Sample records for age 9-10 years

  1. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. PMID:26093070

  2. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 ...RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13...

  3. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 ...RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13...

  4. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 ...RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13...

  5. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 ...RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13...

  6. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan...

  7. The effect of a novel video game on stroke knowledge of 9–10 year old low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Hecht, Mindy F.; DeSorbo, Alexandra L.; Huq, Saima; Noble, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Improving actionable stroke knowledge of a witness or bystander, which in some cases are children, may improve response to an acute stroke event. Methods We used a quasi-experimental pretest (PT) post-test design to evaluate actionable stroke knowledge of 210 children aged 9–10 years in response to a single 15-minute exposure to a stroke education video game conducted in the school computer lab. Following immediate post-testing (IP) we provided remote password-protected online video game access, and encouraged children play at their leisure from home. An unannounced delayed post-test (DP) occurred seven weeks later. Results Two hundred ten children completed PT, 205 completed IP, while 198 completed DP. 156 (74%) children had home Internet access, and 41 (26%), mostly girls, played the video game remotely. There was significant improvement of stroke symptom composite scores, calling 911 and all individual stroke knowledge items, including a distractor across the testing sequence (p<0.05). Children who played the video game remotely demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of one symptom (sudden imbalance) compared to children who did not (p<0.05), although overall composite scores showed no difference. Conclusions Stroke education video games may represent novel means for improving and sustaining actionable stroke knowledge of children. PMID:24481976

  8. Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIage, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

  9. Class Mean Sig a First-Year 50.9 -.10 51.2 * -.13 52.6 *** -.23

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    .9 -.10 51.2 * -.13 52.6 *** -.23 Seniors 55.7 -.12 55.0 -.07 56.5 ** -.18 University of Rhode Island Level of Academic Challenge Selected Peers Benchmark Mean Comparisons NSSE 2005 49.5 U of Rhode Island compared with: 54.0 Mean U of Rhode Island Level of Academic Challenge Items Challenging intellectual

  10. The impact of rainfall and school break time policies on physical activity in 9-10 year old British children: a repeated measures study

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; Bentham, Graham; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-24

    between PA and rainfall in 9-10 year old children, and how it may be modified by school policies. Methods 1794 participants in the SPEEDY study in Norfolk, UK recorded PA using ActiGraph accelerometers over up to six days in the summer term of 2007...

  11. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the common childhood phenomenon of growing up with pets. PMID:23668544

  12. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK.

  13. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perfit, M.R. [Univ., of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Batiza, R. [Univ., of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fornari, D.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1994-06-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

  14. Diet quality is independently associated with weight status in children aged 9-10 years.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

    2011-03-01

    Although energy imbalance is key to the development of childhood obesity, the association between different dietary components, reflected in diet quality scores, and children's weight status has not been extensively studied. The current study determined if diet quality, characterized according to 3 predefined scores, was associated with weight status in a population-based sample of 9- to 10-y-old British children, independently of factors previously associated with weight status. In a cross-sectional study of 1700 children (56% girls), data from 4-d food diaries were used to calculate 3 diet quality scores modified to be reflective of children's diets: the Diet Quality Index (DQI), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Physical activity was measured with 7-d accelerometery, and height, weight, waist, and bio-impedance were objectively measured and used to calculate weight status variables. After multiple adjustments, including physical activity and overall energy density, higher DQI and HDI scores were significantly associated with improved weight status. Comparing extreme quintiles of the scores revealed the DQI and HDI were associated with lower waist circumference (-3.0%, P = 0.005 and -2.5%, P = 0.033, respectively), and lower body fat (-5.1%, P = 0.023 and -4.9%, P = 0.026, respectively). The DQI was also associated with lower weight (-5.9%; P = 0.002) and BMI (-4.2%; P = 0.004). No significant associations were observed with the MDS. These findings suggest that diet quality is independently associated with children's weight status. Future work should consider if diet quality scores could be key components of interventions designed to reduce obesity in children. PMID:21270356

  15. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age (years)

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    changes in the acoustic properties of vowels, we have collected a database of recordings from adults of the developmental changes in these acoustic properties. 2. VOWEL DATABASE 2.1 Speakers To date we have recorded 163.4 Acoustical analysis A semi-automated procedure was used to mark the onset and offset of the vowel

  16. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

  17. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

  18. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume III. Family/Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

  19. A cross-sectional study of frequency and factors associated with dog walking in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Owning a pet dog could potentially improve child health through encouraging participation in physical activity, through dog walking. However, evidence to support this is limited and conflicting. In particular, little is known about children’s participation in dog walking and factors that may be associated with this. The objective of this study was to describe the participation of children in dog walking, including their own and those belonging to somebody else, and investigate factors associated with regular walking with their own pet dog. Methods Primary school children (n=1021, 9–10 years) from a deprived area of Liverpool were surveyed during a ‘fitness fun day’ as part of the SportsLinx project. The ‘Child Lifestyle and Pets’ survey included questions about pet ownership, pet attachment, and dog walking. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with walking any dog, or their own dog, several times a day or more, including level of attachment to the dog, dog type, and sociodemographic factors. Results Overall, 15.4% of children reported walking with any dog (their own or belonging to a friend or family member) ? once daily, 14.1% several times a week, 27.6% ? once a week, and 42.8% never. Dog owning children (37.1% of the population) more often reported dog walking ‘several times a week or more’ (OR=12.30, 95% CI=8.10-18.69, P<0.001) compared to those without a dog, but were less likely to report other walking without a dog. The majority (59.3%) of dog owning children indicated that they usually walked their dog, with 34.6% reporting that they walked their dog ? once daily. Attachment score was highly associated with the child reporting walking their dog (lower score=higher attachment; OR=0.93, 95% CI=0.89-0.96, P<0.001). There was no evidence that gender, ethnicity, sibling status or deprivation score was associated with dog walking. Children that reported owning Pit Bulls were more likely to report friends walking with their dog than those owning non-Pit bull types (OR=10.01, 95% CI=1.52-65.76, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Promotion of supervised walking of suitable pet dogs may be an opportunity for increasing physical activity in 9–10 year old children. The identification of stronger attachment to dogs regularly walked is similar to findings in adult studies. PMID:24015895

  20. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  1. Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

  2. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29?506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P?=?0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  3. Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 04 Years of Age and 511 Years of Age August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term in Children 0­4 Years of Age and 5­11 Years of Age 281 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN CHILDREN 0­4 YEARS OF AGE AND 5­11 YEARS OF AGE Diagnosis and Prognosis of Asthma in Children Long-term management decisions begin with diagnosis

  4. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Ta?jana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinš?, Alex; Bu?ek, Antonín; Bu?ková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  5. MANAGEMENT & INFORMATICS Informatics track 1 YEAR FALL SEMESTER 2013 room MANAGEMENT & INFORMATICS 2 YEAR FALL SEMESTER 2013 room 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

    E-print Network

    Krause, Rolf

    Intelligent Systems 6 Schmidhuber - LUN/MER 13.30 18 Business Dynamics 3 Morecroft + Larsen Change ManagementMANAGEMENT & INFORMATICS Informatics track 1 YEAR FALL SEMESTER 2013 room MANAGEMENT & INFORMATICS-CaruanaSnehota-CaruanaSnehota-CaruanaSnehota-CaruanaSnehota-CaruanaSnehota-CaruanaERP lab ERP lab ERP lab

  6. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Child Development Facts Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers ( ...

  7. Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.

    PubMed

    Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

  8. Association of Birth Parameters with Refractive Status in a Sample of Caucasian Children Aged 4–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Akova-Budak, Berna; K?vanç, Sertaç Argun; Olcaysü, Osman Okan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the association of birth parameters with refractive status in different age groups of Caucasian children. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 564 eyes of 282 children aged 4 to 17 years. All children underwent complete ophthalmologic examination. The children were divided into three groups according to their refractive status (emmetropia,myopia, and hyperopia), ages (4–7, 8-9, 10–12, and 13–17), and appropriateness for gestational age, respectively. Results. The mean age of the children was 9.2 ± 2.8 (age range 4–17 years). The mean spheric equivalent was +0.3 ± 1.7 (range: (?10.0)–(+10.0) diopters). The mean birth weight and gestational age were 2681.1 ± 930.8 grams (750–5000 grams) and 37.2 ± 3.7 weeks (25–42 weeks). According to multinominal logistic regression analysis, children with myopia were more likely to have higher birth weights than emmetropic children (OR: 1.0, 95% CI: 1.000–1.001, and P = 0.028). The hypermetropes were found to be significantly small for gestational age between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusion. Birth weight and appropriateness for gestational age as birth parameters may have an impact on development of all types of refractive errors. The hypermetropic children tended to be small for gestational age. PMID:25949820

  9. Benefits and harms of cervical screening from age 20 years compared with screening from age 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Landy, R; Birke, H; Castanon, A; Sasieni, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: To quantify the benefits (cancer prevention and down-staging) and harms (recall and excess treatment) of cervical screening starting from age 20 years rather than from age 25 years. Methods: We use routine screening and cancer incidence statistics from Wales (for screening from age 20 years) and England (screening from 25 years), and unpublished data from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancer to estimate the number of: screening tests, women with abnormal results, referrals to colposcopy, women treated, and diagnoses of micro-invasive (stage 1A) and frank-invasive (stage IB+) cervical cancers (under three different scenarios) in women invited for screening from age 20 years and from 25 years. Results: Inviting 100?000 women from age 20 years yields an additional: 119?000 screens, 20?000 non-negative results, 8000 colposcopy referrals, and an extra 3000 women treated when compared with inviting from age 25 years. Screening from age 20 years prevents between three and nine frank invasive cancers and between 0 and 23 cancers in total (depending on the scenario). A cumulative increase of nine stage IB+ cancers corresponds to an annual rate increase of 0.9 per 100?000 women aged 20–29 years. Conclusions: To prevent one frank invasive cancer, one would need to do between 12?500 and 40?000 additional screening tests in the age group 20–24 years and treat between 300 and 900 women. PMID:24518600

  10. Vaccines, coming of age after 200 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    An overview on the short, only 200 years, past history and future expectations in the field of vaccines is presented. The focus is on development trends and potential rather than individual vaccines. While the first vaccines were a result of keen observation, the further development has been tightly dependent on the development of microbiology to provide both the knowledge basis

  11. Chronic constipation with encopresis persisting beyond 15 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas K. Rex; Joseph F. Fitzgerald; Robert J. Goulet

    1992-01-01

    Childhood constipation with encopresis is a common malady. Previous reports suggest that essentially all patients either respond to standard treatments or have spontaneous recovery before 16 years of age. In this paper, we describe the results of anorectal function studies and treatment outcome in four patients in whom constipation and encopresis persisted beyond 15 years of age. Abnormalities in the

  12. Benefit of kidney transplantation beyond 70 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian Heldal; Anders Hartmann; Diana C. Grootendorst; Dinanda J. de Jager; Torbjørn Leivestad; Aksel Foss; Karsten Midtvedt

    Background. Kidney transplantation generally improves long-term survival in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, in patients older than 70 years of age, only lim- ited data are available that directly compare the potential survival benefit of transplantation versus dialysis. Methods. All patients aged above 70 years who started dialysis between 1990 and 2005 and were waitlisted for kidney transplantation were

  13. [The new legal marriage age: 21 years].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1992-12-01

    In Rwanda, Presidential Decree No. 102/05 of March 13, 1992 executed Law No. 42/1988, which was not enforced after its passage in October 1988. Its principal provisions relate to civil marriage. Only monogamous civil marriage is recognized by law. Civil marriage is the voluntary union of a man and woman. A man and woman younger than 21 cannot marry except for grave reasons. Consanguineous marriages down to the seventh line of the family tree are prohibited. Other prohibited marriages include marriages between a person and his/her parents-in-law, an adoptive parent and the adopted child, an adoptive parent and descendants of the adopted child, the spouse of an adoptive parent and the adopted child, adopted children of the same adoptive parent, and an adopted child and a child of the adoptive parent. No one can remarry before annulment or dissolution of the preceding marriage. The wife cannot remarry before 300 days have passed since the end of the preceding marriage in case of pregnancy. At the end of the 300 days, she must have a medical certificate established by an ad hoc commission attesting that she is or is not pregnant. Before the wedding, the civil service officer posts at the civil state bureau information on future spouses and where the wedding will take place. The most important issue to emerge from this law is the legal marriage age being 21 rather than 18. The legislator set it at 21 as a means to realize objectives of the population policy. It favors a fertility slow-down. Some persons will say that this new law will have little effect on fertility. It is perhaps true since the last population census shows that the mean age at first union is almost 23 and civil marriage is only one of three existing forms of union. PMID:12319662

  14. Excessive crying at 3?months of age and behavioural problems at 4?years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72?months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3?months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3?months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4?years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  15. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This part is not intended to and does not create any right, benefit, or privilege,...

  16. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This part is not intended to and does not create any right, benefit, or privilege,...

  17. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  18. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  19. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  20. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01...2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  1. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01...2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

  2. Atmospheric reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Miet, Killian; Albinet, Alexandre; Budzinski, Hélène; Villenave, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The probably carcinogenic compound 9,10-anthraquinone is mainly existing in the atmosphere in the particulate phase and is often detected and measured among other oxygenated PAHs in atmospheric samples. Its fate, once released or formed in the atmosphere, still remains unknown. In this work, heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes of 9,10-anthraquinone were investigated with ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The study of 9,10-anthraquinone adsorbed on silica particles showed no reactivity with O3 and NO2. On the other hand, the reaction with OH radicals was observed and led to the formation of 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, another oxidation product recognized as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This study showed that reactions with ozone and nitrogen dioxide are unlikely to contribute to atmospheric degradation of 9,10-anthraquinone, whereas reactions with OH radicals could be involved in 9,10-anthraquinone degradation processes, even if such reaction is probably very slow under ambient conditions. PMID:24875864

  3. Hospitalizations of Adults ?60 Years of Age With Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Hussain R.; Reyes, Nimia; Zhang, Qing C.; Okoroh, Ekwutosi M.; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Tsai, James

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the rates, trends, and factors associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis among hospitalizations of adults ?60 years of age during the period 2001 to 2010. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used for this study. During the period 2001 to 2010, the estimated annual number of hospitalizations in which a VTE diagnosis was recorded, among adults ?60 years of age, ranged from approximately 2 70 000 in 2001 to 4 23 000 in 2010. The rate of such hospitalizations per 1 00 000 US population ?60 years of age ranged from 581 in 2001 to 739 in 2010. During the period 2001 to 2004, there was a significant increasing trend in the rate of hospitalizations with VTE among women ?60 years of age. The factors positively associated with an increased risk of VTE diagnosis were female sex, summer and autumn seasons (compared with spring), venous catheterization, cancer, and greater length of hospital stay. PMID:23814170

  4. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age

  5. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  6. The Child Before Seven Years of Age; The Child After Seven Years of Age; and What Children Taught Dr. Montessori.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.; Montessori, Renilde

    1998-01-01

    The three lectures reprinted here, given in 1957 London Elementary course, integrate the Montessori perspective on the Elementary child and Cosmic Education: (1) differences between children before and after 7 years of age; (2) characteristics of children 7 years and older; and (3) the adult role in responding to children in the second stage of…

  7. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better. PMID:22448609

  8. Updated 9/10 Susan Jones

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Updated 9/10 Susan Jones 10 Davison Street, Apt. 112 Chicago, Illinois 60601 312-222-2222 Susan jones @northwestern.edu EDUCATION 2000-present Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine. PUBLICATIONS Harris SF, Jones S, Brown BB. Successful Interventions in Decreasing Emergency Room Visits Among

  9. Aging in Prader-Willi syndrome: twelve persons over the age of 50 years.

    PubMed

    Sinnema, Margje; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Maaskant, Marian A; Boer, Harm; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-06-01

    The life expectancy of persons with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has increased in recent years. Because of the paucity of reports on older persons with PWS, the natural history, the onset, and type of age-related problems are poorly understood. Twelve persons with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of PWS aged over 50 years are described (4 deletion; 8 mUPD). Data on physical, behavioral, psychiatric, and aging characteristics were collected through semi-structured interviews with the individuals with PWS and their main carers. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, dermatological, and orthopedic problems were common physical complaints in older people with PWS. Functioning in activities of daily living, psychological functioning, physical functions, and care dependence were substantially worse in the older age group (50+) compared to the control group (18-49 years). Seven out of eight persons with mUPD had a history of psychiatric illness. Behavioral problems were observed in the older age group. Given the combination of age-related physical morbidity, physical appearance, behavioral and psychiatric problems, and functional decline in our cohort, we hypothesize that premature aging occurs in PWS. The care for older people with PWS requires a lifespan approach that recognizes the presence, progression, and consequences of specific morbidity. Special medical surveillance of people with PWS from 40 years onwards would ensure that intervention and support is offered with respect to specific areas of decline at the earliest possible time. PMID:22585395

  10. SILICA I The Engineers of Distribution 9.00 9.10 Welcome

    E-print Network

    Bonaventure, Olivier

    SILICA I The Engineers of Distribution 9.00 ­ 9.10 Welcome 9.10 ­ 9.40 Xilinx ­ 30 years Xilinx Day in Mons Xilinx Technical Seminar Organisation Agenda SILICA The Engineers of Distribution Johan Deben SILICA The Engineers of Distribution http://www.silica.com/ Carlos Valderrama Electronics

  11. Management of Acne in Women Over 25 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rivera; A. Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Acne is one of the most widespread skin diseases in the general population and among adolescents in particular. However, it is becoming increasingly common in patients over 25 years of age, and particularly in women. We distinguish 2 types of postadolescent acne: persistent acne—the most frequent such acne—is an extension of acne that began in adolescence and continues into adulthood,

  12. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

  13. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C B Mankinen; J W Sears

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and

  14. Pretibial injury in patients aged 50 years and over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raechel Laing; Swee Tan; Joanna McDouall; Craig Wright; Brian Niven

    Aims To establish the rate of, and identify circumstances surrounding, pretibial injury in patients aged 50 years and over. Methods The rate of pretibial injury was estimated from national hospital discharge data from the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS) National Minimum Dataset (1986-1999), and estimates of New Zealand's resident population. Cases accepted by the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance

  15. 8 9 10 11 12 13 9 10 11 12 13

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin P.

    #12;#12;#12;8 9 10 11 12 13 VExp ( A 3 /Atom) 8 9 10 11 12 13 VCalc(A 3 /Atom) VC TiC NbC ZrC #12;9 10 11 12 13 V (A 3 /Atom) E(kJ/Atom) TiC ZrC V0 (TiC) V0 (ZrC) #12;0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 XZrC 5 15

  16. Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients Over 65 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Aida; Resic, Halima; Celik, Damir; Masnic, Fahrudin; Ajanovic, Selma; Prohic, Nejra; Beciragic, Amela; Grosa, Emir; Smajlovic, Ajdin; Mujakovic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the statistics the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is getting older. In 2013 the average life span for women was 73.6 years and 68.1 for men. The chronic hemodialysis program is mainly reserved for elderly patients with high mortality risk. The most common cause of hemodialysis mortality relates to cardiovascular diseases (60.2%), regardless of frequent innovations and improvement of hemodialysis procedures. The aim of the study: was to determine the mortality rate by age groups with comments on the presence of non-traditional predictors (anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CRP, vascular access and PTH) in dialysis patients in the follow-up period of 36 months. Methods: The study included all patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis treatment at the Clinic of Hemodialysis of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (CCUS). Results: Out of a total number of hemodialysis patients (n=232), the specific mortality rate in patients under 65 years of age was 16.8%, and 50.5% in patients over 65 years of age. According to the age groups the mortality rate in elderly patients is as follows: from 65 to 74 years (45.1%), from 75 to 84 years (55.0%), over ?85 years (75.0%). The most frequent vascular access in patients under and above 65 is arteriovenous fistula (79.6% and 62.1 %), temporary hemodialysis catheter (11.7% and 43.8 %) and long-term hemodialysis catheter (8.8% and 4.2 %). In the age group under 65 years of age the temporary hemodialysis catheter is significantly and more frequently used in diseased patients in respect to survivors (34.8% vs. 7.0%) [?2(2)=15.769, p=0.001]. Diseased patients from the age group over 65 had a significantly lower mean value of haemoglobin in blood (M=100.9±17.5 g/L) in respect to survivors (M=109.2±17.1)[t(93)=2.339; p=0.021], lower mean value of albumin in blood (Me=32.0; IQR=29.0 do 35.0) in respect to survivors (Me=34.0; IQR=32.0 to 38.0) [U=762.5; p=0.006], and higher mean value of CRP in blood (Me=19.3 mg/L; IQR=6.6 to 52.0) in respect to survivors (Me=7.8; IQR=4.0 to 16.7) [U=773.5; p=0.008]. Diseased patients belonging to the age group over 65 had lower mean value of PTH, but without statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusion: older age, temporary vascular access, anaemia and hypoalbuminemia are strong predictors of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Old age does not present contraindication for hemodialysis treatment, and treatment of terminal renal illness should not be abandoned. PMID:26005383

  17. [Management of acne in women over 25 years of age].

    PubMed

    Rivera, R; Guerra, A

    2009-01-01

    Acne is one of the most widespread skin diseases in the general population and among adolescents in particular. However, it is becoming increasingly common in patients over 25 years of age, and particularly in women. We distinguish 2 types of post adolescent acne: persistent acne--the most frequent such acne--is an extension of acne that began in adolescence and continues into adulthood, and late-onset acne, which first appears in those over 25 years. We review the clinical characteristics of these types of acne in women, the causes, the recommended complementary tests, and the particulars of treatment in order to adequately manage this condition. PMID:19268109

  18. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  19. Behavioral Circadian Regularity at Age 1-Month Predicts Anxiety Levels During School-Age Years

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Timothy H.; Burk, Linnea R.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Kupfer, David J.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Daily lifestyle regularity is measured using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM). We developed a Baby SRM, with 59 babies followed for ~13 years. Baby SRM score at age 1-month significantly predicted the child's school (K-9, 5 timepoints) anxiety level (more regular = less anxious), and may be mediated through sociability and directed-attention pathways. PMID:20494458

  20. Hindsight bias from 3 to 95 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all 3 tasks; however, preschoolers and older adults exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers' enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults' enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  1. Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia

    2014-01-01

    Aging in place, an image of growing old in one’s home and maintaining one’s daily routine, is desired by most older adults. To identify variables promoting such independent living in the oldest-old, we examined the association between living situation of a population-based cohort of 90+ year olds with health and lifestyle variables. Of 1485 participants, 53% still lived in their home at a retirement community designed to foster wellness. Those living at home tended to be healthier, with smaller proportions having chronic diseases or hospitalizations in the preceding year and a greater proportion having normal functional ability. Dementia was the chronic disease most significantly related to living situation. In addition to not having dementia, not using a wheelchair or bath aid, receiving meals on wheels, and being married were jointly related to living at home. With the help of family and friends and with a medical and social support system, many 90+ year olds can age in place. This is often because they have a caregiving spouse or paid caregiver. PMID:25288828

  2. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients. PMID:25656458

  3. Photophysical studies of 9,10-phenanthrenequinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Denisio M.; Nicodem, David E.

    2004-11-01

    The characterization of the excited states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and its derivatives substituted in the 3 and 6 positions with methoxy (PQ1), chloro (PQ2), methyl (PQ3) and fluoro (PQ3) was carried out using steady-state UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and phosphorescence emission spectroscopy at room temperature and at 77 K. Nanosecond laser flash photolysis was used to obtain the time resolved spectra from the triplet emission decays. The compounds presented phosphorescence in benzene, chlorobenzene and acetonitrile solutions at room temperature and at 77 K. The phosphorescence of the methoxy derivative, however, was observed only at low temperature. The derivatives showed a slightly higher triplet energy than PQ. The Hammett plots were applied to correlate singlet and triplet energies with ? values that account for resonance and the radical character. It is observed that singlet and triplet energies increase with electron donating groups.

  4. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ?4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, ? = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  5. Relationship between age and elite marathon race time in world single age records from 5 to 93 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were (i) to investigate the relationship between elite marathon race times and age in 1-year intervals by using the world single age records in marathon running from 5 to 93 years and (ii) to evaluate the sex difference in elite marathon running performance with advancing age. Methods World single age records in marathon running in 1-year intervals for women and men were analysed regarding changes across age for both men and women using linear and non-linear regression analyses for each age for women and men. Results The relationship between elite marathon race time and age was non-linear (i.e. polynomial regression 4th degree) for women and men. The curve was U-shaped where performance improved from 5 to ~20 years. From 5 years to ~15 years, boys and girls performed very similar. Between ~20 and ~35 years, performance was quite linear, but started to decrease at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference increased non-linearly (i.e. polynomial regression 7th degree) from 5 to ~20 years, remained unchanged at ~20 min from ~20 to ~50 years and increased thereafter. The sex difference was lowest (7.5%, 10.5 min) at the age of 49 years. Conclusion Elite marathon race times improved from 5 to ~20 years, remained linear between ~20 and ~35 years, and started to increase at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference in elite marathon race time increased non-linearly and was lowest at the age of ~49 years. PMID:25120915

  6. The Synthesis of Azaperylene-9,10-dicarboximides

    E-print Network

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    The syntheses of two azaperylene 9,10-dicarboximides are presented. 1-Aza- and 1,6-diazaperylene 9,10-dicarboximides containing a 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituent at the N-imide position were synthesized in two steps ...

  7. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  8. Home accidents to children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Tursz, A; Lelong, N; Crost, M

    1990-10-01

    Within a population-based register of childhood injuries, 641 home accidents to children aged under 2 years were recorded in six hospitals. The annual rate was higher in children over 1 year (6.6 per 100) than in infants (2.7 per 100). A male predominance was observed only after the first birthday. Most injuries were related to physical trauma (mainly falls), but burns and poisonings were frequent in the second year. Most lesions were benign, except in the case of falls from a height (from a window or baby furniture). Nineteen per cent of the children were admitted to hospital. There were 15 skull fractures, two fatal cases and two severe sequelae. Child abuse was seldom suspected and the reasons for this are discussed. The study of the circumstances in which accidents occur leads to the conclusion that the main aspect of prevention should be passive protection ensured by the creation of a safe environment (compulsory safety standards for baby furniture, child resistant packaging), but that parents' information and education should also be developed, with emphasis on knowledge of children's normal psychological and motor development and abilities. PMID:2267183

  9. A Study of Pancreatic Function among Subjects over Ninety Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucio Gullo; Patrizia Simoni; Marina Migliori; Laura Lucrezio; Michela Bassi; Franca Frau; Pier Lorenzo Costa; Vincenzo Nesticò

    2009-01-01

    Background: Among the various studies of pancreatic function in the elderly published so far, none have dealt with subjects over 90 years of age. The aim of this study was to examine pancreatic function in healthy individuals over 90 years old. Methods: Sixty-eight healthy noninstitutionalized elderly persons, aged 91–104 years, with a mean age of 95 years, and 63 younger

  10. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  11. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  12. Direct costs of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients aged 65 years or more and those under age 65

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Naglie; Catherine Tansey; Murray D. Krahn; Keith O'Rourke; Allan S. Detsky; Hildo Bolley

    1999-01-01

    Background: Over the past 20 years, there have been marked increases in rates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among older people in Canada. The ob- jectives of this study were to accurately estimate the direct medical costs of CABG in older patients (age 65 years or more) and to compare CABG costs for this age group with those for

  13. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept. PMID:17296029

  14. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  15. Short-Term Outcomes of Hip Fractures in Patients Aged 90 Years Old and Over Receiving Surgical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Hsuan-Chih; Li, Yi-Ju; Lee, Wei-Jing; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The knowledge about short-term outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing surgery for hip fracture in Asian is limited. Methods The patients with hip fractures who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty and open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) for management during the period from 2008 to 2012 were identified and their medical record was retrospectively reviewed. Results During the study period, a total of 101 patients underwent surgery for management of hip fractures, and the age of patients ranged from 90 to 96 years. The sites of hip fracture were intertrochanteric (n = 57, 56.4%) and the neck of the femur (n = 44, 43.6%). Most of the patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists scores of 3(n = 55) or 4 (in 44 patients). 80.2% (n = 81) underwent the operation within one day after admission; however, there were 13 patients (12.9%) that underwent surgery 48 or more hours later. ORIF and hemiarthroplasty were performed for 63 (62.4%) and 38 (37.6%) patients, respectively. Overall, the 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 9.9% (10/101) and 17.3% (13/75), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the 30-day mortality was significantly associated only with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Odds ratio, 11.13, 95% confidence interval, 1.275–97.881, P = .029). Conclusions The short-term outcome of surgical management for Asian nonagenarians with hip fractures is favorable in selected patients. PMID:25978368

  16. PUBLICATION 406-120 REPRINTED 2004 NAME ________________________________AGE ____CLUB YEAR ______

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, veteran status 2. ________________________ Pony 4. ________________________ Light Horse F. See one horse movie or slide set. Name of movie or slide set __________________________________________________________ Date

  17. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  18. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  19. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  20. Cognitive development of term small for gestational age children at five years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Sommerfelt; H W Andersson; K Sonnander; G Ahlsten; B Ellertsen; T Markestad; G Jacobsen; H J Hoffman; L Bakketeig

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo assess the relative significance for cognitive development of small for gestational age, parental demographic factors, and factors related to the child rearing environment.METHODSIQ of a population based cohort of 338 term infants who were small for gestational age (SGA) and without major handicap, and a random control sample of 335 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were compared at

  1. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens B. Asendorpf; Jaap J. A. Denissen; Marcel A. G. van Aken

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4–6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in establishing a

  2. Results of kidney transplantation in recipients over 70 years of age: experience at a single center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C Herrero; E Gutiérrez; A Martínez; E González; E Morales; M. A Muñoz; M Valentín; B Bueno; M Praga; E Hernández; J. M Morales; J. L Rodicio; A Andrés

    2003-01-01

    We performed 41 kidney transplants in patients >70 years (35 single and 6 dual), with a mean recipient age of 72 ± 2 years, from January 1990 to December 2001. Mean age of the donors was 69 ± 12 years. Immunosuppression used triple therapy with steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine or tacrolimus. Cold ischemia time was 23 ± 3 hours.

  3. The Effect of Air Pollution on Lung Development from 10 to 18 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. James Gauderman; Edward Avol; Frank Gilliland; Hita Vora; Kiros Berhane; Rob McConnell; Nino Kuenzli; Fred Lurmann; Edward Rappaport; Helene Margolis; David Bates; John Peters

    2010-01-01

    background Whether exposure to air pollution adversely affects the growth of lung function during the period of rapid lung development that occurs between the ages of 10 and 18 years is unknown. methods In this prospective study, we recruited 1759 children (average age, 10 years) from schools in 12 southern California communities and measured lung function annually for eight years.

  4. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  5. Automobile Traffic around the Home and Attained Body Mass Index: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Children aged 10–18 Years

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Chang, C.C. Roger; Wolch, Jennifer; Reynolds, Kim; Lurmann, Frederick; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between measured traffic density near the homes of children and attained body mass index (BMI) over an eight-year follow up. Methods Children aged 9–10 years were enrolled across multiple communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996 (n = 3318). Children were followed until age 18 or high school graduation to collect longitudinal information, including annual height and weight measurements. Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess the association between BMI levels at age 18 and traffic around the home. Results For traffic within 150 m around the child’s home, there were significant positive associations with attained BMI for both sexes at age 18. With the 300 m traffic buffer, associations for both male and female growth in BMI were positive, but significantly elevated only in females. These associations persisted even after controlling for numerous potential confounding variables. Conclusions This analysis yields the first evidence of significant effects from traffic density on BMI levels at age 18 in a large cohort of children. Traffic is a pervasive exposure in most cities, and our results identify traffic as a major risk factor for the development of obesity in children. PMID:19850068

  6. A NATURALLY AGED VRLA BATTERY: 18 YEARS LATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Cole; Robert J. Schmitt

    The difficulties facing engineers that design long-life products are universal: The effects of what are hoped to be design improvements reveal themselves only slowly. How does one qualify a battery design, for example, without waiting for the product to naturally age? Is the design capable of going the intended life or is it inherently flawed? It is an elusive question

  7. 702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-07-22

    This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

  8. Synthesis of (-)-9,10-epi-stemoamide.

    PubMed

    Khim, Seock-Kyu; Schultz, Arthur G

    2004-10-29

    An efficient synthesis of (-)-9,10-epi-stemoamide has been accomplished in nine steps and 13% overall yield. The synthesis features a lithium hydroxide-promoted fragmentation and an intramolecular 7-exo-trig radical cyclization. PMID:15498004

  9. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  10. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed...and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result...

