was associated with lower hypertension risk (OR: 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.91, P<0.05). Drinking combination of green tea and British tea was associated with higher reduction in the risk of hypertension (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39-0.85, P<0.05). This cross-sectional study suggests that consumption of tea, especially green tea and British tea, was associated with lowering the risk of hypertension. On the other hand, consumption of coffee could be a risk factor of hypertension. These findings may provide useful information for health promotion to reduce risk of hypertension and warrant further study to confirm and elucidate such association. PMID:26016594

  11. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  12. Solvatochromism of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone: An electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-01-14

    Solvent effects play a vital role in various chemical, physical, and biological processes. To gain a fundamental understanding of the solute-solvent interactions and their implications on the energy level re-ordering and structure, UV-VIS absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory calculation studies on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in different solvents of diverse solvent polarity has been carried out. The solvatochromic analysis of the absorption spectra of PQ in protic dipolar solvents suggests that the longest (1n-π{sup 1}*; S{sub 1} state) and the shorter (1π-π{sup 1}*; S{sub 2} state) wavelength band undergoes a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively. It also indicates that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in the differential solvation of the S{sub 2} state relative to the ground state. Raman excitation profiles of PQ (400–1800 cm{sup −1}) in various solvents followed their corresponding absorption spectra therefore the enhancements on resonant excitation are from single-state rather than mixed states. The hyperchromism of the longer wavelength band is attributed to intensity borrowing from the nearby allowed electronic transition through vibronic coupling. Computational calculation with C{sub 2ν} symmetry constraint on the S{sub 2} state resulted in an imaginary frequency along the low-frequency out-of-plane torsional modes involving the C=O site and therefore, we hypothesize that this mode could be involved in the vibronic coupling.

  13. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50 years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49 years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56 years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=−0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30 years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30 years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  14. Influence of height on attained level of education in males at 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Szklarska, Alicja; Kozieł, Sławomir; Bielicki, Tadeusz; Malina, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that taller individuals are more likely to move up the scale of educational attainment compared with shorter individuals from the same social background. Three national cohorts of 19-year-old males were considered: 29,464 born in 1967 and surveyed in 1986, 31,062 born in 1976 and surveyed in 1995, and 30,851 born in 1982 and surveyed in 2001. Four social variables were used to describe the social background of each conscript in the three surveys: degree of urbanization, family size, and parental and maternal educational status. The educational status of each conscript was classified into two groups: (1) those who were secondary school students or graduates, or who had entered college, and (2) those who had completed their education at the primary school level or who had gone to a basic trade school. Multiple binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the relative risk of achieving higher educational status by 19-year-old males relative to height and the four social factors. Consistently across the three cohorts the odd ratios (ORs) indicate that height exerts an independent and significant effect on the attained level of education at the age of 19 years in males (1986: OR=1.24, p<0.001; 1995: OR=1.24, p <0.001; 2001: OR=1.20, p<0.001). Two possible, not mutually exclusive, selective mechanisms are postulated and discussed: 'passive' and 'active' action. PMID:17018173

  15. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  16. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred

  17. Bright Galaxies at Hubble’s Redshift Detection Frontier: Preliminary Results and Design from the Redshift z ~ 9-10 BoRG Pure-Parallel HST Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvi, V.; Trenti, M.; Stiavelli, M.; Oesch, P.; Bradley, L. D.; Schmidt, K. B.; Coe, D.; Brammer, G.; Bernard, S.; Bouwens, R. J.; Carrasco, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; MacKenty, J. W.; Mason, C. A.; Shull, J. M.; Treu, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first results and design from the redshift z ˜ 9-10 Brightest of the Reionizing Galaxies Hubble Space Telescope survey BoRG[z9-10], aimed at searching for intrinsically luminous unlensed galaxies during the first 700 Myr after the Big Bang. BoRG[z9-10] is the continuation of a multi-year pure-parallel near-IR and optical imaging campaign with the Wide Field Camera 3. The ongoing survey uses five filters, optimized for detecting the most distant objects and offering continuous wavelength coverage from λ = 0.35 μm to λ = 1.7 μm. We analyze the initial ˜130 arcmin2 of area over 28 independent lines of sight (˜25% of the total planned) to search for z\\gt 7 galaxies using a combination of Lyman-break and photometric redshift selections. From an effective comoving volume of (5-25) × 105 Mpc3 for magnitudes brighter than {m}{AB}=26.5{{{--}}}24.0 in the {H}{{160}}-band respectively, we find five galaxy candidates at z\\quad ˜ 8.3-10 detected at high confidence ({{S}}/{{N}}\\gt 8), including a source at z\\quad ˜ 8.4 with {m}{AB}=24.5 ({{S}}/{{N}} ˜ 22), which, if confirmed, would be the brightest galaxy identified at such early times (z\\gt 8). In addition, BoRG[z9-10] data yield four galaxies with 7.3≲ z≲ 8. These new Lyman-break galaxies with m≲ 26.5 are ideal targets for follow-up observations from ground and space-based observatories to help investigate the complex interplay between dark matter growth, galaxy assembly, and reionization.

