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1

Literacy in Malta: The National Literacy Survey of Year 5 Pupils (Aged 9-10)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work reported here is based on the second Malta National Literacy Survey, carried out in March 2002. All Year 5 pupils in Malta were involved and their literacy attainment in both Maltese and English was tested. Two parallel multi-level analyses were carried out, one for Maltese, the other for English. The background variables were; gender,…

Mifsud, Charles; Grech, Rowena; Hutchison, Dougal; Morrison, Jo

2005-01-01

2

Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius  

PubMed Central

Objective To document the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9–10?year old children in Mauritius. Methods 412 boys and 429 girls aged 9–10?years from 23 primary schools were selected using stratified cluster random sampling. All data was cross-sectional and collected via anthropometry and self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures were BMI (kg/m2), prevalence of overweight, obesity (International Obesity Task Force definitions) and thinness (low BMI for age). Linear and logistic regression analyses, accounting for clustering at the school level, were used to assess associations between gender, ethnicity, school location, and school's academic performance (average) to each outcome measure. Results The distribution of BMI was marginally skewed with a more pronounced positive tail in the girls. Median BMI was 15.6?kg/m2 in boys and 15.4?kg/m2 in girls, respectively. In boys, prevalence of overweight was 15.8% (95% CI: 12.6, 19.6), prevalence of obesity 4.9% (95% CI: 3.2, 7.4) and prevalence of thinness 12.4% (95% CI: 9.5, 15.9). Among girls, 18.9% (95% CI: 15.5, 22.9) were overweight, 5.1% (95% CI: 3.4, 7.7) were obese and 13.1% (95% CI: 10.2, 16.6) were thin. Urban children had a slightly higher mean BMI than rural children (0.5?kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.00) and were nearly twice as likely to be obese (6.7% vs. 4.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.5). Creole children were less likely to be classified as thin compared to Indian children (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusion Mauritius is currently in the midst of nutritional transition with both a high prevalence of overweight and thinness in children aged 9–10?years. The coexistence of children representing opposite sides of the energy balance equation presents a unique challenge for policy and interventions. Further exploration is needed to understand the specific causes of the double burden of malnutrition and to make appropriate policy recommendations.

2012-01-01

3

Teachers' Perceptions of Geometry Instruction and the Learning Environment in Years 9-10 ESL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of an instrument to assess teachers' views on their geometry instruction and their classroom learning environments in six government high schools in southwest Sydney. The sample consisted of 18 Years 9/10 ESL teachers from participating schools. The study involved completion of a survey form using a modified…

Ly, Rinna K.; Malone, John A.

2010-01-01

4

Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIage, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors.

Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

5

Association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old British White children  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To examine the association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9–10-year-old children. Study design A cross-sectional study using data from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study undertaken in Norfolk, UK. Methods Data from 4-day food diaries and 7 days of accelerometery were matched on concurrent days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent in sedentary behaviour and various measures of dietary intake were collected. Covariates included age, sex, weight status, family socio-economic status, and energy intake reporting quality. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for clustering of children by school and stratified by sex, were fitted to examine the associations between dietary measures and physical activity and sedentary outcomes. Results In total, 1317 children (584 boys and 733 girls) provided concurrent data. Boys in the highest quartile of energy percentage from protein spent approximately 6 min [95% confidence interval (CI) 0–12] less in MVPA compared with boys in the lowest quartile. Those in the highest quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake and fruit juice intake had respective average activity counts per minute that were 56 above (95% CI 8–105) and 48 below (95% CI 2–95) those in the lowest quartiles, whilst those in the highest quartile of fizzy drink consumption spent approximately 7 min (95% CI 2–13) more in MVPA and approximately 14 min (95% CI 5–24 min) less in sedentary behaviour. Boys in the highest quartile of savoury snack consumption spent approximately 8 min (95% CI 2–13 min) more in MVPA per day, and approximately 12 min (95% CI 2–23) less in sedentary behaviour. No significant associations were apparent among girls. Conclusions Few associations were detected, and the directions of those that were apparent were mainly counterintuitive. The extent to which this reflects a true lack of association or is associated with the measurement methods used for diet and physical activity needs further investigation.

Vissers, P.A.J.; Jones, A.P.; van Sluijs, E.M.F.; Jennings, A.; Welch, A.; Cassidy, A.; Griffin, S.J.

2013-01-01

6

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Frontal EEG Asymmetry and Alpha Power in 9-10 Year Old Twins  

PubMed Central

Modest genetic influences on frontal EEG asymmetry have been found in adults, but little is known about its genetic origins in children. Resting frontal asymmetry and alpha power were examined in 951 9–10-year-old twins. Results showed that in both males and females: (1) a modest but significant amount of variance in frontal asymmetry was accounted for by genetic factors (11–27%) with the remainder accounted for by non-shared environmental influences, and (2) alpha power were highly heritable, with 70–85% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Results suggest that the genetic architecture of frontal asymmetry and alpha power in late childhood are similar to that in adulthood and that the high non-shared environmental influences on frontal asymmetry may reflect environmentally-influenced individual differences in the maturation of frontal cortex as well as state-dependent influences on specific measurements.

Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora I.; Baker, Laura A.

2008-01-01

7

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

8

Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

9

Breakfast habits and snacks consumed at school among Qatari schoolchildren aged 9-10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this study is to assess breakfast habits and foods mostly consumed as snacks during the school day among fourth grade Qatari schoolchildren. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A cross-sectional survey on a random sample of fourth grade students was carried out using a questionnaire on food frequency, food habits and types of foods consumed in breakfast and during

Abdelmonem S. Hassan; Sara N. Al-Dosari

2008-01-01

10

Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to a 10-week school-based football intervention for 9-10-year-old children.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the cardiac effects of a 10-week football training intervention for school children aged 9-10 years using comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography as a part of a larger ongoing study. A total of 97 pupils from four school classes were cluster-randomized into a control group that maintained their usual activities (CON; two classes, n?=?51, 21 boys and 30 girls) and a football training group that performed an additional 3?×?40?min of small-sided football training per week (FT; two classes, n?=?46, 23 boys and 23 girls). No baseline differences were observed in age, body composition, or echocardiographic variables between FT and CON. After the 10-week intervention, left ventricular posterior wall diameter was increased in FT compared with CON [0.4?±?0.7 vs -0.1?±?0.6 (±?SD) mm; P?

Krustrup, P; Hansen, P R; Nielsen, C M; Larsen, M N; Randers, M B; Manniche, V; Hansen, L; Dvorak, J; Bangsbo, J

2014-08-01

11

Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK.

12

Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9-10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)  

PubMed Central

Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (?7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (?32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (?813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population.

Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

2012-01-01

13

A cross-sectional study of frequency and factors associated with dog walking in 9-10 year old children in Liverpool, UK  

PubMed Central

Background Owning a pet dog could potentially improve child health through encouraging participation in physical activity, through dog walking. However, evidence to support this is limited and conflicting. In particular, little is known about children’s participation in dog walking and factors that may be associated with this. The objective of this study was to describe the participation of children in dog walking, including their own and those belonging to somebody else, and investigate factors associated with regular walking with their own pet dog. Methods Primary school children (n=1021, 9–10 years) from a deprived area of Liverpool were surveyed during a ‘fitness fun day’ as part of the SportsLinx project. The ‘Child Lifestyle and Pets’ survey included questions about pet ownership, pet attachment, and dog walking. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with walking any dog, or their own dog, several times a day or more, including level of attachment to the dog, dog type, and sociodemographic factors. Results Overall, 15.4% of children reported walking with any dog (their own or belonging to a friend or family member) ? once daily, 14.1% several times a week, 27.6% ? once a week, and 42.8% never. Dog owning children (37.1% of the population) more often reported dog walking ‘several times a week or more’ (OR=12.30, 95% CI=8.10-18.69, P<0.001) compared to those without a dog, but were less likely to report other walking without a dog. The majority (59.3%) of dog owning children indicated that they usually walked their dog, with 34.6% reporting that they walked their dog ? once daily. Attachment score was highly associated with the child reporting walking their dog (lower score=higher attachment; OR=0.93, 95% CI=0.89-0.96, P<0.001). There was no evidence that gender, ethnicity, sibling status or deprivation score was associated with dog walking. Children that reported owning Pit Bulls were more likely to report friends walking with their dog than those owning non-Pit bull types (OR=10.01, 95% CI=1.52-65.76, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Promotion of supervised walking of suitable pet dogs may be an opportunity for increasing physical activity in 9–10 year old children. The identification of stronger attachment to dogs regularly walked is similar to findings in adult studies.

2013-01-01

14

Exercise Capacity and Selected Physiological Factors by Ancestry and Residential Altitude: Cross-Sectional Studies of 9-10-Year-Old Children in Tibet  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bianba, Sveinung Bernsten, Lars Bo Andersen, Hein Stegum, Ouzhuluobu, Per Nafstad, Tianyi Wu, and Espen Bjertness. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude—Cross-sectional studies of 9–10-year-old children in Tibet. High Alt Med Biol. 15:162–169, 2014.—Aim: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300?m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700?m). Methods: A total of 430 9–10-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300?m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700?m) participated in two cross-sectional studies. The maximal power output (Wmax) was assessed using an ergometer cycle. Results: Lhasa Tibetan children had a 20% higher maximal power output (watts/kg) than Tingri Tibetan and 4% higher than Lhasa Han Chinese. Maximal heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. Conclusions: The superior exercise capacity in native Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700?m demonstrated a better exercise capacity than residents at a higher altitude of 4300?m when measured at their respective residential altitudes. Such altitude- or ancestry-related difference could not be fully attributed to the physiological factors measured.

Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Nafstad, Per; Wu, Tianyi; Bjertness, Espen

2014-01-01

15

Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Girls 2 to 20 Years  

MedlinePLUS

... 62 60 in kg 10 15 20 25 30 35 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 AGE (YEARS) AGE (YEARS) 160 cm 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 95 90 ... 5 95 90 75 50 25 10 5 Date Mother’s Stature Father’s Stature Age Weight Stature BMI*

16

Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years  

MedlinePLUS

... 170 175 180 kg 10 15 20 25 30 35 105 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 AGE (YEARS) AGE (YEARS) 40 95 90 75 50 25 10 5 95 90 75 50 25 10 5 cm 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 145 Date Mother’s Stature Father’s Stature Age Weight Stature BMI* ...

17

Ethnic and gender differences in physical activity levels among 9-10-year-old children of white European, South Asian and African-Caribbean origin: the Child Heart Health Study in England (CHASE Study)  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences in physical activity in children in the UK have not been accurately assessed. We made objective measurements of physical activity in 9–10-year-old British children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Methods Cross-sectional study of urban primary school children (2006–07). Actigraph-GT1M activity monitors were worn by 2071 children during waking hours on at least 1 full day. Ethnic differences in mean daily activity [counts, counts per minute of registered time (CPM) and steps] were adjusted for age, gender, day of week and month. Multilevel modelling allowed for repeated days within individual and clustering within school. Results In white Europeans, mean daily counts, CPM and mean daily steps were 394?785, 498 and 10?220, respectively. South Asian and black Caribbean children recorded more registered time per day than white Europeans (34 and 36?min, respectively). Compared with white Europeans, South Asians recorded 18?789 fewer counts [95% confidence interval (CI) 6390–31 187], 41 fewer CPM 95% CI 26–57) and 905 fewer steps (95% CI 624–1187). Black African–Caribbeans recorded 25?359 more counts (95% CI 14?273–36 445), and similar CPM, but fewer steps than white Europeans. Girls recorded less activity than boys in all ethnic groups, with 74?782 fewer counts (95% CI 66?665–82?899), 84 fewer CPM (95% CI 74–95) and 1484 fewer steps (95% CI 1301–1668). Conclusion British South Asian children have lower objectively measured physical activity levels than European whites and black African–Caribbeans.

Owen, Christopher G; Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Cook, Derek G; Ekelund, Ulf; Whincup, Peter H

2009-01-01

18

38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health...

2013-07-01

19

Atmospheric reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone.  

PubMed

The probably carcinogenic compound 9,10-anthraquinone is mainly existing in the atmosphere in the particulate phase and is often detected and measured among other oxygenated PAHs in atmospheric samples. Its fate, once released or formed in the atmosphere, still remains unknown. In this work, heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes of 9,10-anthraquinone were investigated with ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The study of 9,10-anthraquinone adsorbed on silica particles showed no reactivity with O3 and NO2. On the other hand, the reaction with OH radicals was observed and led to the formation of 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, another oxidation product recognized as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This study showed that reactions with ozone and nitrogen dioxide are unlikely to contribute to atmospheric degradation of 9,10-anthraquinone, whereas reactions with OH radicals could be involved in 9,10-anthraquinone degradation processes, even if such reaction is probably very slow under ambient conditions. PMID:24875864

Miet, Killian; Albinet, Alexandre; Budzinski, Hélène; Villenave, Eric

2014-07-01

20

Teenagers (15-17 years of age)  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Teenagers (15-17 years of age) Language: English ... grows, including parenting tips. 15―17 years Choose My Plate The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

21

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

22

A 12-year study of menarcheal age.  

PubMed Central

Data on menarcheal age were collected on girls admitted to the University College of Swansea over a 12-year period. It appears that the downward trend in menarcheal age ceased in girls born about 1946 (the 1965 student intake) and that an upward swing may have since occurred. This change in the secular trend is not due to the association of menarcheal age with family size or of position in sibship, or to changes in the regional composition of the student intake. The well established effect of physique remains, but there is no effect of socio-economic status as assessed by the Registrar-General's classification of the father's occupation.

Roberts, D F; Dann, T C

1975-01-01

23

Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years  

PubMed Central

Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer.

Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

2010-01-01

24

36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01... 9.10 Section 9.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...and will determine within ten (10) working days what action will be taken with...