  11. Outcome at 7 Years of Children Diagnosed with Autism at Age 2: Predictive Validity of Assessments Conducted at 2 and 3 Years of Age and Pattern of Symptom Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony; Taylor, Emma; Drew, Auriol; Cockerill, Helen; Brown, Jo-Anne; Baird, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the predictive validity of symptom severity, cognitive and language measures taken at ages 2 and 3 years to outcome at age 7 in a sample of children diagnosed with autism at age 2. Method: Twenty-six children diagnosed with autism at age 2 were re-assessed at ages 3 and 7 years. At each age symptom severity, cognitive and…

  12. Ageing Styles: Subjective Well-Being and Somatic Complaints in Inpatients Aged ?60 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Schneider; Georg Driesch; Andreas Kruse; Michael Wachter; Hans-Georg Nehen; Gereon Heuft

    2003-01-01

    Background: Recent gerontological research shows a high variability in the elderly population. The aim of the present study is to investigate by means of cluster analysis, as to whether different ‘ageing styles’ can be identified in a sample of cognitively not impaired older persons, and to assess discrepancies between self-rated and expert-rated psychological and physical health. Method: 243 patients aged

  13. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  14. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  15. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  16. Measuring years of inactivity, years in retirement, time to retirement, and age at retirement within the Markov model.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Gary R; Ciecka, James E

    2010-08-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed-all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  17. Policy for Students Under the Age of 18 years Introduction

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    a child and may therefore have additional needs in relation to their support and welfare. 3. This Policy on the usual rights, responsibilities and authority that parents have in relation to a child. The usual personal and academic support arrangements will apply to students who are under 18 years

  18. Psychosocial Development during the Adult Years: Age and Cohort Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Waterman, Alan S.

    1979-01-01

    A partial sequential design was used to study personality development over a 10-year-period. Data on the Inventory of Psychosocial Development were collected from: a sample of college students in 1966; the same sample as alumni in 1976; and a sample of undergraduates in 1976. (JMB)

  19. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Miyamoto; Harvey J. Mamon; David P. Ryan; Christopher G. Willett; Marek Ancukiewicz; Wendy K. Kobayashi; Lawrence Blaszkowsky; Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo; Theodore S. Hong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and

  20. The Wonders of the Middle-Aged Brain s if people reaching their middle years

    E-print Network

    Yellen, Gary

    The Wonders of the Middle-Aged Brain A s if people reaching their middle years didn't have enough to keep them awake at night--mortgage payments, job demands, the angst of teenage children--a study by French and British researchers last year concluded that our brains start to decline around age 45, smack

  1. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  2. Coping of Judo Competitors in the Context of Gender, Age, Years of Practice and Skill Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Rogowska; Cezary Ku?nierz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which gender, age, skill level, and years of practice, serves as predictors of coping styles in judo. Participants in the study consisted of 98 judo competitors (47 females and 51 males, aged 13-21 years). As a result of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis four coping styles have been established for

  3. Exercise performance in very low birth weight children at the age of 7–12 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Baraldi; S. Zanconato; C. Zorzi; P. Santuz; F. Benini; F. Zacchello

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen very low birth weight children, 9 appropriate for gestational age (AGA, mean birth weight 1302 ± 164 g) and 6 small for gestational age children (SGA, mean birth weight 1263±117 g), were studied at the age of 7–12 years, and compared to a group of 26 healthy, age-, sex-, and height-matched children born at term. None of the VLBW

  4. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  5. 7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low level in 50 years Page 1 of 2http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media_hat_june_2010/en/index.html

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    7/9/10 2:34 PMWHO | Human African trypanosomiasis: number of new cases drops to historically low tropical diseases > Integrated media related to NTD printable version Human African trypanosomiasis: number of human African trypanosomiasis (also known as sleeping sickness) reported to WHO has dropped below 10 000

  6. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  7. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). PMID:21917018

  8. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. PMID:24164982

  9. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12–19 years: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. H. Huijgen; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Wendy Post; Chris Visscher

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12–19 years (n = 267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 years, resulting in 519 measurements. Two field tests, the Shuttle Sprint

  10. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  11. Longitudinal dental caries study in children 9–15 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Backer Dirks

    1961-01-01

    A longitudinal caries study was carried out in a group composed of fifty girls and fifty boys. The children, who were born in the same year (1945) and permanent residents of the same town were examined at the age of 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 years. The yearly examination was done by the same dentists. Special precautions were

  12. A community based study of the incidence of dementia in subjects aged 85 years and over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Gussekloo; T J Heeren; G J Izaks; G J Ligthart; H G Rooijmans

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the incidence rate of dementia for community residents aged 85 years and over. It was a two wave community study of 224 subjects (community residents including those residing in a nursing home) older than 85 years, restudied 4.1 years after a community prevalence study. A two stage method was used, comprising the mini mental state

  13. Oseltamivir Pharmacokinetics, Dosing, and Resistance Among Children Aged <2 Years With Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Acosta, Edward P.; Prichard, Mark N.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Ampofo, Krow; Lang, David; Ashouri, Negar; Vanchiere, John A.; Abzug, Mark J.; Abughali, Nazha; Caserta, Mary T.; Englund, Janet A.; Sood, Sunil K.; Spigarelli, Michael G.; Bradley, John S.; Lew, Judy; Michaels, Marian G.; Wan, Wen; Cloud, Gretchen; Jester, Penelope; Lakeman, Fred D.; Whitley, Richard J.; Giles, Dusty; Cotton, Bari; Judy, Sharon; Cowie, Margaret; Francis, Jeanne; Evans, Candice; O'Donnell, Nan; Shiraishi, Ofelia Vargas; Latiolais, Lisa; Aymami, Valeri; Dole, Ken; Gaultier, Julie; Lofthus, Gerry; Kinnunen, Diane; Lacombe, Kirsten; Stellato, Nancy; Denlinger, Julie; Hingtgen, Sara; Mason, Christina; Jeffrey, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Children <2 years of age are at high risk of influenza-related mortality and morbidity. However, the appropriate dose of oseltamivir for children <2 years of age is unknown. Methods.?The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group evaluated oseltamivir in infants aged <2 years in an age–de-escalation, adaptive design with a targeted systemic exposure. Results.?From 2006 to 2010, 87 subjects enrolled. An oseltamivir dose of 3.0 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range in subjects 0–8 months of age, although there was a greater degree of variability in infants <3 months of age. In subjects 9–11 months of age, a dose of 3.5 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range. Six of 10 subjects aged 12–23 months receiving the Food and Drug Administration–approved unit dose for this age group (ie, 30 mg) had oseltamivir carboxylate exposures below the target range. Virus from 3 subjects developed oseltamivir resistance during antiviral treatment. Conclusions.?The appropriate twice-daily oral oseltamivir dose for infants ?8 months of age is 3.0 mg/kg, while the dose for infants 9–11 months old is 3.5 mg/kg. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00391768. PMID:23230059

  14. Respiratory viruses seasonality in children under five years of age in Buenos Aires, ArgentinaA five-year analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Viegas; Paola R. Barrero; Alberto F. Maffey; Alicia S. Mistchenko

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. During the winter months there is a remarkable increase in paediatric hospitalisations due to viral acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). We aimed to perform a five-year retrospective analysis (1998–2002) of ALRI viral aetiology in children under 5 years of age admitted to public hospitals in Buenos Aires city to evaluate its seasonality.Materials and methods. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were analysed

  15. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 

    E-print Network

    Shenkin, S D; Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Rush, M A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS---To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class. METHODS---Retrospective cohort study based on birth records ...

  16. Mortality Among Teenagers Aged 12-19 Years: United States, 1999-2006

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brief Number 37, May 2010 Mortality Among Teenagers Aged 12-19 Years: United States, 1999-2006 On ... death among teenagers are Accidents (unintentional injuries), homicide, suicide, cancer, and heart disease. Accidents account for nearly ...

  17. Lecture 9-10 Introduction to energy & environment

    E-print Network

    Lecture 9-10 HAS222d-09 Introduction to energy & environment Air pollution #12;applying flux effects of even individual pollutants can sometimes be found out. #12;news item: Environment Pollution May and concentration ideas to pollution and to basic atmosphere/ocean dynamics · The chapter in Spherical Cow

  18. [Major revisionposted 9/9/10] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Board Rules and Regulations - Approval of Off-Campus and Self- Supporting Courses and Programs for delivery in self- supporting or off-campus formats must be approved by the Distributed Learning Council[Major revision­posted 9/9/10] Operating Policy and Procedure OP 36.06: Self-Supporting and In

  19. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  20. Cochlear implant in the child under two years of age: Skull growth, otitis media, and selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD A. HOFFMAN

    1997-01-01

    Early cochlear implantation is desirable to effect maximal development of receptive and expressive language. Factors to consider in implanting before the age of 2 years include anatomic considerations, temporal bone growth and device extrusion or migration, the sequela of otitis media, and the accuracy of early diagnosis. Clinical experience and laboratory data indicate that cochlear implantation before the age of

  1. Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years with Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Luiz Siqueira; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Zan Mustacchi; José Nicolau

    2004-01-01

    Study designIn this study sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and magnesium ion concentration was analyzed in stimulated whole saliva in 22 children with Down syndrome aged 6 to 10 years. These children were compared with 21 healthy children of the same age. Stimulated saliva was collected by chewing a piece of parafilm for 10 minutes. The pH was measured with

  2. The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age Mark D. Vida of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a ser- ies of positions to the left/right or upward height. These findings indicate that until after age 6, relatively poor sensitivity to direct versus

  3. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  4. 2014 EXPRESSIVE ROBOTICS Beall Center Camp Registration Form FOR AGES 14 19 years

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    2014 EXPRESSIVE ROBOTICS Beall Center Camp Registration Form FOR AGES 14 19 years conditions, special needs, etc., in writing at least 1 week prior to the first day of the camp. 3) I Robotics is a twoweek middle/high school aged summer intensive focused on the development of robotic

  5. BRIEF REPORT: The Aging of the Homeless Population: Fourteen-Year Trends in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Judith A; Kushel, Margot B; Bangsberg, David R; Riley, Elise; Moss, Andrew R

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Homelessness is associated with high rates of health and substance use problems. OBJECTIVE To examine trends in the age, housing, health status, health service utilization, and drug use of the homeless population over a 14-year period. DESIGN Serial cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS We studied 3,534 literally homeless adults recruited at service providers in San Francisco in 4 waves: 1990–1994, 1996–1998, 1999–2000, and 2003. MEASUREMENTS Age, time homeless, self-reported chronic conditions, hospital and emergency department utilization, and drug and alcohol use. RESULTS The median age of the homeless increased from 37 to 46 over the study waves, at a rate of 0.66 years per calendar year (P < 0.01). The median total time homeless increased from 12 to 39.5 months (P < 0.01). Emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and chronic health conditions increased. CONCLUSIONS The homeless population is aging by about two thirds of a year every calendar year, consistent with trends in several other cities. It is likely that the homeless are static, aging population cohort. The aging trends suggest that chronic conditions will become increasingly prominent for homeless health services. This will present challenges to traditional approaches to screening, prevention, and treatment of chronic diseases in an aging homeless population. PMID:16808781

  6. Is Early Life Wheeze Associated with Lung Function at Age 6 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of wheeze is unknown and the role of early life wheeze in subsequent health is not clearly understood. Our goal was to calculate the age-specific incidence of wheeze and determine whether wheezing at particular times in early life was predictive of abnormal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), percent predicted FEV1 and current asthma at age 6 years. Methods Using data from a birth cohort study with annual report of wheezing (Childhood Allergy Study) and spirometry and methacholine challenge at age 6 years, the age-specific incidence of wheeze was determined using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the associations between the presence of age-specific wheezing and the outcomes of current asthma, AHR and percent predicted FEV1 at age 6 years. Results The 6-year cumulative incidence of wheezing was higher for boys (66.2%, 95% CI 59.8%, 72.6%) than girls (47.6% 95% CI 41.4%, 53.8%). There was no age when wheezing was more strongly associated with either AHR or percent predicted FEV1 at 6 years. Only wheeze in the fifth year among males and in females, both wheezing in the fourth and fifth years were positively predictive of current asthma at age 6. This is likely due to the definition of current asthma (ever doctor diagnosis and either medication or symptoms in last year). Eczema, parental asthma history and total cord blood IgE did not affect these associations. Conclusions Wheezing at any particular time in early life may not be predictive of early childhood lung function. PMID:19205282

  7. Influence of age on Medicare expenditures and medical care in the last year of life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman G. Levinsky; Wei Yu; Arlene S. Ash; Mark A. Moskowitz; Gail Gazelle; Oolga Saynina; Ezekiel J. Emanuel

    2001-01-01

    CONTEXT: Expenditures for Medicare beneficiaries in the last year of life decrease with increasing age. The cause of this phenomenon is uncertain.\\u000aOBJECTIVES: To examine this pattern in detail and evaluate whether decreases in aggressiveness of medical care explain the phenomenon.\\u000aDESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Analysis of sample Medicare data for beneficiaries aged 65 years or older from Massachusetts (n

  8. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  9. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

  10. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130 060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114 000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0·001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common. PMID:25545698

  11. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  12. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  13. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  14. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  15. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  16. H2D(+) observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Brünken, Sandra; Sipilä, Olli; Chambers, Edward T; Harju, Jorma; Caselli, Paola; Asvany, Oskar; Honingh, Cornelia E; Kami?ski, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Stutzki, Jürgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-12-11

    The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H(+)) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D(+) and para-H2D(+), have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D(+) is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D(+) emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H(+) work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D(+) clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years. PMID:25409140

  17. Five years later: language in school-age internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon; Bright, Betsy J

    2005-02-01

    This study followed a cohort of 46 school-age children adopted from Eastern Europe who were originally studied by Glennen and Masters up through age 2 or 3. Five years later, the children were 6 to 9 years of age. Data on their school-age abilities were collected through surveys of parents and teachers. Parents indicated that 17.4% of the children were receiving classroom accommodations or special education programs and 54.5% had one or more diagnoses. The most common diagnosis was attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), occurring in 25% of the children, primarily boys. Learning disability and speech language impairment were each noted in 11.4% of the children. Language and Social Skill profiles on the Children's Communication Checklist-2 and Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) indicated that structural and meaning-based language abilities were areas of strength. Measures of pragmatic use of language (i.e., Use of Context, Social Relations, Nonverbal Communication) were relative weaknesses. Behavior profiles on the SSRS indicated higher than average levels of hyperactivity. The profile of Language and Social Skills strengths and weaknesses was similar to patterns observed in children with ADD/ADHD. Age of adoption was not predictive of school-age outcomes on these measures, but the children's expressive vocabulary when they were 2 to 3 years of age predicted SSRS outcomes for Social Skills and Problem Behaviors. PMID:15731973

  18. Impact of rotavirus vaccination in Australian children below 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, Annmarie; Galic, Maja; Clarke, Christopher; Ng, Su Peing; Ledesma, Emilio; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran; Liu, Yanfang

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of administration of two-dose rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) among children aged less than 5 y in three states/territories of Australia. Aggregated and de-identified data on rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all-cause gastroenteritis (AGE) from July 1998–June 2009 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare database. The baseline incidence (July 1998–June 2006) of RVGE hospitalizations before RV vaccine introduction in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT) were 33.75, 42.93 and 288.67 per 10?000 child-years, respectively among children aged 0–11 mo. Following RV vaccine introduction in NSW, the ACT and the NT, incidence of RVGE hospitalizations reduced to 13.06, 17.35 and 47.52 per 10?000 child-years, respectively, during July 2007–June 2008 and 3.87, 8.40 and 122.79 per 10,000 child-years, respectively, during July 2008–June 2009 among children aged 0–11 mo. Reductions in RVGE and AGE were also observed in all children below 5 y of age in NSW and the ACT. Overall reduction in hospitalizations due to RVGE and AGE was observed following RV vaccine introduction into the NIP in Australia. PMID:23733041

  19. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  20. Is Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Safe in Patients 90 Years of Age and Older?

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Dae Young; Han, Jimin; Oh, Jang Seok; Park, Keun Woo; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Ho Gak

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims This case-control study evaluated the safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients 90 years of age and older. Methods From January 2005 to August 2011, 5,070 cases of ERCP were performed at our institution. Of these, 43 cases involved patients 90 years of age and older (mean age, 91.7±1.9 years). A control group of 129 cases (mean age, 65.7±14.8 years) was matched by the patient sex, sphincterotomy, and presence of choledocholithiasis using a propensity score. The patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed for comorbidity, periampullary diverticulum, urgent procedure, conscious sedation, technical success, procedure duration, ERCP-related complication, and death. Results Between the case and control groups, there was no significant difference with regard to comorbidity, periampullary diverticulum, and urgent procedure. Conscious sedation was performed significantly less in the patient group versus the control group (28 [65%] vs 119 [92%], respectively; p=0.000). There was no significant difference in the technical success, procedure duration, or ERCP-related complications. In both groups, there was no major bleeding or perforation related to ERCP. Post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred significantly less in the patient group compared to the control group (0 vs 13 [10%], respectively; p=0.004). One death occurred from respiratory arrest in the case group. Conclusions ERCP can be performed safely and successfully in patients aged 90 years and older without any significant increase in complications. PMID:25228977

  1. Lung cancer in patients aged 50 years and younger: clinical characteristics, treatment details and outcome.

    PubMed

    Veness, M J; Delaney, G; Berry, M

    1999-08-01

    Younger patients (< or = 50 years of age) develop lung cancer. Many series report 5-10% of all cases occurring in younger patients. Outcome, inspite of treatment, is universally poor. Females and adenocarcinomas are over-represented and the aetiology for such an early-age presentation is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to review the clinical characteristics, treatment details and outcome of patients aged 50 years or younger diagnosed with lung cancer (small cell and non-small cell). Over a period of 34 months, 497 lung cancer patients were treated at the Liverpool Hospital Cancer Therapy Centre. Thirty-seven (7.4%) patients aged less than or equal to 50 years were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years (range 32-49 years) in 20 females and 17 males. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histological subtype (32%). No referred patient had stage I/II disease. Almost 90% of patients were smokers. Median survival following diagnosis was 12 months (range, 9 days-68 months) with 70% having died by the close of study. The clinical characteristics and outcome of young patients in our study were comparable to other similar series. PMID:10901928

  2. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taina Rantanen; Kamal Masaki; Qimei He; G. Webster Ross; Bradley J. Willcox; Lon White

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents’ longevity as predictors of length of life\\u000a up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program\\/Honolulu–Asia Aging Study who\\u000a were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965–1968, when they were 56–68 years\\u000a old. Deaths

  3. Blood Pressure Reference Tables for Hungarian Adolescents Aged 11–16 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sándor Túri; Ákos Baráth; Krisztina Boda; Mariett Tichy; Éva Károly

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Blood pressure (BP) during childhood is an established predictor of adult BP, which in turn predicts mortality in the event of cardiovascular disease. Reference data for systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP are not available for Hungarian children (aged 11–14 years). The aim was to make up for this deficit. Methods: Analyses were performed on 14,504 Hungarian children aged

  4. Spinal injury in motor vehicle crashes: elevated risk persists up to 12 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Brown; L E Bilston

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To determine whether age is associated with serious spinal injury in paediatric motor vehicle occupants, after controlling for crash-related factors.Design and Setting:Retrospective record review.Patients and Outcome Measures:All motor vehicle passengers aged 0–16 years treated at two major children’s hospitals from 1999 to 2004 with ICD-10 codes for spinal trauma. Injury outcomes were categorised as minor and serious. Minor injuries were

  5. Methods for Predicting Age0 Crappie Year-Class Strength in J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Todd St. John; William Patrick Black

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the precision and efficiency of larval townets and trap nets and correlated estimates to hydrologic parameters (temperature and spring discharge) during 1998–2002 to determine the best method for predicting year-class strength of age-0 white crappie Pomoxis annularis and black crappie P. nigromaculatus in J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee. Both larval townet and fall trap-net samples effectively sampled age-0

  6. Persistence of immunity in healthy adults aged ?50 years primed with a hepatitis B vaccine 3 years previously.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajiv; Ahlm, Clas; Ostergaard, Lars; Dowell, Anthony; Tran, Clément; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis B vaccines do not generate protective immune responses in older adults as effectively as they do in children and young adults. Improved formulations of existing vaccines may have the potential to improve this. This study investigated the persistence of serum antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigens (anti-HBs) 3.1-3.5 years following primary vaccination with 3 doses of HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in healthy adults aged ?50 years who were further challenged with 1 dose of recombinant hepatitis B antigen. This was an open-label extension study. Individuals (N = 204) with a mean (standard deviation) age at enrollment of 63.7 (7.0) years receiving HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in a randomized, double-blind primary study were challenged with 1 dose of HBvaxPRO® (10 ?g). Anti-HBs were measured pre- and 30 days post-challenge. 45.5% (34.8, 56.4 [95% CI]) of individuals who received HBvaxPRO® in the per protocol set (PPS) had anti-HBs titers ?10 mIU/mL pre-challenge and 85.2% (76.1, 91.9) 1-month post-challenge. In those who received Engerix B™ in the primary vaccination series, the results were 58.8% (48.6, 68.5) and 88.3% (80.5, 93.8), respectively. The challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was generally well tolerated. Subjects aged ?50 years receiving a challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® demonstrated immune memory against hepatitis B 3 years after a 3-dose primary. The safety profile of this challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was consistent with the well-established safety profile of the vaccine HBvaxPRO®. PMID:25996838

  7. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

  8. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time. PMID:20723217

  9. Non-communicable disease risk factors in Mongolians aged 55–64 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ts. Enkhjargal; I. Bolormaa

    2011-01-01

    Background  Determination of the prevalence of primary and secondary risk factors of non-communicable diseases among Mongolian adults\\u000a aged 55–64 years is essential for the mid-term evaluation of the implementation status of the National program on prevention\\u000a and control of non-communicable diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study was conducted in October–December 2009 and included 524 (223 males and 301 females) Mongolian adults\\u000a aged 55–64 years randomly

  10. Infant Motor Development Predicts Sports Participation at Age 14 Years: Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Ong, Ken K.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Sharp, Stephen; Ekelund, Ulf; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Background Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. Methods Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE). Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. Principal Findings Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001) and standing unaided (p?=?<0.001). Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p?=?0.003) and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p?=?0.043). These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. Conclusions Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life. PMID:19718258

  11. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains. PMID:25998719

  12. Relative strength as a determinant of mobility in elders 67–84 years of age. A NuAge study: Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choquette; D. R. Bouchard; C. Y. Doyon; M. Sénéchal; M. Brochu; Isabelle J. Dionne

    This cross-sectional study proposes two relative strength indexes in order to evaluate the risks of lower mobility in healthy\\u000a older adults: 1) handgrip strength on body mass index and 2) quadriceps strength on body weight. Nine hundred and four men\\u000a and women aged between 67–84 years old were tested for body composition, muscle strength and mobility function. Individuals\\u000a in the

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening in US Seniors Ages 76-84 Years.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Shapiro, Jean A; Kobrin, Sarah; Nadel, Marion R; Zapka, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends patient-physician discussions about the appropriateness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among adults ages 76-84 years who have never been screened. In this study, we used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine patterns of CRC screening and provider recommendation among seniors ages 76-84 years, and made some comparisons to younger adults. Nationally-representative samples of 1379 adults ages 76-84 years and 8797 adults ages 50-75 years responded to questions about CRC screening status, receipt of provider recommendation, and discussion of test options; 22.7 % (95 % CI 20.1-25.3) of seniors ages 76-84 had never been tested for CRC and therefore were not up-to-date with guidelines; 3.9 % (95 % CI 2.0-7.6) of these individuals reported a recent provider recommendation for screening. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of never having been tested was significantly greater for seniors of other/multiple race or Hispanic ethnicity; with high school or less education; without private health insurance coverage; who had ?1 doctor visit in the past year; without recent screening for breast, cervical, or prostate cancer; with no or unknown CRC family history; or with ?1 chronic disease. Among the minority of respondents ages 50-75 and 76-84 reporting a provider recommendation, 73.2 % indicated that the provider recommended particular tests, which was overwhelmingly colonoscopy (?89 %). Nearly one-quarter of adults 76-84 have never been screened for CRC, and rates of provider recommendation in this group are very low. Greater attention to informed CRC screening discussions with screening-eligible seniors is needed. PMID:25716518

  14. Autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma patients <60 vs ?60 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D E Reece; C Bredeson; W S Pérez; S Jagannath; M J Zhang; K K Ballen; G J Elfenbein; C O Freytes; R P Gale; M A Gertz; J Gibson; S A Giralt; A Keating; R A Kyle; D Maharaj; D Marcellus; P L McCarthy; G A Milone; S D Nimer; S Pavlovsky; L B To; D J Weisdorf; P H Wiernik; J R Wingard; D H Vesole

    2003-01-01

    The role of autologous stem cell transplantation (AuSCT) in older multiple myeloma patients is unclear. Using data from the Autologous Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry, we compared the outcome of 110 patients ?the age of 60 (median 63; range 60–73) years, undergoing AuSCT with that of 382 patients <60 (median 52; range 30–59) years. The two groups were similar except

  15. Parental Practices for Prevention of Home Poisoning in Children 1–6 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Gutierrez; Juanita Negrón; Lourdes García-Fragoso

    On the basis of calls to the US poison control centers, each year more than 1 million children less than 5 years of age experience\\u000a potentially toxic ingestions. Several prevention efforts and interventions have been tried to protect young children from\\u000a poisonings occurring in their homes. The purpose of this study was to determine practices of parents and caregivers of children

  16. Neurodevelopmental status at age five years of neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny Glass; Ann E. Wagner; Patricia H. Papero; Shusila R. Rajasingham; Lucy A. Civitello; Mette S. Kjaer; Cara E. Coffman; Pamela R. Getson; Billie L. Short

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To determine the neurodevelopmental status at age 5 years among children who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the newborn period as a treatment for severe cardiorespiratory failure. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 103 five-year-old ECMO-treated children born between June 1984 and July 1988, and treated at our institution. Thirty-seven healthy control children were recruited locally.

  17. Changes of olfactory abilities in relation to age: odor identification in more than 1400 people aged 4 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, A; Schriever, V A; Gudziol, V; Hummel, C; Hähner, A; Iannilli, E; Sinding, C; Aziz, M; Seo, H S; Negoias, S; Hummel, T

    2015-08-01

    The currently presented large dataset (n = 1,422) consists of results that have been assembled over the last 8 years at science fairs using the 16-item odor identification part of the "Sniffin' Sticks". In this context, the focus was on olfactory function in children; in addition before testing, we asked participants to rate their olfactory abilities and the patency of the nasal airways. We reinvestigated some simple questions, e.g., differences in olfactory odor identification abilities in relation to age, sex, self-ratings of olfactory function and nasal patency. Three major results evolved: first, consistent with previously published reports, we found that identification scores of the youngest and the oldest participants were lower than the scores obtained by people aged 20-60. Second, we observed an age-related increase in the olfactory abilities of children. Moreover, the self-assessed olfactory abilities were related to actual performance in the smell test, but only in adults, and self-assessed nasal patency was not related to the "Sniffin' Sticks" identification score. PMID:25238811

  18. Natural history of neurofibromatosis type 2 with onset before the age of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Martino; Gabriele, Anna Lia; Polizzi, Agata; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Nicita, Francesco; Pavone, Piero; Platania, Nunzio; Milone, Pietro; Distefano, Angela; Privitera, Giuseppe; Belfiore, Giuseppe; Granata, Francesca; Caltabiano, Rosario; Albanese, Vincenzo; Pavone, Lorenzo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2013-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) with onset before the first year of life has been anecdotally reported in the literature. We (a) prospectively (years 1997-2012) followed up three unrelated NF2 children, all harbouring NF2 gene mutations whose onset of disease was before age 1 year, and (b) systematically reviewed published reports on NF2 in the youngest age group (i.e. onset <1 year). The present three children had (1) small (<1 cm), bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) detected (as an incidental finding) at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the age of 4 to 5 months that were asymptomatic for 10 to 14 years, with sudden and rapid (<12 months) progression in two cases at the age of 11 and 15 years, respectively; (2) development of large numbers of skin NF2 plaques mainly in atypical locations (i.e. face, hands, legs and knees), which reverted to normal skin appearance at the time of VSs progression; (3) lens opacities (n = 1) and NF2 retinal changes (n = 2) detected as early as age of 3-4 months; (4) diffuse (asymptomatic) high signal lesions at brain MRI in the periventricular regions (alike cortical dysplasia); and (5) unaffected first-degree relatives who did not harbour NF2 gene abnormalities. This represents the youngest NF2 group with the longest prospective follow-up so far reported. NF2 may present as a congenital form with bilateral VSs presenting as early as the first months of life and with natural history different to that which occurs in classical NF2. PMID:23377185

  19. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

  20. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  1. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  2. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Women’s higher level of social development at onset is associated with a better medium-term functional and social outcome. Prodromal schizophrenia and depression are equal in length and diagnostically distinguishable only after the onset of positive symptoms. The sex difference in age at onset, invariable across cultures and ethnicities, is explained by a protective effect of oestrogen, which down-regulates D2 receptors. A higher genetic load antagonizes this effect. Long-term symptom-related illness course exhibits a plateau after three years, the positive symptom dimension after two years, the depressive and the negative dimensions do so after three to five years. The most prevalent symptom is depressive mood. Male first episodes are more frequent and more severe in the first half of life, female ones in the second half. Aetiological conclusions will be drawn.

  3. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  4. Effects of habitual physical exercise on physiological age in men aged 20–85 years as estimated using principal component analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitaro Nakamura; Toshio Moritani; Akio Kanetaka

    1996-01-01

    A population of 221 healthy adult men (aged 20–85 years) was studied to determine whether those who exercised regularly were in good biological condition, and also whether those who were in a state of high physical fitness were in a good state biologically, in terms of physiological age (PA) and physical fitness age (FA) as estimated by principal component analysis.

  5. Social Support Networks of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults 60 Years of Age and Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold H. Grossman; Anthony R. D'Augelli; Scott L. Hershberger

    2000-01-01

    The social support networks of 416 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 60 to 91 years were examined. Partici- pants averaged 6 people in their support networks, most of whom were close friends. The gender composition of support networks was greatly influenced by the gender of the respondent. Most support network members knew about respondents' sexual orientation. The most common

  6. Total Elbow Arthroplasty in Patients Forty Years of Age or Less

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard F. Morrey

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is generally accepted that prosthetic elbow replacement should be avoided in young patients because of an anticipated high rate of early failure. The purpose of this paper was to define the success, prosthetic survival rate, and problems encountered in patients who were treated with a semiconstrained total elbow arthroplasty when they were forty years of age or less.

  7. Symbiotic tripartite nitrogen fixation effectual in eroded soil restoration with 20 year?age Sericea lespedeza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Q. Lynd; T. R. Ansman

    1993-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is an essential ecological attribute for sustained amelioration of severely eroded, low fertility soils. The long?lived perennial, Sericea (Lespedeza cuneata (Dument) G. Don.), is highly tolerant of depleted soil conditions and has exceptional nitrogen fixation capabilities. Objectives of this study were to determine nodulation characteristics, with adjunctive governing factors, that influence 20 year?age Sericea growth, effectual nitrogen

  8. Cow's milk protein intolerance in infants under 1 year of age: A prospective epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. P. Schrander; J. P. H. van den Bogart; P. P. Forget; C. T. R. M. Schrander-Stumpel; R. H. Kuijten; A. D. M. Kester

    1993-01-01

    Incidence and clinical manifestation of cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI) were studied in 1158 unselected newborn infants followed prospectively from birth to 1 year of age. No food changes were required in 914 infants who were used as healthy controls. When CMPI was suspected (211 infants), diagnostic dietary interventions according to a standard protocol were performed. After exclusion of lactose

  9. Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel S. Beckett; Ruth Peters; Astrid E. Fletcher; Jan A. Staessen; Lisheng Liu; Dan Dumitrascu; Vassil Stoyanovsky; Riitta L. Antikainen; Yuri Nikitin; Craig Anderson; Alli Belhani; Françoise Forette; Chakravarthi Rajkumar; Lutgarde Thijs; Winston Banya; Christopher J. Bulpitt

    2008-01-01

    A b s t r ac t Background Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death. Methods We randomly assigned 3845 patients from Europe, China, Australasia, and Tunisia who

  10. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  11. Maxillofacial injuries in a group of South Africans under 18 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Bamjee; J. F. Lownie; P. E. Cleaton-Jones; M. A. Lownie

    1996-01-01

    Objective — To find out the incidence of maxillofacial injuries in South African children aged 18 years or less. Design — Retrospective study of casenotes. Setting —Six teaching hospitals affiliated to the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, serving a population of about 5 million people. Subjects — All 326 children treated for facial injuries in the maxillofacial and oral departments of

  12. Standards for Day Care Centers for Infants and Children Under 3 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    The Committee on Infant and Preschool Child of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed basic standards for quality day care for children under 3 years of age. The availability of day care provides a mother with the choice of group day care as one of the means of providing for her children. Options should include full-time or part-time day…

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in children aged 10 years and younger: a clinical experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAW J TAN; RICHARD E APPLETON

    2004-01-01

    Levetiracetam is a new anti-epileptic drug that is currently not licensed for use in children. Studies in adults suggest that it may be a useful adjunctive treatment both in partial onset and generalised epilepsy. A retrospective case notes review of 26 children age 10 years and under with refractory epilepsy was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the

  14. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  15. Prevalence of hypogonadism in males aged at least 45?years: the HIM study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. MULLIGAN; M. F. FRICK; Q. C. ZURAW; A. STEMHAGEN; C. MCWHIRTER

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The Hypogonadism in Males study estimated the preva- lence of hypogonadism (total testosterone (TT) 0300 ng\\/dl) in men aged ? 45 years visiting primary care practices in the United States. A blood sample was obtained between 8 AM and noon and assayed for TT, free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BAT). Common symptoms of hypogonadism, comorbid conditions, demographics and

  16. Stroke Incidence in Women under 60 Years of Age Related to Alcohol Intake and Smoking Habit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Lu; Weimin Ye; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The association between alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of stroke amongst women remains unclear, especially in young women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 45,449 Swedish women aged 30–50 years free of stroke and heart diseases at enrolment in 1991 and 1992. Information on drinking and smoking habits at enrolment was collected using a questionnaire. Incident

  17. Children's Terms & Conditions All children under the age of 16 years are considered children

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    Children's Terms & Conditions · All children under the age of 16 years are considered children · Children must be accompanied by a competent adult at all times within the centre, unless for specific children's programmes and courses · Children are only permitted to use the swimming pool with an adult

  18. The Spectrum of Cutaneous Lymphomas in Patients Less than 20 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Fink-Puches; Andreas Chott; Marco Ardigo; Ingrid Simonitsch; Gerardo Ferrara; Helmut Kerl; Lorenzo Cerroni

    2004-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphomas are rare in young patients and are mostly represented by mycosis fungoides and its variants and CD30 + lympho- proliferative disorders (lymphomatoid papulosis (LYP) and anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma). We report our observations in a series of 69 patients less than 20 years of age who presented either with primary cuta- neous lymphoma ( n = 62) or

  19. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  20. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  1. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  2. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to…

  3. Prediction of amblyopia and squint by means of refraction at age 1 year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ingram; C. Walker; J. M. Wilson; P. E. Arnold; S. Dally

    1986-01-01

    In this series amblyopia, uncorrectable by spectacles and occlusion, was highly likely (48%) if a child had +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia at age 1 year. 45% of children with this refraction also had a squint. All those who remained with severely defective acuity in spite of treatment had either +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia or

  4. A School Health Education Program for Children with Asthma Aged 8-11 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two groups (experimental and control) totaling 239 low-income asthmatic children, aged 8 to 11 years, were studied. One group was exposed to an asthma health education program. Findings indicate asthma health education for children increases management skills, reduces symptoms, and improves school performance. (Author/CH)

  5. A Case of Turner Syndrome with Congenital Hypothyroidism Untreated until Age 38 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Ishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Kinya Hashimoto; Masaki Wada

    2003-01-01

    Objective and Methods: The effect of thyroid hormone on human growth and maturation is considered ‘permissive’. To evaluate the effect of a prolonged thyroid hormone defect, especially in the pubertal period, a woman with untreated congenital hypothyroidism underwent studies of thyroid function and bone maturation for the first time at age 38 years 10 months and received thyroid hormone replacement.