  18. Recovery of birth weight z-score within two years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at age six years in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, HuiChuan J.; Shoff, Suzanne M.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently reported that 60% of newly diagnosed CF children who had pancreatic insufficiency (PI) responded to treatment initiation and achieved catch-up weight gain to a level comparable to their birth weight Z-score within 2 years of diagnosis (“responders”), while the remaining 40% failed to do so (“non-responders”). The present study examined the impact of this early weight recovery on subsequent growth pattern and pulmonary status at age 6 years. Patients and Methods Sixty-three children with CF who had PI but no meconium ileus, and were enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, were studied. “Responders” were defined by a recovery of weight Z-score comparable to that at birth within 2 years of diagnosis. During ages 2–6, growth was evaluated with the combination of height and body mass index. Pulmonary status was evaluated by symptoms, spirometry, quantitative chest radiography and respiratory microbiology. Results The majority (71%) of the responders maintained their early weight recovery through age 6 years while only 32% of the non-responders achieved substantial growth improvement during age 2 to 6 years. Proportionately fewer responders reported cough symptoms (10% daytime cough, p =0.02; 22% nighttime cough, p=0.05) compared to non-responders (41% daytime cough, 45% nighttime cough) at age 6. Percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) at age 6 was 11% higher in responders (99.5 ± 13.9%) compared to non-responders (88.3 ± 18.5%), p = 0.015. Responders had significantly better Brasfield (20.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and Wisconsin chest radiographic scores (8.3 ± 3.3, p = 0.04) compared to non-responders (Brasfield 18.9 ± 1.8, Wisconsin 12.3 ± 8.3). Respiratory microbiology was not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the positive association between responder and %FEV1 at age 6 years remained statistically significant after controlling for infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphlococcus aureus and chest radiographic scores. Growth patterns during 2–6 years of age were not associated with pulmonary measures at age 6. Conclusion CF patients with PI who achieved early growth recovery within 2 years of diagnosis had fewer cough symptoms, higher lung function and better chest radiography scores at 6 years of age. PMID:19171643