2013-07-01

25

Dialysis outcomes in those aged >=65 years  

PubMed Central

Background The number of elderly people over the age of 65 commencing dialysis in NZ has increased by almost 400% in the past decade. Few data are available about health related outcomes and survival on dialysis in the elderly to help the individual, their family, clinicians and health planners with decision-making. Methods/design This study will provide the first comprehensive longitudinal survey of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient centred outcomes for individuals aged ?65 years on, or eligible for, dialysis therapy and will link these data to survival outcomes. Data collected by yearly structured interviews with participants will be linked to co-morbidity data, health service use, and laboratory information collected from health records, and analysed with respect to HRQOL and survival. The information obtained will inform the delivery of dialysis services in New Zealand and facilitate improved decision-making by individuals, their family and clinicians, about the appropriateness and impact of dialysis therapy on subsequent health and survival. Discussion Results from this study will make possible more informed decision-making by future elderly patients and their families as they contemplate renal replacement therapy. Results will also allow health professionals to more accurately describe the impact of dialysis therapy on quality of life and outcomes for patients. Trial registration ACTRN12611000024943.

2013-01-01

26

Pericardiectomy in children <15 years of age.  

PubMed

Between January, 2002 and December, 2011, 27 patients (19 boys) underwent pericardiectomy. The mean age was 9.3 ± 4.96 years (range 0.4 to 15 years) and the mean duration of symptoms was 16.9 ± 22.15 months. In all, 25 patients had dyspnoea; eight were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; six had bacterial pericarditis; and 18 were on anti-tuberculosis treatment, although only nine had records suggesting tuberculosis. There were nine patients who underwent pre-operative pigtail catheter drainage of pericardial fluid. Surgical procedures were complete pericardiectomy (n = 20), partial pericardiectomy (n = 6), and pleuropericardial window (n = 1).The mean pre-operative right atrial pressure was 20.4 ± 4.93 mmHg. There were six hospital deaths due to low cardiac output (n = 5) and arrhythmia (n = 1). The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.7 ± 1.2 days and mean post-operative stay was 9.9 days. The mean right atrial pressure dropped to 8.7 ± 1.15 mmHg. Adverse outcomes defined as death/prolonged intensive care unit stay, prolonged post-operative stay were not associated with sex, diagnosis of tuberculosis or pyopericardium, or the duration of symptoms or pre-operative right atrial pressure. Younger patients had prolonged intensive care unit stay (p = 0.03) but not increased mortality. Advanced NYHA class predicted death (p = 0.02). The mean follow-up was 23.1 ± 23.8 months. All except one survivor are in NYHA class I and off all cardiac medications. Despite adequate surgery, pericardiectomy in children is associated with a high mortality, which is related to delayed surgery and poor pre-operative general condition. No specific pre-operative variable other than worse pre-operative NYHA class is a predictor of survival. Therefore, early pericardiectomy should be undertaken in such patients. PMID:23841979

Talwar, Sachin; Nair, Vinitha Viswambharan; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Sreeniwas, Vishnubhatla; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Airan, Balram

2014-08-01

27

Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7.

Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

2013-01-01

28

Agenda for the October 9-10, 2002 NSB Meeting  

NSF Publications Database

... September 26, 2002 AGENDA NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD 370th MEETING October 9, 10, 2002 National Science ... a Biological Mystery 5. Minutes, August, 2002 meeting NSB-02-143 6. Closed Session Items for October ...

29

6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 9, Between Piers 8 & 10, along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

30

Microsoft Word - App 9-10 AE specs.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 9-10 Lung Screening Study Specifications for Completion of the Adverse Events for NIH-Sponsored Clinical Trials (RAE) The Report of Adverse Events for

31

Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake ( ? median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95), salty snacks (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00) and sweets (IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age ( ? 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.96; IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later. PMID:24229473

Vilela, Sofia; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

2014-04-14

32

The GATE squall line of 9-10 August 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tropical squall line that passed over the ship array of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme's Atlantic Tropical Experiment\\u000a (GATE) on 9-10 August 1974 is analyzed. This squall line was similar to squall systems that passed over the GATE ship array\\u000a on four other days. It began as a purely convective cloud line, then developed an associated stratiform cloud and

Tongjian Wei; Robert A. Houze

1987-01-01

33

Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years  

PubMed Central

Girls’ perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls’ physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways linking perceived competence, parental support, and physical activity were assessed using path analysis. Results provided evidence for the child elicitation pathway; higher perceived competence at the age of 9 years predicted higher parental support at age 11 years, which, in turn, predicted higher physical activity among girls. Findings highlight the importance of encouraging parents to make a special effort to support physical activity among girls who do not perceive themselves as being athletically competent.

Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

2008-01-01

34

Spotless Sun: Blankest Year of the Space Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site provides a description of the remarkable minimum in sunspot counts in the year of 2008, naming it the "blankest year" of the Space Age. The article includes sunspot data records spanning the past 100 years and explains the major benefits and disadvantages of this solar minimum. Images and links for additional information are included.

2009-03-12

35

Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

36

Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: You can enter up to 10 e-mail addresses (separate with commas): * Send to: * Your e-mail: E-mail a copy to myself The information used on this

37

Multiple sclerosis in children under 10 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the consistent amount of information accumulated in recent years on multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood, many clinicians still view this condition as an exclusively young adult-onset disease and do not consider that it may occur and manifest even during infancy and pre-school age, suggesting that the number of MS cases in the paediatric age group may have been underestimated.

M. Ruggieri; P. Iannetti; A. Polizzi; L. Pavone

2004-01-01

38

Pre-teen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at age 18-19: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, BMI (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9-10. We hypothesized that pre-teen insulin and insulin resistance (IR) would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Further, we hypothesized that increased insulin and IR, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Patients and Methods: Prospective 10-yr follow-up of 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. Results: When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9-10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9-10, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19. Black girls consumed a greater percent of calories from fat throughout. At age 19, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9-10 for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and greater fat free mass. By ages 18-19, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by age 9-10 BMI, 10 year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between age 9-10 insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls), all p <.0001. Conclusions: Insulin at ages 9-10 interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9-10 could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from dietary and exercise interventions to avoid obesity.

Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping

2009-01-01

39

Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression.

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2010-01-01

40

Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).  

PubMed

The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits. PMID:22448608

Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

2012-04-01

41

Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).  

PubMed

The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better. PMID:22448609

Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

2012-04-01

42

Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at AgeYears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine\\u000a associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at ageyears. Seven forty one mother\\/infant\\u000a dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling\\u000a over,

Sara E. Benjamin Neelon; Emily Oken; Elsie M. Taveras; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Matthew W. Gillman

43

Trunk flexion in healthy children aged 3 to 7 years.  

PubMed

I tested 80 male and 80 female subjects between the ages of 3 and 7 years on two exercises of isometric trunk flexor muscle strength (half-hold hooklying position and supine flexion position) and one exercise of isotonic trunk flexor muscle strength (hooklying sit-ups) to establish normative data for trunk flexor musculature capabilities. Measurements included the length of time the half-hold hooklying and supine flexion positions were maintained and the number of repetitions of sit-ups. I found no significant differences between the sexes in performance of the isometric tests. I did find, however, a significant difference between age groups for half-hold hooklying and supine flexion tests (p less than .0001), indicating that the ability to perform isometric trunk flexion improves with age. Height was another significant variable contributing to test results (p less than .0001). Children were able to perform sit-ups consistently at age 6 years only; the male subjects performed an average of 20 more sit-ups than the female subjects (p less than .04). I discuss in this article the possible contribution of neuromuscular maturation and physical growth to the development of normal trunk flexion. The results may be useful to clinicians to assess abnormal trunk flexion accurately in children aged 3 to 7 years. PMID:2934752

Lefkof, M B

1986-01-01

44

Uroflowmetry nomogram in Iranian children aged 7 to 14 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian children between 7 to 14 years of age. METHODS: Eight hundred and two uroflowmetry studies were performed on children with no history of a renal, urological, psychological or

Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh; Cyrus Ahmadi Yazdi; Omid Rouhi; Parvin Tajik; Parvin Mohseni

2005-01-01

45

Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and

C B Mankinen; J W Sears

1976-01-01

46

The Age 30 Crisis and the 7-Year-Itch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The marital phenomenon known as the Seven Year Itch is discussed as a marital entity and as a manifestation of a stage of individual adult development-the age 30 transition. Characteristics of couples and treatment methods are discussed. Presented at the American Psychiatric Association, Miami Beach, May 9, 1976. (Author)

Berman, Ellen M.; And Others

1977-01-01

47

Amaurosis fugax under the age of 40 years.  

PubMed Central

Sixteen patients who presented under the age of 40 years with amaurosis fugax have been studied. Follow up from the time of presentation was one to 13 years with a median of 3 years. One patient whose attacks of uniocular visual loss were associated with headache developed a permanent uniocular field defect. None of the other patients has suffered permanent visual loss, or had symptoms of cerebral or myocardial ischaemia. All angiograms were normal and it is suggested that carotid angiography is unnecessary in this age group. Four out of ten patients studied demonstrated evidence of platelet hyperaggregability to low concentrations of arachidonic acid and adenosine diphosphate with spontaneous aggregation. However, in six patients treated with aspirin, including three with previous platelet hyperaggregability, there was no change in the frequency of their attacks implying that the observed platelet abnormalities were not the cause of the amaurosis fugax.

Poole, C J; Ross Russell, R W; Harrison, P; Savidge, G F

1987-01-01

48

Failure of siblings to thrive beyond 5 years of age  

PubMed Central

We describe a family in which parents had consanguinity, being children of real sisters. They had given birth to five children. In their family, children remained healthy from birth to pre-school age and then started having symptoms around the age of 5 years and two of them succumbed to this illness. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome Type-1 is a rare sporadic autosomal recessive disease. It is characterized by the existence of two or more endocrinal disorders. Patients may require lifelong hormone replacement therapy for survival.

Jain, Himanshu; Saxena, Vivek; Jindal, Sushil; Bansal, Shaifali

2013-01-01

49

Planned Economy. Volume 24, Numbers 9-10 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains materials on the economic development of Poland, including vocational schools and employment, the utilization of technical personnel, manpower use in a socialized economy, demographic forecasting by sex and age groups, foreign trade, d...

1972-01-01

50

Benefit of kidney transplantation beyond 70 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background. Kidney transplantation generally improves long-term survival in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, in patients older than 70 years of age, only limited data are available that directly compare the potential survival benefit of transplantation versus dialysis. Methods. All patients aged above 70 years who started dialysis between 1990 and 2005 and were waitlisted for kidney transplantation were included in the study. They were categorized according to time periods of inclusion (1990–99 vs 2000–05). Survival rates of altogether 286 dialysis patients were analyzed with a Kaplan–Meier model, as well as with a time-dependent Cox model. Comparisons were made between those who received a transplant and those who did not, and further between the two time periods. Results. Median age at inclusion was 73.6 years (interquartile range 72.3–75.6). Two hundred and thirty-three patients (81%) received a kidney transplant during follow-up. Transplant recipients experienced an increased mortality in the first year after transplantation when compared to waitlisted patients. Patients starting dialysis between 1990 and 1999 had no significant long-term benefit of transplantation; HR for death 1.01 (0.58–1.75). In contrast, there was a substantial long-term benefit of transplantation among those starting dialysis after 2000; HR for death 0.40 (0.19–0.83), P = 0.014. Conclusions. Survival after kidney transplantation in patients over 70 years has improved during the last decade and offers a survival advantage over dialysis treatment. Our experience supports the use of kidney transplantation in this age group if an increased early post-operative risk is accepted. This transplant policy may be challenged for priority reasons.

Heldal, Kristian; Hartmann, Anders; Grootendorst, Diana C.; de Jager, Dinanda J.; Leivestad, Torbj?rn; Foss, Aksel; Midtvedt, Karsten

2010-01-01

51

Regio- and stereospecific oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene by naphthalene dioxygenase: structure and absolute stereochemistry of metabolites.  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene was examined with mutant and recombinant strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (NCIB 9816.4. Salicylate-induced cells of P. putida strain 9816/11 and isopropylthiogalactopyranoside-induced cells of Escherichia coli JM109(DE3)(pDTG141) oxidized 9,10-dihydroanthracene to (+)-cis-1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,9,10-tetrahydroanthracene (> 95% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess) as the major product. 9-Hydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracene (< 5% relative yield) was a minor product formed by both organisms. The same cells oxidized 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to (+)-cis-(3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4,9,10-tetrahydrophenanthrene (70% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess) and (+)-(S)-9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (30% relative yield). The major reaction catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase with 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene was stereospecific dihydroxylation in which both of the previously undescribed cis-diene diols were of R configuration at the benzylic center adjacent to the bridgehead carbon atom. The results suggest that for benzocylic substrates, the location of benzylic carbons influences the type of reaction(s) catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase.

Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

1996-01-01

52

Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.  

PubMed

By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

2013-12-01

53

Breast carcinoma in women 35 years of age or younger.  

PubMed Central

The relationship of the age at diagnosis and prognosis in breast carcinoma remains controversial. A widely held perception is that the disease has a particularly unfavorable prognosis in young women. To examine this question we have studied 166 women treated for primary operable breast carcinoma who were 35 years of age or younger at the time of diagnosis. Groups of patients treated consecutively in each of two time periods nearly a decade apart (1964-1970 and 1976-1979) have been studied. Differences between the patient groups in primary surgical treatment and postoperative adjuvant therapy were characterized in the 1970s by the increasing use of modified radical mastectomy and replacement of postoperative radiation therapy by systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. A trend to earlier stage of disease was found among patients treated in 1976 to 1979, but 5-year recurrence and survival rates were not significantly different from those of young women treated in the 1960s. Comparison of Stage II patients treated in 1964 to 1970 with postoperative radiotherapy with comparable women given adjuvant chemotherapy from 1976 to 1979 revealed no significant difference in disease-free survival in the first 3 years after surgery. It remains to be seen whether these changes in therapy will diminish the frequency of recurrences after 5 years, leading to an improvement in overall survival. When compared with historical controls from this and other institutions, the 5-year and 10-year survival rates of approximately 75% and 60%, respectively, found in this study of young women with primary operative disease were not appreciably different from those of women treated for breast cancer at a later age when the disease is more common.