  6. Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Saayman, Gert

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fatal injuries in children has been reported to be highest among children aged 1 to 4 years. Major causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, falls, and intentional or inflicted injury (such as nonaccidental injury syndrome). This study reviewed the profile of children (under 5 years of age) who had been admitted to a large urban medicolegal mortuary (in Pretoria, the capital city of South Africa), after having suffered fatal head injuries. This study was conducted over a 5-year period (from January 2004 through December 2008), and a total of 107 cases were identified for inclusion. These cases constituted nearly a fifth of admissions in this age group. The male-to-female ratio was 56%:44%, and the peak age of injury was less than 1 year. Most head injuries were sustained in road traffic accidents (70%) followed by falls (10%) and other types of blunt force injuries (9%). Only 1 case of nonaccidental injury syndrome (child abuse) was found. The great majority of deaths were deemed to have been accidental in nature (91%) with 6 (6%) homicides. Urgent review pertaining to the use of child restraint devices and the safety of pedestrians is required, and the institution of childhood injury registers could aid in reducing childhood fatalities in South Africa. PMID:25072811

  7. J Radiol Prot. Author manuscript Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Radiol Prot. Author manuscript Page /1 3 Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years Abstract A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children results about the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France

  8. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  9. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  10. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years

  11. Sustained fertility from 22 to 41 years of age in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellembakken, Jan R.; Berga, Sarah L.; Kilen, Mirjam; Tanbo, Tom G.; Åbyholm, Thomas; Fedorcsák, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subfertility due to chronic anovulation is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and is often treated with IVF. Women with PCOS have an increased ovarian follicle and oocyte count, increased ovarian reserve and/or a slower rate of follicle atresia. If so, one would expect women with PCOS to display a delayed reduction in fertility with advancing age as compared with eumenorrheic women. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we compared oocyte count and live birth rates among two groups undergoing IVF, 500 women with PCOS and 500 eumenorrheic women with infertility due to tubal factor only. RESULTS Across the age range of 22–41 years, oocyte count and live birth rates remained stable in women with PCOS. In the eumenorrheic comparison group, these parameters decreased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS display sustained fertility with advancing age as compared with infertile eumenorrheic women. PMID:21724569

  12. A Screening Instrument for Autism at 18 Months of Age: A 6Year Follow-up Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GILLIAN BAIRD; TONY CHARMAN; SIMON BARON-COHEN; ANTONY COX; JOHN SWETTENHAM; SALLY WHEELWRIGHT; AURIOL DREW

    2000-01-01

    ObjectivesA population of 16,235 children aged 18 months was screened using the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) to identify childhood autism (CA). Two further screening procedures were conducted at age 3 and 5 years. The population was followed up at age 7 years in order to establish the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the instrument.

  13. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45 years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45 years, females aged 27 to 45 years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners’ (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs’ and patients’ beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45 years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  14. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort. SLEEP 2014;37(3):475-482. PMID:24587569

  15. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (?Weight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ?Weight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  16. Longitudinal patterns of physical activity in children aged 8 to 12 years: the LOOK study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on longitudinal monitoring of daily physical activity (PA) patterns in youth over successive years is scarce but may provide valuable information for intervention strategies aiming to promote PA. Methods Participants were 853 children (starting age ~8 years) recruited from 29 Australian elementary schools. Pedometers were worn for a 7-day period each year over 5 consecutive years to assess PA volume (steps per day) and accelerometers were worn concurrently in the final 2 years to assess PA volume (accelerometer counts (AC) per day), moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA) and sedentary time (SED). A general linear mixed model was used to examine daily and yearly patterns. Results A consistent daily pattern of pedometer step counts, AC, MVPA and LPA emerged during each year, characterised by increases on school days from Monday to Friday followed by a decrease on the weekend. Friday was the most active and Sunday the least active day. The percentage of girls and boys meeting international recommendations of 11,000 and 13,000 steps/day respectively on a Monday, Friday and Sunday were 36%, 50%, 21% for boys and 35%, 45%, 18% for girls. The equivalent percentages meeting the recommended MVPA of >60 min/day on these days were 29%, 39%, 16% for boys and 15%, 21%, 10% for girls. Over the 5 years, boys were more active than girls (mean steps/day of 10,506 vs 8,750; p<0.001) and spent more time in MVPA (mean of 42.8 vs 31.1 min/day; p<0.001). Although there was little evidence of any upward or downward trend in steps/day from age 8 to 12 years, there was a trend toward lower MVPA, LPA and a corresponding increase in SED from age 11 to 12 years. Conclusion A weekly pattern of PA occurred in children as young as age 8 on a day by day basis; these patterns persisting through to age 12. In addition to supporting previous evidence of insufficient PA in children, our data, in identifying the level and incidence of insufficiency on each day of the week, may assist in the development of more specific strategies to increase PA in community based children. PMID:24456743

  17. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  18. Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group: median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years). The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but different in age. After careful arthroscopic evaluation of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear, rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy were performed in all patients. Pre- and post-operatively, each patient was evaluated for range of motion, shoulder score (UCLA), and SF-36 self-administered questionnaire. Comparing pre- versus post-operative status at a minimum 24 months follow-up, forward elevation, internal and external rotation, modified UCLA rating system scores, and SF-36 scores improved significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. At the last follow-up, strength improved significantly in both groups, with non-significant intergroup difference. The Popeye sign was detected in 13/28 (46%) of the patients in the over 65 group and in 11/28 (39%) in the under 65 group (? = 0.29) with non-significant difference between the two groups. In selected active patients older than 65, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair associated with biceps tenotomy (when necessary) can yield clinical and related quality of life outcomes similar to those of patients younger than 65 years. PMID:20182868

  19. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles. PMID:24316574

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine when administered to healthy Japanese adults aged ?50 years

    PubMed Central

    Shiramoto, Masanari; Irie, Shin; Juergens, Christine; Yamaji, Masako; Tamai, Satoshi; Aizawa, Masakazu; Belanger, Todd; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2014-01-01

    This open-label study was designed to assess immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) when administered to Japanese adults aged ?50 years not previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and to compare this Japanese study population with similar study populations in the United States (US; 50–64 years age group) and European Union (EU; ?65 years age group). Functional antibody immune responses were measured by opsonophagocytic activity assays. Immune responses in both Japanese age groups showed significant pre/postvaccination fold rises for each serotype. In the Japanese 50–64 years age group, immune responses for the majority of serotypes were significantly lower than in the ?65 years Japanese age group and generally lower than in the 50–64 years age group in the US study. Immune responses in the Japanese ?65 years age group were significantly higher for the majority of serotypes compared with the ?65 years age group in the EU study. The safety profiles across age groups and studies were generally similar. In conclusion, PCV13 elicited robust immune responses in the Japanese study population. The unanticipated higher immune responses observed in the older age group in the Japanese study are of interest and of potential benefit given the higher incidence of pneumococcal disease in older adults. PCV13 was well tolerated and safe. PMID:25424792

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United States, 1999–2004 and 2012 On This Page Key ... of cardiorespiratory fitness, by sex and age group: United States, 2012 1 Significantly different from girls in the ...

  2. Characteristics of Atopic Bronchial Asthma in Seniors over 80 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bo?ek, Andrzej; Filipowski, Marek; Fischer, Andreas; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Background. Asthma in the elderly is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of asthma in seniors. Materials and Methods. The study involved 105 people of at least 80 years of age (mean age of 84.1 ± 3.9 years) selected from a group of 1860 individuals. Spirometry, the methacholine test, allergy diagnosis, a measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, and administration of the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) were performed. Results. The average morbidity of asthma in the study population of elderly people (at least 80 years of age) was 5.6% (105 people) of the confidence interval (95% CI: 5.1–6.0). In the study group, 34% of the elderly asthmatics had uncontrolled asthma, 47% had partly controlled asthma, and only 24% had fully controlled asthma. Allergy to house dust mites was predominant. The average total score on the AQLQ was 4.12 ± 0.72 (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation) for the seniors, which was significantly lower than the score for the young. Conclusion. The pathogenesis, natural history, and value of the basic diagnostic methods of asthma in the elderly are similar to those observed in younger age groups. PMID:23984398

  3. Risk factors for low BMD in healthy men age 50 years or older: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Papaioannou; C. C. Kennedy; A. Cranney; G. Hawker; J. P. Brown; S. M. Kaiser; W. D. Leslie; C. J. M. O’Brien; A. M. Sawka; A. Khan; K. Siminoski; G. Tarulli; D. Webster; J. McGowan; J. D. Adachi

    2009-01-01

    Summary  In this systematic review, we summarize risk factors for low bone mineral density and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years\\u000a or older. Consistent risk factors were: age, smoking, low weight, physical\\/functional limitations, and previous fracture.\\u000a Data specific to men has clinical and policy implications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Osteoporosis is a significant health care problem in men as well as women, yet the

  4. Neonatal outcome of IVF singletons versus naturally conceived in women aged 35 years and over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlatka Tomic; Jozo Tomic

    Purpose  To compare the delivery and neonatal outcome of IVF singleton pregnancies with those conceived spontaneously in primiparous\\u000a women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were collected by the hospital’s obstetrics and pediatric staff at the time of examination, hospitalization, delivery\\u000a and discharge. A total of 283 women with in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton deliveries were matched according to ethnicity,\\u000a age, gravidity, smoking

  5. Reproducing ten years of road ageing--accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik; Arm, Maria; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Reuse of industrial aggregates is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This paper proposes a laboratory method for accelerated ageing of steel slag, to predict environmental and technical properties, starting from fresh slag. Ageing processes in a 10-year old asphalt road with steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type in the subbase were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leaching tests. Samples from the road centre and the pavement edge were compared with each other and with samples of fresh slag. It was found that slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas the road centre material was nearly identical to fresh slag, in spite of an accessible particle structure. Batches of moisturized road centre material exposed to oxygen, nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2) were used for accelerated ageing. Time (7-14 days), temperature (20-40 degrees C) and initial slag moisture content (8-20%) were varied to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. After ageing, water was added to assess leaching of metals and macroelements. 12% moisture, CO2 and seven days at 40 degrees C gave the lowest pH value. This also reproduced the observed ageing effect for Ca, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ca (decreased leaching) and for V, Si, and Al (increased leaching). However, ageing effects on SO4, DOC and Cr were not reproduced. PMID:19539979

  6. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  7. Lead Exposure, B Vitamins, and Plasma Homocysteine in Men 55 Years of Age and Older: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Linda Huiling; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead (Pb) exposure may influence the plasma concentration of homocysteine, a one-carbon metabolite associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the associations between Pb and homocysteine over time, or the potential influence of dietary factors. Objectives: We examined the longitudinal association of recent and cumulative Pb exposure with homocysteine concentrations and the potential modifying effect of dietary nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism. Methods: In a subcohort of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study (1,056 men with 2,301 total observations between 1993 and 2011), we used mixed-effects models to estimate differences in repeated measures of total plasma homocysteine across concentrations of Pb in blood and tibia bone, assessing recent and cumulative Pb exposure, respectively. We also assessed effect modification by dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increment in blood Pb (3 ?g/dL) was associated with a 6.3% higher homocysteine concentration (95% CI: 4.8, 7.8%). An IQR increment in tibia bone Pb (14 ?g/g) was associated with a 3.7% higher homocysteine (95% CI: 1.6, 5.6%), which was attenuated to 1.5% (95% CI: –0.5, 3.6%) after adjusting for blood Pb. For comparison, a 5-year increase in time from baseline was associated with a 5.7% increase in homocysteine (95% CI: 4.3, 7.1%). The association between blood Pb and homocysteine was significantly stronger among participants with estimated dietary intakes of vitamin B6 and folate below (vs. above) the study population medians, which were similar to the U.S. recommended dietary allowance intakes. Conclusions: Pb exposure was positively associated with plasma homocysteine concentration. This association was stronger among men with below-median dietary intakes of vitamins B6 and folate. These findings suggest that increasing intake of folate and B6 might reduce Pb-associated increases in homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Citation: Bakulski KM, Park SK, Weisskopf MG, Tucker KL, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Nie LH, Hu H, Weuve J. 2014. Lead exposure, B vitamins, and plasma homocysteine in men 55 years of age and older: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:1066–1074;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306931 PMID:24905780

  8. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  9. Obesity and Survival to Age 85 Years without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Seguin, Rebecca; Bell, Christina L.; Gass, Margery; Manini, Todd M.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Context The impact of obesity on late-age survival without disease or disability in women is unknown. Objective To investigate if higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affects women’s survival to age 85 years without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. Design, Setting, Participants Examination of 36,611 women from the Women’s Health Initiative who could have reached age 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US Clinical Centers from October 1993–December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Mutually-exclusive classifications: 1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (“healthy”); 2) survived with ?1 major chronic disease at baseline, but without new disease or disability (“prevalent diseased”); 3) survived and developed ?1 major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (“incident diseased”); 4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (“disabled”); and 5) did not survive (“died”). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range: 66–81). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19%, 15%, 23%, 18%, and 25%, respectively. Compared to normal-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before age 85 years. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to normal-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mobility disability was 1.6 (1.5–1.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.9–3.6), 6.6 (5.4–8.1), and 6.7 (4.8–9.2), for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference >88 centimeters was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. Conclusions Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before age 85 years in older women. PMID:24217806

  10. Risk Factors Associated With Abscess Formation in Children 5 Years of Age and Younger.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vaidehi; Wright, Avery; Mehta, Brinda; Zhu, Chunxiao; Lindholm, Erin; Lee, Yong-Woo; Emran, Mohammad Ali

    2014-11-12

    From 1997 to 2009, hospitalization rates have doubled for pediatric patients with soft tissue abscesses requiring incision and drainage. Despite this increasing national burden, few studies have been conducted to identify the risk factors associated with abscess formation. Our study evaluates a collection of physiological and lifestyle parameters that may serve as risk factors for abscess formation among pediatric patients 5 years of age or younger. Our results indicate family history and age 2 years and younger are associated with higher risk of abscess formation. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were prevalent pathogens associated with abscess in our study group. Pediatricians may employ these novel parameters to educate parents and/or guardians of high-risk groups on preventing abscess formation to alleviate the burden of incision & dragining requiring abscess on health care costs. PMID:25395611

  11. Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic etamsylate: follow up at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elbourne, D; Ayers, S; Dellagrammaticas, H; Johnson, A; Leloup, M; Lenoir-Piat, S

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the role of etamsylate* in reducing the risk of haemorrhagic brain damage and its consequences.?DESIGN—Follow up of babies recruited into a randomised controlled trial.?METHODS—A total of 334 infants born before 33 weeks gestation in France and Greece were randomly allocated within the first four hours of birth either to receive etamsylate or to act as controls. The principal outcomes in the trial were death or impairment and/or disability at the age of 2years.?RESULTS—Fifty nine children were lost to follow up. A total of 115 (34%) either died or had some impairment or disability, and 88(26%) either died or had severe impairment or disability at 2years of age. These outcomes did not differ significantly between the two randomised groups: relative risks and 95% confidence intervals 1.14 (0.78 to 1.4) and 1.17 (0.82 to 1.68) respectively. The findings were similar for all the prespecified subgroup analyses stratified by key prognostic factors at trial entry: country of birth, gestational age < or ? 29 weeks, inborn or outborn, age < or ? 1 hour, and with or without cerebral scan abnormality.?CONCLUSION—These findings do not support the use of etamsylate. Other strategies need to be evaluated for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in these vulnerable infants.? PMID:11320045

  12. MAXILLOFACIAL INJURIES IN A GROUP OF BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Rafaela; de Oliveira, Ingrid Araújo; Passeri, Luis Augusto; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Müller, Paulo Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical retrospective analysis of the etiology, incidence and treatment of selected oral and maxillofacial injuries in Brazilian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during a 14-year period between 1986 and 2000. All patients were admitted to Hospital XV in the city of Curitiba, State of Paraná. Age, gender, monthly distribution, etiology, soft injuries, associated injuries, site of fractures and methods of treatment were reviewed. Results: Of the total of 350 patients of all ages treated for facial injuries, 29.42% were within the age range of the study (0 to 18 years). Mean age was 10.61. Of the patients, 63.1% were male. The most common cause of injury was accidental falls (37.87%), followed by bicycle and motorcycle accidents (21.36%). Of the 103 patients, 88.34% had single injuries. Mandibular fractures were the most common and the condylar region was particularly affected. Conclusion: Facial trauma is a relatively common occurrence in children. The study indicates that fractures in children and adolescents differ quite considerably from an adult population. PMID:19466250

  13. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. PMID:25790469

  14. A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball

    PubMed Central

    Schorer, Jörg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745

  15. Biosecurity on a multiple-age egg production complex: a 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, David A

    2011-03-01

    A multiple-age egg production farm was conceived, designed, constructed, and managed with the goal of blocking the introduction of preventable poultry diseases and infestations. Fifteen years after conception and 13 years after housing the first hens, the 4 million-hen farm remains free of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis, and Ornithonyssus sylviarum. Annual savings in vaccine use exceed the estimated annual costs of the biosecurity program. The cumulative design, construction, and operation of this farm are a successful demonstration of practical, effective biosecurity on a commercial poultry farm. PMID:21500651

  16. Vaccination coverage in indigenous and immigrant children under 3 years of age in Catalonia (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Borràs; A. Domínguez; J. Batalla; N. Torner; N. Cardeñosa; M. Nebot; A. Plasencia; L. Salleras

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination coverage in a representative sample of children under 3 years of age in Catalonia (Spain) was studied. Parents of children selected were contacted and asked for the child's vaccination card. A total of 630 children were included, of whom 570 were indigenous and 60 immigrants. Primary vaccination coverage was 96.5% for indigenous and 85% for immigrant children (p=0.0001), while

  17. Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: epileptic and paretic outcome at one year of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Allemand; Federica Reale; Marco Sposato; Alessandro Allemand

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The issue concerning neurologic outcome in patients with perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (H.I.E) has inspired many studies which tried to identify adequate prognostic factors. Our work aims to find among neonatal parameters: - factors which help to predict the risk to develop both Cerebral Palsy (CP) and secondary Epilepsy at one year of age in subjects affected by perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic

  18. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma in childhood (up to 18 years of age)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Takahashi; Martin-L. Hansmann

    1990-01-01

    Summary A group of 47 patients up to 18 years of age, with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract, were investigated. The lesions were located in the stomach (n=2), small intestine (n=17), the ileocecal region (n=20), the large intestine (n=7), and multifocally in the small and large intestines (n=1). Of the patients, 41 were male and 6 were female;

  19. Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8–16 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nili Steinberg; Itzhak Siev-ner; Smadar Peleg; Gali Dar; Youssef Masharawi; Aviva Zeev; Israel Hershkovitz

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8–16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one

  20. Prospective Study of Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Children Less Than 3 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Konig; Wolfgang Konig; Ralf Arnold; Herrmann Werchau; Gabriele Ihorst; Johannes Forster

    2004-01-01

    Most lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children under the age of 3 years are due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Epidemiological, host, and viral factors eventually account for the severity of LRTIs, but they do not completely explain it. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was recently identified in children with LRTIs. In a population-based prospective multicenter study (the PRI.DE study, conducted

  1. Rubella Immunity in Women of Childbearing Age, Eight Years After the Immunization Program in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpana, Fatemeh; Pournasrollah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rubella is a viral disease with a worldwide distribution. Mass vaccination campaigns have increased the vaccine coverage in the world with substantial impact on reduction of rubella infections. In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals 5-25 years old, was initiated in 2003 and mass childhood vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps has continued ever since. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine vaccination on rubella immunity among women of childbearing age in Babol, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 women of childbearing age living in Babol, north of Iran, in 2011. Twelve samples were excluded from the study because of inadequate sera amounts. Serum samples were examined for presence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies by means of quantitative ELISA. Results: From a total of 800 samples in this study, rubella IgG seropositivity was seen in 786 (98.3% [95% CI = %97.5-%99.1]) cases. The maximum IgG seropositivity (99.2%) was seen in the age group of 21-25 years old and the lowest immunity (87.7%) was in the group of above 30 years old. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the rate of seropositivity to rubella virus in our population was high, suggesting that vaccination has been successful in Babol, reducing the likelihood of congenital rubella infection. PMID:25237562

  2. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. Results A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. Conclusion The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health. PMID:24380060

  3. NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council July 9-10, 2009 NASA Headquarters Washington, D Chair, Planetary Science Subcommittee (Interim) #12;NAC Planetary Science Subcommittee, July 9-10, 2009

  4. Deformational plagiocephaly: a follow-up of head shape, parental concern and neurodevelopment at ages 3 and 4 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B L Hutchison; A W Stewart; E A Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesTo compare head shape measurements, parental concern about head shape and developmental delays in infancy with measurements obtained at follow-up at ages 3 and 4 years.DesignLongitudinal cohort study.SettingInitial assessments were conducted at a plagiocephaly clinic; follow-up assessments were conducted in the children's homes.Participants129 children with a mean age of 4 years (range 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9

  5. Suicide trends among persons aged 10-24 years--United States, 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Erin M; Annest, Joseph L; Simon, Thomas R; Luo, Feijun; Dahlberg, Linda L

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and accounted for 5,178 deaths in this age group in 2012. Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning (including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. Previous reports have noted that trends in suicide rates vary by mechanism and by age group in the United States, with increasing rates of suffocation suicides among young persons. To test whether this increase is continuing and to determine whether it varies by demographic subgroups among persons aged 10-24 years, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data for the period 1994-2012. Trends in suicide rates were examined by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and mechanism of suicide. Results of the analysis indicated that, during 1994-2012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic subgroups during this period. Clinicians, hotline staff and others who work with young persons need to be aware of current trends in suffocation suicides in this group so that they can accurately assess risk and educate families. Media coverage of suicide incidents and clusters should follow established guidelines to avoid exacerbating risk for "suicide contagion" among vulnerable young persons.* Suicide contagion is a process by which exposure to the suicide or suicidal behavior of one or more persons influences others who are already vulnerable and thinking about suicide to attempt or die by suicide. Early prevention strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of young persons developing suicidal thoughts and behavior. PMID:25742379

  6. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  7. Seroprevalence of Antipolio Antibodies among Children <15 Years of Age in Border Provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, HaiBo; Cui, Hui; Ding, ZhengRong; Ba, Pian; Zhu, ShuangLi; Wen, Ning; Hao, LiXin; Ning, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, De; Xu, WenBo; Zhang, Yong; Fan, ChunXiang; Yu, WenZhou; Liang, XiaoFeng

    2013-01-01

    Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals <15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ?8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China. PMID:23677325

  8. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Izabela; Ole?niewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; So?tysik, Mariusz; B?aszczuk, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ?65 years with respiratory system disorders. Material and methods In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ?65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied. Results The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. Conclusion The respondents’ sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result. PMID:26170646

  9. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  10. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  11. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  12. Sensitization to hen's egg at the age of twelve months is predictive for allergic sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens at the age of three years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Nickel; Michael Kulig; Johannes Forster; Renate Bergmann; Carl Peter Bauer; Susanne Lau; Irene Guggenmoos-Holzmann; Ulrich Wahn

    1997-01-01

    Background: Specific predictors for atopic sensitization in early infancy are prerequisites for preventive intervention studies. Objective: To identify predictors of allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens in infancy, 1314 children in five German cities were followed up from birth (1990) to the age of 3 years. Methods: BLOOD samples were taken from cord blood and at follow-up visits at the ages

  13. Changes in human blood pressure with season, age and solar cycles: A 26-year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portela, Ana; Northrup, Gordon; Halberg, Franz; Cornélissen, Germaine; Wendt, Hans; Melby, James C.; Haus, Erhard

    1996-12-01

    The record was studied of a 71-year-old, diurnally active (0700 2200 hours) male psychiatrist (G.N.) who self-measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPS and BPD) mostly but not exclusively on Sunday mornings, from 1969 to 1994. A large about-yearly change was revealed which increased with age and was accompanied by a decreasing trend in the yearly rhythm-adjusted mean (MESOR; P<0.01). According to conventional criteria that specify only upper limits of acceptability, G.N. was hypertensive in summer and normotensive in other seasons. Since changes in both MESOR and circannual amplitude occurred, a systematic surveillance of BP is the chronobiological recommendation.

  14. Lifestyle and 15Year Survival Free of Heart Attack, Stroke, and Diabetes in Middle-aged British Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Goya Wannamethee; A. Gerald Shaper; Mary Walker; Shah Ebrahim

    1998-01-01

    Background: To examine the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and body mass index (BMI)) and the like- lihood of 15-year survival free of major cardiovascular end points and diabetes in middle-aged men. Methods: A prospective study of 7142 men aged 40 to 59 years at screening with no history of coronary heart dis- ease, diabetes,

  15. Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults August 28, 2007

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Section 4, Managing Asthma Long Term--Youths 12 Years of Age and Adults 326 August 28, 2007 SECTION 4, MANAGING ASTHMA LONG TERM IN YOUTHS 12 YEARS OF AGE AND ADULTS K E Y P O I N T S : M A N A G I N for therapy is to control asthma by (Evidence A): -- Reducing impairment Prevent chronic and troublesome

  16. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  17. Cytotoxic Phenanthrenequinones and 9,10-Dihydrophenanthrenes from Calanthe arisanensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Yen, Ming-Hon; Yu, Donglei; Liu, Yi-Nan; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Two new phenanthrenequinones, calanquinones B–C (2–3), four new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, calanhydroquinones A–C (4–6), and calanphenanthrene A (7), along with five known compounds (1 and 8–11) were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of Calanthe arisanensis through bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were identified from spectroscopic data, and the compounds were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity against human lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), colon (HCT-8), breast (MCF-7), nasopharyngeal (KB), and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KBVIN) cancer cell lines. Compound 1 showed the highest potency (EC50 < 0.5 ?g/mL) against all seven cancer cell lines, with the greatest activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells (EC50 < 0.02 ?g/mL). Generally, except for 7, compounds 2–11 also showed significant cytotoxic activity (EC50 < 4?g/mL) against some cell lines (especially PC-3 and MCF-7) in the panel. PMID:19193043

  18. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, David T. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  19. A craniofacial growth maturity gradient for males and females between 4 and 16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Buschang, P H; Baume, R M; Nass, G G

    1983-07-01

    Differential growth of the craniofacial complex implies variation in ontogenetic patterns of development. This investigation quantifies the relative maturity--as defined by percent adult status--of nine cephalometric dimensions and stature. Analysis is based on 663 lateral cephalograms from a mixed longitudinal sample of 26 males and 25 females between 4 and 16 years of age. Graphic comparison of maturity status across the age range shows that variation is intergraded between the neural and somatic growth maturity patterns, as described by head height and stature, respectively. The maturity gradient moves from head height through anterior cranial base, posterior cranial base and maxillary length, upper facial height, corpus length, and ramus height to stature. After 9 years of age ramus height is less mature than stature. Anterior maxillary and mandibular heights diminish during transitional dentition and thereafter exhibit maturity patterns that compare to corpus length. Although females are consistently more mature than males, the gradient of variation between dimensions is sex independent. PMID:6614151

  20. Development and evaluation of a follow up assessment of preterm infants at 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    de Kleine, M J K; den Ouden, A L; Kollee, L; van der Sanden, M W G N.; Sondaar, M; van Kessel-Feddem..., B J M; Knuijt, S; van Baar, A L; Ilsen, A; Breur-Pieterse, R; Briet, J; Brand, R; Verloove-Vanhoric..., S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Long term follow up shows a high frequency of developmental disturbances in preterm survivors of neonatal intensive care formerly considered non-disabled. Aims: To develop and validate an assessment tool that can help paediatricians to identify before 6 years of age which survivors have developmental disturbances that may interfere with normal education and normal life. Methods: A total of 431 very premature infants, mean gestational age 30.2 weeks, mean birth weight 1276 g, were studied at age 5 years. Children with severe handicaps were excluded. The percentage of children with a correctly identified developmental disturbance in the domains cognition, speech and language development, neuromotor development, and behaviour were determined. Results: The follow up instrument classified 67% as optimal and 33% as at risk or abnormal. Of the children classified as at risk or abnormal, 60% had not been identified at earlier follow up assessments. The combined set of standardised tests identified a further 30% with mild motor, cognitive, or behavioural disturbances. The paediatrician's assessment had a specificity of 88% (95% CI 83–93%), a sensitivity of 48% (95% CI 42–58%), a positive predictive value of 85% (95% CI 78–91%), and a negative predictive value of 55% (95% CI 49–61%). Conclusions: Even after standardised and thorough assessment, paediatricians may overlook impairments for cognitive, motor, and behavioural development. Long term follow up studies that do not include detailed standardised tests for multiple domains, especially fine motor domain, may underestimate developmental problems. PMID:14500304

  1. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh. PMID:23561052

  2. Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

  3. Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Garman, Greg C; Fine, Michael L; Hager, Christian H; McIninch, Stephen P

    2010-10-23

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a 'mini-ice age' with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times. PMID:20236963

  4. Placental weight, birth measurements, and blood pressure at age 8 years.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, V M; Miller, A G; Boulton, T J; Cockington, R A; Craig, I H; Magarey, A M; Robinson, J S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between blood pressure during childhood and both placental weight and body size at birth, in an Australian population. DESIGN: A follow up study of a birth cohort, undertaken when cohort members were aged 8 years. SETTING: Adelaide, South Australia. SUBJECTS: 830 children born in the Queen Victoria Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia, during 1975-6. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured when the children were aged 8 years. RESULTS: Blood pressure at 8 years was positively related to placental weight and inversely related to birth weight, after adjusting for the child's current weight. For diastolic pressure there was a decrease of 1.0 mm Hg for each 1 kg increase in birth weight (95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.4 to 2.4) and an increase of 0.7 mm Hg for each 100 g increase in placental weight (95% CI = 0.1 to 1.3). Diastolic pressure was also inversely related to chest circumference at birth, independently of placental weight, with a decrease of 0.3 mm Hg for each 1 cm increase in chest circumference (95% CI = 0.2 to 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are further evidence that birth characteristics, indicative of fetal growth patterns, are related to blood pressure in later life. PMID:8758133

  5. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

  6. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  7. Computer Skills and Internet Use in Adults Aged 50-74 Years: Influence of Hearing Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Daniel P A; Kang, Sujin; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of personal computers (PCs) and the Internet to provide health care information and interventions has increased substantially over the past decade. Yet the effectiveness of such an approach is highly dependent upon whether the target population has both access and the skill set required to use this technology. This is particularly relevant in the delivery of hearing health care because most people with hearing loss are over 50 years (average age for initial hearing aid fitting is 74 years). Although PC skill and Internet use by demographic factors have been examined previously, data do not currently exist that examine the effects of hearing difficulties on PC skill or Internet use in older adults. Objective To explore the effect that hearing difficulty has on PC skill and Internet use in an opportunistic sample of adults aged 50-74 years. Methods Postal questionnaires about hearing difficulty, PC skill, and Internet use (n=3629) were distributed to adults aged 50-74 years through three family physician practices in Nottingham, United Kingdom. A subsample of 84 respondents completed a second detailed questionnaire on confidence in using a keyboard, mouse, and track pad. Summed scores were termed the “PC confidence index.” The PC confidence index was used to verify the PC skill categories in the postal questionnaire (ie, never used a computer, beginner, and competent). Results The postal questionnaire response rate was 36.78% (1298/3529) and 95.15% (1235/1298) of these contained complete information. There was a significant between-category difference for PC skill by PC confidence index (P<.001), thus verifying the three-category PC skill scale. PC and Internet use was greater in the younger respondents (50-62 years) than in the older respondents (63-74 years). The younger group’s PC and Internet use was 81.0% and 60.9%, respectively; the older group’s PC and Internet use was 54.0% and 29.8%, respectively. Those with slight hearing difficulties in the older group had significantly greater odds of PC use compared to those with no hearing difficulties (odds ratio [OR]=1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.30, P=.02). Those with moderate+ hearing difficulties had lower odds of PC use compared with those with no hearing difficulties, both overall (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.87, P=.008) and in the younger group (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.86, P=.008). Similar results were demonstrated for Internet use by age group (older: OR=1.57, 95% CI 0.99-2.47, P=.05; younger: OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.62, P=.001). Conclusions Hearing health care is of particular relevance to older adults because of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss. Our data show that older adults experiencing slight hearing difficulty have increased odds of greater PC skill and Internet use than those reporting no difficulty. These findings suggest that PC and Internet delivery of hearing screening, information, and intervention is feasible for people between 50-74 years who have hearing loss, but who would not typically present to an audiologist. PMID:22954484

  8. The relative age effect in European professional soccer: did ten years of research make any difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Baker, Joseph; Michiels, Stijn; Schorer, Joerg; Van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) refers to an asymmetry in the birth-date distribution favouring players born early in the selection year and discriminating against participants born later in the year. While the RAE effect was initially reported in sport more than two decades ago, there have been few attempts to examine whether player selection strategies have changed over time in light of our improved understanding of the phenomenon. We compared the birth-date distributions of professional soccer players in ten European countries over a 10-year period involving the 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 competitive seasons, respectively. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to compare differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions across selection years. Generally, results indicated no change in the RAE over the past 10 years in professional soccer, emphasizing the robust nature of this phenomenon. We propose a change in the structure of youth involvement in soccer to reduce the impact of the RAE on talent identification and selection. PMID:23005576

  9. [A synthetical mouth study of 105 Uygur people above 100 years of age].