  19. Poisonings with Suicidal Intent Aged 0–21 Years Reported to Poison Centers 2003–12

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Sophia; Hendry, Phyllis; Lynch, Sean; Kalynych, Colleen J.; Aldridge, Petra; Kraemer, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies explore the clinical features of youth suicide by poisoning. The use of both social and clinical features of self-poisoning with suicidal intent could be helpful in enhancing existing and creating new prevention strategies. We sought to characterize self-poisonings with suicide intent in ages 0 to 21 years reported to three regional poison control centers from 2003–2012. Methods This study was a blinded retrospective review of intentional self-poisonings by those age 21 or younger captured by the Poison Information Control Network. Age, sex, substance(s) used, medical outcome, management site, clinical effects, and therapies were described using counts and percentages and analyzed using chi-square tests. We analyzed the medical outcome ranging from no effect to death using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Serious medical outcome was defined as death or major outcome. Results We analyzed a total of 29,737 cases. The majority were females (20,945;70.5%), of whom 274 (1.3%) were pregnant. Most cases were 15–18 year olds (15,520;52.2%). Many experienced no effects (9,068;30.5%) or minor medical outcomes (8,612;29%). Males had more serious medical outcomes (p<0.0001), but females were more likely to be admitted to a critical care unit (p<0.0001). There were 17 deaths (0.06%), most in males (10;p=0.008). Of the 52 substances reported in the death cases, 12 (23.1%) were analgesics. In eight (47.1%) of the deaths, over two substances were used. Overall, drowsiness/lethargy (7,097;19.3%) and single-dose charcoal (8,815;16.3%) were frequently reported. Nearly 20% were admitted to critical care units (5,727;19.3%) and 28.7% went to psychiatric facilities (8,523). Of those admitted to hospitals (8,203), nearly 70% (5,727) required critical care units. Almost half <10 years old were evaluated and released (43;47.2%). Of the 114 reported substances for this population, 22.8% involved psychotropic medications, 15.8% analgesics, and 14% Attention Deficit-Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) medications. Analgesics (13,539;33.6%) were the most common medication category used by all age groups. Typically only one substance (20,549;69.1%) was used. Conclusion Undiagnosed ADHD may be a potential underlying cause for self-harming behaviors in the very young. Gender-specific suicide prevention strategies may be more effective at identifying those at risk than traditional measures alone. Further study into admitting practices by emergency physicians is needed to understand the difference in critical care admission rates based on gender. Once identified to be at-risk for suicidal behavior, access to analgesics and psychotropics should be monitored by care-givers especially in those between the ages of 15–18. PMID:26265960

  20. Longitudinal Volumetric Brain Changes in Autism Spectrum Disorder Ages 6–35 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an eight-year period. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample were most often due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole-brain volume showed increased volumes in young children with autism and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an eight-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. PMID:25381736

  1. Searching for the birthplaces of open clusters with ages of several billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharova, I. A.; Shevtsova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of finding the birthplaces of open clusters (OC) with ages of several billion years. The proposed method is based on the comparison of the results of the chemical evolution modeling of the Galactic disk with the parameters of the cluster. Five OCs older than 7 Gyr are known: NGC6791, BH176, Collinder 261, Berkeley 17, and Berkeley 39. The oxygen and iron abundances in NGC6791 and the oxygen abundance in BH176 are twice the solar level, the heavy-element abundances in other clusters are close to the corresponding solar values. According to chemical evolution models, at the time of the formation of the objects considered the regions where the oxygen and iron abundances reached the corresponding levels extended out to 5 kpc from the Galactic center.At present time theOCs considered are located several kpc from the Galactic center. Some of these clusters are located extremely high, about 1 kpc above the disk midplane, i.e., they have been subject to some mechanism that has carried them into orbits uncharacteristic of this type of objects. It follows from a comparison with the results of chemical evolution that younger clusters with ages of 4-5 Gyr, e.g., NGC1193,M67, and others, may have formed in a broad range of Galactocentric distances. Their large heights above the disk midplane is sufficient to suggest that these clusters have moved away from their likely birthplaces. Clusters are carried far away from the Galactic disk until the present time: about 40 clusters with ages from 0 to 2 Gyr are observed at heights ranging from 300 to 750 pc.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of sexual partner concurrency among Australian gay men aged 18-39years.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical models predict higher rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in populations with higher rates of concurrent sexual partnerships. Although gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high rates of HIV/STIs, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sexual concurrency in these populations. This paper reports findings from a national community-based survey of 1,034 Australian gay-identified men aged 18-39years, who gave detailed information about their sexual partners over the past 12months. In all, 237 (23%) reported two or more concurrent sexual partners. For their most recent period of concurrency, 44% reported three or more partners and 66% reported unprotected sex with one or more of their partners. A multivariate logistic regression found sexual concurrency was significantly more likely among men on higher incomes (P=0.02), who first had anal sex at a relatively young age (P=0.03), and who reported a large number of partners in the past 12months (P<0.001). Age, education, HIV status, and other sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables were not significant correlates. However, men who reported sexual concurrency were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an STI in the past 12months (P=0.04). Findings from this study suggest sexual concurrency is common among younger Australian gay men. With many of these men not always using condoms, health agencies should consider the potential impact of concurrency on HIV/STI epidemics among gay men and other MSM. PMID:24057932