Rosen, P P; Lesser, M L; Kinne, D W; Beattie, E J

1984-01-01

54

Prognosis of Elderly Japanese Patients Aged >=80 Years Undergoing Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Although the number of elderly patients requiring dialysis has increased, data regarding the prognosis of elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis are limited. In the present study, prognosis in Japanese hemodialysis patients aged ?80 years was evaluated. From January 1988 to July 2013, 1144 consecutive patients with end-stage renal disease required renal replacement therapy at our institution; of these, 141 were aged ?80 years. These patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for relevant clinical variables and survival time. The life expectancies table from the National Vital Statistics database was used, and prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. In total, 107 deaths (76%) were recorded during the study period. The median survival time and estimated life-shortening period in the patients were 2.6 years and ?5.3 years, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status and hemoglobin level were revealed as prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Estimates of prognosis and prognostic factors may provide useful information for physicians as well as elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Hatakeyama, Shingo; Murasawa, Hiromi; Hamano, Itsuto; Kusaka, Ayumu; Oikawa, Masaaki; Noro, Daisuke; Hagiwara, Kazuhisa; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Saitoh, Hisao; Funyu, Tomihisa; Ohyama, Chikara

2013-01-01

55

Prognosis of elderly Japanese patients aged ?80 years undergoing hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Although the number of elderly patients requiring dialysis has increased, data regarding the prognosis of elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis are limited. In the present study, prognosis in Japanese hemodialysis patients aged ?80 years was evaluated. From January 1988 to July 2013, 1144 consecutive patients with end-stage renal disease required renal replacement therapy at our institution; of these, 141 were aged ?80 years. These patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for relevant clinical variables and survival time. The life expectancies table from the National Vital Statistics database was used, and prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. In total, 107 deaths (76%) were recorded during the study period. The median survival time and estimated life-shortening period in the patients were 2.6 years and -5.3 years, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status and hemoglobin level were revealed as prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Estimates of prognosis and prognostic factors may provide useful information for physicians as well as elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease. PMID:24228012

Hatakeyama, Shingo; Murasawa, Hiromi; Hamano, Itsuto; Kusaka, Ayumu; Narita, Takuma; Oikawa, Masaaki; Noro, Daisuke; Hagiwara, Kazuhisa; Ishimura, Hirofumi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Saitoh, Hisao; Funyu, Tomihisa; Ohyama, Chikara

2013-01-01

56

Antenatal complications in adolescent mothers aged below 14 years.  

PubMed

Antenatal complications in 340 booked and 710 unbooked adolescent mothers aged 12-14 years were evaluated over a 2-year period at the Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Emesis gravidarum was observed in 290 (85.3%) and 612 (86.2%) booked and unbooked mothers, respectively. While 112 (32.9%) booked mothers had malaria, this ailment was observed in 508 (71.5%) of unbooked mothers. Forty-six (13.5%) booked mothers suffered from anaemia as against 483 (68.0%) unbooked patients. It was observed that preeclampsia manifested in 62 (18.2%) booked and 158 (22.2%) unbooked mothers, while eclampsia occurred in 18 (5.3%) and 66 (9.3%) booked and unbooked mothers, respectively. The rates of premature deliveries were 16.20% in booked mothers and 22.82% in the unbooked group. Other notable complications observed in both groups include premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), preterm contractions, antepartum haemorrhage, and urinary tract infections. There were slightly higher frequencies of the above complications in 12-year-olds, and these decreased slightly towards the age of 14 years. Nine of the 10 above observed complications occurred more in the lower socioeconomic classes [3-4] than in the upper social economic classes [1-2] in significant proportions. PMID:10456165

Obed, J Y; Zarma, A; Mamman, L

1997-01-01

57

Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development.

Butchart, Alexander; Engstrom, Karin

2002-01-01

58

Age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy and adiposity at age 3 years.  

PubMed

Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones-rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ? 6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ? 15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W

2012-07-01

59

Survival of chronic hemodialysis patients over 80 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background/aim The number of elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 management with hemodialysis (HD) is steadily increasing. Therefore we analyzed the number of new CKD patients ?80 years managed with HD and their survival through the study period. We aimed also, to identify which of several key variables might be independently associated with survival in this very elderly population of patients. Patients and methods This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study that took place during the period from January 1987 to September 2012. The study consisted of 78 (50 male and 28 women) very elderly patients (?80 years of age); the mean age at which HD was initiated was 83.2±2.5 years. Survival and factors associated with mortality were studied. Survival was defined as the time from start of HD treatment to death (or end of study, if still alive). Results In the period from 1987 to 2002, patients ?80 years of age were only sporadically treated with HD, but since 2003, the number of new patients has been steadily increasing. The mean survival for our group of patients was 25.1±22.4 months (range 1–115 months). Furthermore, 30.8% patients survived <12 months, 29.5% patients survived 12–24 months, 30.8% patients survived 24–60 months, and 9% patients survived >60 months on HD treatment. Older patients were less likely to have diabetes, and primary renal disease did not influence survival. Patients with high C-reactive protein levels and poor nutritional status, as well as those who did not have pre-HD nephrology care and those that had a catheter as vascular access for HD had poor survival. In about half of our patients, the cause of death was cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Among patients who were ?80 years of age at the start of HD treatment, those who received pre-HD nephrology care that followed a planned management pathway, those who had a good nutritional status, and those with an arteriovenous fistula as vascular access for HD at the time of HD initiation had a better survival.

Sladoje-Martinovic, Branka; Mikolasevic, Ivana; Bubic, Ivan; Racki, Sanjin; Orlic, Lidija

2014-01-01

60

Psychopathic traits and physiological responses to aversive stimuli in children aged 9-11 years.  

PubMed

Atypical eletrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS-SCRs) were recorded while participants anticipated and reacted to 105 dB signaled or un-signaled white-noise bursts. Using multilevel regression models, both larger HR acceleration and fewer NS-SCR were found to be significantly associated with psychopathic traits during anticipation of signaled white-noise bursts. However, two divergent patterns appeared for HR and SCR: (1) larger HR acceleration was specific to the callousness-disinhibition factor of psychopathic traits while reduced NS-SCR was only associated with the manipulative-deceitfulness factor; (2) the negative association between the manipulative-deceitfulness factor and NS-SCR was only found in boys but not in girls. These findings replicated what has been found in psychopathic adults, suggesting that autonomic deficits present in children at risk may predispose them to later psychopathy. The divergent findings across psychopathic facets and sexes raised the possibility of different etiologies underlying psychopathy, which may in turn suggest multiple treatment strategies for boys and girls. PMID:22228313

Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

2012-07-01

61

Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.  

PubMed

A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. PMID:933114

Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

1976-04-01

62

Supervision of children aged two through six years.  

PubMed

Manufacturers of household products--including appliances, exercise equipment, and even some children's toys--expect consumers to supervise their children to prevent product-related injuries. This approach to hazard prevention places the burden of safety on parents and caretakers. This study examined actual supervision practices of parents of children between the ages of two and six years. 59 parents, aged 31 to 40 years, residing in Montgomery County, Maryland, completed a 24-item self-administered questionnaire, consisting of multiple choice and open-ended questions. Nearly all respondents reported that there are times when their children are in a different room from them. When the children are out of sight, parents reported checking on their children periodically, with increasingly longer periods between observations, as the child gets older. Nearly half of the children got out of bed in the morning always or often before a parent. Ninety-five percent of parents perceived that their child was at no risk or slight risk of injury when getting up in the morning before them. In conclusion, it can be said that many parents supervise their children by being close-by and on-hand as needed, rather than being directly involved in the child's activities. Manufacturers are encouraged to employ passive measures and sound designs, rather than rely on close parental supervision for injury prevention. PMID:12461839

Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Drago, Dorothy A

2002-06-01

63

Brief report: Pregnant by age 15 years and substance use initiation among US adolescent girls  

PubMed Central

We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999–2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11–12, 13–14, and age 15 years) for alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, controlling for race/ethnicity and metropolitan location. Of girls pregnant by age 15 years (3% of the sample, weighted n = 243), 16% had smoked marijuana by age 10 years and over 20% had smoked cigarettes and initiated alcohol use by age 10 years. In the multivariable analysis, marijuana use by age 14 years and/or cigarette smoking by age 12 years clearly distinguished girls who became pregnant by age 15 years and is perhaps due to a common underlying risk factor.

Rehg, Patricia A. Cavazos; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

2012-01-01

64

Complexation with diol host compounds. Part 1. Structures of the 1:2 molecular complexes of trans -9, 10-dihydroxy-9,10-diphenyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene with acetophenone and with 3-methylcyclopentanone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of the 1:2 molecular complexes of trans -9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-diphenyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene with acetophenone (1), (C26H20O2·2 C8H8O) and with 3-methylcyclopentanone (2), (C26H20O2·2C6H10O) have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal data are as follows: Compound (1):P\\u000a$$\\\\bar 1$$\\u000a,a =8.979(5) Å,b =9.316(3) Å,c = 11.12(1) Å,a =94.40(6)°,ß = 106.53(6)°,? = 109.92(5)°,V = 822.94 Å3,Z = 1,R = 0.097 for 2549 unique reflections.

Dianne R. Bond; Luigi R. Nassimbeni; Fumio Toda

1989-01-01

65

[30 years later: children attending a counseling service up to 3 years of age].  

PubMed

From 1953 through 1955 a total of 2364 individuals between o and 18 years were discharged from the Stockholm Child Guidance Clinics. Among these patients 125 (68 boys, 57 girls) were under the age of 3 years. A follow-up study was conducted 30 years later on this sample using records from psychiatric clinics and data from official registers of problematic behaviours. The majority of the infants when seen at the Child Guidance Clinics were judged to be mentally healthy or to have shown mild environmental reactions. However sixty per cent of these patients were identified in at least one of the registers during the follow-up period. Thus the initial evaluation was not prognostic of the future development. Boys developed mainly social maladjustment, whereas girls more often applied for psychiatric care during the follow-up. Significant prognostic factors in the 1950s were gender and parental psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:9796360

de Château, P

1998-09-01

66

Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women. PMID:11813766

Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

2000-01-01

67

Esterification and transesterification of 9(10)-carboxystearic acid and its methyl esters. Kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

9(10)-Carboxystearic acid and its mono- and dimethyl esters were esterified and transesterified with 1-butanol, 2-methoxyethanol,\\u000a 2-chloroethanol, 2,2-dimethylpentanol, 2-ethylhexanol and 1-octanol. Rate studies for the sulfuric acid-catalyzed esterification\\u000a of 9(10)-carboxystearic acid to alkyl 9(10)-carboxystearate and alkyl 9(10)-carboalkoxystearate indicate than on an average\\u000a the terminal carboxyl is approximately 26–27 times more reactive than the branched carboxyl group. Esterification is highly\\u000a dependent on

E. J. Dufek; R. O. Butterfield; E. N. Frankel

1972-01-01

68

Novel application of 1-\\/2-phenyl substituted 9,10-anthraquinones in solid electrochromic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-\\/2-phenyl substituted 9,10-anthraquinones were synthesized via Suzuki coupling reactions of 1-\\/2-iodo-9,10-anthraquinones\\u000a with benzeneboronic acid. They are efficient and reversible electrochromic materials and their solid electrochromic devices\\u000a were prepared. When reduced, the device color of 1-phenyl-9,10-anthraquinone shifts from yellow to claret while that of 2-phenyl-9,10-anthraquinone\\u000a switches from yellow-green to a dark blue-purple. Their different characteristics and behaviors in electrochromic devices\\u000a are

Binglin Sui; Xiangkai Fu

2009-01-01

69

Early macronutrient intake and overweight at five years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of the macronutrient intake in early life on the development of overweight in children.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: An ongoing longitudinal study including 147 randomized healthy children followed up from birth.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric parameters were measured at birth, 1 and 5 y of age. Dietary habits at the age of 1 and 5 were assessed by age-adjusted food-frequency

S Scaglioni; C Agostoni; R De Notaris; G Radaelli; N Radice; M Valenti; M Giovannini; E Riva

2000-01-01

70

9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.  

PubMed

9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ. PMID:22281686

Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

2012-02-01

71

Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

2008-01-01

72

Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 9-10 Year Old Children  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. Purpose To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n?=?1472, 42.9% male) were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES) intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013. Results 83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.69 (1.21,2.37)) and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62)) were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99)), participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94)) and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94)) were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Conclusions A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours and there was evidence of clustering of screen viewing and unhealthy dietary behaviours. Sub-groups at greatest risk may be targeted for intervention.

Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

73

Is overweight and obesity in 9–10-year-old children in Liverpool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether weight problems in children (overweight, obesity and overweight or obesity) were related to deprivation indices when attributed only according to electoral ward of the school attended. To determine whether children\\u000awith weight problems were more likely to be found in some wards rather than others, and to compare the distribution for boys and girls.\\u000aDesign: Retrospective,

T J Dummer; M A Gibbon; A F Hackett; Sue R Taylor

2005-01-01

74

Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

2012-01-01

75

Direct costs of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients aged 65 years or more and those under age 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the past 20 years, there have been marked increases in rates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among older people in Canada. The ob- jectives of this study were to accurately estimate the direct medical costs of CABG in older patients (age 65 years or more) and to compare CABG costs for this age group with those for

Gary Naglie; Catherine Tansey; Murray D. Krahn; Keith O'Rourke; Allan S. Detsky; Hildo Bolley

1999-01-01

76

Characteristics and screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer aged 20-29 years  

PubMed Central

Background: There was concern that failure to screen women aged 20–24 years would increase the number of cancers or advanced cancers in women aged 20–29 years. We describe the characteristics of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in England aged 20–29 years and examine the association between the period of diagnosis, screening history and FIGO stage. Methods: We used data on 1800 women diagnosed with cervical cancer between April 2007 and March 2012 at age 20–29 from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancers. Results: The majority of cancers (995, or 62% of those with known stage) were stage 1A. Cancer at age 20–24 years was rare (12% of those aged 20–29 years), when compared with age 25 (24%) and age 26–29 years (63%); however, cancers in women aged 20–24 years tended to be more advanced and were more often of a rare histological type. For 59% of women under age 30, the cervical cancer was screen detected, most of them (61%) as a result of their first screening test. A three-fold increase in the number of cancers diagnosed at age 25 years was seen since the start of the study period. Conclusion: Cervical cancer at age 20–24 years is rare. Most cancers in women under age 30 years are screen detected as microinvasive cancer.