    PubMed

    Qui, H; Li, C; Feng, M

    1996-11-01

    Oral examination was performed in 105 Uygur people aged 100 to 135 years. Among them there were 77 males and 28 females. Results were as follows: the teeth loss rate was 100.0%, edentulous rate 54.3%, dental caries 70.5%, periodontal disease 52.4%, normal labial-buccal mucosa 65.7%, fissured tongue 74.3%, no smoking 86.7%, no drinking 94.3%, and all of them had neither history of dental extration nor restoration. This study may provide data for investigating secret of human longevity. PMID:9592293

  10. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M Evans

    2011-01-01

    Background  Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening\\u000a with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The results

  11. Oxygen saturation in healthy children aged 5 to 16 years residing in Huayllay, Peru at 4340?m.

    PubMed

    Schult, Sandra; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxemia is a major life-threatening complication of childhood pneumonia. The threshold points for hypoxemia vary with altitude. However, few published data describe that normal range of variation. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of normal mean Sao(2) levels and an approximate cutoff point to define hypoxemia for clinical purposes above 4300 meters above sea level (masl). Children aged 5 to 16 yr were examined during primary care visits at the Huayllay Health Center. Huayllay is a rural community located at 4340?m in the province of Pasco in the Peruvian Andes. We collected basic sociodemographic data and evaluated three outcomes: arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) with a pulse oximeter, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Comparisons of main outcomes among age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, and 15-16 yr) and sex were performed using linear regression models. The correlation of Sao(2) with heart rate and respiration rate was established by Pearson's correlation test. We evaluated 583 children, of whom 386 were included in the study. The average age was 10.3 yr; 55.7% were female. The average Sao(2), heart rate, and respiratory rate were 85.7% (95% CI: 85.2-86.2), 80.4/min (95% CI: 79.0-81.9), and 19.9/min (95% CI: 19.6-20.2), respectively. Sao(2) increased with age (p?age group. At 4300?m, the reference values for hypoxemia may be 14.2% lower than at sea level. This difference must be considered when diagnosing hypoxemia or deciding oxygen supplementation at high altitude. Other studies are needed to determine whether this reference value is appropriate for clinical use. PMID:21452970

  12. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunyoung Pak

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995–2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller

  13. Short-Term Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Functioning in Preschoolers: Longitudinal Predictors of Mathematical Achievement at Age 7 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Bull; Kimberly Andrews Espy; Sandra A. Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments)

  14. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-05-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes. PMID:25521785

  15. Offspring of women with nonorganic psychosis: infant attachment to the mother at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Näslund, B; Persson-Blennow, I; McNeil, T; Kaij, L; Malmquist-Larsson, A

    1984-03-01

    Attachment to the mother at 1 year of age was studied in 46 "high-risk" offspring of index mothers with a history of nonorganic psychosis and in 80 demographically similar control offspring. Attachment was measured in the home in a standardized manner by a modified version of Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure. Three different patterns, representing "secure attachment" (Type B), "anxiously avoidant attachment" (Type A) and "anxiously ambivalent attachment" (Type C), were defined. While no significant difference on attachment type was found between the total index versus control group, a significantly increased rate of anxious attachment (A + C) was found for offspring of schizophrenics but no other diagnostic group. Attachment type was unrelated to index mothers' psychiatric hospitalization, psychotic status and known mental disturbance during the infants' first year of life, as well as to the infants' sex. PMID:6711349

  16. Custom stems for femoral deformity in patients less than 40 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Michael; Aldinger, Guenther; Krahmer, Knut; Bruckner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Femoral deformity associated with osteoarthritis is a challenge for both the surgeon and the implant. Many of the patients with these deformities are young. Standard implants can be difficult to fit into these femurs. We prospectively evaluated the outcome of custom uncemented femoral stems in young patients. Methods 61 consecutive patients (72 hips) underwent surgery for osteoarthritis because of femoral deformity at a mean age of 35 (22–40) years. The patients received a CT3D-A custom-made femoral stem and an uncemented cup. The mean follow-up time was 14 (10–16) years. 2 patients died at 7 and 8 years after surgery, otherwise, none of the patients were lost to follow-up. Results At follow-up, the femoral prosthesis had not been revised in 59 patients (70 hips). 3 patients (3 hips) had required revision surgery due to loosening of the acetabular component; 2 hips were awaiting revision surgery for loosening of the acetabular cup. There were no cases of dislocation or infection. At review, all stems were considered stable according to the radiographic criteria. No migration or subsidence was observed on plain radiographs. Interpretation Our results are comparable to published results of custom stems regarding survival and outcome. Considering the young age and the deformities in this series of uncemented custom femoral stems, and the fact that there was follow-up of up to 16 years, the survival is remarkable. This technique appears to be a reasonable alternative in younger patients with femoral deformities. PMID:19513891

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Child Wheeze from Birth to 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Robert S.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Hornung, Richard; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is routinely detected in > 90% of Americans, promotes experimental asthma in mice. The association of prenatal BPA exposure and wheeze has not been evaluated in humans. Objective: We examined the relationship between prenatal BPA exposure and wheeze in early childhood. Methods: We measured BPA concentrations in serial maternal urine samples from a prospective birth cohort of 398 mother–infant pairs and assessed parent-reported child wheeze every 6 months for 3 years. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to evaluate the association of prenatal urinary BPA concentration with the dichotomous outcome wheeze (wheeze over the previous 6 months). Results: Data were available for 365 children; BPA was detected in 99% of maternal urine samples during pregnancy. In multivariable analysis, a one-unit increase in log-transformed creatinine-standardized mean prenatal urinary BPA concentration was not significantly associated with child wheeze from birth to 3 years of age, but there was an interaction of BPA concentration with time (p = 0.003). Mean prenatal BPA above versus below the median was positively associated with wheeze at 6 months of age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.1] but not at 3 years (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.1). In secondary analyses evaluating associations of each prenatal BPA concentration separately, urinary BPA concentrations measured at 16 weeks gestation were associated with wheeze (AOR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5), but BPA concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation or at birth were not. Conclusions: Mean prenatal BPA was associated with increased odds of wheeze in early life, and the effect diminished over time. Evaluating exposure at each prenatal time point demonstrated an association between wheeze from 6 months to 3 years and log-transformed BPA concentration at 16 weeks gestation only. PMID:22334053

  18. Non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients aged 80 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Facktor, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is routinely performed with general anesthesia and double-lumen endotracheal intubation, but this technique may stress an elderly patient’s functional reserve. We chose to study the safety and efficacy of non-intubated VATS, utilizing local anesthesia, sedation, and spontaneous ventilation in the elderly. Methods The medical records of all patients aged 80 years and older who underwent VATS under local anesthesia and sedation during the time period 6/1/2002 to 6/1/2010 at Geisinger Health System (Pennsylvania, USA) and 10/1/2011 to 12/31/2014 at Sinai Hospital (Maryland, USA) were retrospectively reviewed. Unsuccessful attempts at this technique were eligible for inclusion but there were none. No patient was excluded based on comorbidity. Results A total of 96 patients ranging in age from 80 to 104 years underwent 102 non-intubated VATS procedures: pleural biopsy/effusion drainage with or without talc 73, drainage of empyema 17, evacuate hemothorax 4, pericardial window 3, lung biopsy 2, treat chylothorax 2, treat pneumothorax 1. No patient required intubation or conversion to thoracotomy. No patient required a subsequent procedure or biopsy. Complications occurred in three patients (3.1% morbidity): cerebrovascular accident, pulmonary embolism, prolonged air leak. One 94-year-old patient died from overanticoagulation and two 84-year-old patients died of their advanced lung cancers (3.1% morbidity). Conclusions Non-intubated VATS utilizing local anesthesia and sedation in the elderly is well tolerated and safe for a number of indications.

  19. Oxidation and Wear of 100-Mrad Cross-linked Polyethylene Shelf-aged for 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Kyomoto, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Some previous studies suggest that aging influences wear and oxidatively degraded nonsterilized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibits decreased wear resistance. We therefore asked whether shelf-aging storage conditions influenced degradation and wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE. We examined oxidation and wear of 100-Mrad gamma-irradiated UHMWPE (100-Mrad polyethylene) cups shelf-aged for 30 years without (n = 2) or with (n = 2) packages. The oxidation index of the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene surface (4) was higher than that of the packaged one (2.7). The packaged 100-Mrad polyethylene cup exhibited a high wear resistance with a steady wear rate of 0.5 mg/106 cycles. In contrast, the unpackaged 100-Mrad polyethylene exhibited an extremely high initial wear rate of 187.9 mg/106 cycles over the first 0.25 × 106 cycles with a subsequently reduced wear rate of 5 mg/106 cycles after 5 × 106 cycles. Packaging over long periods inhibits surface oxidation and maintains the wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE cups. PMID:18196416

  20. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years. Study Design and Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Results We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD) change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7) mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1) %/yr). Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years. Conclusion The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time. PMID:25875773

  1. Swimming Pool Drownings Among US Residents Aged 5–24 Years: Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995–1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools. PMID:16507730

  2. [Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized children under two years of age].

    PubMed

    Wulta?ska, Dorota; Obuch-Woszczaty?ski, Piotr; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Pituch, Hanna; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of C. difficile in the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized children under two years of age and a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic features. Hundred and seventy-eight samples collected from the faecal samples of children aged 2 months to 2 years, hospitalized in 2003-2006 were examined for the presence of toxin A/B of C. difficile. Toxigenicity of strains was confirmed using PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined using E-test. The percentage of children infected with C. difficile was 68.6%. Toxigenic of C. difficile strains A+B+CDT- accounted for 35%, A-B+CDT- 10%, and 5% were strains of A+B+CDT+. 50% of the cultivated strains were non-toxigenic. The percentage of strains resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin was respectively 52% and 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was widespread concern 98% of strains, and the moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin was 8%. The percentage of resistant strains to imipenem was 50%. All tested strains were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. PMID:20564974

  3. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  5. Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

    2013-10-01

    The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83 years to 6.17 years (M=5.42 years, SD=3.58 months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6 months later following the intervention, and then again at 18 months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. PMID:23186610

  6. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50?years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49?years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56?years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=?0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30?years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30?years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of Patterns in Girls’ Weight Concerns and Body Dissatisfaction from Ages 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Markey, Charlotte N.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of girls’ weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls’ eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls’ weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls’ weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls’ who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls’ reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. PMID:12655629

  8. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6–8 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day’s school lunch reported by 6–8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child’s intake of the previous day’s lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children’s recalls and teachers’ records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Findings Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6–8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson’s correlations r=0.92, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement between child-reported and weighed intakes but confirmed systematic differences between teacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Conclusions Children 6–8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake. Parents were not able to report on their children’s school lunches consumed on the previous day. PMID:24047239

  9. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Gracely, Edward; Tran, Mary; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6%) of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7%) of the 628 control children (p = 0.1). Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4) months versus 23.6 (3.1) months (P = 0.6). Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4). The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ?20, ?10 and ?5 ?g/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes. PMID:22690192

  10. Influence of smoking habits on change in carbon monoxide transfer factor over 10 years in middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A; Joyce, H; Hopper, L; Pride, N B

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema is associated with a reduction in carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (TLCO/VA), but little is known about the evolution of changes in TLCO/VA in middle aged smokers at risk of developing chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: TLCO/VA (single breath method) was measured on two occasions 10 years apart in 122 middle aged men. RESULTS: Initially TLCO/VA averaged 97% predicted in never smokers (n = 42, mean age 37.2 years), 99% predicted in ex-smokers (n = 21, mean age 41.9 years), and 85% predicted in those who smoked over 15 cigarettes a day (n = 42, mean age 42.0 years). Mean rates of decrease in TLCO/VA over 10 years, however, were similar in the three groups, so that differences between smokers and non-smokers did not increase during the 10 years. Seventeen men (mean age 40.9 years) who initially were smokers became sustained ex-smokers within two years of the first measurement; in these men mean absolute values of TLCO/VA rose, averaging 89% predicted at the first assessment but 102% predicted 10 years later. CONCLUSION: By the age of about 40 years TLCO/VA was lower in smokers than in never smokers but this difference did not increase over the following 10 years. Sustained ex-smokers had values similar to those of never smokers even when TLCO/VA was known to have been reduced while they were smoking. Changes in TLCO/VA associated with stopping smoking were considerably larger than could be explained by carbon monoxide back pressure, indicating that mechanisms other than irreversible increase in the size of terminal air spaces underlie the lower values in smokers. To detect emphysema in smokers it is necessary to use reference equations that take account of current smoking. PMID:8493623

  11. Synthesis and Rotamerism of 9,10-Diarylsubstituted 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-Decahydroacridine-1,8-Diones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Chebanov; V. E. Saraev; S. M. Desenko; V. D. Orlov; E. A. Gura

    2004-01-01

    Condensation of aromatic aldehydes with 5,5-dimethylcylohexane-1,3-dione and primary arylamines gave 9,10-diaryl-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-decahydroacridine-1,8-diones. Several stereochemical features of the synthesized compounds are discussed. Dynamic NMR was used to determine the inversion barriers for the rotamers formed.

  12. Year-class strength and feeding ecology of age-0 and age-1 paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Fort Peck Lake, Montana, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Kozfkay; D. L. Scarnecchia

    2002-01-01

    Summary The paddlefish Polyodon spathula stock that inhabits Fort Peck Lake, Montana, and spawns in the Missouri River is among the few remaining naturally-reproducing stocks. For effective management, information is needed on reproductive success and year-class strength, which entails an understanding of the distribution, abundance, and food habits of age-0 and age-1 fish. Sampling was conducted during the late summer

  13. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

  14. A first attempt to prevent amblyopia and squint by spectacle correction of abnormal refractions from age 1 year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R M Ingram; C Walker; J M Wilson; P E Arnold; J Lucas; S Dally

    1985-01-01

    Spectacle correction of unusually hypermetropic refractions from age 1 year did not reduce the incidence of squint or amblyopia, nor did it lead to a reduction in the severity of residual amblyopia after subsequent occlusion.

  15. Fetal exposure to an intra-amniotic inflammation and the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Hyun Yoon; Roberto Romero; Joong Shin Park; Chong Jai Kim; Seung Hyup Kim; Jung Hwan Choi; Tai Ryoon Han

    2000-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to determine whether fetal exposure to intra-amniotic inflammation and a systemic fetal inflammatory response (funisitis) are associated with the development of cerebral palsy at the age of 3 years.

  16. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. Objective To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7...

  17. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Native American and Caucasian Children 1 to 5 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin E. Blum; Esther K. Wei; Helaine R. H. Rockett; Jean D. Langeliers; Jill Leppert; Jane D. Gardner; Graham A. Colditz

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the validity of the Harvard Service Food Frequency Questionnaire (HFFQ) in the diet assessment of Native American and Caucasian children 1 to 5 years of age participating in the North Dakota WIC program. Methods: The 84-item HFFQ was administered twice to the parent or guardian of 131 Native American and 102 Caucasian children ages 1 to 5

  18. Age Difference in Trunk Kinematics During Walking with Different Backpack Weights in 6- to 12YearOld Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JING XIAN LI; YOULIAN HONG

    2004-01-01

    The study reported herein investigated age difference in trunk kinematics during walking with different backpack weights. Two groups of boys, aged 6 and 12 years old, participated in the study. A multiple trial test was conducted with backpacks loaded with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of each subject's body weight. The subjects walked on a treadmill at a self-selected comfortable

  19. Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Six Potential Screening Instruments for Bipolar Disorder in Youths Aged 5 to 17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Demeter, Christine; DelPorto Bedoya, Denise; Price, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficiency of six index tests as predictors of juvenile bipolar disorder in two large outpatient samples, aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, gathered from 1997 to 2002. Method: DSM-IV diagnosis was based on a semistructured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age

  20. Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    McCay, Timothy S.

    Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania ABSTRACT.--Diet of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is poorly known. Age, sex and time decrease the bobcat's ability to travel and hunt effectively. INTRODUCTION The diet of the bobcat (Lynx

  1. Development of Sustained Attention Assessed Using the Continuous Performance Test among Children 6–15 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaucer C. H. Lin; Chuhsing K. Hsiao; Wei J. Chen

    1999-01-01

    The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a widely used measure of sustained attention, which may rely on the efficiency of cognitive inhibition. We examined the relationships of age and sex with CPT performance among 341 randomly selected school children 6–15 years of age. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the hit rate, false alarm rate, and sensitivity of both the undegraded

  2. Infant Gaze Following and Pointing Predict Accelerated Vocabulary Growth through Two Years of Age: A Longitudinal, Growth Curve Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2008-01-01

    We found that infant gaze following and pointing predicts subsequent language development. At ages 0 ; 10 or 0 ; 11, infants saw an adult turn to look at an object in an experimental setting. Productive vocabulary was assessed longitudinally through two years of age. Growth curve modeling showed that infants who gaze followed and looked longer at…

  3. An Educational Way of Dealing with Tunneling, Motivation to Novelties, and Creative Mindies in 13-16 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Raimo J.

    The objective of this study was to inquire if tunneling of mind, motivation to novelties, and creative mindies in 4 age groups (13, 14, 15, and 16, years of age) have dynamic relationships. A creative mindy is a new organized mind shape not previously occurring. The subjects were 93 pupils of a secondary comprehensive school. Questionnaires were…

  4. Incidence of malignant disease by morphological type, in young persons aged 12–24 years in England, 1979–1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Birch; R. D. Alston; M. Quinn; A. M. Kelsey

    2003-01-01

    Cancer incidence data are generally presented in terms of primary site, but this method is inappropriate for cancers in young persons. We have used a morphology-based classification system to produce national incidence rates for cancers in persons aged 12–24 years by detailed diagnostic sub-type. The overall incidence rates for malignant disease in young persons aged 12–14, 15–19 and 20–24 years

  5. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children agedyears 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  6. Use of sublingual nitroglycerin during head-up tilt-table testing in patients >60 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Natale; Jasbir Sra; Masood Akhtar; Luke Kusmirek; Gery Tomassoni; Fabio Leonelli; Keith Newby; Salwa Beheiry; Antonio Pacifico

    1998-01-01

    Previous work had demonstrated a reduced specificity associated with head-up tilt protocols using high-dose isoproterenol in patients between 20 and 50 years of age. We evaluated the specificity of head-up tilt testing using different isoproterenol infusion doses and administration of nitroglycerin in patients aged >60 years. In addition, whether the same protocols have impact on the sensitivity of the test

  7. Prevalence and correlates of sexual partner concurrency among Australian gay men aged 18-39 years.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical models predict higher rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in populations with higher rates of concurrent sexual partnerships. Although gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high rates of HIV/STIs, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sexual concurrency in these populations. This paper reports findings from a national community-based survey of 1,034 Australian gay-identified men aged 18-39 years, who gave detailed information about their sexual partners over the past 12 months. In all, 237 (23 %) reported two or more concurrent sexual partners. For their most recent period of concurrency, 44 % reported three or more partners and 66 % reported unprotected sex with one or more of their partners. A multivariate logistic regression found sexual concurrency was significantly more likely among men on higher incomes (P = 0.02), who first had anal sex at a relatively young age (P = 0.03), and who reported a large number of partners in the past 12 months (P < 0.001). Age, education, HIV status, and other sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables were not significant correlates. However, men who reported sexual concurrency were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an STI in the past 12 months (P = 0.04). Findings from this study suggest sexual concurrency is common among younger Australian gay men. With many of these men not always using condoms, health agencies should consider the potential impact of concurrency on HIV/STI epidemics among gay men and other MSM. PMID:24057932

  8. Adiponectin and Leptin Trajectories in Mexican-American Children from Birth to 9 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Vitaly; Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Davé, Veronica; Tyler, Kristin; Vedar, Michelle; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines), over childhood. Subjects and Design Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. Results Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0–2, 2–5, and 5–9-year periods increased for both leptin (r?=?0.06, 0.31 and 0.62) and adiponectin (r?=?0.25, 0.41 and 0.46). Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable]) and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]). While leptin groups were most separated over the 2–9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR?=?1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L). Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR?=?1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A). Conclusion Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to be further explored. PMID:24205046

  9. Renewed Radio Activity of Age 370 years in the Extragalactic Source 0108+388

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owsianik, I.; Conway, J. E.; Polatidis, A. G.

    1998-08-01

    We present the results of multi-epoch global VLBI observations of the Compact Symmetric Object (CSO) 0108+388 at 5 GHz. Analysis of data spread over 12 years shows strong evidence for an increase in the separation of the outer components at a rate of 0.197+/-0.026 h(-1) c. Given an overall size of 22.2 h(-1) pc this implies a kinematic age of only 367+/-48 yrs. This result strongly supports the idea that radio emission in Compact Symmetric Objects arises from recently activated radio sources. The presence of weak radio emission on kpc-scales in 0108+388 suggests recurrent activity in this source, and that we are observing it just as a new period of activity is beginning.

  10. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  11. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)], E-mail: lshi@wfubmc.edu; Molina, Doris P. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Michael E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Wheeler, Kenneth T. [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  12. [Preschool age mortality (1-4-year olds) in Cuba, 1961-1975].

    PubMed

    Riverón Corteguera, R; López, C; Sierra Proenza, E

    1978-01-01

    An abstract is made of the preschool age mortality in Cuba through the period of 1961 to 1975. The authors outlight how it has dropped from 2.0 to 1.1 per 1000 population to reach 45% reduction. They establish comparison with a group of American countries, setting of contrast with the low mortality in Cuba. The mortality in children of 1 to 4 years old is considered as indirect index of malnutrition. The percentage of diminution for the different departments in the period stated is as follows: Pinar del Río, 57.6%; Havana, 43.7%; Matanzas, 58.5%; Las Villas, 63.1%; Camagüey, 50.0%; Oriente, 39.0%. The 10 most important causes of death are analyzed and the percentages in drop of mortality are reported as follows: (A 43), 80.0%; (A65) and (A105-106), 66.7%; (A5), 61.5%; (A93), 50.0%; (A89, 90, 91 and 92), 46.5%; (A21), 42.8%; (AE 138-146), 34.6%; (A126-130), 31.2%; (A25), 25.0%. Finally, stress is placed on the elements responsible for the drop in preschool age children's mortality. PMID:99150

  13. Neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcome of children aged 3-10 years born following assisted oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; D'Haeseleer, Evelien; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; Dewitte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, An; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Lierde, Kristiane; De Sutter, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Assisted oocyte activation (AOA) using a calcium ionophore has been used for more than a decade following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) fertilization failure. However, since AOA does not mimic precisely the physiological fertilization process, concerns exist about its use in human assisted reproduction. This study assessed the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcome of children aged ? 3 years who had been born following AOA in our centre. Twenty-one children participated in the study (81% response rate; mean age 63.6 ± 21.07 months). Neonatal data were collected via questionnaires. Neurodevelopmental outcome was tested using the Reynell Developmental Language Scales or Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children III. Behaviour was scored by the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Teachers Report Form. For all tests and questionnaires, the mean outcomes lay within the expected ranges. These are first data on the developmental outcome of AOA children. The high response rate and the robustness of the tests support the data, which are reassuring although still considered preliminary. Therefore, AOA should still be performed only in selected couples. PMID:24125944

  14. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  15. Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12–19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Diaz-Ramirez, Ledif Grisell; Balmes, John R.; Pinney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. Objectives: We investigated children’s PFC serum concentrations and their associations with asthma-related outcomes. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum concentrations of eight PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), with self-reported lifetime asthma, recent wheezing, and current asthma using data from participants 12–19 years of age from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, PFOA was associated with higher odds of ever having received a diagnosis of asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39 for a doubling in PFOA], whereas for PFOS there were inverse relationships with both asthma and wheezing (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.04, and OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.02, respectively). The associations were attenuated after accounting for sampling weights. No associations were seen between the other PFCs and any outcome. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study provides some evidence for associations between exposure to PFCs and asthma-related outcomes in children. The evidence is inconsistent, however, and prospective studies are needed. Citation: Humblet O, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Balmes JR, Pinney SM, Hiatt RA. 2014. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 12–19 years of age: NHANES (1999–2008). Environ Health Perspect 122:1129–1133;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606 PMID:24905661

  16. Different Indices of Fetal Growth Predict Bone Size and Volumetric Density at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Mahon, Pamela A; Robinson, Sian M; Nisbet, Corrine E; Javaid, M Kassim; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Arden, Nigel K; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that higher birth weight is associated with greater peak and later-life bone mineral content and that maternal body build, diet, and lifestyle influence prenatal bone mineral accrual. To examine prenatal influences on bone health further, we related ultrasound measures of fetal growth to childhood bone size and density. We derived Z-scores for fetal femur length and abdominal circumference and conditional growth velocity from 19 to 34 weeks’ gestation from ultrasound measurements in participants in the Southampton Women’s Survey. A total of 380 of the offspring underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 4 years [whole body minus head bone area (BA), bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and estimated volumetric BMD (vBMD)]. Volumetric bone mineral density was estimated using BMC adjusted for BA, height, and weight. A higher velocity of 19- to 34-week fetal femur growth was strongly associated with greater childhood skeletal size (BA: r = 0.30, p < .0001) but not with volumetric density (vBMD: r = 0.03, p = .51). Conversely, a higher velocity of 19- to 34-week fetal abdominal growth was associated with greater childhood volumetric density (vBMD: r = 0.15, p = .004) but not with skeletal size (BA: r = 0.06, p = .21). Both fetal measurements were positively associated with BMC and aBMD, indices influenced by both size and density. The velocity of fetal femur length growth from 19 to 34 weeks’ gestation predicted childhood skeletal size at age 4 years, whereas the velocity of abdominal growth (a measure of liver volume and adiposity) predicted volumetric density. These results suggest a discordance between influences on skeletal size and volumetric density. PMID:20437610

  17. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ. PMID:22281686

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and Obesity at 9 Years of Age in the CHAMACOS Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Marcella; Wesselink, Amelia; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    In-utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity later in life. We examined the associations of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California (2000–2010). We found associations between prenatal exposure to DDT and DDE and several measures of obesity at 9 years of age in boys but not in girls. For example, among boys, 10-fold increases in prenatal DDT and DDE concentrations were associated with increased odds of becoming overweight or obese (for o,p?-DDT, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 6.3; for p,p?-DDT, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.5; and for p,p?-DDE, adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 4.13). The odds ratios for girls were nonsignificant. Results were similar for body mass index z score, waist circumference z score, and odds of increased waist circumference but were less consistent for percentage of body fat. The difference by sex persisted after considering pubertal status. These results provide support for the chemical obesogen hypothesis. PMID:24722999

  19. Prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and obesity at 9 years of age in the CHAMACOS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Warner, Marcella; Wesselink, Amelia; Harley, Kim G; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-06-01

    In-utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity later in life. We examined the associations of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California (2000-2010). We found associations between prenatal exposure to DDT and DDE and several measures of obesity at 9 years of age in boys but not in girls. For example, among boys, 10-fold increases in prenatal DDT and DDE concentrations were associated with increased odds of becoming overweight or obese (for o,p'-DDT, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 6.3; for p,p'-DDT, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.5; and for p,p'-DDE, adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 4.13). The odds ratios for girls were nonsignificant. Results were similar for body mass index z score, waist circumference z score, and odds of increased waist circumference but were less consistent for percentage of body fat. The difference by sex persisted after considering pubertal status. These results provide support for the chemical obesogen hypothesis. PMID:24722999

  20. [Exercised-induced asthma in soccer players ages from 8 to 13 years].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, M; Tsimaras, V; Fotiadou, E; Aggelopoulou-Sakadami, N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the detection of exercise induced asthma in soccer players aged 8-13 years. Thirty boys, 8-13 years old participated in the study. They were coming from an athletic team of north of Thessaloniki. The study included clinical examination, administration of a respiratory health questionnaire and the exercise -- free running -- test with spirometric measurements. Spirometric measurements were performed by using a microspirometer, before exercise and 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after a 6 min free running exercise (80 - 90 % max heart rate). The highest forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)) value before exercise was compared with the lowest of post exercise values. The results showed a decline in FEV (1) > 15 % in 12 out of 30 children. Particularly, decline in FEV (1) was present in 1 (11 %) out of 9 children with free personal medical history but positive family history for asthma, in 3 (25 %) out of 12 children with allergies, and in 8 (89 %) out of 9 children with asthma. Symptoms were reported by 9 of 12 children with fall in FEV (1) > 15 %, during the 6 min exercise test, who had no symptoms during the soccer games. Identification of EIA by exercise challenge test in young athletes is a useful component for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Similar studies should be performed on older and younger athletes who participate in different sports and games. PMID:15944897

  1. Prediction of correlates of daily physical activity in Spanish children aged 8-9 years.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, J M; Escalante, Y; Domínguez, A M; García-Hermoso, A; Hernández-Mocholí, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to examine the associations between the daily physical activity (PA) of 8- to 9-year-old children and their parents, and (b) to examine what effect the child's daily PA has on its cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The sample consisted of 1021 persons [351 children (8.73 ± 0.69 years in age) and 670 parents]. Pedometers were used to evaluate PA in parents and their children over the course of 4 days (Thursday-Sunday), with the instructions on how to wear the pedometers for 24 h a day. Also evaluated were height, weight, BMI, CRF (via the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test), and HRQoL (via the EQ-5D-Y questionnaire). Associations between these variables were studied using path model techniques. The father's PA predicts his child's daily PA. This in turn predicts the child's lower BMI, CRF, and perceived quality of life. The findings suggest that the role model of a physically active father positively influences the child's PA habits, and hence that the family environment can have an important part to play in promoting health. PMID:24224913

  2. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  3. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  4. Dietary sources of fats and cholesterol in US children aged 2 through 5 years.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, F E; Dennison, B A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study of lipid intakes among preschool children (1) analyzed the contributions of 38 food groups to fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intakes; (2) estimated the effects of food substitutions on intakes; and (3) examined demographic differences in food group intake and food group sources of these lipids. METHODS. The sample consisted of 547 children, aged 2 to 5 years, from the US Department of Agriculture's 1985 and 1986 Continuing Surveys of Food Intakes by Individuals. Dietary information for 4 nonconsecutive days throughout a year was used. All foods were classified into groups and the lipids contributed from each group were computed. RESULTS. Over 80% of the children consumed more total fat, saturated fats, and cholesterol than is recommended. The major source of total fat and saturated fats was whole milk; the major sources of dietary cholesterol were eggs and whole milk. Children's food consumption patterns differed by region of the country and race/ethnicity, providing opportunities to refine nutrition education interventions and evaluations. CONCLUSIONS. By substituting lower-fat foods for the major sources of saturated fats, significant reductions in preschool children's intakes of saturated fats, fat, and dietary cholesterol could be achieved. PMID:8179052

  5. Predictors of Body Mass Index Change From 11 to 15 Years of Age: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Muniz, Ludmila C.; Dumith, Samuel C.; Clark, Valerie L.; Araújo, Cora L.P.; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We explored predictors of nutritional status change from 11 to 15 years of age by analyzing prospective data. Methods We collected data at 11 and 15 years of age from individuals born in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. We assessed nutritional status using body mass index (BMI) for age in z-score according to the World Health Organization 2007 standards. Independent variables collected at 11 years of age were socioeconomic position, adolescent's perception of own weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight loss dieting. Results Of the 4,032 adolescents whose nutritional status could be evaluated in the two follow-ups, 93% maintained their nutritional status classification from 11 to 15 years. A total of 102 (2.8%) became obese and 181 (4.5%) ceased to be obese in the 4-year period. The prevalence of obesity decreased from 11 to 15 years of age in both boys and girls. Low-income girls were more likely to become obese from 11 to 15 years of age compared with high-income ones. Among boys, those with high income were more likely to cease being obese compared those with low income. Those who perceived themselves to be obese, who wished to have a smaller silhouette, and who were on diets to lose weight were more likely to become obese or to achieve a normal BMI category at 15 years of age. Conclusions BMI tracks strongly in early adolescence. This finding suggests that interventions to more effectively change nutritional status should be implemented in childhood and should consider emotional aspects as well as social and biological ones. PMID:23283164

  6. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n?=?2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (p<0.001) with all body composition measures at the age of 5–6 years. The BMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  7. Adding Years to Your Life (or at Least Looking Like It): A Simple Normalization Underlies Adaptation to Facial Age

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Sean F.; Mac, Amy; Rhodes, Gillian; Webster, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation has been widely used to probe how experience shapes the visual encoding of faces, but the pattern of perceptual changes produced by adaptation and the neural mechanisms these imply remain poorly characterized. We explored how adaptation alters the perceived age of faces, a fundamental facial attribute which can uniquely and reliably be scaled by observers. This allowed us to measure how adaptation to one age level affected the full continuum of perceived ages. Participants guessed the ages of faces ranging from 18–89, before or after adapting to a different set of faces composed of younger, older, or middle-aged adults. Adapting to young or old faces induced opposite linear shifts in perceived age that were independent of the model's age. Specifically, after adapting to younger or older faces, faces of all ages appeared 2 to 3 years older or younger, respectively. In contrast, middle-aged adaptors induced no aftereffects. This pattern suggests that adaptation leads to a simple and uniform renormalization of age perception, and is consistent with a norm-based neural code for the mechanisms mediating the perception of facial age. PMID:25541948

  8. Concursul studentesc de matematica "Traian Lalescu", Craiova, 9-10 mai 2002

    E-print Network

    Niculescu, Constantin P.