  3. Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

  4. Cortical Structural Abnormalities in Very Preterm Children at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuning; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J; Dierker, Donna L; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Anderson, Peter J; Van Essen, David C

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed long-lasting alterations in brain morphometry associated with preterm birth using volumetric and surface-based analyses applied to children at age 7 years. Comparison of 24 children born very preterm (VPT) to 24 healthy term-born children revealed reductions in total cortical grey matter volume, white matter volume, cortical surface area and gyrification index. Regional cortical shape abnormalities in VPT children included the following: shallower anterior superior temporal sulci, smaller relative surface area in the inferior sensori-motor cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex, larger relative surface area and a cingulate sulcus that was shorter or more interrupted in medial frontoparietal cortex. These findings indicate a complex pattern of regional vulnerabilities in brain development that may contribute to the diverse and long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences that can occur after very premature birth. PMID:25614973

  5. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  6. Contact with general practitioners and differences in health status among people aged over 85 years.

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, A P

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the health and social service needs of all people aged 85 years and over was commissioned in 1986 by members of City and Hackney health authority and Hackney social services department. In 1987, 662 people who lived at home were traced from family practitioner committee records and interviewed. Eighty six per cent of respondents had consulted their general practitioner in the 12 months before the interview. Analyses showed that those who had not consulted within the 12 month period reported fewer physical and psychological symptoms, consumed less prescribed medication and reported better emotional well-being than those who had consulted more recently. However, the survey detected a considerable amount of unreported morbidity among both recent consulters and non-recent consulters. This finding questions the suggestion that the problem of under-consultation among elderly people is exaggerated but recommends that in studies of case finding attention should be focused on unreported morbidity rather than infrequent consultation. PMID:2552091

  7. Household-shoe wearing and purchasing habits. A survey of people aged 65 years and older.

    PubMed

    Munro, B J; Steele, J R

    1999-10-01

    A mail survey was conducted to assess the types of household footwear currently being worn by a random sample of independently living men and women aged 65 years and older as well as their needs related to the purchase and wearing of household footwear. Questionnaires were completed by 128 people. The greatest number of respondents wore slippers all day around the home, purchasing these shoes because of their convenience and comfort. Respondents were not willing to purchase expensive shoes for household wear and infrequently replaced them, despite the fact that such footwear was worn for extended periods each day. It was concluded that further research is required to design a household shoe that fits well and accommodates a variety of foot pathologies typical of the elderly foot; the shoe should be comfortable, relatively inexpensive, and safe for typical household surfaces. PMID:10546422

  8. Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Seychelles population aged 50 to 65 years.

    PubMed

    Yerly, Patrick; Madeleine, George; Riesen, Walter; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its risk factors are well known in Western countries but few data are available from low- and middle- income countries. We are not aware of systematically collected population- based data on AAA in the African region. We evaluated the prevalence of AAA in a population- based cardiovascular survey conducted in the Republic of Seychelles in 2004 (Indian Ocean, African region). Among the 353 participants aged 50 to 64 years and screened with ultrasound, the prevalence of AAA was 0.3% (95% CI: 0- 0.9) and the prevalence of ectatic dilatations of the abdominal aorta was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2- 2.8). The prevalence of AAA in the general population seemed lower in Seychelles than in Western countries, despite a high prevalence in Seychelles of risk factors of AAA, such as smoking (in men), high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23612948

  9. Transient reference values for impulse oscillometry for children aged 3-18 years.

    PubMed

    Nowowiejska, Bozena; Tomalak, Waldemar; Radliński, Jakub; Siergiejko, Grzegorz; Latawiec, Wojciech; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2008-12-01

    Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a technique of assessing mechanical properties of respiratory system by means of measuring resistances and reactances in a number of frequencies during tidal breathing. It is especially useful in preschool children, however has also been validated in older children and adults. The aim of the present study was to construct equations describing normal values of oscillatory parameters in pediatric population of healthy polish children. Six hundred twenty-six healthy children aged 3.1-18.9 years (278 boys and 348 girls) completed the study. Analysis revealed that body height was the best predictor and resistances are best described with exponential model while reactances with linear one, with correlation coefficient r reaching the value of 0.9. Oscillometric resistances decrease with height, while reactances increase. Reference values for children and adolescents will allow not only the interpretation of the measurement, but also will make possible to study changes of oscillometric indices during growth. PMID:18988256

  10. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood. PMID:16751967

  11. Evaluation of Serum Lipid Profiles in Turkish Children Aged Two to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, D; Bukulmez, A; Dogan, N; Oztekin, O; Koken, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dyslipidaemia in children according to age, gender, percentiles, mother's education level, breastfeeding duration and areas of residence. Methods: A total of 285 children (137 girls; 148 boys), aged between two and 18 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional, epidemiologic study. Lipid profiles were assessed and its relation with socio-demographic features was evaluated. Results: Dyslipidaemia prevalence was 37.4% (n = 107). High very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are related with percentiles of the children (p = 0.006, p = 0.03, respectively). Gender was a significant factor for VLDL-C, which was higher in girls than boys (p = 0.04). Total cholesterol levels were high in 14 children (4.9%); 72 of the study group (25.3%) had high triglyceride levels; HDL-C levels were low in 52 children (18.2%). Conclusion: All the parameters of dyslipidaemia are not so high in our region. However, as early detection of dyslipidaemia should begin in childhood, we should perform periodic checks to prevent cardiovascular risks. PMID:25803372

  12. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5 years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n = 56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0 cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV. PMID:26141024

  13. Fecal overflow often affects children with chronic constipation that appears after the age of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kammacher Guerreiro, Mélissa; Bettinville, Aurore; Herzog, Denise

    2014-08-01

    Chronic functional constipation with or without encopresis is a common problem in the pediatric population, and the prevalence of encopresis may be underestimated. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for overflow incontinence in patients with chronic constipation seen at a pediatric gastroenterology consultation. A retrospective study of 270 files of patients seen between 1997 and 2012 was conducted, and a classification according to Rome III criteria was done. Among 145 (53.7%) boys and 125 (46.2%) girls, 117 had overflow incontinence (43.3%) - 41 (35%) girls and 76 (65%) boys. The first symptoms of chronic constipation appeared at a median age of 30 and 33 months in encopretic and 16 and 12 months in nonencopretic girls and boys, respectively. The first specialized consultation took place after a median disease duration of 26.5 and 24 months in encopretic and 16 and 9 months in nonencopretic girls and boys, respectively. A history of stool retention and the presence of scybala at examination, but not of pain at defecation or anal fissure, were associated with encopresis. The onset of chronic constipation after the age of 2 years, a longer disease duration, male gender, and a history of stool retention were seen as risk factors for the development of encopresis in patients with chronic functional constipation. PMID:24860106

  14. Neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcome of children aged 3-10 years born following assisted oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; D'Haeseleer, Evelien; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; Dewitte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, An; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Lierde, Kristiane; De Sutter, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Assisted oocyte activation (AOA) using a calcium ionophore has been used for more than a decade following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) fertilization failure. However, since AOA does not mimic precisely the physiological fertilization process, concerns exist about its use in human assisted reproduction. This study assessed the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcome of children aged ≥ 3 years who had been born following AOA in our centre. Twenty-one children participated in the study (81% response rate; mean age 63.6 ± 21.07 months). Neonatal data were collected via questionnaires. Neurodevelopmental outcome was tested using the Reynell Developmental Language Scales or Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children III. Behaviour was scored by the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Teachers Report Form. For all tests and questionnaires, the mean outcomes lay within the expected ranges. These are first data on the developmental outcome of AOA children. The high response rate and the robustness of the tests support the data, which are reassuring although still considered preliminary. Therefore, AOA should still be performed only in selected couples. PMID:24125944

  15. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, O. P.; Mayamol, P.; Suma, R. K.; Usha, K.; Sheeba, G.; Jayasree, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38–13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25–10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population. PMID:26276364