Castanon, A; Leung, V M W; Landy, R; Lim, A W W; Sasieni, P

2013-01-01

77

Periodontal Diseases Among Quebec Adults Aged 35 to 44 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Very little information is available on periodontal diseases in Canadian adults. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontal problems in Quebec adults aged 35 to 44. Methods: A total of 2,110 randomly selected Quebec adults were examined between September 1994 and July 1995. The participation rate was 77% for the questionnaire and 44.5% for

Jean-Marc Brodeur; Martin Payette; Mike Benigeri; Anne Charbonneau; Dominique Chabot

78

Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group:\\u000a median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years).\\u000a The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but\\u000a different in age. After

Leonardo OstiRocco; Rocco Papalia; Angelo Del Buono; Vincenzo Denaro; Nicola Maffulli

2010-01-01

79

Years of potential life lost from unintentional injuries among persons aged 0-19 years - United States, 2000-2009.  

PubMed

Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of deaths among persons aged 0-19 years in the United States. Quantifying years of potential life lost (YPLL) highlights childhood causes of mortality and provides a simple method to identify important causes of premature death and specific groups in need of intervention. Deaths attributed to unintentional injuries among persons aged 0-19 years number approximately 12,000 each year in the United States; another 9 million young persons are treated for nonfatal injuries in emergency departments. To estimate the burden of premature deaths attributed to unintentional injuries among persons aged 0-19 years, CDC calculated state-specific YPLL by sex, age, race, and injury mechanism based on data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause of death files for the period 2000-2009. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that an average of 890 years of potential life were lost each year because of unintentional injuries for every 100,000 persons aged 0-19 years. The burden of unintentional injuries was higher among males compared with females, among persons aged <1 year and those aged 15-19 years compared with the other 5-year age groups, among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) compared with those of any other race/ethnicity, and among those residing in two clusters of adjacent states (the South Central states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, and the Mountain states of Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota) compared with any other region. These estimates can be used to target injury prevention strategies to young persons most at risk. PMID:23076091

2012-10-19

80

ICSI outcome in patients of 40 years age and over: a retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report and analyse our experience with ICSI treatment in infertile women ?40 years of age, with the intention of contributing to current debates on the effect of aging on the reproductive potential. Study design: 107 infertile couples in which the female partner was aged ?40 years and who received ICSI treatment between January 1996 and December 1998. Results:

N Nikolettos; W Kupker; S Al-Hasani; L. C Demirel; B Schöpper; R Sturm; K Diedrich

2000-01-01

81

Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

Westermeyer, Jerry F.

2013-01-01

82

Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

2009-01-01

83

Comparison of effectiveness and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients aged ?90 years versus <90 years.  

PubMed

In a fraction of patients aged ?90 years, less-invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been considered a therapeutic option for aortic stenosis under careful clinical screening. However, the safety and effectiveness using TAVI in such a population has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of TAVI in nonagenarians. We prospectively enrolled 136 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis who were referred for TAVI. The procedural, early, and midterm clinical outcomes were compared between patients aged <90 years (n = 110, average age 82.3 ± 8.3 years) and ?90 years (n = 26; average age 91.6 ± 1.9 years). A comparison of the baseline characteristics revealed that among patients aged ?90 years, the prevalence of women (50% vs 81%, p <0.001) and the mean aortic valve gradient (45.5 ± 15.4 vs 56.3 ± 23.4 mm Hg, p = 0.005) were greater than those in patients aged <90 years. Major vascular complications occurred more frequently in patients ?90 years (5% vs 19%, p = 0.022), although the rate of procedural success and 30-day and 6-month mortality were not different between the 2 age groups (96% vs 100%, p = 0.58; 6% vs 15%, p = 0.22; and 14% vs 27%, p = 0.14, respectively). The mortality rates were greater among patients aged ?90 years. At 6 months, both groups of survivors were similar in symptom status, with a New York Heart Association classification less than class II (89% vs 84%, p = 0.68). The cumulative survival (median 13.4 ± 8.0 months of follow-up) was not significantly different between the 2 age groups (p = 0.22, log-rank test). In conclusion, even very elderly nonagenarians can experience acceptable clinical results and benefits after TAVI. PMID:23021601

Yamamoto, Masanori; Meguro, Kentaro; Mouillet, Gauthier; Bergoend, Eric; Monin, Jean-Luc; Lim, Pascal; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Teiger, Emmanuel

2012-10-15

84

[Severe malarial infection in adults aged over 18 years: one-year experience].  

PubMed

The severe malarial forms are the main cause of admission to ICU in the majority of African countries, therefore, a cross-sectional descriptive trial was carried out in Meditex Clic in Luanda (January-December 2004) to evaluate the organs mostly affected and how the level of parasitemia influence them. Seriously-ill patients aged over 18 years, with Apache II score exceeding 20 points in Apache II score were included Once the most frequent severe forms of presentation and their association with the level of parasitemia were known, then common complications and mortality were evaluated. Clinical cerebral form (42.2%) prevailed, with the lowest parasitemia on admission, that is below 1000 x mm (68.2%), p < 0.005. A great deal of patients suffered reduced fluid volume as a complication resulting from fluid deficit, which clinically overcome after corrective actions based on fluid intake. The mortality rate observed in this study was lower than that reported by other trials. It was concluded that brain and hepatic effects are the most serious and frequent forms of presentation, with no association with the parasitemia level on admission. PMID:23424790

Arencibia Pita, Luis; Jiménez, Martha Rosendo; Serrano Murillo, Aracelis; Menéndez Capote, Reinaldo; Ricardo Fonseca, María Elena

2006-01-01

85

Stereochemistry of 9-Dimethylamino-9,10-Dihydro-4,5-Dimethylphenanthrene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an asymmetric transfer reaction, two optically active diastereomers of 9-dimethylamino-9,10-dihydro-4,5-dimethylphenanthrene(1) are formed by Stevens rearrangement of an optically active bridged biphenyl azepinium bromide(2). The isomers, which differ ...

H. Joshua R. Gans K. Mislow

1968-01-01

86

Transcript of Meeting (7th), Held on 9-10 May 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The edition is the transcript of the May 9-10, 1975 meeting of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Commission members made final alterations on recommendations, deliberations, and conclusions...

1975-01-01

87

Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

2012-01-01

88

Nonanebis(peroxoic acid): a stable peracid for oxidative bromination of aminoanthracene-9,10-dione  

PubMed Central

Summary A new protocol for the oxidative bromination of aminoanthracene-9,10-dione, which is highly deactivated towards the electrophilic substitution is investigated. The peracid, nonanebis(peroxoic acid), possesses advantages such as better stability at room temperature, it is easy to prepare and non-shock sensitiv as compared to the conventional peracids. The present protocol has a broad scope for the bromination of various substituted and unsubstituted aminoanthracene-9,10-diones.

Patil, Vilas Venunath

2014-01-01

89

Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years.  

PubMed

Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheffield). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93 years. The data are presented in 5-year bands and show a mean fall of 0.36% per year for BUA and 0.08% per year for SOS in the 60 years following the attainment of peak bone mass. This fall in BUA compares with that observed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of 0.32% per year and 0.44% per year, respectively, for the age range 25-65 years. PMID:9404204

Truscott, J G

1997-10-01

90

Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2010-01-01

91

Reasons for visiting Polish primary care practices by patients aged 18-44 years: the largest emigrating age group.  

PubMed

Over 3% of the entire Polish population migrate for a job within the European Union, most are aged 18-44 years. The main destinations are Germany, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Immigration is connected with the use of many public services, including healthcare services. Assuming Polish immigrants require medical consultations in the countries they reside in, the authors have analysed the reasons for patients' visits to general practitioners (GPs) in Poland in order to predict possible reasons why Polish patients living abroad may make appointments with GPs in other countries. Data from 22,769 visits to GP practices between June 2005 and May 2006 by Polish patients aged 18-44 years were collected electronically. Age was categorised into three groups (18-24, 25-4 and 35-44 years) and the reason for the visit was categorised according to the ICD 10 coding system. Among the 12,535 patients registered with GPs, 73.1% of women and 68.6% of men required consultations during the year the study was conducted. The highest percentage of visits was recorded for women aged 35-44 years, while men of the same age were the least likely to visit a GP. The mean number of visits per patient ranged from 1.89 for men aged 25-34 years to 3.11 for women aged 35-44 years. The means were similar for 18- to 24-year-old men and women. Women aged 35-44 years had a higher mean number of visits compared with women aged 18-4 years, whereas the opposite was true for men. The analysis of reasons for visits within the age groups indicated that the percentage of appointments for respiratory problems and general and unspecified problems dropped by more than half from the 18-24-year-olds to the 35-44-years-olds, while visits for musculosceletal, cardiovascular, and mental and behavioural problems increased by a factor of four. The presented results intend to enable healthcare services meet Polish immigrants' healthcare needs. PMID:19402840

Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Ewelina Gowin, Ewelina Gowin; Michalak, Michal; Bryl, Nadia; Mehl, Tadeusz

2009-05-01

92

Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4–6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in establishing a

Jens B. Asendorpf; Jaap J. A. Denissen; Marcel A. G. van Aken

2008-01-01

93

Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

2008-01-01

94

Urogenital Symptoms and Resulting Discomfort in Non-Institutionalized Dutch Women Aged 50–75 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urogenital symptoms in non-institutionalized Dutch women aged 50–75\\u000a years, and the degree of discomfort suffered as a result. A questionnaire was sent to 2157 women, a sample representative\\u000a of the female population aged 50–75 years with respect to age, marital status, level of education and menopausal age. The

J. M. van Geelen; H. Th. Arnolds

2000-01-01

95

Maternal age at menarche and atopy among offspring at the age of 31 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDInfluences of female hormones on the occurrence of allergic disorders have been suggested. Age at menarche may be a marker of endogenous oestrogen levels. Data from a Finnish birth cohort followed to adulthood were analysed to determine whether there is any association between maternal age at menarche and the occurrence of atopy among offspring.METHODSThe study was conducted in 5188 subjects

Baizhuang Xu; Marjo-Riitta Järvelin; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Juha Pekkanen

2000-01-01

96

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

97

Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

1988-01-01

98

Assessment for Children Ages 3 to 8 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades there has been a loud outcry from the early childhood education community that assessment, especially standardized assessment, is inappropriate during the early years. As we move through the first decade of the twenty-first century, there is a new public outcry for standards and accountability--even for preschool programs.…

Guddemi, Marcy Priess

99

Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature

B M Laurance; A Brito; J Wilkinson

1981-01-01

100

Use of tiotropium in patients with COPD aged 80 years and older  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine clinical features and treatment modality approaches in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in those aged 80 years and older. Using databases available at Mito Kyodo General Hospital (Japan), the medical records of COPD patients between April 2009 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient population was divided into three age groups; less than 70 years (the <70 age group), between 70–79 years (the 70–79 age group) and 80 years or older (the ?80 age group). Demographic data, as well as the efficacy and safety of tiotropium, were compared between the three groups. Patients in the ?80 age group comprised 35.6% of the study population with COPD (n=174). The ?80 and 70–79 age groups demonstrated a higher proportion of comorbid disease compared with the <70 age group. A subjective improvement of dyspnea on effort as well as no additional adverse effects were observed in the ?80 age group, similar to the other two age groups. However, higher incidence of acute exacerbation of COPD in patients aged ?80 years old was found, particularly in those with comorbid disease. The efficacy and safety of tiotropium in COPD patients in the ?80 age group were almost identical to patients <80 years old, however, physicians must be cautious with acute exacerbation of COPD in the extremely elderly population with comorbid disease.

SATOH, HIROAKI; KAGOHASHI, KATSUNORI; OHARA, GEN; SATO, SHINYA; MIYAZAKI, KUNIHIKO; NAKAZAWA, KENSUKE; TAMURA, TOMOHIRO; KURISHIMA, KOICHI; KAWAGUCHI, MIO; HIZAWA, NOBUYUKI

2013-01-01

101

Predictors of subjective age in people aged 40-79 years: a five-year follow-up study. The impact of mastery, mental and physical health.  

PubMed

Objectives: Assessing subjective age perception (SAP) and changes in SAP as well as exploring which variables of socio-demographic, health and personal mastery independently predicted SAP.Methods: The panel data are from two waves of the Norwegian Study on the Life Course, Ageing and Generations (NorLAG). Our sample consists of 2471 people aged 40-79 years at baseline who were surveyed in 2002/2003 (T1) and 2007/2008 (T2). Univariate and multiple regressions were performed; multivariate analyses assessing the relative importance of the independent variables (at T1) for the SAP at T2.Results: Older chronological age, good physical health, good mental health, a high level of personal mastery and having lower education significantly predicted a youthful SAP. For the whole sample, older age and a high level of personal mastery were the most important predictors. For those aged 40-49 being a man, having lower education, good physical health and high personal mastery predicted a younger SAP, whereas in the group aged 50-59 years being married/cohabiting and having a high level of education were predictors of an older SAP. For those aged 60-69, high personal mastery was the only independent predictor of a younger SAP. For those aged 70-79 years, only health - good mental and physical health - independently predicted a younger SAP.Conclusions: Most respondents feel younger than their chronological age, the more the older they are. Self-rated physical and mental health and personal mastery are associated with SAP and vary in different age groups. PMID:24359016

Bergland, Astrid; Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten

2014-07-01

102

C-Functionalized, air- and water-stable 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracenes: efficient blue to red emitting luminophores.  