    Concursul student¸esc de matematica "Traian Lalescu", Craiova, 9-10 mai 2002 Dumitru Busneag ¸si Constantin P. Niculescu ^In perioada 9-10 mai 2002 s-a reluat la Craiova, ^in organizarea Facultat¸ii de Matematica-Informatica a Universitat¸ii din Craiova, tradit¸ionalul concurs de matematica pentru student

  9. 9-9:10 Opening: Dean R. Bushnell 10:20-10:50 Coffee

    E-print Network

    Grassi, Antonella

    Friday 9-9:10 Opening: Dean R. Bushnell 9:10-9:40 9:50-10:20 10:20-10:50 Coffee 10:50-11:20 11 theorie Paban Evolution of Gravitationally Unstable de Sitter Compactifications Caporaso Britto Coffee/Posters Piene Making a smooth torus action symplectic, or almost.. Cheung Strings in gravimagnetic field Coffee

  10. Six-Minute Walk Test: Reference Values and Prediction Equation in Healthy Boys Aged 5 to12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Goemans, Nathalie; Klingels, Katrijn; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Boons, Stefanie; Verstraete, Liese; Peeters, Charlotte; Feys, Hilde; Buyse, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to (1) generate normative data in healthy boys aged 5–12 years for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), an outcome measure currently used in clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), (2) to describe the relation with anthropometric variables and myometry, and (3) to compare our data with published equations. METHODS The 6MWT was conducted in 442 boys according to a standardized protocol, as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions for knee flexion and extension were recorded with a hand-held myometer. RESULTS The 6MWD increased significantly with age, from 478.0±44.1 m at age 5, to 650.0±76.8 m at age 12, with the steepest increase between 5 and 8 years. Age- and height related percentile curves of the 6MWD were developed. Correlations with anthropometric variables were fair to good (age r?=?0.60, height r?=?0.57, weight r?=?0.44). Myometric variables (knee flexors and extensors) showed correlations of 0.46 and 0.50 respectively. When dividing into two age categories (5–8 years, 9–12 years), these magnitudes of correlations only applied to the younger age group. Additionally, predicted values were calculated according to available reference equations (Geiger and Ben Saad), indicating an overestimation by those equations. Finally, the Geiger equation was refitted to our population. CONCLUSION The percentile curves according to age and height provide a useful tool in the assessment of ambulatory capacity in boys aged 5 to 12 years. Significant correlations with anthropometric variables and myometry were only found in the 5–8 years age group. The Geiger prediction equation, currently used to assess ambulatory capacity in DMD was refitted to obtain a more accurate prediction model based on a large sample with a homogenous distribution across the age categories 5 to 12 years and applying the methodology as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. PMID:24391899

  11. A Risk Score for Predicting 1-Year Mortality in Patients ?75 Years of Age Presenting With Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Fabio; Cavallini, Claudio; Verdecchia, Paolo; Morici, Nuccia; Del Pinto, Maurizio; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Antonicelli, Roberto; Murena, Ernesto; Bossi, Irene; De Servi, Stefano; Savonitto, Stefano

    2015-07-15

    Approximately 1/3 of patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are ?75 years of age. Risk stratification in these patients is generally difficult because supporting evidence is scarce. The investigators developed and validated a simple risk prediction score for 1-year mortality in patients ?75 years of age presenting with NSTE ACS. The derivation cohort was the Italian Elderly ACS trial, which included 313 patients with NSTE ACS aged ?75 years. A logistic regression model was developed to predict 1-year mortality. The validation cohort was a registry cohort of 332 patients with NSTE ACS meeting the same inclusion criteria as for the Italian Elderly ACS trial but excluded from the trial for any reason. The risk score included 5 statistically significant covariates: previous vascular event, hemoglobin level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, and elevated troponin level. The model allowed a maximum score of 6. The score demonstrated a good discriminating power (C statistic = 0.739) and calibration, even among subgroups defined by gender and age. When validated in the registry cohort, the scoring system confirmed a strong association with the risk for all-cause death. Moreover, a score ?3 (the highest baseline risk group) identified a subset of patients with NSTE ACS most likely to benefit from an invasive approach. In conclusion, the risk for 1-year mortality in patients ?75 years of age with NSTE ACS is substantial and can be predicted through a score that can be easily derived at the bedside at hospital presentation. The score may help in guiding treatment strategy. PMID:25978978

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in Men Aged 40–64 Years: Impact of Publication of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impact of the publication of trials and changes in recommendations on the rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men aged 40 to 64 years by analyzing monthly medical claims for PSA testing in a commercial insurance database from 2001 to 2011, covering more than 1.5 million men in each year. The testing rates for men aged 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, and 60 to 64 years were 12.1%, 32.7%, and 42.7%, respectively, in 2001 vs 15.7%, 34.2%, and 42.0%, respectively, in 2011. Men aged 40 to 49 years experienced a gradual increase in testing rate from 2001 through 2008 (annual change in PSA testing per 10 000 men [AC] = 4.37; P < .001), which became flat from mid-2009 through 2011(AC = ?0.06; P =.98). The slope of PSA testing rates did not change in men aged 50 to 59 years or 60 to 64 years with the publication of the results of the large trials in 2009 or with the subsequent changes in recommendations on PSA testing. PMID:23459245

  13. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among new initiates into injection drug use over the age of 40 years old

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariangela Carneiro; Crystal Fuller; Meg C Doherty; David Vlahov

    1999-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) who have recently initiated an injecting career have high risk behaviors for HIV infection. The average age of an IDUs first injection is typically reported as 19–20 years, and some literature has reported `maturing out' of drug use typically around 40 years old. The purpose of this study was to discriminate risk behaviors among newer injectors

  14. The Developmental Trajectories of Attention Focusing, Attentional and Behavioral Persistence, and Externalizing Problems during School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of attention focusing (by parents' and teachers' reports) and attentional and behavioral persistence (observed during a laboratory task)--2 indexes of effortful control--and externalizing problems from ages 5 to 10 years were examined for 356 children combined from a pair of 3-wave (2 years apart) longitudinal…

  15. Effects of a Regular Motor Activity on Somatic and Fitness Variables in Boys Aged 17-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness changes in semisedentary boys persuaded to undertake Nordic Walking activities throughout a school year. Material and methods: Two groups of schoolboys aged 17-18 years were studied: regularly attending physical education (PE) classes (Group A; n = 46) and those who avoided PE classes by submitting sick…

  16. Myeloablative unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia patients between 50 and 55 years of age: single institutional retrospective comparison with patients younger than 50 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Konuma; Satoshi Takahashi; Jun Ooi; Akira Tomonari; Nobuhiro Tsukada; Seiko Kato; Aki Sato; Fumihiko Monma; Senji Kasahara; Tokiko Nagamura-Inoue; Kaoru Uchimaru; Tohru Iseki; Arinobu Tojo; Takuhiro Yamaguchi; Shigetaka Asano

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recipient age is a well-known risk factor for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and treatment-related mortality\\u000a (TRM) and has a negative impact on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Since the incidence of severe GVHD\\u000a after cord blood transplantation (CBT) is lower than that after transplants using bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood\\u000a grafts from adult cells, we should expect better outcomes

  17. Effect of birth season on circadian typology appearing in Japanese young children aged 2 to 12 years disappears in older students aged 18 to 25 years.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Ryo; Wada, Kai; Nishihara, Risa; Kondo, Aska; Akimitsu, Osami; Noji, Teruki; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Nakade, Miyo; Krejci, Milada; Takeuchi, Hitomi

    2011-08-01

    Several studies suggest that season of birth differentially affects the physiological characteristics of humans. Those living at relatively high latitude, such as Canada, Spain, and Italy (44°N-45°N), and born in the fall tended to be "morning-type" persons in comparison to those born in other seasons. There are relatively little data on the affect of season of birth on people residing at low latitude. Here the authors show that at low latitude, Kochi, Japan (33°N), the effect of season of birth on the morningness chronotype is confined to young children aged 1-12 yrs, disappearing in elderly persons. Only female participants aged 2-12 yrs born in the fall, especially in November, were significantly morning-typed (p < .001) in comparison to those born in the other seasons, whereas there were no such significant season-of-birth differences in morningness-eveningness preference among male participants. Moreover, both female and male participants aged 13-25 yrs showed no significant seasonal differences in morningness-eveningness preference. The small effects detected in this study might be due to smaller seasonal change in day length at the relatively lower latitude of Kochi. PMID:21819347

  18. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: The Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n=94dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age. PMID:25800150

  19. THE KINEMATIC CONSEQUENCES OF INVARIANT DYNAMICS IN CHILDREN 6 TO 18 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Lebiedowska, Maria K.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of limb dynamics on trajectory formation is unclear. The natural frequency of a limb is the major factor in its dynamics. It has previously been shown with an indirect measurement method that the natural frequency of body segments is invariant during human growth from the age of 6 to 18. The aim of our study was to determine, using a direct measurement method, whether human growth affects: (1) lower limb dynamics (i.e. the natural frequency of the lower leg) and (2) the maximum velocities of the knee during selected motor tasks. In 20 non-disabled children, 6–18 years of age, measurements were taken of the natural frequency of the lower leg (including the foot), and the maximum velocities of knee flexion and extension during voluntary movement (MVV) and at initial and terminal swing phases of self-paced walking (WAL). The velocities were also estimated using a dynamic model and the results were compared to the measured velocities with a paired t-test. Correlations among the frequencies, velocities, and body height (an indicator of growth) were calculated. The natural frequency of the lower leg (mean ± sd, ?0= 6.58 ± 0.54 s ?1), maximum velocities of knee extension and flexion during voluntary movement, (MVVe = 10.1 ± 1.8 rad s?1 and MVVf = 7.8 ± 1.3 rad s?1, respectively), and maximum velocities of knee flexion and extension during the swing phase of walking (WALf = 5.4 ± 0.6 rad s?1 and WALe = 6.3 ± 0.87 rad s?1, respectively) were each found to be independent of body height. The MVV measured velocities were 22% larger and WALf measured velocities were 25% smaller than the velocities predicted from the dynamic model (p < 0.05). The study found that a segment's dynamic properties, as well as selected kinematics, may be considered invariant with human growth. PMID:18589427

  20. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China’s largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. Methods A total of 13,532 children of 0?~?36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Results Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Conclusions Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas. PMID:24499429

  1. Pedometer determined physical activity and obesity prevalence of Greek children aged 4-6 years.

    PubMed

    Kambas, Antonis; Venetsanou, Fotini; Avloniti, Alexandra; Giannakidou, Dimitra M; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Michalopoulou, Maria

    2014-08-26

    Abstract Background: Pre-school age is important for developing healthy attitudes towards physical activity (PA). However, research on pre-schoolers' pedometer-determined PA is limited. Aim: To describe pre-schoolers' ambulatory activity; investigate step count differences in respect to Body Mass Index (BMI) categories and examine the prevalence of obesity. Subjects and methods: Pre-school aged children (n?=?250; 5.5?±?0.4 years) from Komotini (Greece) wore Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers for 10 consecutive days. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Results: Three-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that children performed more steps on weekdays than during weekends (p?

  2. Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years).

    PubMed

    Simons, F Estelle R; Sampson, Hugh A

    2015-05-01

    In this rostrum we aim to increase awareness of anaphylaxis in infancy in order to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of recurrences. Anaphylaxis is increasingly reported in this age group. Foods are the most common triggers. Presentation typically involves the skin (generalized urticaria), the respiratory tract (cough, wheeze, stridor, and dyspnea), and/or the gastrointestinal tract (persistent vomiting). Tryptase levels are seldom increased because of infant anaphylaxis, although baseline tryptase levels can be increased in the first few months of life, reflecting mast cell burden in the developing immune system. The differential diagnosis of infant anaphylaxis includes consideration of age-unique entities, such as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with acute presentation. Epinephrine (adrenaline) treatment is underused in health care and community settings. No epinephrine autoinjectors contain an optimal dose for infants weighing 10 kg or less. After treatment of an anaphylactic episode, follow-up with a physician, preferably an allergy/immunology specialist, is important for confirmation of anaphylaxis triggers and prevention of recurrences through avoidance of confirmed specific triggers. Natural desensitization to milk and egg can occur. Future research should include validation of the clinical criteria for anaphylaxis diagnosis in infants, prospective longitudinal monitoring of baseline serum tryptase levels in healthy and atopic infants during the first year of life, studies of infant comorbidities and cofactors that increase the risk of severe anaphylaxis, development of autoinjectors containing a 0.1-mg epinephrine dose suitable for infants, and inclusion of infants in prospective studies of immune modulation to prevent anaphylaxis recurrences. PMID:25441636

  3. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2010, MEDLINE (1950 to 2010 April week 4), EMBASE (1947 to 2010 week 18), CINAHL (up to 12 May 2010), PsycINFO (up to 12 May 2010) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (up to February 2011) were searched to identify eligible trials, as well as electronic trial registers (also up to February 2011). The reference lists of included trials were reviewed and handsearches of three international nutrition journals were also performed. Authors of all included trials were contacted in order to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials, of any intervention primarily targeting fruit and/or vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under and incorporating a biochemical or dietary assessment of fruit and/or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified papers. A third review author with expertise in review methodology resolved any disagreements regarding study eligibility. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements between review authors. Fixed-effect models were used to perform meta-analysis for the primary review outcomes where a sufficient number of trials with suitable data and homogeneity were identified. Main results Five trials, with 13 trial arms and 3967 participants were included in the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI ?0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  4. Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children under 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Paradise, Jack L.; Rockette, Howard E.; Shaikh, Nader; Wald, Ellen R.; Kearney, Diana H.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Zoffel, Lisa M.; Jenkins, Carly; Pope, Marcia A.; Balentine, Tracy L.; Barbadora, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recommendations vary regarding immediate antimicrobial treatment versus watchful waiting for children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media. Methods We randomly assigned 291 children 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media diagnosed with the use of stringent criteria, to receive amoxicillin–clavulanate or placebo for 10 days. We measured symptomatic response and rates of clinical failure. Results Among the children who received amoxicillin–clavulanate, 35% had initial resolution of symptoms by day 2, 61% by day 4, and 80% by day 7; among children who received placebo, 28% had initial resolution of symptoms by day 2, 54% by day 4, and 74% by day 7 (P = 0.14 for the overall comparison). For sustained resolution of symptoms, the corresponding values were 20%, 41%, and 67% with amoxicillin–clavulanate, as compared with 14%, 36%, and 53% with placebo (P = 0.04 for the overall comparison). Mean symptom scores over the first 7 days were lower for the children treated with amoxicillin–clavulanate than for those who received placebo (P = 0.02). The rate of clinical failure — defined as the persistence of signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination — was also lower among the children treated with amoxicillin–clavulanate than among those who received placebo: 4% versus 23% at or before the visit on day 4 or 5 (P<0.001) and 16% versus 51% at or before the visit on day 10 to 12 (P<0.001). Mastoiditis developed in one child who received placebo. Diarrhea and diaper-area dermatitis were more common among children who received amoxicillin–clavulanate. There were no significant changes in either group in the rates of nasopharyngeal colonization with nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Among children 6 to 23 months of age with acute otitis media, treatment with amoxicillin–clavulanate for 10 days tended to reduce the time to resolution of symptoms and reduced the overall symptom burden and the rate of persistent signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00377260.) PMID:21226576

  5. Male Patients Above Age 60 have as Good Outcomes as Male Patients 50–59 Years Old at 1Year Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Wool; Nina Bellatorre; Sherry Wren; Dan Eisenberg

    2009-01-01

    Background  It is estimated that 25% of Americans older than 60 years are obese. Male gender and advanced age are indicators of increased\\u000a risk for bariatric surgery. Good results have been shown in patients older than 50, but nearly all published studies include\\u000a a large majority of females, and few include patients >60 years old. In this study, we examined the results of

  6. The influence of a 1-year programme of brisk walking on endurance fitness and body composition in previously sedentary men aged 42–59 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Stensel; K. Brooke-Wavell; A. E. Hardman; P. R. M. Jones; N. G. Norgan

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the influence of a 1-year brisk walking programme on endurance fitness and the amount and distribution of body fat in a group of formerly sedentary men. Seventy-two males, aged 42–59 years, body mass index 25.2 (0.3) kg·m–2 [mean (SEM)], were randomly allocated to either a walking group (n = 48) or control group (n = 24). Brisk

  7. Desloratadine dose selection in children aged 6 months to 2 years: comparison of population pharmacokinetics between children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Samir K; Kantesaria, Bhavna; Banfield, Christopher; Wang, Zaiqi

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject According to recent literature, the pathophysiologies of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria are thought to be similar in adults and children. In addition, the response to antihistamine treatment is similar in adults and children, suggesting a similar concentration-response relationship. However, an appropriate dose selection and the pharmacokinetics of desloratadine in children of ?6 months??2 years old have never been addressed in the literature. What this study adds This study demonstrated that desloratadine syrup offers a safe treatment option for allergic conditions in young children. A suitable dose for children aged ?6 months?<1 year is 1.0 mg, while the corresponding predicted dose for children aged ?1 year??2 years is 1.25 mg. These paediatric doses yielded similar systemic desloratadine exposures (AUC) to those seen with a typical adult dose of 5.0 mg. Aims The aim of this study was to identify the dose of desloratadine in children aged ?6 months??2 years that would yield a single-dose target exposure (AUC) comparable with that in adults taking 5 mg desloratadine as syrup. Methods In a phase 1, single-dose, open-label, pharmacokinetic study in 58 children aged ?6 months?<1 year and ?1 year??2 years were randomly assigned to desloratadine syrup 0.625 mg (1.25 ml) and 1.25 mg (2.5 ml), respectively. Because the volume of blood that could be collected from individual subjects was limited, a population pharmacokinetic approach was used to estimate the pharmacokinetics of desloratadine. Safety was assessed based on results of screening and postdose physical examinations, laboratory safety tests, vital signs, and adverse events. Results The apparent clearance (CL/F) of desloratadine, population estimate (%CV), in children aged ?6 months?<1 year was 27.8 l h?1 (35) and corresponding values in children ?1 year??2 years was 35.5 l h?1 (51), compared with 137 l h?1 (58) for adults. The CL/F ratios (children to adults) indicated that doses of 1 mg for ?6 months?<1 year and 1.25 mg for ?1 year??2 years would result in similar systemic exposure to that observed in adults receiving the recommended 5 mg dose. Desloratadine was well tolerated with no safety issues. Conclusions Doses of 1.0 and 1.25 mg in children aged ?6 months??2 years should result in an exposure to desloratadine similar to that of adults receiving doses of 5 mg. PMID:17324243

  8. Relationship Between Adjustment and Support Types: Youngand Mature-aged Local and International First Year University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheryl Ramsay; Elizabeth Jones; Michelle Barker

    2007-01-01

    First year university is an important transition context for students. The present study examined the relationship between\\u000a adjustment and support types, sources and levels of support, and satisfaction with levels of support, for first year students\\u000a in an Australian university. Comparisons were made between young (17–21 year olds) and mature-aged students and local and\\u000a international students. Findings indicate that well-adjusted students

  9. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    PubMed

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (? 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mure?, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ? 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ? 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ? 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs. PMID:25093420

  10. Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

  11. Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina; Casas, Lidia; Wouters, Inge M; Doekes, Gert; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Gehring, Ulrike; Hyvärinen, Anne; Oldenwening, Marieke; Kerkhof, Marjan; Sunyer, Jordi; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Torrent, Maties; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n=553; INMA: n=481; and LISAplus: n=395), endotoxin, (1,3,)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)-?-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments. PMID:25186271

  12. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  13. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  14. Premature Pubarche before One Year of Age: Distinguishing between Mini-Puberty Variants and Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Bourayou, Rafik; Giabicani, Eloïse; Pouillot, Monique; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Brauner, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to facilitate the distinction between the benign “mini-puberty of early infancy” and precocious puberty (PP). Material/Methods We compared 59 patients (21 boys and 38 girls) seen for pubic hair development before one year of age diagnosed as mini-puberty to 13 patients (2 boys) in whom pubertal development before one year revealed a PP. Results The boys with mini-puberty presented with pubic hair development and prepubertal testicular volume, with low plasma testosterone concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test showed predominant luteinising hormone increase in 9/13. The girls presented with pubic hair development that was accompanied by breast development in 47% of cases, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses showed predominant follicle-stimulating hormone increase in the 17 evaluated. The patients with PP had organic central PP (5 hypothalamic hamartoma) or idiopathic central PP (n=6), or peripheral PP (one ovarian tumor and one congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The diagnosis was challenging only in 3 girls with idiopathic central PP presenting with prepubertal plasma estradiol concentrations and responses to GnRH test. Conclusions The diagnosis of PP was easily determined based on the clinical presentation and the pubertal concentrations of testosterone in boys or of estradiol in girls, as was the diagnosis of central or peripheral origin of PP based on gonadotropin response to the GnRH test. Once PP is excluded, these patients need careful follow–up and physician consultation is needed if clinical pubertal signs progress. PMID:25832117

  15. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  16. The Contribution of Youth Sport Football to Weekend Physical Activity for Males Aged 9 to 16 Years: Variability Related to Age and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and vigorous PA accrued in youth sport football (also internationally referred to as soccer), and the contribution toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA for males aged 9-16 years, and (2) to investigate variability in these outcomes related to age and playing position. One hundred and nine male grassroots footballers (Mean age = 11.98 ± 1.75 years) wore a GT3× accelerometer for 7 days. Weekend youth sport football participation and playing position were recorded. Youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA (M = 51.51 ± 17.99) and vigorous PA (M = 27.78 ± 14.55) contributed 60.27% and 70.68% toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA, respectively. Overall, 36.70% of participants accumulated ?60 min moderate-to-vigorous PA and 69.70% accrued ? 20 min of vigorous PA during youth sport. For participants aged 13 to16 years, youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA were significantly higher, and contributed a greater amount toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA than for participants aged 9-12 years (p = <.01). Youth sport football is an important source of moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA at the weekend for male youth, and particularly for adolescents. Participation may offer opportunity for weekend engagement in vigorous PA toward health enhancing levels. PMID:25387122

  17. Correlates of low-level lead exposure in urban children at 2 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M.; Needleman, H.; Waternaux, C.

    1986-06-01

    The blood lead levels of a large number of US preschool children approach the value regarded as the upper limit of normal. To reduce the number of children whose levels increase into the range thought to be toxic, the antecedents and correlates of levels in the 0- to 25-micrograms/dL range must be identified. In a large longitudinal study of middle and upper-middle class children living in metropolitan Boston, we evaluated how well five sets of variables predicted children's blood lead levels at 2 years of age: environmental lead sources, mouthing activity, home environment/care giving, prior developmental status, and sociodemographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that only environmental lead sources and, to a lesser extent, mouthing activity accounted for significant portions of the variance in blood lead levels. Environmental lead sources were not significantly related to the home environment/care-giving variables or to sociodemographic characteristics. The most promising approach for achieving community-wide reductions in children's blood lead levels is reduction in the amount of lead in the proximate environment.

  18. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. PMID:23995043

  19. Vision outcome at age 2 years in a low birth weight population.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Martin, J A; Dobson, V; Cnaan, A; Zhao, H; Paneth, N S

    1996-05-01

    We assess the prevalence of vision problems in a cohort of low birth weight infants at age 2 years and the relationship of these problems to neonatal brain injury. Data on prenatal and neonatal history and brain injury status were prospectively collected on 721 children weighing 500-2,000 gm at birth enrolled in a multi-center, population-based longitudinal study. Visual acuity was evaluated using the Teller Acuity Card Procedure. Abnormalities of the eye were assessed by a specially trained pediatric nurse practitioner. Failure of the acuity screen occurred in 62 of 699 tested (8.9%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only significant independent predictors of failure included presence of disabling cerebral palsy (DCP) (odds ratio [OR] = 14.8) or nondisabling cerebral palsy (NDCP) (OR = 4.0) and Apgar score of less than 5 at 5 minutes (OR = 2.4). Parenchymal brain injury (PEL) was of borderline significance. Strabismus was present in 123 of 702 children (17.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis disclosed that the joint predictors of strabismus were presence of DCP (OR = 7.2) and length of hospital stay (OR = 1.6). We conclude that low birth weight infants with parenchymal brain lesions leading to cerebral palsy are at particular risk for vision problems early in life and should be carefully evaluated. PMID:8805170

  20. Aging well: methanotrophic potential and community structure along a paddy soil chronosequence of 2000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Frenzel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Given that rice paddies are anthropogenic methane sources and the inevitable need to increase rice production to sustain human population growth, it is pertinent to identify the effects of long term agriculture on the selection of methanotrophs. Methanotrophs play a crucial role in mitigating methane emission from rice paddies. Therefore, we analyzed the methanotroph community along a chronosequence of paddy soils from China covering recently reclaimed sites to paddies under permanent agriculture since 2000 years (Cheng et al., 2009; doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.016). Maximum potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) increased monotonically with age. Our results also showed that long-term agriculture imposes a selection pressure on different groups of methanotrophs. In contrast to younger soils, type Ib methanotrophs were observed to multiply in correspondence with increasing PMOR in ancient soils, while other groups showed a relatively stable community composition as revealed by pmoA-based fingerprints (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cloning and sequencing the pmoA (a key gene in methane oxidation), the soils were found to harbour known and putative methanotrophs, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and interestingly, sequences affiliated to Crenothrix, a methane oxidizer with an unusual pmoA (Stoecker et al., 2006; doi:10.1073/pnas.0506361103). In summary, long-term agriculture shapes the community and allows for an elevated level of potential methane oxidation.

  1. Diet and allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2013-09-01

    Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. PMID:23995043

  2. Parental Characteristics Associated With Bullying Perpetration in US Children Aged 10 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Rosa M.; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We identified factors associated with child bullying in the United States. Methods. We used the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health to examine associations among child, parent, and community factors and bullying perpetration among children aged 10 to 17 years, using bivariate and stepwise multivariable analyses. Results. African American and Latino children and children living in poverty and who had emotional, developmental, or behavioral (EDB) problems had higher odds of bullying, as did children of parents who felt angry with their child or who felt their child bothered them a lot or was hard to care for; suboptimal maternal mental health was associated with higher bullying odds. Children who always or usually completed homework and had parents who talked with them and met all or most of their friends had lower bullying odds. Conclusions. Assessing children’s EDB problems, maternal mental health, and parental perceptions may identify children at risk for bullying. Parent–child communication, meeting children’s friends, and encouraging children academically were associated with lower bullying odds; these protective factors may be useful in designing preventive interventions. PMID:23078471

  3. Assessment of food habits in children aged 6–12 years and the risk of caries

    PubMed Central

    Doichinova, Liliya; Bakardjiev, Peter; Peneva, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Food is necessary for the proper growth and development of children. The excessive intake of low-molecular carbohydrates constitutes a serious health issue, which has an unfavourable impact on the dental health status. The aim of this study was to assess the food habits in healthy children aged 6–12 years and the effect on their oral risk profile. The study included 100 children. The assessment of their nutrition was done with the help of a seven-day reproduction of the food intake and a survey used to determine their underlying food habits and preferences. The results revealed unbalanced nutrition of the children and increased intake of simple sugar, which will increase the risk of development of dental caries. The observed high levels of DMFT (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) in 54% of the children is a logical result of the frequent intake of sugary foods and beverages for a long period of time, as this will increase the acid production by microorganisms in dental plaque, which is one of the leading etiologic factors for the development of caries. It is necessary for dentists to administer control over the carbohydrate intake and the food habits of children, as well as to encourage non-cariogenic diet in order to keep their good oral health. PMID:26019634

  4. Personality Development between 1 and 8 Years of Age in Swedish Children with Varying Child Care Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Wessels; Michael E. Lamb; C. Philip Hwang; Anders G. Broberg

    1997-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, 122 Swedish children were followed from an initial assessment at 16 months until they were 8.5 years of age. Parental ratings of field independence, ego-resilience, and ego-control were obtained using the California Child Q-set when the children averaged 28, 40, 80, and 101 months of age. These assessments of personality were then examined in the context

  5. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  6. Overweight and obesity in brazilian schoolchildren aged 10 to 15 years: data from a Brazilian sports project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreia Pelegrini; Edio Luiz Petroski; Raildo da Silva Coqueiro; Adroaldo César; Araujo Gaya

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Brazilian schoolchildren according to gender, age and geographic region. A descriptive association study was conducted on 36,976 schoolchildren (20,914 boys and 16,062 girls aged 10 to 15 years) between 2004 and 2005 using secondary data originating from a school-based cross-sectional epidemiological survey. The cut-off

  7. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1999-09-27

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

  8. Drawings of very preterm-born children at 5 years of age: a first impression of cognitive and motor development?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasja Schepers; Maja Dekovi?; Max Feltzer; Martin de Kleine; Anneloes van Baar

    Introduction  The aim of this study was to examine differences in drawing skills between very preterm and term children, and to determine\\u000a whether very preterm children’s cognitive and motor development is reflected in the draw-a-person test (DAP) at age 5. Seventy-two\\u000a very preterm children (birth weight <1,500 g and\\/or gestational age <32 weeks) and 60 term children at 5 years of age were\\u000a compared

  9. Ethnic Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Profile at Age 5–6 Years: The ABCD Study

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5–6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n?=?2,008; blood n?=?1,300), African descent (n?=?199; blood n?=?105), Turkish (n?=?108; blood n?=?57) and Moroccan (n?=?194; blood n?=?94). Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP), fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (?2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09–3.36) and HDL levels (?:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03–0.16) compared to Dutch children (reference group). Turkish children showed higher SBP (?:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25–3.54), DBP (?:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11–4.13), glucose (?:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00–0.25) and triglyceride levels (?:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02–0.25). Higher BMI values were found in all non–Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53–1.03 kg/m2) and higher WC in Turkish (?:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99–2.38) and Moroccan (?:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11–2.19) children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. Conclusion Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC. PMID:22916294

  10. Normative voice range profiles in vocally trained and untrained children aged between 7 and 10 years.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Berit; Zumtobel, Michaela; Prettenhofer, Walter; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Only limited data on normal vocal constitution and vocal capabilities in school-aged children are available. To take better care of children's voices, it might be helpful to know voice ranges and limits of not only vocally trained but also vocally untrained children. Goal of this study was the evaluation of singing voice capabilities of vocally healthy children with different social and vocal/musical backgrounds using voice range profile measurements (VRP). VRP percentiles that reflect constitutional aspects were suggested. In this cross-sectional study, 186 children (aged between seven and 10 years), attending five schools, were included. VRP measurements were performed under field conditions. Interviews and questionnaires regarding vocal strain and vocal training were applied; the answers were used for classification of singing activity and vocal training (KLASAK). All children reached a mean singing voice range of at least two octaves. By using the answers of interviews and questionnaires, the children could be classified according to vocal strain and vocal training. The groups showed no significant differences regarding VRP measurements. In the following step, percentiles were calculated. Twenty-five percent of all children (P25) reached a minimum voice range of almost two octaves, namely, 22 semitones (ST) from 220 to 784 Hz with soft and loud singing. Half of the children (P50) had a voice range of 24 ST (2 octaves), while soft singing and a larger voice range of 26 ST while loud singing. The measurements of third quartile (P75) revealed that 25% of children have even a larger voice range than 29 dB (from 196 Hz/g to 1047 Hz/c3) and can sing at most frequencies louder than 90 dB. P90 demonstrated that 10% of the children can sing even lower or higher than the frequency range between 196 Hz/g and 1319 Hz/e3 analyzed. The voice range seems not to be constrained by social but by voice/musical background: children of vocally/musically encouraged schools had wider voice ranges. This underlines the necessity of regular singing lessons already in primary schools. The percentile VRP introduced might help to evaluate the vocal constitution and vocal capabilities of a child. PMID:19303739

  11. High-resolution 1000-year sediment records from the North Iceland shelf: temperature reconstructions and marine reservoir ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, K. L.; Eiríksson, J.; Bartels-Jónsdóttir, H. B.; Jiang, H.; Heinemeier, J.; Larsen, G.