  16. Asymptomatic Shigella infections in a cohort of Mexican children younger than two years of age.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, L; Calva, J J; Morrow, A L; Velazquez, F R; Tuz-Dzib, F; Lopez-Vidal, Y; Ortega, H; Arroyo, H; Cleary, T G; Pickering, L K

    1994-07-01

    The proportion of Shigella infections that occur asymptomatically in young children has not been established. A community-based cohort study of 367 infants was followed prospectively by weekly home visits from January, 1990, through December, 1991. Stool samples were collected weekly and when diarrhea occurred and were tested for Shigella and other enteropathogens. There were 2925 child months of observation and 65 episodes of Shigella infection. There were 3.1 episodes/100 child months during the warm season (May through September) and 0.97 episode/100 child months during the cold season. Shigella infections were rare during the first 6 months of life but increased with age (P < 0.0001). Overall 55% of detected infections were asymptomatic. The proportion of infections that were asymptomatic increased as age increased (P < 0.01). Symptom status was not significantly associated with Shigella species or season. All isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic children had the 120- to 140-megadalton virulence plasmid. We conclude that infections with virulent strains of Shigella are commonly asymptomatic in Mexican children during the first 2 years of life. PMID:7970946

  17. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population. PMID:26276364

  18. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  19. Parametric body shape model of standing children aged 3-11 years.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Keon; Reed, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    A statistical body shape model (SBSM) for children was developed for generating a child body shape with desired anthropometric parameters. A standardised template mesh was fit to whole-body laser scan data from 137 children aged 3-11 years. The mesh coordinates along with a set of surface landmarks and 27 manually measured anthropometric variables were analysed using principal component (PC) analysis. PC scores were associated with anthropometric predictors such as stature, body mass index (BMI) and ratio of erect sitting height to stature (SHS) using a regression model. When the original scan data were compared with the predictions of the SBSM using each subject's stature, BMI and SHS, the mean absolute error was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm, and 95th percentile error was 24.0 ± 18.5 mm. The model, publicly available online, will have utility for a wide range of applications. Practitioner Summary: A statistical body shape model for children helps to account for inter-individual variability in body shapes as well as anthropometric dimensions. This parametric modelling approach is useful for reliable prediction of the body shape of a specific child with a few given predictors such as stature, body mass index and age. PMID:25933223

  20. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  1. Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50–70 years

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, S U; Torres, S J; Nowson, C A; Tilbrook, A J; Turner, A I

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25 kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35 kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500 h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired. PMID:24867909

  2. Viral etiologies of lower respiratory tract infections among Egyptian children under five years of age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are responsible for a considerable number of deaths among children, particularly in developing countries. In Egypt and the Middle East region, there is a lack of data regarding the viral causes of LRTI. In this study, we aimed to identify the relative prevalence of various respiratory viruses that contribute to LRTIs in young children. Although, nucleic acid-based methods have gained importance as a sensitive tool to determine the viral infections, their use is limited because of their prohibitive cost in low-income countries. Therefore, we applied three different laboratory methods, and presented the different virus prevalence patterns detected by each method. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal aspirate samples, demographic data and, clinical data from 450 children under five years of age who presented with LRTI at Abou El Reesh hospital in Cairo during a one-year period. To identify the viral causes of the LRTI we used direct fluorescence assay, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-RT-PCR), and shell vial culture. We tested for eight major respiratory viruses. Results Two hundred sixty-nine patients (59.9%) had a viral infection, among which 10.8% had a co-infection with two or more viruses. By all three methods, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most predominant, and parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2), influenza B virus (FLUBV) were the least predominant. Other viral prevalence patterns differed according to the detection method used. The distribution of various viruses among different age groups and seasonal distribution of the viruses were also determined. Conclusions RSV and human adenovirus were the most common respiratory viruses detected by rt-RT-PCR. Co-infections were found to be frequent among children and the vast majority of co-infections were detected by nucleic acid-based detection assays. PMID:23237512

  3. Longitudinal volumetric brain changes in autism spectrum disorder ages 6-35 years.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Prigge, Molly B D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cariello, Annahir N; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an 8-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans, and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. PMID:25381736

  4. Influence of smoking habits on change in carbon monoxide transfer factor over 10 years in middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A; Joyce, H; Hopper, L; Pride, N B