PubMed

9,10-Dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) provides a versatile scaffold for the development of boron-doped organic luminophores. Symmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are obtained through the condensation of 4-bromo-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene or 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene with BBr3 in hexane. Unsymmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are formed via an electrophilic solvent activation reaction if the synthesis is carried out in o-xylene. Mechanistic insight has been achieved by in situ NMR spectroscopy, which revealed C-halogenated 1,2-bis(dibromoboryl)benzenes to be the key intermediates. Treatment of the primary 9,10-dibromo-DBAs with MesMgBr yields air- and water-stable C-halogenated 9,10-dimesityl-DBAs (2-Br-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,6-Br2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3-Cl2-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3,6,7-Cl4-DBA(Mes)2). Subsequent Stille-type C-C-coupling reactions give access to corresponding phenyl, 2-thienyl, and p-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl derivatives, which act as highly emissive donor-acceptor dyads or donor-acceptor-donor triads both in solution and in the solid state. 2-Thienyl was chosen as a model substituent to show that already a variation of the number and/or the positional distribution of the donor groups suffices to tune the emission wavelength of the resulting benchtop stable compounds from 469 nm (blue) to 540 nm (green). A further shift of the fluorescence maximum to 594 nm (red) can be achieved by switching from 2-thienyl to p-aminophenyl groups. A comparison of the optoelectronic properties of selected C-substituted DBA(Mes)2 derivatives with those of the isostructural anthracene analogues unveiled the following: (i) The DBA core is a much better electron acceptor. (ii) The emission colors of DBAs fall in the visible range of the spectrum (blue to orange), while anthracenes emit exclusively in the near-ultraviolet to blue wavelength regime. (iii) DBAs show significantly higher solid-state quantum yields. PMID:23899377

Reus, Christian; Weidlich, Sabine; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

2013-08-28

103

Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg Google Bookmarks Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State Regardless of ... Health Service Reports Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24, by State Archive Chlamydia, All Years GISP, ...

104

[Birth weight in Brazilian children under two years of age].  

PubMed

Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of dying in the first year of life. This study was motivated by recent changes in the determination of birth weight patterns with the advent of the perinatal epidemiological transition. We analyzed data from the Brazilian National Survey of Demographic and Health of Children and Women including only children < 24 months. Prevalence of low birth weight in Brazil was 6.1%. Risk factors included female gender, residence in the South and Southeast geographic regions, low maternal education, and maternal smoking. The low birth weight profile changed, with higher prevalence in more economically developed regions, reflecting the neonatal epidemiological transition determined by changes in patterns of childbirth care and incorporation of perinatal life support technologies, in addition to the previously known biological risks associated with poverty and misinformation. PMID:23459820

Viana, Kelly de Jesus; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo; Cocetti, Monize; Warkentin, Sarah

2013-02-01

105

Age at initiation of cannabis use predicts age at onset of psychosis: the 7- to 8-year trend.  

PubMed

We investigated the existence of a temporal association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness in 997 participants from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia. We tested for group differences in age at onset of psychotic illness and in the duration of premorbid exposure to cannabis (DPEC). Analyses were repeated in subgroups of participants with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), a diagnosis of lifetime cannabis dependence (LCD), and a comorbid SSD/LCD diagnosis. The association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was linear and significant, F(11, 984) = 13.77, P < .001, even after adjusting for confounders. The effect of age at initiation of cannabis use on DPEC was not significant (mean duration of 7.8 years), and this effect was similar in participants with a SSD, LCD, and comorbid SSD/ LCD diagnosis although a shift toward shorter premorbid exposure to cannabis was noted in the SSD/LCD subgroup (mean duration of 7.19 years for SSD/LCD). A temporal direct relationship between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was detected with a premorbid exposure to cannabis trend of 7-8 years, modifiable by higher severity of premorbid cannabis use and a diagnosis of SSD. Cannabis may exert a cumulative toxic effect on individuals on the pathway to developing psychosis, the manifestation of which is delayed for approximately 7-8 years, regardless of age at which cannabis use was initiated. PMID:23314189

Stefanis, Nikos C; Dragovic, Milan; Power, Brian D; Jablensky, Assen; Castle, David; Morgan, Vera Anne

2013-03-01

106

Age at Initiation of Cannabis Use Predicts Age at Onset of Psychosis: The 7- to 8-Year Trend  

PubMed Central

We investigated the existence of a temporal association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness in 997 participants from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia. We tested for group differences in age at onset of psychotic illness and in the duration of premorbid exposure to cannabis (DPEC). Analyses were repeated in subgroups of participants with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), a diagnosis of lifetime cannabis dependence (LCD), and a comorbid SSD/LCD diagnosis. The association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was linear and significant, F(11, 984) = 13.77, P < .001, even after adjusting for confounders. The effect of age at initiation of cannabis use on DPEC was not significant (mean duration of 7.8 years), and this effect was similar in participants with a SSD, LCD, and comorbid SSD/ LCD diagnosis although a shift toward shorter premorbid exposure to cannabis was noted in the SSD/LCD subgroup (mean duration of 7.19 years for SSD/LCD). A temporal direct relationship between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was detected with a premorbid exposure to cannabis trend of 7–8 years, modifiable by higher severity of premorbid cannabis use and a diagnosis of SSD. Cannabis may exert a cumulative toxic effect on individuals on the pathway to developing psychosis, the manifestation of which is delayed for approximately 7–8 years, regardless of age at which cannabis use was initiated.

Stefanis, Nikos C.

2013-01-01

107

Personality and Risk for Alzheimer's Disease in Adults 72 Years of Age and Older: A 6Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted secondary analyses to determine the relationship between longstanding personality traits and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) among 767 participants 72 years of age or older who were followed for more than 6 years. Personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI. We hypothesized that elevated Neuroticism, lower Openness, and lower Conscientiousness would be independently associated with risk of AD. Hypotheses

Paul R. Duberstein; Benjamin P. Chapman; Hilary A. Tindle; Kaycee M. Sink; Patricia Bamonti; John Robbins; Anthony F. Jerant; Peter Franks

2011-01-01

108

Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

2011-01-01

109

Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL. PMID:24641829

McClune, Brian L; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Hai-Lin; Antin, Joseph H; Artz, Andrew S; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Deol, Abhinav; Freytes, César O; Hamadani, Mehdi; Holmberg, Leona A; Jagasia, Madan H; Jakubowski, Ann A; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Lazarus, Hillard M; Miller, Alan M; Olsson, Richard; Pedersen, Tanya L; Pidala, Joseph; Pulsipher, Michael A; Rowe, Jacob M; Saber, Wael; van Besien, Koen W; Waller, Edmund K; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgun; Bacher, Ulrike; Chao, Nelson J; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cooper, Brenda W; Dehn, Jason; de Lima, Marcos J; Hsu, Jack W; Lewis, Ian D; Marks, David I; McGuirk, Joseph; Cairo, Mitchell S; Schouten, Harry C; Szer, Jeffrey; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Savani, Bipin N; Seftel, Matthew; Socie, Gérard; Vij, Ravi; Warlick, Erica D; Weisdorf, Daniel J

2014-07-01

110

Does rheumatic fever occur usually between the ages of 5 and 15 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been considered that rheumatic fever usually occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. However, supporting data from the developing countries are insufficient. It is important to know the age of occurrence of rheumatic fever for clinical and public health purposes. To describe the age distribution of Bangladeshi subjects, we have reviewed the records

M. Mostafa Zaman; Mian Abdur Rouf; Sirajul Haque; Lutfar Rahman Khan; Nazir Ahmed Chowdhury; Shaikh Abdur Razzaque; Nobuo Yoshiike; Heizo Tanaka

1998-01-01

111

Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

1996-01-01

112

Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)benzaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)benzaldehyde in “trans” and “ana” forms have been investigated by UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational analysis of the two forms of cited compound was performed by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simulations. The obtained geometrical parameters and wavenumbers of vibrational normal modes from the DFT method were in good consistency with the experimental values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method. Computed molecular orbital and time dependent DFT oscillator renderings agree closely with experimental observations. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. In order to predict the reactive sites, a molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) for the title compound was obtained. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

Kanaani, A.; Ajloo, D.; Kiyani, H.; Farahani, M.

2014-04-01

113

Experiences of daily occupations at 99 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim was to explore experiences of daily occupations among the oldest old. Ten 99-year-old persons were interviewed in their living environment about an ordinary day. The interviews were analysed according to the phenomenographic approach. The result showed that participants regarded themselves as competent and that they felt proud because they were involved in daily occupations. Being challenged was experienced as a way of performing difficult tasks, thus being confirmed as a capable person who performs and learns new things. The participants' occupational patterns preserve occupational ability and continuity in life in that they have a rhythm and allow the individuals to predict and handle interruptions. Participants experienced being incapable and being restricted as a result of personal, environmental, and social hindrances. The participants adapted to and reshaped their sense of self, which has been disrupted due to the discrepancy between self, the person's ability, and the real world "outside". Experience of daily occupation is unique, supports the sense of self, builds identities, and describes engagement and creative processes. Individual experience must be recognized as it can mean the difference between success and failure in maintaining meaningful daily occupation. PMID:17763201

Häggblom-Kronlöf, Greta; Hultberg, John; Eriksson, Bo G; Sonn, Ulla

2007-09-01

114

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance*body mass index interactions at ages 9 to 10 years predict metabolic syndrome risk factor aggregate score at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

If homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) interactions with obesity (body mass index [BMI]) at ages 9 to 10 years predict aggregate metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years, this would identify novel avenues for primary prevention of metabolic syndrome. Our hypothesis was that HOMA-IR*BMI interactions at ages 9 to 10 years would predict aggregate metabolic

John A. Morrison; Charles J. Glueck; Paul S. Horn; George B. Schreiber; Ping Wang

2009-01-01

115

Employee Burnout: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Age or Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between age or years of experience and employee burnout by performing a meta-analysis on research studies that present findings on relationships between employee burnout and age or years of experience. The problem has practical significance in that the appropriateness of approaches to addressing employee…

Brewer, Ernest W.; Shapard, Leslie

2004-01-01

116

Persistence of Hypsarrhythmia in Children Beyond the Age of Three Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of hypsarrhythmia after the age of 3 years is rare. The objective of this study is to describe a group of patients who have persistence of hypsarrhythmia after the age of 3 years. The authors retrospectively reviewed the EEGs of 24 patients with hypsarrhythmia. Electroencephalographies (EEGs) were scored using a hypsarrhythmia scale. The clinical data of 7 patients with

Kandan Kulandaivel; Divya S. Khurana; Karen S. Carvalho; Joseph J. Melvin; Agustin Legido; Ignacio Valencia

2011-01-01

117

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 ...UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Housing for Older Persons § 100.304 Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. (a) The provisions...

2013-04-01

118

Follow-up study of bedwetting from 3 to 5 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the relationship between bedwetting and development in infancy.Methods. Questionnaires concerning micturition habits and development at 3 and 5 years of age were completed by the parents of 157 children who had had their health checked by pediatricians at a group checkup at 3 years of age.Results. The percentage of bedwetters in whom the frequency of bedwetting was

Akihiro Kawauchi; Yoshiyuki Tanaka; Yutaka Yamao; Mitsuhiko Inaba; Motohiro Kanazawa; Osamu Ukimura; Yoichi Mizutani; Tsuneharu Miki

2001-01-01

119

Health information literacy in everyday life: A study of Finns aged 65–79 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65–79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires

Kristina Eriksson-Backa; Stefan Ek; Raimo Niemelä; Maija-Leena Huotari

2012-01-01

120

The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

2001-01-01

121

Outcome at 7 Years of Children Diagnosed with Autism at Age 2: Predictive Validity of Assessments Conducted at 2 and 3 Years of Age and Pattern of Symptom Change over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the predictive validity of symptom severity, cognitive and language measures taken at ages 2 and 3 years to outcome at age 7 in a sample of children diagnosed with autism at age 2. Method: Twenty-six children diagnosed with autism at age 2 were re-assessed at ages 3 and 7 years. At each age symptom severity, cognitive and…

Charman, Tony; Taylor, Emma; Drew, Auriol; Cockerill, Helen; Brown, Jo-Anne; Baird, Gillian

2005-01-01

122

Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents.  

PubMed

Ginsenosides is a low molecular weight substance found in ginseng as one of the active ingredients. Ginsenosides, like other herbal medicines, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions including neuroprotective effects. The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is one of numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that exists as a heteropentameric form in auditory hair cells of the cochlea. In this study, we report the effects of ginsenosides on rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with acetylcholine evoked inward currents (IACh) in oocytes heterologously expressing the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Ginsenosides blocked IACh in order of potency of Rg3> Rb2> CK>Re = Rg2> Rf>Rc> Rb1> Rg1 with reversible manners, and the blocking effect of Rg3 on IACh was same after pre-application than co-application of Rg3. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Rg3 was 39.6 ± 4.9 µm. Rg3-induced IACh inhibition was not affected by acetylcholine concentration and was independent of membrane holding potential. Although the inhibitory effect of Rg3 on IACh was abolished in oocytes expressing ?9 subunit alone, indicating that the presence of ?10 subunit might be required for Rg3-induced regulations of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity. These results indicate that ?10 subunit of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor might play an important role in Rg3-induced regulation of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. PMID:23649337

Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

2013-01-01

123

Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance: A 3-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Methods: Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight

Joy L. Taylor; Quinn Kennedy; A. Noda; J. A. Yesavage

2007-01-01

124

Photochemical hydroxylation of 1-methyl-9,10-anthraquinones: synthesis of 9'-hydroxyaloesaponarin II.  