    2009-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic and climatic high-resolution archives for the last millennium are preserved in several sedimentary basins on the North Icelandic shelf. The present position of the oceanographic Polar Front across the North Icelandic shelf separates Polar and Arctic surface waters of the East Greenland and East Icelandic currents from branches of the North Atlantic Current. The sedimentary and fossil record, which is extremely sensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes in a boundary region like that, has shown that the position of the Polar Front has been very dynamic through the last millennium. Our study is based on material from the IMAGES piston cores MD99-2275 and MD99-2273, located at 440 and 600 m water depths, respectively, combined with lead-dated multicores from the same sites off North Iceland. The mean sedimentation rate at the core sites is about 300 and 600 cm per 1000 years in respective cores. The presence of historically and terrestrially dated air-fall tephra markers from Icelandic volcanoes makes it possible to construct a reliable tephrochronological age model for the marine cores, minimizing the problem of variable marine radiocarbon reservoir ages. A 1000-year sea surface and bottom water temperature record has been reconstructed for each site based on stable isotopes, as well as on planktonic and benthic foraminiferal and diatom transfer function calculations. A comparison between our proxy results for the last 130 years with instrumental data from the North Icelandic shelf shows a strong connection between atmospheric and oceanic changes. For instance, there is a clear change in the faunal distribution and the reconstructed sea-surface temperature at around AD 1910-1920, a general cooling trend towards the top of the record, and a slight warming again in the 1990s. Instrumental data from the last 60 years are used for calibration of the 1000-year temperature record. A weakening of the North Atlantic Current and penetration of cold Polar and Arctic water masses and sea-ice to the North Icelandic shelf occurred during the Little Ice Age, which in our record is characterized by low reconstructed sea surface and bottom water temperatures. The Maunder Minimum (around AD 1700) appears to have been the coldest interval during the last millennium. Changes in the marine radiocarbon reservoir ages through time on the North Icelandic shelf appear to be related to the inflow of Polar waters to the area. This enables us to use the deviation in reservoir age as a palaeoceanographic tool for tracing changes in the position of the oceanographic Polar Front. The modern (pre-bomb) reservoir age of the coastal water masses off Iceland, which are dominated by the Atlantic Water of the Irminger Current, is generally assumed to be about 400 years, and this correction is conventionally applied to marine radiocarbon ages from Iceland. The modern reservoir age of the Polar Water of the East Greenland Current north of the Polar Front is relatively high, about 550 years, indicating that the recent, pre-bomb apparent age difference across the Polar Front is about 150 years. Age models developed for the shelf sediments north of Iceland, based on offshore tephrochronology on one hand and on calibrated AMS radiocarbon age determinations of marine molluscs on the other, display major deviations through the last 1000 years. The discrepancies between the two age models show that there was an average reservoir age of about 550 years, which is suggested to be related to a generally high, but fluctuating, inflow of Polar waters to the area through the last millennium.

  12. Mapping Longitudinal Hemispheric Structural Asymmetries of the Human Cerebral Cortex From Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Mapping cortical hemispheric asymmetries in infants would increase our understanding of the origins and developmental trajectories of hemispheric asymmetries. We analyze longitudinal cortical hemispheric asymmetries in 73 healthy subjects at birth, 1, and 2 years of age using surface-based morphometry of magnetic resonance images with a specific focus on the vertex position, sulcal depth, mean curvature, and local surface area. Prominent cortical asymmetries are found around the peri-Sylvian region and superior temporal sulcus (STS) at birth that evolve modestly from birth to 2 years of age. Sexual dimorphisms of cortical asymmetries are present at birth, with males having the larger magnitudes and sizes of the clusters of asymmetries than females that persist from birth to 2 years of age. The left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is significantly posterior to the right SMG, and the maximum position difference increases from 10.2 mm for males (6.9 mm for females) at birth to 12.0 mm for males (8.4 mm for females) by 2 years of age. The right STS and parieto-occipital sulcus are significantly larger and deeper than those in the left hemisphere, and the left planum temporale is significantly larger and deeper than that in the right hemisphere at all 3 ages. Our results indicate that early hemispheric structural asymmetries are inherent and gender related. PMID:23307634

  13. Blood carbon monoxide levels in persons 3 to 74 years of age: United States, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, E.P. (Univ. of Pittsburg, PA); Drizd, T.A.

    1982-03-17

    This report presents national estimates of the distribution of carbon monoxide levels in the blood of persons ages 3 to 74 years in the United States by age, smoking status, race, urbanization status of residence, annual family income, and season of the year. These findings will be described and analyzed further in a report in the Vital and Health Statistics series (in preparation). In this report the relative contributions of the four principal sources of carbon monoxide (smoking, ambient or outdoor exposures, occupational exposures, and indoor exposures) to COHb levels are examined. Of these, smoking is the most significant and widespread, although in special circumstances each of the other contributors assumes some importance.

  14. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation among Boys and Men Assessed Annually from Ages 9 to 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 206 boys (90% Caucasian), self-reported suicidal ideation (SI; ages 12 to 29) and parent-reported youth suicidal talk (ages 9 to 20) were assessed annually by questionnaire. One-week point prevalence of self-reported SI ranged from 2.6% to 16.3%. New cases emerged across adolescence; by age 29, 57.3% self-reported SI at least once.…

  15. Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adré; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O’Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

    2009-01-01

    Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

  16. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children up to 5 Years of Age in Spain: Epidemiology and Comorbidities: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Marín-García, Patricia; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2015-05-01

    This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997-2011).Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997-2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0-466.19, 480.1, and 079.6.A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age.Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life.Annual average cost for National Health Care System was &OV0556; 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of &OV0556;2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children.RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease. PMID:26020386

  18. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. (CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

    1992-10-29

    Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

  19. The Effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems for Children Aged 3 Years or Younger During Motor Vehicle Collisions: 1996 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effectiveness of child restraints in preventing death during motor vehicle collisions among children 3 years or younger. Methods. We conducted a matched cohort study using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 1996 to 2005. We estimated death risk ratios using conditional Poisson regression, bootstrapping, multiple imputation, and a sensitivity analysis of misclassification bias. We examined possible effect modification by selected factors. Results. The estimated death risk ratios comparing child safety seats with no restraint were 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34) for infants, 0.24 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.30) for children aged 1 year, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.32, 0.51) for those aged 2 years, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.52) for those aged 3 years. Estimated safety seat effectiveness was greater during rollover collisions, in rural environments, and in light trucks. We estimated seat belts to be as effective as safety seats in preventing death for children aged 2 and 3 years. Conclusions. Child safety seats are highly effective in reducing the risk of death during severe traffic collisions and generally outperform seat belts. Parents should be encouraged to use child safety seats in favor of seat belts. PMID:19059860

  20. Contraception and sexuality in an area-specific group of Swedish women 15-34 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brännström, M; Josefsson, G B; Liljestrand, J

    1991-10-01

    In a community-based study in a Swedish suburban/rural area, all women aged 15-34 years (n = 671) were invited to the local health centre to be examined for chlamydia infection and for an interview. The attenders were asked about contraceptive history, age at first intercourse, number of life-time sexual partners and socioeconomic background. The net attendance was 69%, and contraceptive information on an additional 20% could be gathered through medical records. The average age at first intercourse was around 16 years, and the average number of sexual partners in the age-groups 20-24, 25-30 and 31-34 years was 4.0, 5.6 and 6.1, respectively. Of all women, around 75% had used contraception at first intercourse, and there was no tendency to a changing pattern during the past 20 years studies through the interviews. Combined estrogen-progestagen pills were by far the most used contraceptive method, presently being used by 42% of the contracepting women, followed by condom (23%), IUD (19%) and other hormonal methods (10%). It is concluded that sexual life in Sweden starts earlier than it did 30 years ago, that the number of sexual partners is higher, that most women in the studied group were efficient contraceptors, and that hormonal contraception was by far the most common method. PMID:1756629

  1. Neurological and psychological findings in patients with Cohen syndrome: a study of 18 patients aged 11 months to 57 years.

    PubMed

    Kivitie-Kallio, S; Larsen, A; Kajasto, K; Norio, R

    1999-08-01

    Our purpose was to perform the first systematic neurological, neurophysiological and psychological study of 18 patients with Cohen syndrome (MIM no 216550), aged 11 months to 57 years (median 27 years). All the patients had the essential features of this syndrome, i.e., typical facial and structural findings, mental retardation, microcephaly, ophthalmologic symptoms, granulocytopenia and a cheerful psychic disposition. Children with the syndrome were considered normal at birth, but upwards of 6 to 12 months, psychomotor retardation became obvious. The first symptoms were microcephaly, which manifested itself by the age of 6 months to 1 year, as well as hypotonia and delayed developmental milestones. Cohen children learned to walk at 2 to 5 years of age. Language development varied markedly. Neurological symptoms did not progress. All patients had normal EMGs. The three youngest (aged 11 months, 3 and 5 years) had normal EEGs, whereas the remainder had low-voltage EEGs. No irritative spikes or epileptoformic foci were found. Nine patients had quick beta transients. Of the 18 patients examined, 4 were profoundly, 11 severely, 1 moderately and 2 mildly retarded. On the AADM scale, Cohen patients had high scores in the positive domains, viz., self-direction, responsibility and socialisation. Maladaptive behaviour, on the other hand, was almost completely absent, except for stereotyped behaviours and odd mannerisms. Withdrawal, sexually aberrant behaviour, untrustworthy and rebellious behaviour as well as antisocial behaviour were rare. These findings are consistent with the cheerful and sociable disposition characteristic of those with Cohen syndrome. PMID:10569209

  2. A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements. PMID:21097992

  3. Associations of birth weight and postnatal weight gain with cardiometabolic risk parameters at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Garcia-Vicent, Consuelo; Torro, Maria Isabel; Aguilar, Francisco; Redon, Josep

    2014-06-01

    The present prospective study assessed the impact of birth weight (BW) and postnatal weight gain on blood pressure and metabolic profile during the first 5 years of life. One hundred thirty-nine newborns (63 women) born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies and in the absence of perinatal illness were included. Subjects were divided according to size at birth in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. After the initial evaluation on the second day of life, infants were followed up at 6 months and 2 and 5 years. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured at each visit and metabolic assessment was performed at 5 years of age. Among the BW groups, mothers did not differ in terms of age, smoking, and weight gain during pregnancy. BW was a positive determinant of systolic blood pressure at birth. Afterward, current weight was the strongest determinant, becoming significant at 2 years of age and progressively increasing in influence. At 5 years insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index and triglycerides were dependent on BW, current weight, and postnatal weight gain. In addition, BW was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and inversely so to uric acid. A positive relationship among insulin, blood pressure values, and uric acid was observed even early in life. In conclusion, the acceleration of early infant weight gain may aggravate the effects of low BW. Multiple interactions between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters foreshadow the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors later in life. PMID:24688125

  4. Relative strength as a determinant of mobility in elders 67–84 years of age. A nuage study: Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choquette; D. R. Bouchard; C. Y. Doyon; M. Sénéchal; M. Brochu; Isabelle J. Dionne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study proposes two relative strength indexes in order to evaluate the risks of lower mobility in healthy\\u000a older adults: 1) handgrip strength on body mass index and 2) quadriceps strength on body weight. Nine hundred and four men\\u000a and women aged between 67–84 years old were tested for body composition, muscle strength and mobility function. Individuals\\u000a in the

  5. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  6. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-10-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, valproate). In this article, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning in 229 children who completed at least one of these tests at 3 years of age. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for motor functioning, parental ratings of adaptive functioning, and parental ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning. A significant dose-related performance decline in motor functioning was seen for both valproate and carbamazepine. A significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was also seen for valproate, with a marginal performance decline evident for carbamazepine. Further, parents endorsed a significant decline in social skills for valproate that was dose related. Finally, on the basis of parent ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy appear to be at a significantly greater risk for a future diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, examine risks of other AEDs, define the risks in the neonate associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and determine the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:21783425

  7. Immediate and Long-Term Results of Coronary Angioplasty in Patients Aged 80 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Tiebing; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Chunjian; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Fumin; Cao, Kejiang; Ma, Wenzhu; Yang, Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To observe the short- and long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in octogenarians (>80 y.o.) at our institution. Method. All octogenarians who underwent PCI during the study period were retrospectively retrieved from our database and clinically followed. Major adverse cardiac (and cerebral) events (MAC(C)E) was considered as primary outcome. Results. From January 2003 to December 2007, 140 octogenarians (mean age: 85±3 y.o., 79% of male) underwent PCI and were clinically followed 14±11 months. Procedural success was obtained in 100 percent of patients with single vessel disease, in 96 percent of patients with double vessel disease, and in 75 percent of patients with triple vessel disease. In-hospital, 30 days, and one year MACE rates were 5%, 5%, and 10.7%, respectively. Impaired left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.856 to 0.964, P = .002), diabetes mellitus (HR = 5.792, 95%??CI = 1.785 to 18.796, P = .003), and low GFR (HR = 2.943, 95%??CI = 1.161, to 7.464, P = .023) were independently associated with an increase risk of MACE at long-term followup. Conclusion. Coronary angiography can be successfully performed in elderly patients with single and double vessel disease. The results in triple vessel disease are encouraging. Low LV function, diabetes, and impaired renal function increase the risk of long-term major adverse cardiac events. PMID:20634931

  8. Hypogammaglobulinaemia secondary to cow-milk allergy in children under 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Bezrodnik, Liliana; Raccio, Andrea C Gómez; Canil, Laura M; Rey, Maria Amanda; Carabajal, Patricia C; Fossati, Carlos A; Docena, Guillermo H

    2007-01-01

    Symptomatic hypogammaglobulinaemia in children younger than 2 years of age was studied to rule out a primary immunodeficiency. Thirty-four patients were referred to the Immunology Service to study the hypogammaglobulinaemia-associated clinical picture. Food allergy was documented in 10 patients by personal and familial history, presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and elevated total serum IgE levels. Coeliac disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection were also ruled out. Protein loss through stools was assessed by clearance of ?1-antitrypsin (AAT). Serum immunoglobulin levels were determined by nephelometry and functional antibodies were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cellular immune response was assessed by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens and cell subsets were analysed by flow cytometry. In five patients of the 10 patients we suspected a protein loss through the mucosa. Four of these five patients showed an increased AAT and the other showed an extensive cutaneous lesion. Immunological studies revealed normal antibody function, in vitro lymphoproliferative responses and cell numbers in four of the 5 patients. One patient showed abnormally low numbers of CD4+ T cells as well as a defective proliferative response to mitogens. After diagnosis of cow milk allergy, milk was replaced with infant milk formula containing hydrolysed proteins. Recovery of immunoglobulin values and clinical resolution were achieved. Hypogammaglobulinaemia during early childhood in some children may be secondary to cow milk allergy, and immunoglobulins and cells may leak through the inflamed mucosa. Resolution of symptoms as well as normalization of immunoglobulin values may be easily achieved by avoidance of the offending allergen. PMID:17498216

  9. Specificity of childhood psychotic symptoms for predicting schizophrenia by 38 years of age: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, H. L.; Caspi, A.; Poulton, R.; Meier, M. H.; Houts, R.; Harrington, H.; Arseneault, L.; Moffitt, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood psychotic symptoms have been used as a subclinical phenotype of schizophrenia in etiological research and as a target for preventative interventions. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the specificity of these symptoms for schizophrenia, suggesting alternative outcomes such as anxiety and depression. Using a prospective longitudinal birth cohort we investigated whether childhood psychotic symptoms predicted a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders by 38 years of age. Method Participants were drawn from a birth cohort of 1037 children from Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed prospectively to 38 years of age (96% retention rate). Structured clinical interviews were administered at age 11 to assess psychotic symptoms and study members underwent psychiatric assessments at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 to obtain past-year DSM-III-R/IV diagnoses and self-reports of attempted suicides since adolescence. Results Psychotic symptoms at age 11 predicted elevated rates of research diagnoses of schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and also suicide attempts by age 38, even when controlling for gender, social class and childhood psychopathology. No significant associations were found for persistent anxiety, persistent depression, mania or persistent substance dependence. Very few of the children presenting with age-11 psychotic symptoms were free from disorder by age 38. Conclusions Childhood psychotic symptoms were not specific to a diagnosis of schizophrenia in adulthood and thus future studies of early symptoms should be cautious in extrapolating findings only to this clinical disorder. However, these symptoms may be useful as a marker of adult mental health problems more broadly. PMID:23302254

  10. Burden and trend analysis of injury mortality in China among children aged 0–14?years from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Wu, Jing; Luo, Jiesi; Pak, Anita WP; Choi, Bernard CK; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To track changes of the burden and trends of childhood injury mortality among children aged 0–14?years in China from 2004 to 2011. Design National representative data from the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points system and Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system from 2004 to 2011 were used. Rates and 95% CIs of aged-standardised mortality, as well as the proportions of injury death, were estimated. Setting Urban and rural China. Participants Children aged 0–14?years from 2004 to 2011. Results The proportion of injury among all deaths in children increased from 18.69% in 2004 to 21.26% in 2011. A ‘V’ shape change was found in the age-standardised injury mortality rate during the study period among the children aged 0–14?years, with the age-standardised injury mortality rate decreasing from 29.71 per 100?000 per year in 2004 to 24.12 in 2007, and then increasing to 28.12 in 2011. A similar change was observed in the rural area. But the age-standardised mortality rate decreased consistently in the urban area. The rate was higher among boys than among girls. Drowning, road traffic accidents and falls were consistently the top three causes of death among children. Conclusions Childhood injury is an increasingly serious public health problem in China. The increasing trend of childhood injury mortality is driven by the rural areas rather than urban areas. More effective strategies and measures for injury prevention and control are needed for rural areas, boys, drowning, road traffic accidents and falls. PMID:26137882

  11. Longitudinal age-and cohort trends in body mass index in Sweden – a 24-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze whether mean Body Mass Index (BMI), assessed at four occasions, changed within different age groups and birth cohorts over time, i.e., between 1980/81 and 2004/05, after adjustment for possible confounders. Methods A sample of 2728 men and 2770 women aged 16–71 years at study start were randomly drawn from the Swedish Total Population Register and followed from 1980/81 to 2004/05. The same sample was assessed on four occasions during the 24-year study period (i.e., every eighth year). The outcome variable, BMI, was based on self-reported height and weight. A mixed model, with random intercept and random slope, was used to estimate annual changes in BMI within the different age groups and birth cohorts. Results Mean BMI increased from 24.1 to 25.5 for men and from 23.1 to 24.3 for women during the 24-year study period. The annual change by age group was highest in the ages of 32–39, 40–47 and 48–55 years among men, and in the ages of 24–31, 32–39, and 40–47 years among women. The highest annual changes were found in the youngest birth cohorts for both men and women, i.e., those born 1958–65, 1966–73, and 1974–81. For each birth cohort, the annual change in BMI increased compared to the previous, i.e., older, birth cohort. In addition, age-by-cohort interaction tests revealed that the increase in BMI by increasing age was higher in the younger birth cohorts (1966–1989) than in the older ones. Conclusions Public health policies should target those age groups and birth cohorts with the highest increases in BMI. For example, younger birth cohorts had higher annual increases in BMI than older birth cohorts, which means that younger cohorts increased their BMI more than older ones during the study period. PMID:24074433

  12. Longitudinal Study of Performance on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a cognitive test to measure executive function. Longitudinal studies have shown that repeated testing improves performance on the RFFT. Such a practice effect may hinder the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal performance on the RFFT in persons aged 35–82 years. Performance on the RFFT was measured three times over an average follow-up period of six years in 2,515 participants of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) study in Groningen, the Netherlands: 53% men; mean age (SD), 53 (10) years. The effect of consecutive measurements on performance on the RFFT was investigated with linear multilevel regression models that also included age, gender, educational level and the interaction term consecutive measurement number x age as independent variables. It was found that the mean (SD) number of unique designs on the RFFT increased from 73 (26) at the first measurement to 79 (27) at the second measurement and to 83 (26) at the third measurement (p<0.001). However, the increase per consecutive measurement number was negatively associated with age and decreased with 0.23 per one-year increment of age (p<0.001). The increase per consecutive measurement number was not dependent on educational level. Similar results were found for the median (IQR) number of perseverative errors which showed a small but statistically significant increase with repeating testing: 7 (3–13) at the first measurement, 7 (4–14) at the second measurement and 8 (4–15) at the third measurement (ptrend = 0.002). In conclusion, the performance on the RFFT improved by repeating the test over an average follow-up period of three to six years. This practice effect was the largest in young adults and not dependent on educational level. PMID:25799403

  13. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 ?g/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 ?g/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 ?g/L) than in girls (61.9 ?g/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs?100 ?g/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (?100 ?g/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni municipalities, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mosha, T C E; Fungo, S

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional comparison study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren 428 children aged 6 -12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni municipalities in Tanzania. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for all respondents. A total of 428 children were involved in the study. The prevalence of obesity among children aged 6 - 9 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni were 5.6% (n = 118) and 6.3% (n = 87), respectively. Likewise, 4.2% (n = 118) of children aged 6-9 years in Dodoma were overweight while 8.6% (n = 87) of their counterparts in Kinondoni municipality were overweight. For children aged 10-12 years, 3.9% (n= 118) in Dodoma were obese compared to 5.8% (n = 87) of their peers in Kinondoni. Some 4.9% of the children aged 10-12 years in Dodoma were overweight compared to 5.8% of their counterparts in Kinondoni. The average body fat mass of children aged 6 - 9 years in Dodoma ranged from 21.42-21.81%, while that of their peers in Kinondoni ranged from 21.66-21.98%. The average body fat mass of children aged 10-12 years ranged between 23.95-24.10% in Dodoma and 23.65-24.95% in Kinondoni. There were gender and age differences in body fat mass distribution, with girls and the older children having significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportion of body fat mass. In conclusion, although the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in this study were lower than those reported elsewhere, there is an imminent danger because the trend of the conditions is rising swiftly with urbanization, changes in lifestyles and socio-economic transition. It is recommended that, children should be educated on good nutrition practices and trained to develop healthy eating behaviours. Parents should encourage lifestyle behaviours that promote high level of physical activities. Physical education and organized sports at schools should be revived. PMID:20737824

  15. Synthesis, conformational analysis, and bioassay of 9,10-didehydroepothilone D.

    PubMed

    White, James D; Sundermann, Kurt F; Wartmann, Markus

    2002-03-21

    [reaction: see text] 9,10-Didehydroepothilone D was synthesized, its conformation was studied, and its tubulin polymerization and antiproliferative activity were compared with that of epothilone D and certain analogues. PMID:11893205

  16. Formation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone by atmospheric gas-phase reactions of phenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    Phenanthrene is a 3-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which exists mainly in the gas-phase in the atmosphere. Recent concern over the presence of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in ambient particles led us to study the products of the gas-phase reactions of phenanthrene with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone. The formation yields of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were measured to be ˜3%, 33±9%, and ˜2% from the OH radical, NO 3 radical and O 3 reactions, respectively. Calculations suggest that daytime OH radical-initiated and nighttime NO 3 radical-initiated reactions of gas-phase phenanthrene may be significant sources of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in ambient atmospheres. In contrast, the ozone reaction with phenanthrene is unlikely to contribute significantly to ambient 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

  17. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  18. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT

  19. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull S Feather NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  20. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  1. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  2. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  3. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  4. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull BANDER'S INITIALS CODE BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR

  5. Peak bone mineral area density and determinants among females aged 9 to 24 years in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Juan Tamayo; Aurelio Cruz-Valdez; Rodrigo Díaz; Bernardo Hernández; Ramón Del Cueto; Mauricio Hernández-Avila

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Peak bone mineral area density is the amount of bone tissue present when skeletal maturation is completed. The exact age at which bone accumulation reaches a plateau varies with skeletal region. In Mexico and other Latin American countries, there are very few reports on bone mineral area density at early age. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study of 461

  6. Outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients age ?80 years: results from the National Cardiovascular Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen P Alexander; Kevin J Anstrom; Lawrence H Muhlbaier; Ralph D Grosswald; Peter K Smith; Robert H Jones; Eric D Peterson

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to evaluate characteristics and outcomes of patients age ?80 undergoing cardiac surgery.BACKGROUNDPrior single-institution series have found high mortality rates in octogenarians after cardiac surgery. However, the major preoperative risk factors in this age group have not been identified. In addition, the additive risks in the elderly of valve replacement surgery at the time of

  7. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basant K Puri; Iqbal Singh

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study

  8. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and US Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival Rates - Whites

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2005 National Cancer Institute Note: Incidence and death rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). a SEER 17 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit,

  9. Nonanebis(peroxoic acid): a stable peracid for oxidative bromination of aminoanthracene-9,10-dione

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vilas Venunath

    2014-01-01

    Summary A new protocol for the oxidative bromination of aminoanthracene-9,10-dione, which is highly deactivated towards the electrophilic substitution is investigated. The peracid, nonanebis(peroxoic acid), possesses advantages such as better stability at room temperature, it is easy to prepare and non-shock sensitiv as compared to the conventional peracids. The present protocol has a broad scope for the bromination of various substituted and unsubstituted aminoanthracene-9,10-diones. PMID:24991241

  10. Effect of indoor environmental factors on development of atopic symptoms in children followed up to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Dan; Andersson, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The increased prevalence of atopic diseases reported in many Western countries is thought to be caused by changes in living conditions. For a long time attention was focused on indoor environmental factors and early feeding patterns, but during recent years other factors have received more attention. An unselected, Swedish, population-based cohort of 904 children were followed from the age of 3 months to 4 years. Questionnaires were sent to the mothers of the children when they were 3 months, 18 months and 4 years of age. A blood sample was taken from a subgroup of the children when they were 4 years old which was analysed for IgE specific antibodies to food and inhalant allergens. The prevalences of asthma, allergic eye-nose reactions, eczema, and food reactions at 4 years of age and a positive blood test were analysed as outcome factors. Features of housing and early feeding patterns were found to have limited effect on the development of allergies in the children. Presence of older siblings resulted in a decreased tendency to produce IgE antibodies. Early exposure to furry animals seemed to prevent the development of asthma. Children who were frequently infected up to 18 months of age showed an increased prevalence of allergic symptoms at 4 years of age. Children of mothers with a higher prevalence of complaints about indoor factors, or who had increased general symptoms or skin or mucous membrane symptoms ran a greater risk of developing various allergic symptoms. However, these children did not have higher levels of IgE antibodies. The reported allergic symptoms in the children may be due to non-immunological reactions, although it is also possible that the mothers may have over-reported such symptoms. PMID:14738543

  11. Sensorimotor and psychosocial determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Guralnik, Jack; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to identify sensorimotor and psychosocial determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability. Design: prospective. Setting: population-based sample of community-dwelling older persons. Participants: community-living middle-aged and older persons (age: 50–85 years) without baseline mobility disability (n = 622). Measurements: mobility disability, defined as self-reported inability to walk a quarter mile without resting or inability to walk up a flight of stairs unsupported, was ascertained at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Potential baseline determinant characteristics included demographics, education, social support, financial condition, knee extensor strength, visual contrast sensitivity, cognition, depression, presence of chronic conditions and history of falls. Results: a total of 13.5% participant reported 3-year incident mobility disability. Age ?75 years, female sex, knee extensor strength in the lowest quartile, visual contrast sensitivity <1.7 on the Pelli-Robson chart or significant depressive symptoms (CESD score >16) were independent determinants of 3-year incident mobility disability (ORs 1.84–16.51). Conclusions: low visual contrast sensitivity, poor knee extensor strength and significant depressive symptoms are independent determinants of future onset of mobility disability. PMID:24042004

  12. Diborylated magnesium anthracene as precursor for b2 h5 (-) -bridged 9,10-dihydroanthracene.

    PubMed

    Pospiech, Steffen; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2015-05-26

    9,10-(Bpin)2 -anthracene (3, HBpin=pinacolborane) was synthesized from 9,10-dibromoanthracene in a stepwise lithiation/borylation sequence. The reaction of 3 with highly activated magnesium furnished the diborylated magnesium anthracene 4, which was quenched in situ with ethereal HCl to yield cis-9,10-(Bpin)2 -DHA (cis-5, DHA=9,10-dihydroanthracene). Compound cis-5, in turn, can be reduced with Li[AlH4 ] in THF to give its diborate Li2 [cis-9,10-(BH3 )2 -DHA] (Li2 [cis-6]). In the crystal lattice, the THF solvate Li2 [cis-6]?3?THF establishes a dimeric structure with Li-(?-H)-B coordination modes. Hydride abstraction from Li2 [cis-6] with Me3 SiCl yields the B?H?B-bridged DHA Li[7]. This product can also be viewed as a unique cyclic B2 H7 (-) derivative with a hydrocarbon backbone. Treatment of Li2 [cis-6] with the stronger hydride abstracting agent Me3 SiOTf (HOTf=trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) in THF affords the THF diadduct of cis-9,10-(BH(OTf))2 -DHA. PMID:25892077

  13. Seven-Year Patterns in US Cigar Use Epidemiology Among Young Adults Aged 18–25 Years: A Focus on Race/Ethnicity and Brand

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Paul; Delnevo, Cristine; Allen, Jane A.; Sokol, Natasha; Byron, M. Justin; Thornton-Bullock, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined patterns in cigar use among young adults, aged 18–25 years, focusing on race/ethnicity and brand. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2008, using multivariate logistic regression to assess time trends in past 30 days cigar use, past 30 days use of a “top 5” cigar brand, cigar use intensity, and age at first cigar use. Results. Cigar use has increased among White non-Hispanic men aged 18 to 25 years, from 12.0% in 2002 to 12.7% in 2008. Common predictors of all outcomes included male gender and past 30 days use of cigarettes, marijuana, and blunts. Additional predictors of past 30 days cigar and “top 5” brand use included younger age, non-Hispanic Black or White race, lower income, and highest level of risk behavior. College enrollment predicted intensity of use and “top 5” brand use. Conclusions. Recent legislative initiatives have changed how cigars are marketed and may affect consumption. National surveys should include measures of cigar brand and little cigar and cigarillo use to improve cigar use estimates. PMID:21852638

  14. Mortality by treatment in patients ?80 years of age with gastroesophageal cancer seen in a 20-year period at a single medical center

    PubMed Central

    Mason, James; Maldonado, Yolanda Munoz; Wong, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The treatment approach to patients 80 years of age and older with gastroesophageal cancer at Baylor Scott and White in Temple, Texas, has historically favored conservative measures in the form of palliation and observation. To evaluate this trend in practice, the administered treatments and subsequent patient outcomes of this group were retrospectively reviewed. The study group included all patients 80 years of age and older with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal cancer seen at our facility between 1991 and 2010. Of the 117 cases, 49% received none of the available treatment modalities. The median overall survival (OS) of patients who received treatment, however, was significantly longer than the OS of those who did not, regardless of modality. Specifically, surgical intervention offered an almost double median OS compared with no therapy (6.8 vs. 3.9 months, respectively; P = 0.02); chemotherapy, an almost 4-fold OS benefit (14.8 vs. 3.9 months; P = 0.03); and radiation therapy, a >3-fold OS benefit (11.1 vs. 3.5 months; P = 0.04). These results further substantiate chronological age as an inaccurate predictor of treatment benefit, and age alone should not dictate the administration or withholding of available treatment options. PMID:26130872

  15. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  16. Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

  17. Behavioral and Emotional Problems Among Italian Children and Adolescents Aged 4 to 18 Years as Reported by Parents and Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Frigerio; Carmen Cattaneo; MariaGiulia Cataldo; Alessia Schiatti; Massimo Molteni; Marco Battaglia

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were the Italian standardization of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL\\/4–18) and the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), the analysis of the internal consistency of the two instruments, and the evaluation of the agreement between parents' and teachers' ratings. A group of 1423 parents and 1464 teachers of children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years, from

  18. Effects of the m gene for muscular hypertrophy on conformation at one year of age in beef cattle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of the m gene for muscular hypertrophy on conformation at one year of age in beef cattle C to be related to the selection history of beef cattle and to the magnitude of the effect of the m gene. They indicate also that current commercial selection standards for beef cattle are likely to unconsciously

  19. The Relationship between Creativity, Teacher Ratings on Behavior, Age, and Gender in Pupils from Seven to Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Hannes; Daghofer, Fedor; Hollerer, Luise; Kaschnitz, Wolfgang; Kellner, Karl; Kirchmair, Gerolf; Krammer, Irene; Schlagbauer, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the performance on a test for the assessment of creative behavior and teacher ratings on scales for the assessment of behavior commonly seen as negative. The sample consisted of 71 Austrian elementary school students (33 boys and 38 girls), from seven to ten years of age. The children…

  20. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  1. WHAT HELPS MIDDLE-AGED WIDOWS WITH THEIR PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL ADAPTATION SEVERAL YEARS AFTER THEIR LOSS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEA UNGAR; VICTOR FLORIAN

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to middle-aged widows' adaptation to their husbands' death due to physical illness, 1 to 5 years after the initial loss. Ninety-three widows and 93 married women, who served as controls, filled out questionnaires assessing their experience of stress and strain, their Sense of Coherence level, the social support they received, as well as measures

  2. Arrhythmia and survival in patients >18 years of age after the Mustard procedure for complete transposition of the great arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Puley; Samuel Siu; Michael Connelly; David Harrison; Gary Webb; William G Williams; Louise Harris

    1999-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients who underwent Mustard repair as children are now adults. Loss of sinus rhythm, supraventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death have been described in pediatric series. However, little is known about the clinical course of adult patients. This retrospective cohort study examined 86 consecutive adults (age >18 years) who had undergone the Mustard procedure and were referred to

  3. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  4. Energy intake from foods and beverages consumed between meals by adolescents ages 12–18 years: NHANES, 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to describe meal patterns of adolescents ages 12–18 years (n = 5,811), and energy intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals. NHANES, 1999–2004, Day 1, 24-h recall data were classified by food group, meal type, and time of day. Snacks/drinks were consumed by 90% of ad...