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema is associated with a reduction in carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (TLCO/VA), but little is known about the evolution of changes in TLCO/VA in middle aged smokers at risk of developing chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: TLCO/VA (single breath method) was measured on two occasions 10 years apart in 122 middle aged men. RESULTS: Initially TLCO/VA averaged 97% predicted in never smokers (n = 42, mean age 37.2 years), 99% predicted in ex-smokers (n = 21, mean age 41.9 years), and 85% predicted in those who smoked over 15 cigarettes a day (n = 42, mean age 42.0 years). Mean rates of decrease in TLCO/VA over 10 years, however, were similar in the three groups, so that differences between smokers and non-smokers did not increase during the 10 years. Seventeen men (mean age 40.9 years) who initially were smokers became sustained ex-smokers within two years of the first measurement; in these men mean absolute values of TLCO/VA rose, averaging 89% predicted at the first assessment but 102% predicted 10 years later. CONCLUSION: By the age of about 40 years TLCO/VA was lower in smokers than in never smokers but this difference did not increase over the following 10 years. Sustained ex-smokers had values similar to those of never smokers even when TLCO/VA was known to have been reduced while they were smoking. Changes in TLCO/VA associated with stopping smoking were considerably larger than could be explained by carbon monoxide back pressure, indicating that mechanisms other than irreversible increase in the size of terminal air spaces underlie the lower values in smokers. To detect emphysema in smokers it is necessary to use reference equations that take account of current smoking. PMID:8493623

  5. Long-Term Effect of Different Physical Activity Levels on Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Men: A 25-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozińska, Joanna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of lifetime physical activity (PA) on selected indices of atherosclerosis in longitudinal observation of middle-aged men. Methods The subject of the study was a cohort of 101 men (mean age 59,7±9,0 years), free of cardiovascular symptoms and treatment, participating in follow-up examinations in the years 1985/90-2011/12. Self-report PA was assessed by interviewer-administered Seven-Day PA Recall and Historical PA questionnaire. Subclinical atherosclerosis was measured by assessing the coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to Agatston's method using multi-slice computed tomography; the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound; and the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT2000). The participants were initially divided into three groups according to tertiles of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) in kcal/week at baseline, i.e. <2050 (low-to-moderate; n = 33), 2050–3840 (high; n = 34), >3840 (very high; n = 34). Results The low-to-moderate, high and very high PA groups were comparable in terms of age and atherosclerosis risk factors at baseline. No linear relationship was found between PA and CAC, IMT and RHI. Men who maintained low-to-moderate (n = 26), high (n = 21) and very high (n = 15) PA level had the mean CAC of 286.1±361.9, 10.7±28.9, and 106.1±278.3 (p<0.001 for low-to moderate vs high; p<0.05 for low-to-moderate vs very high); the mean IMT of 0.751±0.19 mm, 0,641±0.26 mm, and 0.750±0.60 mm (p>0.05); and the mean RHI of 1.69±0.4, 2.00±0.4, and 2.13±0.5 (p for trend = 0.050), respectively. No cases of CAC>400, IMT ≥0.9 and RHI<1.67 were noted only among men with maintained high PA level. At final examination men with high and very high PA had more favorable cardiometabolic profile than men with lower PA. Conclusions Maintaining regular high PA level through young and middle adulthood may protect against atherosclerosis as measured by CAC, IMT and RHI. PMID:24465505

  6. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor. 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26308158

  7. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  8. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    PubMed

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:386-393. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26584469