PubMed

Photolysis of 1-methyl-9,10-anthraquinones in the presence of oxygen yields endoperoxides that can be reduced to produce 1-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinones. The reaction proceeds in a fashion similar to that of other o-alkylphenones which yield either a 1,4-diradical or a "photoenol" upon irradiation. Anthraquinones undergo photochemistry at a wavelength where the endoperoxide is transparent, allowing its isolation. A singlet oxygen quencher had no effect on the rate of formation of the endoperoxide. The photochemical hydroxylation has been used in a total synthesis of a naturally occurring polyketide, 9'-hydroxyaloesaponarin II. PMID:20000650

Elkazaz, Salwa; Jones, Paul B

2010-01-15

125

Study of 8,9,10He Structure in the Experiments with a Tritium Target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectra of unbound states of helium isotopes 8,9,10He were studied in the one- and twoneutron transfer reactions with the use of the 6,8He secondary beams and a cryogenic tritium/deuterium target. Analysis of angular correlations of decay products allowed us to define spin-parities of the states observed in the experiments. In disagreement with shell model expectations the established level ordering in 9,10He testifies the shell breakdown in these nuclei. Angular correlations measured for a decay of the well-known 2+ state of 8He were applied for the verification of the experimental approach used in this work.

Sidorchuk, S. I.; Bezbakh, A. A.; Chudoba, V.; Egorova, I. A.; Fomichev, A. S.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Kaminski, G.; Krupko, S. A.; Parfenova, Yu. L.; Sharov, P. G.; Slepnev, R. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Wolski, R.

2013-06-01

126

9,10-Dioxoanthracene-1,4-diyl bis-(4-methyl-benzene-sulfonate)  

PubMed Central

The title mol­ecule, C28H20O8S2, has a T-shaped conformation. The central 9,10-anthraquinone moiety is bow-shaped with the two outer aromatic rings being inclined to one another by 13.99?(11)°. The benzenesulfonate rings are inclined to one another by 47.35?(12)°, and by 34.51?(11) and 17.88?(11)° to the bridging aromatic ring of the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety. In the crystal, C—H?O interactions link the mol­ecules into ribbons in [100].

Teerawatananond, Thapong; Kerdsamut, Chiaranan; Kokpol, Sirirat; Muangsin, Nongnuj

2012-01-01

127

Oxygen Saturation in Healthy Children Aged 5 to 16 Years Residing in Huayllay, Peru at 4340 m  

PubMed Central

Abstract Schult, Sandra, and Carlos Canelo-Aybar. Oxygen saturation in healthy chidren aged 5 to 6 years residing in Huayllay, Peru, at 4340?m. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:89–92, 2011.—Hypoxemia is a major life-threatening complication of childhood pneumonia. The threshold points for hypoxemia vary with altitude. However, few published data describe that normal range of variation. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of normal mean Sao2 levels and an approximate cutoff point to define hypoxemia for clinical purposes above 4300 meters above sea level (masl). Children aged 5 to 16 yr were examined during primary care visits at the Huayllay Health Center. Huayllay is a rural community located at 4340?m in the province of Pasco in the Peruvian Andes. We collected basic sociodemographic data and evaluated three outcomes: arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) with a pulse oximeter, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Comparisons of main outcomes among age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 yr) and sex were performed using linear regression models. The correlation of Sao2 with heart rate and respiration rate was established by Pearson's correlation test. We evaluated 583 children, of whom 386 were included in the study. The average age was 10.3 yr; 55.7% were female. The average Sao2, heart rate, and respiratory rate were 85.7% (95% CI: 85.2–86.2), 80.4/min (95% CI: 79.0–81.9), and 19.9/min (95% CI: 19.6–20.2), respectively. Sao2 increased with age (p?age group. At 4300?m, the reference values for hypoxemia may be 14.2% lower than at sea level. This difference must be considered when diagnosing hypoxemia or deciding oxygen supplementation at high altitude. Other studies are needed to determine whether this reference value is appropriate for clinical use.

Schult, Sandra

2011-01-01

128

Flexibility of Older Adults Aged 55-86 Years and the Influence of Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55–86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, 71 ± 9 years; 231 women, 72 ± 8 years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes.

McDonald, Matthew W.; Little, Robert M. D.; Paterson, Donald H.

2013-01-01

129

Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years: nationwide study in denmark.  

PubMed

Background- Knowledge of the burden and causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is sparse in persons aged <50 years; better understanding is needed to lower the risk of SCD. The aim of this study was to report SCD incidence rates and autopsy findings in persons aged 1 to 49 years. Methods and Results- All deaths in persons aged 1 to 49 years were included in 2007 to 2009. Death certificates were reviewed by 2 physicians. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries were read. Sudden unexpected death cases were identified and autopsy reports were collected. In the 3-year study period, there were 7849 deaths of which we identified 893 (11%) SCD cases. The annual incidence rate per 100 000 persons increased from 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.7) to 21.7 (95% confidence interval, 20.2-23.4) in persons aged 1 to 35 and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Coronary artery disease was the most common cause of death and was found in 158 (36%) autopsied cases, followed by 135 (31%) cases of sudden unexplained death. Conclusions- In a nationwide cohort of persons aged <50 years, the annual incidence rate of SCD was ?10× higher in persons aged 36 to 49 years than in persons aged 1 to 35 years. Notably, coronary artery disease was the most common cause of SCD, followed by unexplained deaths. These findings may help in developing strategies to prevent SCD in the future. PMID:24604905

Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza; Behr, Elijah R; Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Ottesen, Gyda Lolk; Gislason, Gunnar H; Bundgaard, Henning; Haunsø, Stig; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

2014-04-01

130

Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult predictors of favorable overall outcome included good peer social adjustment, an absence of troubled parental discipline, and an absence of immature defensive behaviors when angry. However, young adult factors were more predictive of outcomes in middle age than in early old age, as predictor effect sizes decreased between the first follow-up and the second follow-up 16 years later. Findings support the possibility of both favorable and unfavorable changes in the second half of life that may diminish the impact of some young adult characteristics and family environments on adjustment in early old age. PMID:23855185

Westermeyer, Jerry F

2013-01-01

131

Numerical Simulation of the 9–10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big Thompson 1976 storm event, conceptual models have been developed to explain the unusually high precipitation efficiency.

Mark R. Hjelmfelt; ROGER A. PIELKE SR

1997-01-01

132

Numerical Simulation of the 9-10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big...

U. S. Nair M. R. Hjelmfelt R. A. Pielke

1997-01-01

133

Viktor Lowenfeld's Visual-Haptic Continuum in Grades 9, 10, and 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-nine students in grades 9, 10, and 11 were tested with three of Viktor Lowenfeld's visual-haptic tests in an attempt to ascertain whether students at these levels segregated in a fashion similar to Lowenfeld's sample. Respondents were spread over the visual-haptic continuum as Lowenfeld suggested they should be. However, a large and…

Schlenker, Richard M.

134

Synthesis of phenanthrimidazole from 9,10-phenanthraquinone and aldehydes by molecular iodine as catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, convenient, efficient, and cost-effective one-pot synthesis of 1H-phenanthro[9,10]imidazol-2-yl from phenantherenquinone and aldehydes, using molecular iodine as catalyst is described. The present methodology offers several advantages such as excellent yields, simple procedure, shorter reaction times, and the use of inexpensive reagents.

Hossein Behmadi; Mina Roshani; Seyed Mahdi Saadati

2009-01-01

135

Synthesis of Regioisomerically Pure 1,7-Dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic Acid Derivatives.  

PubMed

The perylene derivative 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetrabutylester has been obtained in regioisomerically pure form, by employing a highly efficient, scalable, and robust synthesis starting from commercially available perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic bisanhydride. Subsequently, this compound is utilized for the synthesis of extremely valuable and versatile regioisomerically pure intermediates, namely, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dibutylester monoanhydride, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic bisanhydride, and 1,7-dibromoperylene monoimid monoanhydride. These compounds possess at least one anhydride functionality in addition to the 1,7 bromo substituents and thus allow for a virtually limitless attachment of substituents both at the "peri" and the "bay" positions. The intermediate 1,7-dibromoperylene monoimide monoanhydride is of special interest as it provides access to unsymmetrically imide-substituted 1,7-dibromoperylene derivatives, which are not accessible by previously known procedures. Finally, substitution of the 1,7 bromine atoms in the bay area by phenoxy groups, which is a generally applied reaction for 1,7-dibromoperylene bisimides, was proven to be equally effective for a 1,7-dibromoperylene tetraester and a 1,7-dibromoperylene diester monoimid. PMID:24984205

Sengupta, Sanchita; Dubey, Rajeev K; Hoek, Rob W M; van Eeden, Sjoerd P P; Gunba?, D Deniz; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Jager, Wolter F

2014-07-18

136

Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.  

PubMed

To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males. PMID:19795199

Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

2010-11-01

137

Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education.

Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

2013-01-01

138

Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.  

PubMed

Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). PMID:21917018

Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

2011-10-01

139

Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease. Methods and Findings Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%–10.8%) of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%–2.0%). Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%–3.2%) of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%–0.6%). There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%–3.8%) to 3.8% (3.0%–4.7%) of global DALYs. Conclusions GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing cost-effective interventions to reduce its burden. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Ferrari, Alize J.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Norman, Rosana E.; Patten, Scott B.; Freedman, Greg; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A.

2013-01-01

140

The interaction of age and type 2 diabetes on executive function and memory in persons aged 35 years or older.  

PubMed

It is generally assumed that type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive dysfunction in old age. As type 2 diabetes is frequently diagnosed before the age of 50, diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction may also occur before the age of 50. Therefore, we investigated the association of type 2 diabetes with cognitive function in people aged 35-82 years. In a cross-sectional study comprising 4,135 participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease study (52% men; mean age (SD), 55 (12) years) diabetes was defined according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Executive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points), and memory was measured with the Visual Association Test (VAT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 12 points). The association of diabetes with cognitive function was investigated with multiple linear or, if appropriate, logistic regression analysis adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ?4 carriership. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained in 264 individuals (6%). Persons with diabetes had lower RFFT scores than persons without diabetes: mean (SD), 51 (19) vs. 70 (26) points (p<0.001). The difference in RFFT score was largest at age 35-44 years (mean difference 32 points; 95% CI, 15 to 49; p<0.001) and gradually decreased with increasing age. The association of diabetes with RFFT score was not modified by APOE ?4 carriership. Similar results were found for VAT score as outcome measure although these results were only borderline statistically significant (p?0.10). In conclusion, type 2 diabetes was associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in young adults. This was independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ?4 carriership. PMID:24367577

van Eersel, Marlise E A; Joosten, Hanneke; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dullaart, Robin P F; Slaets, Joris P J; Izaks, Gerbrand J

2013-01-01

141

Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. PMID:24164982

Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

2013-10-01

142

Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

2008-01-01

143

Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients 50 years of age or younger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a consecutive series of uncemented total hip arthroplasties in patients 50 years or younger are reviewed. There were 41 total hip arthroplasties in 36 patients at an average follow-up period of 5.3 years. Average patient age was 42 years at the time of implantation. Preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) averaged 39100; the final HHS averaged 93. Radiographic

Paul A. Dowdy; Cecil H. Rorabeck; Robert B. Bourne

1997-01-01

144

Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

Kahn, David

2003-01-01

145

Continuity and Change in General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 7 years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yearly cognitive tests were administered to adoptive and nonadoptive siblings between one and seven years of age and identical and nonidentical twins between one and three years. Results indicated that genetic influences are a source of continuity and change in mental development, whereas shared and nonshared environmental effects contribute to…

Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

1992-01-01

146

Excess mortality in middle-aged men with diabetes aged 15–34 years at diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess mortality risk and the excess of risk in patients with diabetes. Patients were 15–34 years\\u000a old at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (n = 879) in 1992 and 1993 in this national cohort from Sweden. Healthy controls were matched for gender and birth on the same\\u000a day as the index cases (n = 837). The civic registration number

Carina Törn; Sofie Ingemansson; Ulf Lindblad; Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir

147

Age-related differences in inhibitory control in the early school years.  

PubMed

The transition to school is associated with a greater requirement to inhibit irrelevant or inappropriate thought and behavior in order to concentrate on effective learning and to interact successfully with peers. Current knowledge of inhibitory control development in the early school years is limited due to a lack of normative data from age-appropriate, sensitive measures. In this study, three pictorial versions of the Stroop task were administered to investigate inhibitory control development in early school-aged children. Age-related trajectories of inhibition and effects of gender were examined in 80 children (42 boys) aged 5 to 8 years. All children were assessed with the Cognitive Assessment System Expressive Attention subtest (Big-Small Stroop), Fruit Stroop, and Boy-Girl Stroop. The Big-Small Stroop revealed substantial age-related improvement in inhibition from 5 to 7 years with a levelling of performance at 8 years of age, while the Fruit Stroop and Boy-Girl Stroop demonstrated clear but nonsignificant age trends. In particular, older children committed fewer errors and corrected their errors more frequently than younger children. Performance on all Stroop tasks correlated significantly, providing evidence that they tap similar cognitive abilities. Some gender differences were found. This study indicates that inhibitory skills develop rapidly in the early school years and suggests that error awareness may be a useful indicator of the development of cognitive inhibition for this age group. PMID:23909718

Macdonald, Jacqui A; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Crigan, Judith A; Anderson, Peter J

2014-09-01

148

Television Viewing in Infancy and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age in a US Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the extent to which infant television viewing is associated with language and visual motor skills at 3 years of age. Measures We studied 872 children who were participants in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. The design used was a longitudinal survey, and the setting was a multisite group practice in Massachusetts. At 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, mothers reported the number of hours their children watched television in a 24-hour period, from which we derived a weighted average of daily television viewing. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent associations of television viewing between birth and 2 years with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III and Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at 3 years of age. Results Mean daily television viewing in infancy (birth to 2 years) was 1.2 (SD: 0.9) hours, less than has been found in other studies of this age group. Mean Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score at age 3 was 104.8 (SD: 14.2); mean standardized total Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities score at age 3 was 102.6 (SD: 11.2). After adjusting for maternal age, income, education, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score, marital status, and parity, and child's age, gender, birth weight for gestational age, breastfeeding duration, race/ethnicity, primary language, and average daily sleep duration, we found that each additional hour of television viewing in infancy was not associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III or total standardized Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at age 3. Conclusion Television viewing in infancy does not seem to be associated with language or visual motor skills at 3 years of age.