  5. Longitudinal Association of Maternal Attempt to Lose Weight During the Postpartum Period and Child Obesity at Age 3 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendrin R. Sonneville; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Karen E. Peterson; Steven L. Gortmaker; Matthew W. Gillman; Elsie M. Taveras

    2011-01-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss

  6. Association between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Preflood Behavioral Characteristics among Children Aged 7–15 Years in Hunan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minning Peng; Aizhong Liu; Jia Zhou; Shiwu Wen; Shuoqi Li; Tubao Yang; Xingli Li; Xin Huang; Benjamin Abuaku; Hongzhuan Tan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and preflood behavioral characteristics among children aged 7–15 years in Hunan, China. Subjects and Methods: In 2000, a retrospective study was carried out among children who had been exposed to the 1998 floods in Hunan. A multistage sampling method was used to select subjects from the flood-affected areas. A structured

  7. Support for Families: Working with Parents and Caregivers to Support Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue of Coordinators' Notebook focuses on how early childhood care and development (ECCD) programs world-wide can work with parents and caregivers to support children from birth to 3 years of age. Section 1 of the journal describes the needs of parents and families and the development of parent programs around the world. Section 2…

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME IN ONE SECOND IN CHILDREN 6 TO 11 YEARS OF AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors analyzed 44,664 annual measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in 12,258 white children and 1,041 black children between 6 and 11 years of age in 6 communities. Sex and race-specific lung function development is de...

  9. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  10. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…

  11. Feasibility of atlantoaxial pedicle screws' placement in children 6-8 years of age: a cadaveric and tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Xu, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Min; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zhi-Wen; He, Min-Chang

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the linear and angular dimensions of children's atlantoaxial pedicle using cadavers combined with axial computed tomography (CT) and to examine the feasibility of placing atlantoaxial pedicle screws (3.5 mm diameter) on the vertebrae of children 6-8 years of age. Fourteen cadaveric specimens, ranging in age from 6 to 8 years, were dissected to obtain their atlantoaxial vertebrae. We manually measured 12 linear anatomic parameters related to the atlantoaxial pedicle, its lateral mass, and the posterior arch under the vertebral artery groove. CT axial scanning of the atlantoaxial region was performed on 32 healthy children ranging in age from 6 to 8 years. The length of the atlantoaxial pedicles and the angle between the pedicle axis and the midline of the vertebral body were measured on the atlantoaxial transverse CT imaging. It is feasible to place a 3.5 mm screw in the atlantoaxial pedicle of children ranging in age from 6 to 8 years when the appropriate entry point and trajectory of the screw are chosen. PMID:23764758

  12. Central Nervous System Tumors in Patients under Three Years of Age: Treatment Results of a Single Institute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Varan; Nejat Akalan; Faruk Zorlu; Canan Akyüz; Tezer Kutluk; Münevver Büyükpamukçu

    2006-01-01

    Eighty-six patients under 3 years of age with central nervous system tumors were retrospectively analyzed between 1972 and 2003. Surgical resection was done in all patients except for those with optic glioma, pons glioma and pineal tumor. Three different chemotherapy regimens were used in different time periods. In 48 patients, the tumor was located in the posterior fossa, and 29

  13. SODA: Seniors for Organ Donation Awareness “Increasing the Enrollment of Senior Citizens (Age 65 Years and Older) in the Ohio Donor Registry”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie L. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Research Hypothesis: A targeted informational awareness program about organ and tissue donation to senior citizens (age >65 years) in Montgomery County, Ohio will produce an increase in the number of registered organ donors in the Ohio Donor Registry, hence, allowing more available organs for transplant for aging patients (50 years of age or older) in need across the region. Subsequently,

  14. A prospective comparative study of cementless total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing in patients under the age of 55 years: a ten-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Haddad, F S; Konan, S; Tahmassebi, J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ten-year clinical and functional outcome of hip resurfacing and to compare it with that of cementless hip arthroplasty in patients under the age of 55 years. Between 1999 and 2002, 80 patients were enrolled into the study: 24 were randomised (11 to hip resurfacing, 13 to total hip arthroplasty), 18 refused hip resurfacing and chose cementless total hip arthroplasty with a 32 mm bearing, and 38 insisted on resurfacing. The mean follow-up for all patients was 12.1 years (10 to 14). Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically at one year, five years and ten years. Outcome measures included EuroQol EQ5D, Oxford, Harris hip, University of California Los Angeles and University College Hospital functional scores. No differences were seen between the two groups in the Oxford or Harris hip scores or in the quality of life scores. Despite a similar aspiration to activity pre-operatively, a higher proportion of patients with a hip resurfacing were running and involved in sport and heavy manual labour after ten years. We found significantly higher function scores in patients who had undergone hip resurfacing than in those with a cementless hip arthroplasty at ten years. This suggests a functional advantage for hip resurfacing. There were no other attendant problems. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:617-22. PMID:25922454

  15. Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Management Continuum – 2010 Consensus Summary for children six years of age and over, and adults

    PubMed Central

    Lougheed, M Diane; Lemière, Catherine; Dell, Sharon D; Ducharme, Francine M; FitzGerald, J Mark; Leigh, Richard; Licskai, Chris; Rowe, Brian H; Bowie, Dennis; Becker, Allan; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To integrate new evidence into the Canadian Asthma Management Continuum diagram, encompassing both pediatric and adult asthma. METHODS: The Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Committee members, comprised of experts in pediatric and adult respirology, allergy and immunology, emergency medicine, general pediatrics, family medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and evidence-based medicine, updated the continuum diagram, based primarily on the 2008 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, and performed a focused review of literature pertaining to key aspects of asthma diagnosis and management in children six years of age and over, and adults. RESULTS: In patients six years of age and over, management of asthma begins with establishing an accurate diagnosis, typically by supplementing medical history with objective measures of lung function. All patients and caregivers should receive self-management education, including a written action plan. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) remain the first-line controller therapy for all ages. When asthma is not controlled with a low dose of ICS, the literature supports the addition of long-acting beta2-agonists in adults, while the preferred approach in children is to increase the dose of ICS. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are acceptable as second-line monotherapy and as an alternative add-on therapy in both age groups. Anti-immunoglobulin E therapy may be of benefit in adults, and in children 12 years of age and over with difficult to control allergic asthma, despite high-dose ICS and at least one other controller. CONCLUSIONS: The foundation of asthma management is establishing an accurate diagnosis based on objective measures (eg, spirometry) in individuals six years of age and over. Emphasis is placed on the similarities and differences between pediatric and adult asthma management approaches to achieve asthma control. PMID:20186367

  16. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ?10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  17. Maternal-infant relationship quality and risk of obesity at age 5.5 years in a national US cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother’s or the child’s contribution to the relationship quality. Methods We analyzed data (n?=?5650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of U.S. children born in 2001 and followed until they entered kindergarten. At 9 months of age, the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) was used to assess the quality of observed playtime interactions between mothers and infants, yielding separate scores for maternal and infant behaviors. Obesity (BMI ?95th percentile) at age 5.5 years was based on measured weight and height. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of obesity at 5.5 years of age was higher among children in the lowest quartile of maternal NCATS score (20.2% [95% CI: 17.2%, 23.2%]) than in the highest quartile (13.9% [11.3%, 16.5%]), but maternal NCATS score was not significantly associated with obesity after adjustment for race/ethnicity, maternal education and household income. The prevalence of obesity at 5.5 years of age was similar among children in the lowest quartile of infant NCATS score (17.4% [14.4%, 20.3%]) and in the highest quartile (17.6% 14.4%, 20.8%]), and was not changed with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Maternal-infant relationship quality, assessed by direct observation at 9 months of age in a national sample, was not associated with an increased risk of obesity at age 5.5 years after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24564412

  18. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePLUS

    ... age 5 and to preventive services provided by primary care clinicians. Primary care clinicians include doctors and nurses who provide general ... the potential benefits and harms of efforts by primary care clinicians to prevent dental caries (tooth decay): (1) ...

  19. A 1000-year increase in deep Pacific ventilation age during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, D. C.; Mix, A. C.; Southon, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation may have been driven by release of carbon sequestered in the abyssal ocean. This mechanism requires a poorly ventilated deep Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and enhanced ventilation during the deglaciation. Here we present planktonic and benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon data from a high-sedimentation rate core collected at 2.7 km water depth in the Northeast Pacific, a site that monitors the oldest watermass in the modern ocean. We estimate ventilation age (i.e. the time elapsed since water was last at the surface) using the projection age (Adkins and Boyle, 1997) and TTD-ETD methods (DeVries and Primeau, 2010). We show that both methods yield LGM ventilation ages similar to today, suggesting this depth horizon in the NE Pacific was not an important carbon reservoir at the LGM. During the deglaciation, both projection and TTD-ETD ages increased by ~1 kyr, indicating that either the 1) ventilation rate decreased, 2) the surface water reservoir age in the Southern Ocean increased, or 3) there was an influx of 14C-depleted carbon from another source into the deep Pacific. The available paleoceanographic evidence is inconsistent with the first two options, implying that another source of old carbon may have been responsible for the apparent increase in ventilation age during the last deglaciation.

  20. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  1. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. V. Ages and Masses of the Year 1 Stellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, L. Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason; Larsen, Søren S.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-05-01

    We present ages and masses for 601 star clusters in M31 from the analysis of the six filter integrated light measurements from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, made as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We derive the ages and masses using a probabilistic technique, which accounts for the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function. Tests on synthetic data show that this method, in conjunction with the exquisite sensitivity of the PHAT observations and their broad wavelength baseline, provides robust age and mass recovery for clusters ranging from ~102 to 2 × 106 M ?. We find that the cluster age distribution is consistent with being uniform over the past 100 Myr, which suggests a weak effect of cluster disruption within M31. The age distribution of older (>100 Myr) clusters falls toward old ages, consistent with a power-law decline of index -1, likely from a combination of fading and disruption of the clusters. We find that the mass distribution of the whole sample can be well described by a single power law with a spectral index of -1.9 ± 0.1 over the range of 103-3 × 105 M ?. However, if we subdivide the sample by galactocentric radius, we find that the age distributions remain unchanged. However, the mass spectral index varies significantly, showing best-fit values between -2.2 and -1.8, with the shallower slope in the highest star formation intensity regions. We explore the robustness of our study to potential systematics and conclude that the cluster mass function may vary with respect to environment. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. Molecular interaction of ?-conotoxin RgIA with the rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Azam, Layla; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zouridakis, Marios; Giastas, Petros; Tzartos, Socrates J; McIntosh, J Michael

    2015-05-01

    The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was first identified in the auditory system, where it mediates synaptic transmission between efferent olivocochlear cholinergic fibers and cochlea hair cells. This receptor gained further attention due to its potential role in chronic pain and breast and lung cancers. We previously showed that ?-conotoxin (?-CTx) RgIA, one of the few ?9?10 selective ligands identified to date, is 300-fold less potent on human versus rat ?9?10 nAChR. This species difference was conferred by only one residue in the (-), rather than (+), binding region of the ?9 subunit. In light of this unexpected discovery, we sought to determine other interacting residues with ?-CTx RgIA. A previous molecular modeling study, based on the structure of the homologous molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein, predicted that RgIA interacts with three residues on the ?9(+) face and two residues on the ?10(-) face of the ?9?10 nAChR. However, mutations of these residues had little or no effect on toxin block of the ?9?10 nAChR. In contrast, mutations of homologous residues in the opposing nAChR subunits (?10 ?197, P200 and ?9 T61, D121) resulted in 19- to 1700-fold loss of toxin activity. Based on the crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human ?9 nAChR, we modeled the rat ?9?10 ECD and its complexes with ?-CTx RgIA and acetylcholine. Our data support the interaction of ?-CTx RgIA at the ?10/?9 rather than the ?9/?10 nAChR subunit interface, and may facilitate the development of selective ligands with therapeutic potential. PMID:25740413

  3. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score ?adjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score ?adjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score ?adjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:636–642;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408417 PMID:25738596

  4. The Direction of Longitudinal Associations Between Sleep Problems and Depression Symptoms: A Study of Twins Aged 8 and 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Früuhling V.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish the direction and etiology of longitudinal associations between sleep problems and depression symptoms in children. Design: Data on twins aged 8 and 10 years were obtained. At assessments, parents completed the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and twins completed the Children's Depression Inventory. Setting: Participants were mainly interviewed at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. Patients or Participants: Three hundred twin pairs initially enrolled in the study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: A genetically informative cross-lagged model examined links between sleep and depression. Sleep problems at age 8 predicted depression at age 10 (partial regression coefficient [95% confidence intervals] = 0.10 [0.01-0.18]). The converse was not found. Stability of sleep problems across time was mainly due to genes (46% of the genetic influence on sleep at 10 was due to the same genetic influence on sleep aged 8). Stability of depression was mainly due to nonshared environmental influences (19% of the nonshared environmental influence on depression at 10 was due to the same nonshared environmental influence on depression at age 8). The cross-lagged association between sleep problems at 8 and depression at 10 years was largely due to genes, although this finding was nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study adds to our understanding of the temporal precedence of sleep problems and depression and the risks underlying their associations. There are implications regarding the value of specifying genes linked to sleep problems and potential opportunities for informing early intervention strategies in high-risk groups at key points in the progression to developing more serious problems. Citation: Gregory AM; Rijsdijk FV; Lau JYF; Dahl RE; Eley TC. The direction of longitudinal associations between sleep problems and depression symptoms: a study of twins aged 8 and 10 years. SLEEP 2009;32(2):189–199. PMID:19238806

  5. Risk Correlates of Diarrhea in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Slums of Bankura, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Avisek; Sarker, Gautam; Rout, Arup Jyoti; Mondal, Tanushree; Pal, Ranabir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrheal diseases are an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally in children under 5 years of age. Objective: To find the prevalence and risk factors of diarrhea among children under 5 years. Materials and Methods: A population-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban slums of Bankura, West Bengal on the prevalence of diarrhea and feeding practices, nutrition, and immunization among 152 children under 5 years (69 males and 83 females). Results: Overall prevalence of diarrhea was 22.36%; 21.73% males and 22.89% females were affected with diarrhea. There were 57.69% diarrhea cases in children of 7-12 months age group, followed by 25.71% in those of 13-24 months age group; with increasing age, the prevalence of diarrhea gradually decreased. Diarrhea was noted to be 20.33% in exclusively breastfed children and 31.57% in children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. In bottle-fed children, the frequency of diarrhea was 26.08%. The prevalence of diarrhea was 21.83% in completely immunized children and 30% in partially immunized children. Risk of diarrhea was 19.80% in normal participants and 27.45% in undernourished children. Conclusion: The present study identified a high prevalence of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years. Findings of the study also revealed the demographic features, feeding practices, immunization practices, and nutritional status as risk factors of diarrhea, which can be tackled by effective education of the community. PMID:25722616

  6. Comparing Methods of Determining Insertion Length for Placing Gastric Tubes in Children 1 Month to 17 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Cirgin Ellett, Marsha L.; Cohen, Mervyn D.; Perkins, Susan M.; Croffie, Joseph M. B.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare three methods of predicting the gastric tube insertion length in children 1 month to 17 years of age: age-related, height-based (ARHB); nose-ear-xiphoid (NEX); and nose-ear-mid-umbilicus (NEMU). Design and Methods Randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to the ARHB, NEX, or NEMU groups. Tubes placed high were considered to be misplaced. Results There were significant differences in percentages of correctly placed tubes, with ARHB and NEMU being more accurate than NEX. Practice Implications NEX should no longer be used as a gastric tube insertion-length predictor. Either ARHB or NEMU should be used. PMID:22188269

  7. The Sony Ericsson WTA Tour 10 year age eligibility and professional development review

    PubMed Central

    Otis, C L; Crespo, M; Flygare, C T; Johnston, P R; Keber, A; Lloyd?Kolkin, D; Loehr, J; Martin, K; Pluim, B M; Quinn, A; Roetert, P; Stroia, K A; Terry, P C

    2006-01-01

    Concerns have long existed over the participation of adolescent athletes in professional sports. In 2004, the Sony Ericsson WTA Tour (WTA Tour) commissioned a Professional Development Advisory Panel (PDAP) to evaluate the WTA Tour's age eligibility rule (AER) and professional development programmes (PDPs) for female tennis players since their inception in 1995. More than 75% of the 628 respondents supported the principles of the AER, and 90% indicated a need for PDPs. Statistical analysis of WTA Tour players' careers found that premature retirements (players leaving the Tour at or before age 21) decreased significantly from 7% before the AER to less than 1% afterward, and median career length increased by 43%. The PDAP recommends that the WTA Tour continues a phased?in, developmentally appropriate AER, enhances the PDPs, and works with other sport governing bodies to coordinate rules and programmes at earlier ages to aid the transition of adolescents into adult sports. PMID:16632582

  8. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction. PMID:17874943

  9. Trends and physiology of common serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18 years.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Metz, Michael Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to visually present and discuss in detail the physiological trends of 22 serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18.A data-mining, LMS (lambda, mu, and sigma) approach was employed to derive the smoothed continuous serum biochemistry centile charts, after application of stringent outlier exclusion criteria.Serum sodium and calculated osmolality are low in early life and rise with age due to maturing kidney and body water redistribution. Urea, creatinine and uric acid is high at birth, declines to reach a trough by 1 month of age and gradually rises again thereafter. Serum bicarbonate falls initially during the neonatal and toddler period, then rises with declining respiratory rate, further increasing sodium and suppressing chloride. Potassium, calcium and phosphate are required for somatic growth and are actively accrued during periods of rapid growth. Albumin increases until puberty while globulin rises to age 10 as a result of increased hepatic synthetic capacity and maturing immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity peaks during bone growth spurts in infancy and adolescence due to osteoblast leakage, while creatinine increases with muscle mass. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities are high at birth and decline with age. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity is low at birth and is induced by increased gluconeogenesis. Serum bilirubin increases continuously with age, mirroring haemoglobin concentration. Serum total cholesterol declines more markedly in boys than girls during puberty due to the combined effects of free testosterone (lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys) and oestradiol (lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and girls).It is important to understand trends and biological variation when interpreting results since partitioned reference intervals may mask this information. PMID:26126034

  10. Hemiarthroplasty for three- and four- part displaced fractures of the proximal humerus in patients over 65 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pavlopoulos, Dimitrios A; Badras, Leonidas S; Georgiou, Christina S; Skretas, Efstathios F; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2007-06-01

    This is a prospective case series, in which the outcome of shoulder hemiarthroplasty in recent three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus was evaluated in patients over 65 years of age. From February 1993 to October 2002, 51 patients with 3- or 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus were entered into the study. The criteria for inclusion were age over 65 years and 3- or 4- part displaced fracture. The mean age of the patients was 73 years (range: 65 to 84). The mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range: 2 to 12). According to the Constant-Murley scale, the results were satisfactory or very satisfactory for 74% of the patients. Thirty nine patients (78%) experienced mild or no pain, 50% achieved active anterior elevation greater than 120 degrees, while 40% had active lateral elevation of more than 120 degrees. None of the patients experienced complete recovery of strength and full range of motion. Thirty four patients were able to resume all their daily activities. There were complications in 26% of the patients. Assessment following the Constant-Murley scale demonstrated that two thirds of the patients were pain free and regained a wide range of shoulder movement, while one third resumed their pre-fracture activities to a great extent. The majority of the patients did not recover normal strength. PMID:17715719

  11. Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis and eczema up to 16 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, S; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Lind, T; Almqvist, C; Melén, E; Bergström, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity has been linked to offspring asthma; however, other allergy-related diseases, as well as the association beyond early school age, are largely unstudied. Objective To examine the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis, eczema and sensitization up to 16 years of age. Methods A total of 3294 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included in the analyses. Maternal BMI was assessed around week 10 in pregnancy. Information on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, lifestyle factors and environmental exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Sensitization was defined from IgE levels of inhalant allergens at 4, 8 and 16 years in a subsample of 2850 children. Generalized estimated equation models were used to analyse the associations between maternal BMI and the outcomes at 1–16 years. Results Maternal BMI was positively associated with overall risk of asthma up to age of 16 years (adj OR per 5 kg/m2 increase: 1.23; 95% CI 1.07–1.40 for prevalent asthma) excluding underweight mothers. In contrast, no significant associations were found for rhinitis, eczema or sensitization. The association with asthma was restricted to obese, rather than overweight mothers, but was attenuated when adjusting for overweight in the offspring. A causal inference test at 16 years further indicated that the child’s own overweight is a mediator in the suggested association between maternal BMI and offspring asthma at 16 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Maternal BMI is associated with an increased risk of asthma, but not rhinitis, eczema or sensitization; however, overweight in the offspring seems to have a mediating role. Prevention strategies of maternal pre-pregnancy and childhood obesity might be important to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma. PMID:24807420

  12. Mid-to long-term results of revision total hip replacement in patients aged 50 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Lee, P T H; Lakstein, D L; Lozano, B; Safir, O; Backstein, J; Gross, A E

    2014-08-01

    Revision total hip replacement (THR) for young patients is challenging because of technical complexity and the potential need for subsequent further revisions. We have assessed the survivorship, functional outcome and complications of this procedure in patients aged < 50 years through a large longitudinal series with consistent treatment algorithms. Of 132 consecutive patients (181 hips) who underwent revision THR, 102 patients (151 hips) with a mean age of 43 years (22 to 50) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 11 years (2 to 26) post-operatively. We attempted to restore bone stock with allograft where indicated. Using further revision for any reason as an end point, the survival of the acetabular component was 71% (sd 4) and 54% (sd 7) at ten- and 20 years. The survival of the femoral component was 80% (sd 4) and 62% (sd 6) at ten- and 20 years. Complications included 11 dislocations (6.1%), ten periprosthetic fractures (5.5%), two deep infections (1.1%), four sciatic nerve palsies (2.2%; three resolved without intervention, one improved after exploration and freeing from adhesions) and one vascular injury (0.6%). The mean modified Harris Hip Score was 41 (10 to 82) pre-operatively, 77 (39 to 93) one year post-operatively and 77 (38 to 93) at the latest review. This overall perspective on the mid- to long-term results is valuable when advising young patients on the prospects of revision surgery at the time of primary replacement. PMID:25086120

  13. Results of bipolar release in the treatment of congenital muscular torticolis in patients older than 10 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sudesh, Pebam; Mootha, Aditya Krishna; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neglected congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common presentation in developing countries like India, with the primary concern of the patients being cosmesis. Little has been published regarding the management of such patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of bipolar release in this age group. Methods Over a period of five years, 14 patients older than ten years (range 10–19 years) with neglected CMT were operated on with bipolar release of sternocleidomastoid muscle and z-plasty lengthening of the sternal end. Postoperative protocol included head halter traction for three weeks followed by intensive physical therapy. Results were evaluated using a modified version of the system of Lee et al. Results At an average follow-up of around three years (range 1–5 years), excellent results were noted in three patients, good in seven, fair in two, and poor in two. Postoperative improvements in range of motion, head tilt, chin deviation and cosmesis were noted in all patients, and these improvements were statistically significant. No surgery-related complications or recurrences requiring surgery occurred in any of the patients. Conclusions This study concluded that patients with CMT presenting after ten years of age definitely benefit from surgery, and that bipolar release is an adequate and complication-free method for such patients. PMID:21629376

  14. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (? 2 drinks/day or ? 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID:22897691

  15. Periods of Child Growth up to age 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: Key Distal Household and Community Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Whitney B.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7,266 children in the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. HAZ at about age 1 year and age in months predicted much of the variation in HAZ at age 5 years, but 40 to 71% was not predicted. Similarly, HAZ at age 5 years and age in months did not predict 26 to 47% of variation in HAZ at 8 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that parental schooling, consumption, and mothers’ height are key correlates of HAZ at about age 1 and also are associated with unpredicted change in HAZ from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years, given initial HAZ. These results underline the importance of a child’s starting point in infancy in determining his or her growth, point to key distal household and community factors that may determine early growth in early life and subsequent growth recovery and growth failure, and indicate that these factors vary some by country, urban/rural designation, and child sex. PMID:23769211

  16. Donor age and factors related to endothelial cell loss ten years after penetrating keratoplasty: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Lass, Jonathan H.; Benetz, Beth Ann; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Mannis, Mark J.; Holland, Edward J; Chow, Christopher; McCoy, Kristen; Price, Francis W.; Sugar, Alan; Verdier, David D.; Beck, Roy W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of donor age and other perioperative factors on long term endothelial cell loss after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) Design Multi-center, prospective, double-masked clinical trial Participants 176 participants from the Cornea Donor Study cohort who had not experienced graft failure 10 or more years after PKP for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema) Methods Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years old were assigned to participants using a randomized approach, without respect to recipient factors. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Images of the central endothelium were obtained preoperatively and at intervals for ten years postoperatively. Images were analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 10 years Results Among study participants with a clear graft at 10 years, the 125 who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 76%, resulting in a 10-year median ECD of 628 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 522-850), whereas the 51 who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 79%, resulting in a median 10-year ECD of 550 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 483-694) (P adjusted for baseline ECD=0.03). In addition to younger donor age, higher ECD values were significantly associated with higher baseline ECD (P<0.001) and larger donor tissue size (P<0.001). Forty-two (24%) of the 176 participants had an ECD below 500 cells/mm2 at 10 years and only 24 (14%) had an ECD above 1,000 cells/mm2. Conclusions Substantial cell loss occurs in eyes with a clear graft 10 years after PKP, with the rate of cell loss being slightly higher with older donor age. Higher pre-operative ECD and larger donor tissue size are associated with higher ECD at 10 years. Trial Registration NCT00006411 PMID:24246826

  17. The Development of Luminance- and Texture-Defined Form Perception during the School-Aged Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertone, Armando; Hanck, Julie; Guy, Jacalyn; Cornish, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the development of luminance- and texture-defined static form perception in school-aged children. This was done using an adapted Landolt-C technique where C-optotypes were defined by either luminance or texture information, the latter necessitating extra-striate neural processing to be perceived.…

  18. Solar disinfection of drinking water protects against cholera in children under 6 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R M Conroy; M E Meegan; T Joyce; K McGuigan; J Barnes

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMSWe have previously reported a reduction in risk of diarrhoeal disease in children who used solar disinfected drinking water. A cholera epidemic, occurring in an area of Kenya in which a controlled trial of solar disinfection and diarrhoeal disease in children aged under 6 had recently finished, offered an opportunity to examine the protection offered by solar disinfection

  19. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  20. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  1. Personality Differences in Attempted Suicide versus Suicide in Adults 50 Years of Age or Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useda, J. David; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Beckman, Anthony; Franus, Nathan; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2007-01-01

    The authors tested hypotheses concerning personality differences in treatment-seeking suicide attempters (AT; n = 60) and a community sample of suicides (SU; n = 43) over age 50. On the basis of prior research, the authors hypothesized that SU would be lower in Neuroticism and Openness and higher in Conscientiousness. A 2-group (AT vs. SU)…

  2. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept among Girls from Ages 5 to 7 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined peer teasing and parent criticism as mediators of the relationship between girls' weight status and self-concept. Findings indicated that at both ages 5 and 7, overweight girls reported lower self-concept. Peer weight-related teasing and parent criticism mediated relationship between weight status and self-concept…

  3. Does High Quality Childcare Narrow the Achievement Gap at Two Years of Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Dang, Tran; Lee, Weilin

    2011-01-01

    The authors use the ECLS-B, a nationally-representative study of children born in 2001 to report the child care arrangements and quality characteristics for 2-year olds in the United States and to estimate the effects of differing levels of child care quality on two-year old children's cognitive development. Their goal is to test whether high…

  4. Child of the World: Essential Montessori Age 3-12+ Years. Sixteenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Susan Mayclin

    This book provides information on the basic principles of Montessori education for 3- to 12-year-olds and contains a catalog of equipment, materials, and books for use by adults living or working with children. Information and relevant materials for 3- to 6-year-olds are organized into the following areas: (1) organizing the environment; (2)…

  5. Age dependent efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment: observations in 450 patients over an 11 year period

    PubMed Central

    Trappe, H.; Pfitzner, P.; Achtelik, M.; Fieguth, H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To determine whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment is beneficial in elderly patients with life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias.?Design—Since January 1984, ICDs were implanted in 450 patients to evaluate surgical risk, complications and mean survival in relation to patient age; 81 patients (18%) were ? 50 years at the time of ICD implant, 254 patients (56%) were between 51 and 64 years, and the remaining 115 (26%) were ? 65 years. Epicardial lead systems were implanted in 209 patients (46%), while transvenous lead systems were implanted in 241 (54%).?Results—13 patients (3%) died perioperatively, more often after epicardial (11 of 209 patients, 5%) than after transvenous ICD implantation (one of 241 patients, < 1%) (p < 0.05). During a mean (SD) follow up of 28 (24) months (range < 1 to 114 months), 90 patients (20%) died. Of these, nine (2%) died from sudden arrhythmic death; five (1%) died suddenly, probably as a result of non-arrhythmic causes; 55 (12%) died from other cardiac causes (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction); and 21 (5%) died from non-cardiac causes. The three, five, and seven year survival for arrhythmic mortality was 95% in patients ? 50 years compared with a three year survival of 93% and a five and seven year survival of 91% in patients of 51 to 64 years, and a three, five, and seven year survival of 99% in patients ? 65 years. 362 patients (80%) received ICD discharges (21 (43) shocks per patient), with a similar incidence among all three patient groups (? 50 years, 80%; 51 to 64 years, 81%; ? 65 years, 79%). The time interval between ICD implant and the first ICD treatment was shorter in patients ? 65 years (8 (8) months) than in patients between 51 and 64 years (11 (14) months) or ? 50 years (11 (11) months) (p < 0.05). Survival time following first appropriate shock was 30 (24) months in patients ? 50 years, 30 (26) months in patients of 51 to 64 years, and 19 (20) months in patients ? 65 years.?Conclusions—Elderly patients benefit from ICD treatment, and survive for a considerable time after the first treatment. Therefore, elderly patients should be considered candidates for ICD implantation if life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias are present.?? Keywords: cardioverter-defibrillator;  heart failure;  sudden death;  ICD discharges;  elderly patients PMID:9404252

  6. Hospital-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children below five years of age in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Anca, Ioana Alina; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia; Ple?ca, Doina; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Rugin?, Sorin; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus (RV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), affecting 95% of children below five years of age. Methods In this prospective, multi-center study, children below five years of age who were hospitalized or those who visited the emergency room (ER) due to AGE or who developed AGE at least 48 hours after hospitalization (nosocomial infection) and had a RV-positive stool sample were included (n=1,222). RV-positive samples were genotyped by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results RV test results were available for 1,212 children (hospitalizations [n=677], ER visits [n=398] and nosocomial AGE cases [n=137]). Proportions of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations and ER visits were 51.70% (350/677; 95%CI: 47.86–55.52) and 36.18% (144/398; 95%CI: 31.45–41.12), respectively. Overall, 45.95% (494/1075) of all community-acquired AGE cases were due to RV. High numbers of RVGE cases were recorded between January and March. Most common genotypes were G9P[8] (34.27%) followed by G4P[8] (25.83%) and G1P[8] (23.02%). Of all community-acquired RVGE cases, the highest number of cases was observed in children aged 12–23 months. Median duration of hospitalization among RV-positive subjects was six days (range: 2–31 days). Incidence of nosocomial RVGE was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.45–0.60) cases per 1,000 child-days hospitalization. Median duration for additional hospitalization due to nosocomial RVGE was five days (range: 1–10). The highest burden of nosocomial RVGE was observed in children aged 12–23 months (42.34%, 58/137). Our findings confirm a high burden of acute RVGE disease in Romania and provide useful data to support the implementation of RV vaccination in Romania. Trial registration NCT01253967 PMID:24967217

  7. Genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance in Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella boydii strains isolated from children aged <5 years in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, A M; Mansour, A; Weiner, M A; Pimentel, G; Armstrong, A W; Young, S Y N; Elsayed, N; Klena, J D

    2012-02-01

    Diversity within Shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and Shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in Egypt aged <5 years was investigated. Shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. Serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of S. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of S. boydii isolates were serotype 2. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (42%, 17%, respectively), although resistance varied among serotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis separated the isolates into distinct clusters correlating with species and serotype. Genetic differences in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ?-lactam-encoding resistance genes were also evident. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii are genetically diverse pathogens in Egypt; the high level of multidrug resistance associated with both pathogens and resistance to the most available inexpensive antibiotics underlines the importance of continuing surveillance. PMID:21470441