  9. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented. PMID:16255113

  10. Accuracy of two dental and one skeletal age estimation methods in 6-16 year old Gujarati children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purv S.; Chaudhary, Anjani Ramachandra; Dudhia, Bhavin B.; Bhatia, Parul V.; Soni, Naresh C.; Jani, Yesha V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is of immense importance not only for personal identification but also for treatment planning in medicine and dentistry. Chronologic age conveys only a rough approximation of the maturational status of a person, hence dental and skeletal ages have been explored as maturity indicators since decades. The tooth maturation provides a valuable indicator of dental age and serves as a better index of the maturation of a child as compared to other maturity indicators. Aims and Objectives: To test the applicability of Demirjian's and Willem's dental age assessment methods as well as Greulich and Pyle skeletal age assessment method in children residing in Gandhinagar district. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of randomly selected 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females) ranging from 6 to 16 years age and residing in Gandhinagar district. Dental age estimation was performed from radiovisuograph (RVG) images of mandibular teeth of left quadrant by both Demirjian's and Willem's methods. Skeletal age estimation was done from right hand wrist radiograph by Greulich and Pyle method. The differences between the chronological age and the estimated dental and skeletal ages were statistically tested using paired ‘t’ test. The correlation between chronological age, dental and skeletal age estimation methods was confirmed statistically by Pearson's correlation. The reproducibility of the estimations was statistically tested using the Pearson's Chi-square test. Results: Amongst the age estimation methods used in this study, the Willem's dental age estimation method proved to be the most accurate and consistent. Conclusion: Although various age estimation methods do exist, the results are varied in different populations due to ethnic differences. However, till new tables are formulated, the Willem's method (Modified Demirjian method) can be accurately applied to estimate chronological age for the population residing in Gandhinagar district. PMID:25709315

  11. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents. PMID:26852155

  12. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  13. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  14. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 4045 years

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 4045 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

  15. Search for Varicella Zoster Virus DNA in Saliva of Healthy Individuals Aged 20 to 59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Birlea, Marius; Cohrs, Randall J.; Bos, Nathan; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    All neurological and ocular complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation can occur without rash. Virological verification requires detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue in patients with neurological disease without rash and found to correlate with tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. Saliva is a potential source of VZV DNA. To study the potential diagnostic value of detecting VZV DNA in saliva from patients with neurological disease, saliva of healthy adults searched for VZV DNA. A single saliva sample obtained by passive drool was centrifuged at 16,000 × g for 20 mins. DNA was extracted from the supernatant and cell pellet and examined in triplicate for VZV DNA by real time PCR. A single random saliva sample from 80 healthy men and women aged 20–59 years revealed no VZV DNA (Table 1), but was uniformly positive for cell (GAPdH) DNA. Because VZV DNA was not found in a random saliva sample from 80 individuals 20–59 years-old, a VZV-positive sample during neurologic disease may have potential significance. Further studies will determine whether VZV DNA in saliva correlates with VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF in patients with neurological disease. PMID:24338812

  16. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5years of age.

    PubMed

    Almazrou, Yagob; Shibl, Atef M; Alkhlaif, Riyadh; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Anis, Sameh; Kandeil, Walid; Hausdorff, William P

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (<5years). Among the 46 S. pneumoniae isolates serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the most common serotypes were 5 and 23F (20% each), 6B (17%), and 1 and 14 (11% each). Sixty-three percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant. Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population. PMID:26368823

  17. [Exercised-induced asthma in soccer players ages from 8 to 13 years].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, M; Tsimaras, V; Fotiadou, E; Aggelopoulou-Sakadami, N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the detection of exercise induced asthma in soccer players aged 8-13 years. Thirty boys, 8-13 years old participated in the study. They were coming from an athletic team of north of Thessaloniki. The study included clinical examination, administration of a respiratory health questionnaire and the exercise -- free running -- test with spirometric measurements. Spirometric measurements were performed by using a microspirometer, before exercise and 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after a 6 min free running exercise (80 - 90 % max heart rate). The highest forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)) value before exercise was compared with the lowest of post exercise values. The results showed a decline in FEV (1) > 15 % in 12 out of 30 children. Particularly, decline in FEV (1) was present in 1 (11 %) out of 9 children with free personal medical history but positive family history for asthma, in 3 (25 %) out of 12 children with allergies, and in 8 (89 %) out of 9 children with asthma. Symptoms were reported by 9 of 12 children with fall in FEV (1) > 15 %, during the 6 min exercise test, who had no symptoms during the soccer games. Identification of EIA by exercise challenge test in young athletes is a useful component for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Similar studies should be performed on older and younger athletes who participate in different sports and games. PMID:15944897

  18. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...