Schmidt, Marie Evans; Rich, Michael; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.

2014-01-01

149

National Children and Health Fitness Study 2, (NCYFS2), Ages 6 Years-9 Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data file is based on physical fitness testing and physical activity surveys of a nationally representative sample of 4,678 6-9 year olds. Physical activity data were collected from the child's parents and, in an aggregate (classroom) basis, from teac...

K. Armstrong

1988-01-01

150

The prevalence of anemia and iron depletion in the population aged 10 years or older  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and iron depletion continue to be common disorders in the world. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of anemia and iron depletion in apparently healthy Koreans aged 10 years or more. Methods We used the data of the 4th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assessed 7,607 individuals (3,337 males and 4,270 females). Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin less than 15 ng/mL. Results In males, mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased after the age of 50. The prevalence of anemia was 7.1% in 60 to 69 year olds and 12.3% in men aged 70 or older. As for females, the prevalence of anemia was 8.8% in 15 to 17 year olds, 16.7% in 18 to 49 year olds, 10.9% in 60 to 69 year olds, and 18.2% women aged 70 or older. In males, the prevalence of iron depletion was 8.6% at ages 10 to 14 years, 3.9% at 15 to 17, and 2.6% at 70 years or older. In females, the prevalence of iron depletion was 17.2% at ages 10 to 14 years, 24.1% at 15 to 17, 33.0% at 18 to 49, and 5.7% at 70 years or older. Although normocytic anemia was most common in both males and females, the proportion of microcytosis and macrocytosis increased at age 70 or older. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia and iron depletion was high in women of reproductive age and in the elderly. Considering the rapid increase in the older population, an intervention to prevent anemia and iron depletion is imperative.

Kang, Hee Sook; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Young Taek

2011-01-01

151

Understanding average speed: a study on students aged 11 to 12 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents research aimed at designing a strategy to help students aged 11 to 12 years understand the concept of speed. In our approach the work of students is based on experimental activities integrated with Logo programming.

Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Massara, C. I.

1993-01-01

152

Does rheumatic fever occur usually between the ages of 5 and 15 years?  

PubMed

It has long been considered that rheumatic fever usually occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. However, supporting data from the developing countries are insufficient. It is important to know the age of occurrence of rheumatic fever for clinical and public health purposes. To describe the age distribution of Bangladeshi subjects, we have reviewed the records of all patients who attended with acute rheumatic fever in the outpatient department of the National Center for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Diseases, Dhaka, during June 1990 through November 1995. During this period 630 subjects were diagnosed to have acute rheumatic fever defined by the revised Jones criteria. Of them, 535 (84.9%) presented with first attack. Their age ranged from 3 to 30 years, and a skewness to the right of the age distribution was observed. Thus, we used percentile distribution to determine reference range of age. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were 5 and 22 years, respectively. Their mean (standard deviation) and median age were 12.7 (4.4) and 12 years, respectively. Slightly more than 22% of subjects were older than 15 while less than 1% were younger than 5 years. This finding was supported by multiethnic data from other developing countries. The current analysis warrants reevaluation of the prevailing conviction for age of occurrence of rheumatic fever. In conclusion, the age reference range for occurrence of rheumatic fever in Bangladesh should be considered to be 5 to 22 years but not 5 to 15 years. PMID:9781783

Zaman, M M; Rouf, M A; Haque, S; Khan, L R; Chowdhury, N A; Razzaque, S A; Yoshiike, N; Tanaka, H

1998-09-01

153

Direct and ketone-sensitized photoconversion of 1-nitro-9,10-anthraquinone to 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone mediated by donor radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The full photoreduction of 1-nitro-2-R-9,10-anthraquinone (R = H: N1, methyl: N2) was studied in benzene, acetonitrile and acetonitrile-water mixtures in the presence of 2-propanol and triethylamine (TEA). The major photoproduct is the fluorescing 1-amino-2-R-AQ (A1, A2). The quantum yield of full reduction increases with the donor concentration, approaching ?=0.1. The intermediates involved are assigned on the basis of spectral and kinetic characteristics. The short-lived triplet state (?20 ns) of N2 can be intercepted by 2-propanol or TEA, thereby forming the spectroscopically hidden donor radicals and the nitroAQ radicals which absorb at 400 and 540 nm; the latter band is due to the radical anion. The triplet state of N1 was not observed at room temperature, but the radical properties and decay in the nitrosoAQ are similar for N1 and N2. For donors in lower concentrations ? is strongly increased in the presence of benzophenone, acetophenone or acetone, approaching 0.22. The results under direct and sensitized conditions are compared and major dependences and the effects of mixtures of acetonitrile with water are outlined.

Görner, Helmut; Gruen, Henry

2010-02-01

154

Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

2012-01-01

155

Musical Preferences for Compositions by Selected Students Aged 9-15 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the factors that may influence the decisions made by students aged 9-15 years old as they chose musical sounds and constructed compositions. Indicates that age, formal music training, and aesthetic response to musical sounds are the primary factors affecting specific choices made in the compositional process. (CMK)

Carlin, Joi

1997-01-01

156

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

157

Thoracoabdominal and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery in patients aged 79 years or older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Advanced age has been reported as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo major cardiovascular reconstructive surgery. In this study, we evaluated the outcome of patients aged 79 years or older after thoracoabdominal and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. Methods: From February 1991 to May 2001, 854 patients underwent operation for thoracoabdominal or descending thoracic

Tam T. T. Huynh; Charles C. Miller; Anthony L. Estrera; Eyal E. Porat; Hazim J. Safi

2002-01-01

158

End of the Trend? A 12-year Study of Age at Menarche  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-year study of menarchial age in all girls entering the University College of Swansea (1959-70) suggests that the downward trend in age at menarche has ceased in Britain. The turning point appears to have occurred in girls born about 1946.

T. C. Dann; D. F. Roberts

1973-01-01

159

Sports-Related Injuries to Persons 65 Years of Age and Older.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1990, the U.S. population 65 years of age and older has increased by approximately 2.63 million people.1 Such a population increase could be expected to have an impact on the overall injury frequency in this age cohort, including injuries related to...

G. W. Rutherford T. J. Schroeder

1998-01-01

160

Motor skills in extremely low birthweight children at the age of 6 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty three children aged 6 years old who had weighed less than 1251 g at birth without cerebral palsy and receiving mainstream education, were entered into a controlled study of motor skills. The index and control children were matched by age, sex, and school. The index group were considered by their teachers to have similar academic performances to their index

N Marlow; B L Roberts; R W Cooke

1989-01-01

161

Plan for Services for the Aging: Fiscal Years 1978 - 1980. Illinois Human Services Plan, Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Illinois Department on Aging (DOA) was created in August 1973 to develop a comprehensive and coordinated system of services for the State's 1.636 million older persons, 60 years of age or older. Services to the elderly include homemaker, chore and hou...

1977-01-01

162

How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with results at earlier follow-up points, program main effects were not significant;

Joseph R. Jenkins; Philip S. Dale; Paulette E. Mills; Kevin N. Cole; Constance Pious; Joan Ronk

2006-01-01

163

Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

164

Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

2013-01-01

165

Mediated oxygen reduction at a glassy carbon electrode modified with riboflavin and 9,10-anthraquinones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrocatalytic ability for oxygen reduction of a glassy carbon electrode modified with riboflavin and 9,10-anthraquinones (AQNE) is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry techniques. The stability of the modified electrodes is investigated in both acidic and neutral media. The influence of pH on the shift in the oxygen reduction potential and the enhancement in peak current leads to the selection of pH 7.0 as the optimum working value. Combined mediation of 9,10-anthraquinones and riboflavin results in overpotentials that are 592-729 mV lower than that for a plain glassy carbon electrode for reduction of O 2 to H 2O 2. The involvement of two electrons in oxygen reduction is confirmed from chronocoulometric and hydrodynamic voltammetric studies. The heterogeneous rate constants, mass specific current (MSC) and the diffusion coefficients are determined by rotating disc voltammetry.

Manisankar, Paramasivam; Gomathi, Anandhan

166

Absorptivity and fluorescence properties of 9,10-diiodoanthracene in solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, natural fluorescence lifetime, and fluorescence quantum yield have been determined for 9,10-diiodoanthracene in ethanol at 20°C. The temperature effect on the quantum yield was studied in the range 120-300 K. The fluorescence lifetime was measured at 77 K. During glassification of ethanol, the fluorescence intensity of 9,10-diiodoanthracene increases by more than 50 times due to the activation nature of the intersystem crossing from the S1(1B{2u/+}) state. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the probability of the intersystem {ie319-01}-crossing are found. The long-wavelength shift of the absorption spectrum with increasing bulk polarizability of the solvent is interpreted as evidence of changes in the nonspecific interactions.

Pavlovich, V. S.; Stupak, A. P.; Pikulik, L. G.; Kozhich, D. T.; Pavich, T. A.

2008-05-01

167

Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs. PMID:24700381

Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

2014-06-01

168

Cementless metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty in patients less than 50 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine cementless hip arthroplasties using metal-on-metal articulation were consecutively implanted in 30 patients less than 50 years of age and compared with a matched control group (by age, diagnosis, Devane activity, and Harris hip scores) of cementless arthroplasties using ceramic-on-polyethylene articulation. The Harris hip score at follow-up (minimum 5 years) for the metal-on-metal was 94.9 (range, 74–100). After the same

Henri Migaud; Alexandre Jobin; Christophe Chantelot; François Giraud; Philippe Laffargue; Antoine Duquennoy

2004-01-01

169

Psychiatric sequelae of low birth weight at 11 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We examined the relationship between low birth weight (LBW) and psychiatric problems at age 11 years.Methods: Random samples of 6-year-old LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) children from two socioeconomically disparate communities were identified, traced, and assessed. We targeted the 1983–1985 cohort of newborns who reached age 6 in 1990–1992, the scheduled period of fieldwork. Of the 1,095 in

Naomi Breslau; Howard D Chilcoat

2000-01-01

170

Incomplete Kawasaki disease in patients younger than 1 year of age: a possible inherent risk factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kawasaki disease (KD) patients younger than 1 year of age are at especially high risk of developing coronary artery abnormalities\\u000a (CAA). To define the clinical characteristics of this group, as well as the risk factors predisposing them to CAA, we reviewed\\u000a the medical records of 136 KD patients younger than 1 year of age who were treated at the Korea University Medical Center

Yunku Yeo; TaeYeon Kim; KeeSoo Ha; GiYoung Jang; JungHwa Lee; KwangChul Lee; ChangSung Son; JooWon Lee

2009-01-01

171

Changes in Physical Capacity Among Middle-Aged Municipal Employees Over 16 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to identify changes in different components of physical capacity among middle-aged women and men employed in the municipal branch for 16 years. The data were obtained by laboratory measurements and postal questionnaires. The study group consisted of 45 middle-aged subjects, who were on average 51.5 years old at the beginning of the follow-up

Minna Savinainen; Clas-Håkan Nygård; Olli Korhonen; Juhani Ilmarinen

2004-01-01

172

Leukotoxin (9, 10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate) impairs energy and redox state of isolated perfused rat lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the perturbation of energy balance and redox state in leukotoxin (9, 10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate) (Lx)- and endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced lung injury, using isolated perfused rat lungs. To examine any relationship between these parameters, intracellular levels of adenine nucleotides, pyridine coenzymes and glutathione were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the freeze-dried tissues of isolated rat lungs. The tissue samples

Masaya Akai; Takeshi Ishizaki; Shigeru Matsukawa; Kazuo Shigemori; Isamu Miyamori

1998-01-01

173

A study of optical absorption in 9,10-anthraquinone crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of 9,10-anthraquinone having dimensions 5 mm × 5 mm × 1.5 mm were grown from the melt using the Bridgeman technique. The starting material was purified by sublimation and zone-refining techniques in specially, designed crystal-growth tubes. The crystals were transparent and yellow in colour, and could be cleaved easily along ab-, bc-planes and poorly along the ac-planes of

M. Shakeel Bilal; Anwar Manzoor Rana; M. Saleh; M. Ashraf Chaudhry

1993-01-01

174

Photophysical properties and semiempirical calculations of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral behavior and fluorescence quantum yield of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME) have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are not sensitive to medium polarity. The dye exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostable. Crystalline solid of PTME gives excimer-like emission at 530nm. The laser activity of PTME has been investigated. The dye solution in

Samy A. El-Daly; Mohamed K. Awad; Shakir T. Abdel-Halim; Dina A. Dowidar

2008-01-01

175

Study on second harmonic generation of 9-benzylidene-substituted-10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight 9-benzylidene-substituted-10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine derivatives were synthesized from acridine as starting material and were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Ms and elemental analysis. The second harmonic generation (SHG) values of these compounds were determined in powder using Nd:YAG as a laser source, as compared with urea powder, and the values of second-order polarizabilities (?xxx), the values of the composite magnitude (?CT?g) of molecular

Hua-Can Song; Rui-Jiang Jin; Xiang-Li Zheng; Bai-Ning Ying

2001-01-01

176

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.??

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

177

Drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes --- United States, 2004-2008.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States, accounting for approximately one third of deaths in this age group. Crash risk is highest during the first years of independent driving. To characterize trends in fatal crashes involving drivers aged 16 or 17 years, CDC analyzed data from the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS) for 2004-2008. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, during 2004-2008, a total of 9,644 passenger vehicle drivers aged 16 or 17 years were involved in fatal crashes. During that period, the annual population-based rate for drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes declined 38%, from 27.1 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 16.7 in 2008. By state, 5-year annualized rates for drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes ranged from 9.7 per 100,000 population in New Jersey and New York to 59.6 in Wyoming. To further reduce fatal crashes involving young drivers, states should periodically reexamine and update graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs, and communities should vigorously enforce laws on minimum legal drinking age, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and safety belt use, all of which can reduce the number of fatal crashes among young drivers. PMID:20966895

2010-10-22

178

Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.  