  8. Epigenetic Analysis of Neurocognitive Development at 1 year of Age in a Community-Based Pregnancy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Laura E.; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Sutter, Thomas R.; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Hovinga, Collin A.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Park, Vicki; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Adkins, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies show that molecular genetic changes and epigenetic modifications affect the risk of cognitive disability or impairment. However, the role of epigenetic variation in cognitive development of neurotypical young children remains largely unknown. Using data from a prospective, community-based study of mother-infant pairs, we investigated the association of DNA methylation patterns in neonatal umbilical cord blood with cognitive and language development at 1 year of age. No CpG loci achieved genome-wide significance, although a small number of weakly suggestive associations with Bayley-III Receptive Communication scales were noted. While umbilical cord blood is a convenient resource for genetic analyses of birth outcomes, our results do not provide conclusive evidence that its use for DNA methylation profiling yields epigenetic markers that are directly related to postnatal neurocognitive outcomes at 1 year of age. PMID:24452678

  9. Association of Gestational Age at Birth with Reasons for Subsequent Hospitalisation: 18 Years of Follow-Up in a Western Australian Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Slimings, Claudia; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Burgner, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm infants are at a higher risk of hospitalisation following discharge from the hospital after birth. The reasons for rehospitalisation and the association with gestational age are not well understood. Methods This was a retrospective birth cohort study of all live, singleton infants born in Western Australia between 1st January 1980 and 31st December 2010, followed to 18 years of age. Risks of rehospitalisation following birth discharge by principal diagnoses were compared for gestational age categories (<32, 32–33, 34–36, 37–38 weeks) and term births (39–41weeks). Causes of hospitalisations at various gestational age categories were identified using ICD-based discharge diagnostic codes. Results Risk of rehospitalisation was inversely correlated with gestational age. Growth-related concerns were the main causes for rehospitalisation in the neonatal period (<1 month of age) for all gestational ages. Infection was the most common reason for hospitalisation from 29 days to 1 year of age, and up to 5 years of age. Injury-related hospitalisations increased in prevalence from 5 years to 18 years of age. Risk of rehospitalisation was higher for all preterm infants for most causes. Conclusions The highest risks of rehospitalisation were for infection related causes for most GA categories. Compared with full term born infants, those born at shorter GA remain vulnerable to subsequent hospitalisation for a variety of causes up until 18 years of age. PMID:26114969

  10. Work Content and Serious Mental Illness among Middle-Aged Men: Results from a 6-Year Longitudinal Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Smith, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to determine prospective associations between work content after a working life of more than 20 years and serious mental illness among Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years, using a nationwide population-based survey. Methods Data were extracted from a national longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly persons previously conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. We analyzed data across 10 work content categories for Japanese men who had been working in the same job type or industry for over 20 years. As part pf the survey, participants completed the Kessler (K)6 scale each year to determine their level of psychological distress (with scores ?13 indicating serious mental illness). Cox discrete time proposal hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between work content and serious mental illness from 2005 to 2010. Further adjustments were made for other sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results The current study involved a total of 11,942 participants with a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of follow-up was 3.4 (± 2.0) years, during which time 892 participants (7.5%) had been classified as having a new-onset serious mental illness. Men who had worked in service jobs and in manufacturing jobs at baseline were more likely to develop serious mental illness than those in managerial jobs (hazard ratio 1.37, 1.30, 95% confidence intervals 1.04–1.80, 1.02–1.65) after adjustment for confounding variables. Conclusion These findings suggest that Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years who have worked in service and manufacturing jobs after a working life of over 20 years have an increased risk of serious mental illness during follow-up. Identifying the most at-risk work content category after a working life of over 20 years would be an essential part of providing more effective interventions for psychological distress among Japanese men in this age group. PMID:26121355

  11. The national trend of blood lead levels among Chinese children aged 0-18 years old, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-ming; Cao, Jia; Xu, Jian; Cai, Shi-zhong; Shen, Xiao-ming; Yan, Chong-huai

    2014-10-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological data during 1990-2012 that investigated the blood lead level (BLL) in the population aged 0-18 years old in China mainland and provided evidence of the benefits of implementing policies to prevent lead pollution based on the dynamic changes of BLL. Data were collected through databases including China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), CBM disc, Wanfang Data, Pubmed and Medline. The inclusion criteria were: 1. Epidemiological study in healthy population not included studies limited to specific patient; 2. Study subject was not the specific lead exposure population; 3. Sample size should be no less than 100 (for neonatal, no less than 50); 4. BLL detection was under strict quality control; and 5. Results should be presented as BLL (arithmetic mean level or geometric mean level). 62 articles were included in this study. All the surveys in these articles contained 189,352 subjects in 19 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Linear regression analysis showed a significant decrease between 1990 and 2012 with an estimated regression coefficient of 3.05/year (SE=0.01, p<0.001). BLL gradually declined since early 21st century. Median levels of BLL among the three economic zones were 51.4 ?g/L in the eastern zone, 52.72 ?g/L in the central zone and 46.2 ?g/L in the western zone respectively. Median BLLs in male and female population aged 0-18 years old of China were 48.8 ?g/L and 46.1?g/L. Median levels of BLL among the different age ranges were 74.9 ?g/L in newborn, 46.4 ?g/L in 0 to 3 years old, 57.6 ?g/L in 3 to 7 years old and 55.6 ?g/L in above 7 years old respectively. In conclusion, the BLL in the Chinese population of 0-18 years old has gradually dropped in the past 10 years. The decline in temporal trend still remains under potential impacts of several factors such as economical level, gender and age difference. Although, China has made significant achievements in the control prevention of lead pollution, concerted efforts are still warranted to reduce children lead poisoning. PMID:25000556

  12. Use of levetiracetam in a population of patients aged 65 years and older: a subset analysis of the KEEPER trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Ferrendelli; I. Leppik; M. J. Morrell; A. Herbeuval; J. Han; L. Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Levetiracetam (Keppra) was evaluated in a subset of patients aged ?65 years (n=78) enrolled in a large (n=1030) open-label, phase IV trial (the KEEPER trial). A 4-week dose adjustment was followed by a 12-week evaluation period. An overall median reduction in partial seizures of 80.1% (n=65) was observed. Overall, 76.9% of patients were ?50% responders, 56.9% were ?75% responders, and

  13. [Russian experts' clinical guidelines for acute myeloid leukemia treatment in patients less than 60 years of age].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, V G; Parovichnikova, E N; Afanas'ev, B V; Gritsaev, S V; Semochkin, S V; Bondarenko, S N; Troitskaia, V V; Sokolov, A N; Kuz'mina, L A; Kliasova, G A; Baranova, O Iu; Lapin, V A; Konstantinova, T S; Samo?lova, O S; Kaporskaia, T S; Shatokhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present Russian experts' consolidated opinion about acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment in adult patients aged less than 60 years. The guidelines have been elaborated having regard to foreign publications and Russian experience, on the basis of global and Russian clinical trials to treat AML and to define indications for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients during first complete remission. PMID:25314772

  14. A meta-analysis of effectiveness of influenza vaccine in persons aged 65 years and over living in the community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trang Vu; Stephen Farish; Mark Jenkins; Heath Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in persons aged 65 years and over living in the community. Scope: A meta-analysis of studies selected using predetermined criteria without language restriction. Conclusion: Influenza vaccine was effective in reducing influenza-like illness by 35% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19–47%), hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza by 33% (CI 27–38%), mortality following hospitalization

  15. Acquisition of Visuomotor Abilities and Intellectual Quotient in Children Aged 4–10 Years: Relationship with Micronutrient Nutritional Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio F. González; Agustina Malpeli; Graciela Etchegoyen; Lucrecia Lucero; Florencia Romero; Carolina Lagunas; Gustavo Lailhacar; Manuel Olivares; Ricardo Uauy

    2007-01-01

    Lethargy, poor attention, and the high rate and severity of infections in malnourished children affect their educational achievement.\\u000a We therefore studied the association between visuomotor abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) and their relationship with\\u000a iron, zinc, and copper. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 89 healthy children (age range, 4–10 years).\\u000a Evaluations of visuomotor ability and IQ

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Mohammad; B Golestan; R Majdzadeh; R Chaman; S Nedjat; M Karimloo

    2009-01-01

    Background: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15- 49 years in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In- dex over ?30. Constructed area (per-person), educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The

  17. Incidence of insulin dependent diabetes in children aged under 15 years in the British Isles during 1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A Metcalfe; J D Baum

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To ascertain the annual incidence rate of insulin dependent diabetes diagnosed in children under the age of 15 years in the British Isles during 1988, and to compare the results with an earlier study carried out in 1973-4. DESIGN--Active monthly reporting of cases by consultant paediatricians, with additional input from diabetologists and all specialist diabetes nurses and health visitors. SETTING--British

  18. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  19. Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. PMID:18473197

  20. Short-Term Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Functioning in Preschoolers: Longitudinal Predictors of Mathematical Achievement at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. PMID:18473197

  1. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  2. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  3. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  4. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2014 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2014 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  5. Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004–2010 in children aged 8?years

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brent; Jick, Hershel; MacLaughlin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To update UK studies begun in the early 1990s on the annual prevalence and incidence rates of autism in children; undertaken in response to a March 2012 press release, widely covered by the media, from the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reporting that the autism prevalence rate in 2008 in 8-year-old US children was 1 in 88, a 78% increase from a CDC estimate in 2004. This finding suggested a continuation of the dramatic increase in children diagnosed as autistic, which occurred in the 1990s. Design Population study using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods Annual autism prevalence rates were estimated for children aged 8?years in 2004–2010 by dividing the number diagnosed as autistic in each or any previous year by the number of children active in the study population that year. We also calculated annual incidence rates for children aged 2–8?years, by dividing the number newly diagnosed in 2004–2010 by the same denominators. Results Annual prevalence rates for each year were steady at approximately 3.8/1000 boys and 0.8/1000 girls. Annual incidence rates each year were also steady at about 1.2/1000 boys and 0.2/1000 girls. Conclusions Following a fivefold increase in the annual incidence rates of autism during the 1990s in the UK, the incidence and prevalence rates in 8-year-old children reached a plateau in the early 2000s and remained steady through 2010. Whether prevalence rates have increased from the early 2000s in the USA remains uncertain. PMID:24131525

  6. Normative bone mineral density z-scores for Canadians aged 16 to 24 years: the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannidis, George; Webber, Colin; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kirkland, Susan; Goltzman, David; Davison, Kenneth Shawn

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms and BMD Z-scores at various skeletal sites, to determine whether prior fracture and/or asthma were related to BMD, and to assess possible geographic variation of BMD among Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. Z-Scores were defined as the number of standard deviations from the mean BMD of a healthy population of the same age, race, and sex. Z-Scores were calculated using the reference sample defined as Canadian Caucasian participants without asthma or prior fracture. Reference standards were created for lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total hip, and greater trochanter, by each year of age (16-24 yr), and by sex. The Z-score norms were developed for groups noted earlier. Mean Z-scores between the asthma or fracture subgroups compared with the mean Z-scores in the reference sample were not different. There were minor differences in mean BMD across different Canadian geographic regions. This study provides age, sex, and skeletal site-specific Caucasian reference norms and formulae for the calculation of BMD Z-scores for Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. This information will be valuable to help to identify individuals with clinically meaningful low BMD. PMID:20554232

  7. Standards for Children's Height at Ages 2-9 Years Allowing for Height of Parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Tanner; H. Goldstein; R. H. Whitehouse

    1970-01-01

    Charts are presented which give centile standards for boys' and girls' heights at ages 2 to 9 when parents' height is allowed for. Mid-parent height is used (i.e. the average of father's and mother's height).A comparison is made with results from the existing `parent-unknown' British standard charts. A child at the 3rd centile on the parent-unknown charts is (i) at

  8. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  9. Maternal and early life factors of tooth emergence patterns and number of teeth at 1 and 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ntani, G; Day, P F; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M

    2015-08-01

    Various environmental factors have been associated with the timing of eruption of primary dentition, but the evidence to date comes from small studies with limited information on potential risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations between tooth emergence patterns and pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal influences. Dentition patterns were recorded at ages 1 and 2 years in 2915 children born to women in the Southampton Women's Survey from whom information had been collected on maternal factors before conception and during pregnancy. In mutually adjusted regression models we found that: children were more dentally advanced at ages 1 and 2 years if their mothers had smoked during pregnancy or they were longer at birth; mothers of children whose dental development was advanced at age 2 years tended to have poorer socioeconomic circumstances, and to have reported a slower walking speed pre-pregnancy; and children of mothers of Asian ethnicity had later tooth development than those of white mothers. The findings add to the evidence of environmental impacts on the timing of the eruption of primary dentition in indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy, socio-economic status and physical activity (assessed by reported walking speed) may influence the child's primary dentition. Early life factors, including size at birth are also associated with dentition patterns, as is maternal ethnicity. PMID:25936832

  10. A 35-Year Longitudinal Assessment of Cognition and Midlife Depression Symptoms: The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; O’Brien, Robert; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Kim, Kathleen; Bhat, Reshma; Grant, Michael D.; Toomey, Rosemary; Eisen, Seth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether early adult cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms in midlife and how genetic and environmental influences explain the association; to examine cross-sectional relationships between depressive symptoms and specific cognitive abilities at midlife. Methods Design 35-year longitudinal and cross-sectional twin study of cognitive aging. Setting Large multicenter study in the United States. Participants 1237 male twins ages 51 to 60. Measurements At age 20 and midlife, participants completed the same version of a general cognitive ability test (Armed Forces Qualification Test [AFQT]). Midlife testing included an extensive neurocognitive protocol assessing processing speed, verbal memory, visual-spatial memory, working memory, executive function, and visual-spatial ability. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale prior to cognitive testing and provided health and lifestyle information during a medical history interview. Results Lower age 20 AFQT scores predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms at age 55 (r=?.16, p<.001). In bivariate twin modeling, 77% of the correlation between early cognitive ability and midlife depressive symptoms was due to shared genetic influences. Controlling for current age, age 20 AFQT, and non-independence of observations, depressive symptoms were associated with worse midlife AFQT scores and poorer performance in all cognitive domains except verbal memory Conclusion Results suggest that low cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms; this association is partly due to shared genetic influences. Cross-sectional analyses indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and performance is not linked to specific cognitive domains. PMID:21606899

  11. Electron transfer through 2,7,9,10-tetraazaphenanthrene: a quantum ``interference'' effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvaud, Valérie; Launay, Jean-Pierre; Joachim, Christian

    1993-11-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer has been detected in a binuclear complex of ruthenium using 2,7,9,10-tetraazaphenanthrene as bridging ligand. From the characteristics of the intervalence transition, the effective coupling Vab between ruthenium sites has been determined. It is found to be lower than in the corresponding complex with 4,4'-bipyridine, despite the fact that 2,7,9,10-tetraazaphenanthrene presents addition connections. Molecular orbital calculations confirm this effect. The analysis of these differences is performed in terms of "interference" effects between the different branches connecting the metal atoms.

  12. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome. PMID:25121973

  13. Early life risk factors of being overweight at 10 years of age: results of the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Z; Flexeder, C; Fuertes, E; Thiering, E; Koletzko, B; Cramer, C; Berdel, D; Lehmann, I; Bauer, C-P; Heinrich, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a prediction model that quantifies the risk of being overweight at 10 years of age. Subjects/Methods: In total, 3121 participants from the GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus Air Pollution and Genetics) German birth cohorts were recruited. We predicted standardized body mass index (BMI) at 10 years of age using standardized BMIs from birth to 5 years. Parental education, family income and maternal smoking during pregnancy were considered as covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the impact of risk factors on BMI and on being overweight at 10 years of age, respectively. Results: Birth weight, standardized BMI at 5 years (60–64 months) (?=0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73–0.81) and maternal smoking during pregnancy were positively associated with standardized BMI at 10 years of age. Standardized BMI and overweight at 5 years were strongest predictors of being overweight at 10 years. Conversely, high parental education conferred a protective effect (?=?0.15; 95% CI: ?0.29 to ?0.01). Being overweight at 5 years (60–64 months) increased the risk of being overweight at 10 years of age with odds ratios above 10. Among children who were predicted to be overweight at 10 years, cross-validation results showed that 76.8% of female subjects and 68.1% of male subjects would be overweight at 10 years of age. Conclusion: BMI and being overweight at 5 years of age are strong predictors of being overweight at 10 years of age. The effectiveness of targeted interventions in children who are overweight at 5 years of age should be explored. PMID:23612517

  14. Multiple Chronic Conditions among Adults Aged 45 and Over: Trends Over the Past 10 Years

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have more physician visits ( 3 ). Out-of-pocket spending is higher for persons with multiple chronic conditions ... Zhao L, Hwang W. Rising out-of-pocket spending for chronic conditions: A ten-year trend. Health ...

  15. [Recommendations for prevention of community-acquired pneumonia with bacteremia as the leading form of invasive pneumococcal infections in the population of people over 50 years of age and risk groups above 19 years of age].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Piotr; Antczak, Adam; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Skoczy?ska, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Bernatowska, Ewa; Stompór, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Gyrczuk, Ewa; Imiela, Jacek; Jedrzejczak, Wies?aw; Windak, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a main cause of mortality associated with pneumococcal infections. Although, IPD is regarding mainly small children and persons in the age > 65 years, the investigations showed that because of IPD exactly sick persons are burdened with the greatest mortality in the older age, rather than of children. The most frequent form of IPD is community acquired pneumonia (CAP) with the bacteremia. The presence of even a single additional risk factor is increasing the probability of the unfavorable descent of pneumococcal infection. The risk factors for IPD and/or pneumonia with bacteremia apart from the age are among others asthma (> 2 x), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sarcoidosis (4 x), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (5 x), bronchiectases (2 x), allergic alveolitis (1.9 x) and pneumoconiosis (2 x), type 1 diabetes (4.4 x), type 2 diabetes (1.2 x), autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (4.2 to 14.9 x), kidney failure with the necessity to dialysis (12 x), immunosuppression, cardiovascular disease, alcoholism and cancers. Examinations show that the best method of IPD and CAP preventing are pneumococcal vaccinations. On the market for ages 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is available covering close the 90% of IPD triggering stereotypes. Her role in preventing CAP is uncertain and the immunological answer after vaccination at older persons and after revaccination is weak. Widely discussed disadvantageous effects of growing old of the immunological system show on the benefit from applying the immunization inducing the immunological memory, i.e. of conjugated vaccines which are activating the T-dependent reply and are ensuring the readiness for the effective secondary response. Examinations so far conducted with conjugated 7-valent and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines at persons in the age > 50 years are confirming these expectations. Also sick persons can take benefits from PCV13 applying back from so-called IPD risk groups in the age > 19 years. At these work research findings were described above PPV23 and PCV13 at adults and world recommendations of applying both vaccines in risk groups from 19 years up to the advanced years. Also Polish recommendations of optimum applying of these vaccines were presented. They are recommending applying PCV13 at first in them, while PPV23, if to her readings exist should be given to > or = 8 of weeks from PCV13. In persons > or = 19 years which earlier received 1 or should receive more PPV23 doses first PCV13 dose should be given after the year or later than the last PPV23 dose, and then again PPV23 > or = 8 of weeks from PCV13 and the second PPV23 dose not earlier than 5 years from last PPV23. If the PPV23 application seems to be justified, it is irrespective of the more previous state vaccination against pneumococci, PCV13 should be given to as first. PMID:24720101

  16. Bone density, body composition and menstrual history of sedentary female former gymnasts, aged 20-32 years.

    PubMed

    Zanker, C L; Osborne, C; Cooke, C B; Oldroyd, B; Truscott, J G

    2004-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of retirement from sports involving regular, high impact and weight bearing activity on bone mass. This cross-sectional study compared total body and regional areal bone mineral density (aBMD, g/cm(2)) within female former gymnasts and women who had never participated in structured sport or exercise, and explored relations between aBMD of these former gymnasts and their duration of retirement. Eighteen sedentary female former gymnasts (GYM) and 18 sedentary controls (CON) were recruited. GYM displayed a broad range of duration of retirement (3-12 years) and a wide age range (20-32 years). GYM and CON were paired individually to match for age, body mass and stature. GYM had commenced training at least 3 years pre-menarche and had trained post-menarche for 2 or more years. They had trained continuously for 5-12 years and had retired between age 14 and 22 years. Measurements of aBMD and body composition were made using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Group mean values of physical and skeletal characteristics were compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to explore possible relations of aBMD within GYM to duration of retirement. GYM displayed a higher aBMD than CON at all measurement sites, which ranged in magnitude from 6% for the total body ( P=0.004), to 11% for the total femur ( P=0.006). Elevations of aBMD within GYM equated to T-scores ranging from +0.8 (arms) to +1.7 (legs). There were no differences in body composition or age of menarche between groups, although 11 of 18 GYM reported a history of irregular menses. There was no significant decline of aBMD with increasing duration of retirement in GYM. The results suggested that an elevated bone mass in female former gymnasts was retained during early adulthood, in spite of a cessation of training for up to 12 years. PMID:14647879

  17. Causes of Hospitalization among Children Ages Zero to Nine Years Old in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; Sucupira, Ana Cecília Silveira Lins; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The profile of child morbidity is an important parameter for defining and altering health policies. Studies about infant mortality are more numerous than those on morbidity, especially related to hospital admissions. The objective of this study is to describe the causes of admission in the public health system for children from zero to nine years of age in the city of São Paulo during the years 2002 to 2006 and compare these results to those from the national data. METHOD: Through a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from the Hospital Information System, which is available in the Information System of the Unified Health System - DATASUS. RESULTS: Within the period, 16% of the total admissions corresponded to children from zero to nine years of age, with most of the children being younger than one year of age. In the city of São Paulo, the admission coefficient increased 11%, and in Brazil, it decreased 14%. Respiratory diseases were the main causes of hospitalization. In São Paulo, the second most frequent causes of admission were diseases that originated during the perinatal period (15.9%), and in Brazil, the second most frequent cause of admission was infectious-parasitic diseases (21.7%). Admissions for perinatal diseases increased 32% in São Paulo and 6% in Brazil. While hospitalizations for diarrhea decreased in Brazil, an increase was recorded in the city of São Paulo for children under five years old. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show a paradoxical increase in the number of hospitalizations during an expansion of primary attention, indicating that the rise was not associated with a significant improvement in the quality of service. PMID:20126344

  18. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  19. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. Results In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Conclusions Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province. PMID:26042426

  20. The influence of alewife year-class strength on prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, D.M.; Kiley, C.S.; Claramunt, R.M.; Clapp, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    We used growth and diet data from a fishery-independent survey of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, acoustic estimates of prey density and biomass, and statistical catch-at-age modeling to study the influence of the year-class strength of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus on the prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan during the years 1992-1996 and 2001-2005. Alewives age 2 or younger were a large part of age-1 Chinook salmon diets but were not selectively fed upon by age-1 Chinook salmon in most years. Feeding by age-1 Chinook salmon on alewives age 2 or younger became selective as the biomass of alewives in that young age bracket increased, and age-1 Chinook salmon also fed selectively on young bloaters Coregonus hoyi when bloater density was high. Selection of older alewives decreased at high densities of alewives age 2 or younger and, in some cases, high densities of bloater. The weight and condition of age-1 Chinook salmon were not related to age-1 Chinook salmon abundance or prey abundance, but the abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in year t was positively related to the density of age-0 alewives in year t - 1. Our results suggest that alewife year-class strength exerts a positive bottom-up influence on age-1 Chinook salmon abundance, prey switching behavior by young Chinook salmon contributing to the stability of the predator-prey relationship between Chinook salmon and alewives. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  1. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior and growth at 10 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gale A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical growth and behavioral outcomes in 226 10-year-old children who were participants in a longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), while controlling for other factors that affect development. During the first trimester, 42% of the women used cocaine, with use declining across pregnancy. At the 10-year follow-up, the caregivers were 37 years old, had 12.8 years of education, and 50% were African American. First trimester cocaine exposure predicted decreased weight, height, and head circumference at 10 years. First trimester cocaine use also predicted maternal ratings of less sociability on the EAS Temperament Survey and more withdrawn behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist, more anxious/depressed behaviors on the Teacher Report Form, and more self-reported depressive symptoms on the Children’s Depression Inventory. In addition, exposure to violence mediated the effect of PCE on child and teacher reports of depressive symptoms, but not of maternal reports of sociability and withdrawn behaviors. These behaviors may be precursors of later psychiatric problems. PMID:23981277

  2. Aging and Sexual Orientation: A 25-Year Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Muraco, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In a review of 58 articles published between 1984 and 2008, this article synthesizes the recent state of social research on older lesbian, gay male, and bisexual adults in order to summarize existing knowledge about these groups, to guide future research on aging, and to identify the substantive issues affecting their lives. Based on a life-course perspective, the primary research domains identified include the interplay of lives and historical times and linked and interdependent lives. After reviewing the literature in each of these areas, the article presents an examination of the strengths and limitations of the body of knowledge and an outline of a blueprint for future research. PMID:24098063

  3. 20 CFR 225.60 - Adjustment at age 62 when employee is entitled to an annuity based on 30 years of railroad service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Adjustment at age 62 when employee is entitled to an...Adjusting PIA's § 225.60 Adjustment at age 62 when employee is entitled to an...attains age 62 as the eligibility year. This adjustment applies to any...

  4. 20 CFR 225.60 - Adjustment at age 62 when employee is entitled to an annuity based on 30 years of railroad service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Adjustment at age 62 when employee is entitled to an...Adjusting PIA's § 225.60 Adjustment at age 62 when employee is entitled to an...attains age 62 as the eligibility year. This adjustment applies to any...

  5. Development of latex allergy in children up to 5 years of age--a retrospective analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; Kulig, M; Bergmann, R; Wahn, U

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate possible associations between the time course of early sensitization to latex and various life style factors. Of the 398 children from a prospective birth cohort study, 20 (5%) showed specific serum IgE to latex at the age of 5 years. Sensitization started beyond the first year of life and 19 out of 20 sensitized children showed increasing specific IgE-values over time. All 20 sensitized children were atopic (p < 0.00000). Total IgE was significantly higher in the sensitized group (median 394.5 kU/I) than in the non-sensitized group (median 39.2 kU/l) (p < 0.00001). Comparing the latex-sensitized group with the non-sensitized children, there were significantly more operations in the latex group (p < 0.05) during the first 5 years of life. Medical history, certain foods, the use of pacifiers, mattress composition and socio-economic data proved not to be significant risk factors. From our study we conclude that besides the number of operations and an atopic predisposition--no other definite risk factor for developing sensitization or allergy to latex (such as everyday household objects) can be identified in children up to 5 years of age. PMID:9560841

  6. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Zweihoff, Ralf; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2010-09-10

    Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1-2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper). As such, these methods are all relative, i.e. they do not furnish calendar ages or years, but an estimate of the age at death, with a rather large range, i.e. the methods rely on biological aging following the chronological aging. More recently, methods have been proposed using more direct ascertainment of age at death, e.g. protein racemisation, or, as in our case, radiocarbon methods. Especially the latter method may in fact yield absolute ages (years of birth), because (14)C activity, as measured in specific proteins in specific cells or tissues in the body, were in equilibrium with the so-called bomb-pulse, when these proteins were formed (at birth). The bomb pulse reflects a dramatic change in atmospheric (14)C content due to nuclear bomb testing, and these dramatic changes can be rather tightly related to single calendar years. PMID:20399051

  7. Wake Up Time, Light, and Mood in a Population Sample Age 40-64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takuro; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Concern that disturbances of sleep and light exposures at night might increase cancer risks have been expressed, but little actual exposure data has been collected. Measurements from a representative population sample were examined to understand the magnitude of in-bed light exposure at night and possible correlates. Methods From 1990 to 1994, a home survey of sleep disorders among adults ages 40-64 was conducted in the City of San Diego California, using stratified representative sampling techniques. Along with questionnaires, sleep logs, and 3-night wrist activity and pulse oximetry measures, bedside illumination was measured with a computer recording system. Questionnaires included the CESD depression scale and a scale of symptoms typical of winter depression. Results Complete data were available from 286 men and women, whose mean in-bed intervals averaged 7 hours and 42 minutes. The mean room illumination during the first part of the night was mean 12.7 lux (median 3.2 lux) and during the last 2 hours in bed averaged 28.7 lux (median 18.9 lux). Nocturnal light exposure was positively correlated with age, male gender, summer season, time in bed, wake-up time, and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Complex bi-directional interactions may take place between sleep disturbances, depression, time in bed, wake-up-time, and in-bed illumination. The most crucial light exposures appear to occur in the last 2 hours in bed, largely after dawn, so daylight exposure may be an important factor. PMID:25866517

  8. Lifelong occupational exposures and hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans aged 65–75 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Kerr, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and hearing among elderly Latino Americans. Design A descriptive, correlational design used for this secondary analysis with the data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). Study sample A total of 547 older adults were included. Results A majority of participants (58%) reported occupational exposures to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals. About 65% and over 90% showed hearing loss at low and high frequencies, respectively. Participants with occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals were, significantly, two times more likely to have hearing loss at high frequencies compared to those without exposure (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.17 – 4.51, p = .016), after controlling for other risk factors of hearing loss such as age, gender, household income, current smoking, and diabetes. However, lifelong occupational exposure was not significantly associated with hearing loss at low frequencies (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.94 – 2.18, p = .094). Conclusion Lifelong occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals was significantly associated with hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans. Healthy work life through protection from harmful auditory effects of occupational exposures to noise and chemicals will have a positive impact on better hearing in later life. PMID:25549170

  9. Version date: 9.10.13 CMRR/CCIR Lot C28 Parking Policy

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Version date: 9.10.13 CMRR/CCIR Lot C28 Parking Policy (8 spots along 21st Ave.) The purpose of Lot C28, and the reason Parking and Transportation Services allows CMRR/CCIR control of these spots, service personnel, etc.: Maroon lot across 6th St. (CMRR will not reimburse for parking charges) Lot 37

  10. MICB 410 -Immunology Class: 9:10 10:00 am; MWF HS 411

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    MICB 410 - Immunology Class: 9:10 ­ 10:00 am; MWF HS 411 Prof: Dr. Scott Wetzel (SC216, ph: 243 7 22 T Cell Antigen Recognition and the Immunological Synapse 8 24, 27 T Cell Effector Functions 8, III, IV) 13 14 Immunodeficiencies and HIV 12 (pgs. 507-546) 17, 19 Immunological Tolerance

  11. Biology 101. Spring 2008 Marshak J3, Mondays, 9-10:50 AM

    E-print Network

    Lombardi, John R.

    Biology 101. Spring 2008 Marshak J3, Mondays, 9-10:50 AM Professor Sally Hoskins Biology Department@sci.ccny.cuny.edu Textbooks: For lecture: BIOLOGY, 7th Edition, Campbell and Reece, 2005; Pearson/Benjamin Cummings For lab: Provide a basic education in Biology, as a foundation for upper level courses in the Biology major. Guide

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of a Series of Alpha-Hydroxy Ethers from 9,10-Epoxystearates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several novel alpha-hydroxy ethers were synthesized by treatment of isobutyl 9,10-epoxystearate with a number of aliphatic alcohols in the presence of acid catalyst in good overall yield from oleic acid. The materials low temperature behavior was analyzed through cloud point and pour point determi...

  13. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic GenM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  14. Revised: 9/10/2012 OHSU Department of Neurological Surgery residency application process

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Revised: 9/10/2012 OHSU Department of Neurological Surgery residency application process The OHSU Department of Neurological Surgery welcomes you to apply for a categorical position through the AAMC on the electronic application process. Or go to the Society of Neurological Surgeon's (www.societyns.org) web site

  15. RMS Youth Camp Guidelines Rev 9/10 9 YOUTH CAMP MEDICAL INFORMATION AND RELEASE FORM

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    RMS ­ Youth Camp Guidelines Rev 9/10 9 YOUTH CAMP MEDICAL INFORMATION AND RELEASE FORM The Medical Information and Release form will be kept onsite with Camp Staff for the duration of the camp. This form requests basic medical history information and authorizes UNT to obtain medical treatment for the camp

  16. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years. PMID:25950747

  17. Sailing Directions of the North Atlantic Viking Age (from about the year 860 to 1400)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren Thirslund

    1997-01-01

    As long as man has ventured to go to sea, sailing directions have existed. Man's survival depended upon knowing the best fishing and hunting places and how to find these were secrets, told only to family or friends.Later, sailing directions covered areas in the world where trade or new settlements had begun and, as early as 500 years B.C., some

  18. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Reading Development and Impairment from Ages 3 to 8 Years in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Lin; Pan, Jinger; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Lang; Tardif, Twila; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early prediction of reading disabilities in Chinese is important for early remediation efforts. In this 6-year longitudinal study, we investigated the early cognitive predictors of reading skill in a statistically representative sample of Chinese children from Beijing. Method: Two hundred sixty-one (261) native Chinese children were…

  20. Stepwise Prediction of Dental Caries in Children up to 3.5 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Grindefjord; G. Dahllöf; B. Nilsson; T. Modéer

    1996-01-01

    The present study is a part of a prospective, longitudinal investigation of caries development in children (n = 692) living in the southern suburbs of Stockholm. The aim was to evaluate, longitudinally, the caries-predictive ability of variables describing social and immigrant background, dietary habits, microbial and oral hygiene factors, and fluoride exposure in children at 1 and 2.5 years of