PubMed

Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

2013-01-01

179

Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Subdimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Method Data were collected from 6,328 mother–child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Results Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. Conclusions The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children.

Whelan, Yvonne M.; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D.

2014-01-01

180

Low Resting Heart Rate at Age 3 Years Predisposes to Aggression at Age 11 Years: Evidence From the Mauritius Child Health Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePrevious studies indicate that low resting heart rate is probably the best-replicated biological correlate of childhood antisocial and aggressive behavior. Nevertheless, there have been few longitudinal tests of this relationship, little control over potential confounds and mediators, and no test of its cross-cultural generalizability. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate at age 3 years predicts aggression

ADRIAN RAINE; PETER H. VENABLES; SARNOFF A. MEDNICK

1997-01-01

181

Ethnic ancestry and increased paternal age are risk factors for breast cancer before the age of 40 years.  

PubMed

To study the risk factors associated with breast cancer in women younger than 40 years, a cohort study (The Jerusalem Perinatal Study) of 42 822 female offspring born in hospitals in West Jerusalem during 1964-1976 was carried out. Hazard ratios of potential parental and perinatal risk factors for early breast cancer were measured. The overall incidence of breast cancer was 5.2/100 000 person-years. The highest incidence was found among Jewish women of West Asian ancestry (8.6/100 000 person-years), specifically those whose maternal grandfathers were born in Iraq, Iran or Afghanistan (9.5/100 000 person-years). Using Cox models we found independent risk factors for early breast cancer to be paternal age (relative risk/year=1.06, 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.10, P=0.005), and ancestry from Iraq/Iran/Afghanistan (relative risk=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.50-6.52, P=0.002). The study confirms a previously observed effect of advanced paternal age on the occurrence of early breast cancer and identifies a novel population group at increased risk for the disease. The excess risk of early breast cancer associated with ancestry from Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan suggests involvement of genetic determinants, environmental exposures and/or lifestyle factors and mandates further investigation. PMID:18090128

Weiss-Salz, Inbal; Harlap, Susan; Friedlander, Yehiel; Kaduri, Luna; Levy-Lahad, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Deutsch, Lisa; Hochner, Hagit; Paltiel, Ora

2007-12-01

182

Participation in Aesthetic Sports and Girls' Weight Concerns at Ages 5 and 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Method Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls’ weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Results Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Discussion Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls.

Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B.; Birch, Leann L.

2008-01-01

183

The outcome of the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing in patients aged < 50 years up to 14 years post-operatively.  

PubMed

We report the long-term survival and functional outcome of the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) in patients aged < 50 years at operation, and explore the factors affecting survival. Between 1997 and 2006, a total of 447 BHRs were implanted in 393 patients (mean age 41.5 years (14.9 to 49.9)) by one designing surgeon. The mean follow-up was 10.1 years (5.2 to 14.7), with no loss to follow-up. In all, 16 hips (3.6%) in 15 patients were revised, giving an overall cumulative survival of 96.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93.7 to 98.3) at ten years and 94.1% (95% CI 84.9 to 97.3) at 14 years. Using aseptic revision as the endpoint, the survival for men with primary osteoarthritis (n = 195) was 100% (95% CI 100 to 100) at both ten years and 14 years, and in women with primary osteoarthritis (n = 109) it was 96.1% (95% CI 90.1 to 99.9) at ten years and 91.2% (95% CI 68.6 to 98.7) at 14 years. Female gender (p = 0.047) and decreasing femoral head size (p = 0.044) were significantly associated with an increased risk of revision. The median Oxford hip score (OHS, modified as a percentage with 100% indicating worst outcome) at last follow-up was 4.2% (46 of 48; interquartile range (IQR) 0% to 24%) and the median University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score was 6.0 (IQR 5 to 8). Men had significantly better OHS (p = 0.02) and UCLA scores (p = 0.01) than women. The BHR provides excellent survival and functional results in men into the second decade, with good results achieved in appropriately selected women. PMID:23997127

Matharu, G S; McBryde, C W; Pynsent, W B; Pynsent, P B; Treacy, R B C

2013-09-01

184

Lateral cephalometric standards of Germans with normal occlusion from 6 to 17 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze sagittal and vertical dentofacial dimensions in subjects with normal occlusions during the juvenile and adolescents age periods to establish age- and gender-specific lateral cephalometric standard values for Germans during their active growth period. The study group consisted of a sample of 32 untreated subjects with normal occlusions. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at 11 consecutive stages, from 6-13 and from 15-17 years of age. A customized cephalometric analysis was used to measure 53 variables. Statistical comparisons of gender-specific differences were performed by means of Mann-Whitney U tests.Anterior and posterior cranial base lengths, midfacial length as well as mandibular length were recorded to be significantly larger in male subjects at the age of 6 years. For most of the linear measurements, significantly larger craniofacial distances were recorded in males from the age of 15 years onward. There were no statistically significant gender differences with regard to most angular measurements at subsequent age groups. Soft tissue analysis revealed flatter profiles in females than in males from the age of 10-11 years onward, while age-dependent changes in the soft tissue profile were similar in both genders.In untreated subjects with normal occlusion craniofacial development of the hard and soft tissues can be considered age- and gender-dependent. Therefore age- and gender-specific differences of linear craniofacial distances should be taken into account for diagnosis and treatment planning in children and adolescents. The present results can be used as reference values for children and adolescents of German origin. PMID:23649277

Stahl de Castrillon, F; Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; Grabowski, R; Klink-Heckmann, U; McNamara, J A

2013-05-01

185

Revision hip replacement in patients 55 years of age and younger.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and complications associated with revision hip arthroplasty undertaken in patients under 55 years of age. A review of our revision hip database showed that 430 revision hip arthroplasties undertaken over the past 9 years had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Of these, 84 (46 female, 38 male) patients were under 55 years of age. The index procedures were preformed at an average age of 46 years (range 15 years to 54 years). The etiology of failure was aseptic loosening (74%), followed by infection (8%) and recurrent dislocation (7%). In the majority of cases, uncemented implants were used at revision surgery (91% uncemented femoral stem, 100% uncemented acetabular cup). A form of bone graft was necessary in 39% of cases. At final follow-up satisfactory progress was noted in all cases with a statistically significant improvement in Harris hip score (p<0.05). Revision of hip arthroplasty in patients below 55 years of age is associated with significant improvement in function and patient satisfaction. PMID:23543474

Konan, Sujith; Soler, Agustine; Haddad, Fares S

2013-01-01

186

Prenatal risk factors of wheezing at the age of four years in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDA study was undertaken to assess the interactions between prenatal exposures, early life infections, atopic predisposition, and allergen exposures in the development of wheezing up to the age of 4 years in a tropical region of Africa.METHODSThe study subjects comprised children born at the district hospital in Ifakara, Tanzania during a 1 year period who were participating in a trial

J Sunyer; C Mendendez; P J Ventura; J J Aponte; D Schellenberg; E Kahigwa; C Acosta; J M Antó; P L Alonso

2001-01-01

187

A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

2011-01-01

188

Infants under 1 year of age have a significant risk of burn injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of data exists concerning paediatric burn epidemiology in general, but very little exists specifically in infants under 1 year of age, a special group in which mobility begins to develop. A retrospective study of all burn admissions of infants under 1 year old to The Welsh Centre for Burns from January 2003 to January 2006 was performed. During

Dai Q. A. Nguyen; Sean Tobin; William A. Dickson; Tom S. Potokar

2008-01-01

189

Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

2013-01-01

190

Auditory event-related potentials and cognitive function of preterm children at five years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn our previous study, auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) in preterm 1-year-old children had a positive deflection at 150–350ms that correlated positively with their 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. In a study of the same subjects at age 5, our aim was to assess AERPs and their relationship to neuropsychological test results.

Kaija Mikkola; Elena Kushnerenko; Eino Partanen; Silve Serenius-Sirve; Jaana Leipälä; Minna Huotilainen; Vineta Fellman

2007-01-01

191

Sensitivity and specificity of fall detection in people aged 40 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

About one third of home-dwelling people over 65 years of age fall each year. Falling, and the fear of falling, is one of the major health risks that affects the quality of life among older people, threatening their independent living. In our pilot study, we found that fall detection with a waist-worn triaxial accelerometer is reliable with quite simple detection

Maarit Kangas; Irene Vikman; Jimmie Wiklander; Per Lindgren; Lars Nyberg; Timo Jämsä

2009-01-01

192

Cochlear implantation in children under the age of two years: Candidacy considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within recent years, there has been a growing trend to lower the age at implantation below 2 years in children. The motivation for this trend is to provide children with access to auditory stimulation as early as possible, thereby taking advantage of crucial periods for speech and language development. Determining implant candidacy in very young children, however, poses numerous challenges

MARY JOE OSBERGER

1997-01-01

193

Epilepsy in middle-aged and elderly people: a three-year observation.  

PubMed

An analysis of the medical documentation and investigation of 130 cases of epilepsy diagnosed in a group of people over 50 years of age (average: 65.4 years) revealed that the most common type of seizure in the group studied was partial (66.2%), followed by seizures with secondary generalization (33.8%). Epilepsy was caused by cerebrovascular disease (50.8%) considerably more often in patients over 74 years of age, craniocerebral trauma in patients addicted to alcohol (13.1%), especially those under 65 years of age, primary or metastatic neoplastic disease (10.7%), and others. The authors wish to draw attention to the leukoaraiosis factor, which might be the proepileptogenic cause of epilepsy recognized in the group of patients over 74 years of age (56.5%) and is much more frequent in this group than in the group of patients under 65 years of age (1.6%). Moreover, some drugs, such as L-dopa and Baclofen, might have been related to the epileptic seizures. In 29 patients (22.3%) the definite cause of late-onset epilepsy was unknown. The authors suggest in such cases, both follow-up tomographic examination and careful clinical examinations. In the study group of patients with initially unknown seizure etiology, some diseases, such as cerebral tumor or colon and pancreatic neoplasm, were diagnosed during follow-up examination. These processes were revealed several months after the first epileptic seizure. PMID:15929910

Paradowski, Boguslaw; Zagrajek, Mieszko M

2005-06-01

194

Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

2003-01-01

195

The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

196

Direct costs of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients aged 65 years or more and those under age 65  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, there have been marked increases in rates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among older people in Canada. The objectives of this study were to accurately estimate the direct medical costs of CABG in older patients (age 65 years or more) and to compare CABG costs for this age group with those for patients less than 65 years of age. METHODS: Direct medical costs were estimated from a sample of 205 older and 202 younger patients with triple-vessel or left main coronary artery disease who underwent isolated CABG at The Toronto Hospital, a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital, between Apr. 1, 1991, and Mar. 31, 1992. Costs are expressed in 1992 Canadian dollars from a third-party payer perspective. RESULTS: The mean costs of CABG in older and younger patients respectively were $16,500 and $15,600 for elective, uncomplicated cases, $23,200 and $19,200 for nonelective, uncomplicated cases, $29,200 and $20,300 for elective, complicated cases, and $33,600 and $23,700 for nonelective, complicated cases. Age remained a significant determinant of costs after adjustment for severity of heart disease and for comorbidity. Between 59% and 91% of the cost difference between older and younger patients was accounted for by higher intensive care unit and ward costs. INTERPRETATION: CABG was more costly in older people, especially in complicated cases, even after an attempt to adjust for severity of disease and comorbidity. Future studies should attempt to identify modifiable factors that contribute to longer intensive care and ward stays for older patients.

Naglie, G; Tansey, C; Krahn, M D; O'Rourke, K; Detsky, A S; Bolley, H

1999-01-01

197

Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial synangiosis as a safe, effective, and durable method for treatment of moyamoya for most children in this potentially high-risk population. PMID:24527861

Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

2014-04-01

198

Impact of rotavirus vaccination in Australian children below 5 years of age  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the impact of administration of two-dose rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) among children aged less than 5 y in three states/territories of Australia. Aggregated and de-identified data on rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all-cause gastroenteritis (AGE) from July 1998–June 2009 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare database. The baseline incidence (July 1998–June 2006) of RVGE hospitalizations before RV vaccine introduction in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT) were 33.75, 42.93 and 288.67 per 10?000 child-years, respectively among children aged 0–11 mo. Following RV vaccine introduction in NSW, the ACT and the NT, incidence of RVGE hospitalizations reduced to 13.06, 17.35 and 47.52 per 10?000 child-years, respectively, during July 2007–June 2008 and 3.87, 8.40 and 122.79 per 10,000 child-years, respectively, during July 2008–June 2009 among children aged 0–11 mo. Reductions in RVGE and AGE were also observed in all children below 5 y of age in NSW and the ACT. Overall reduction in hospitalizations due to RVGE and AGE was observed following RV vaccine introduction into the NIP in Australia.

Pendleton, Annmarie; Galic, Maja; Clarke, Christopher; Ng, Su Peing; Ledesma, Emilio; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran; Liu, Yanfang

2013-01-01

199

Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.  

PubMed

Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

2013-07-12

200

Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12-19 years: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12-19 years (n = 267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 years, resulting in 519 measurements. Two field tests, the Shuttle Sprint and Dribble Test and the Slalom Sprint and Dribble Test, were assessed. Anthropometric characteristics, years of soccer experience, and duration of practice were recorded. The longitudinal data were analysed with multi-level modelling. Comparing the two tests at baseline, low correlations were observed (sprinting: r = 0.49; dribbling: r = 0.22), indicating that each test measures distinct qualities (acceleration vs. agility). Low-to-moderate correlations were found between dribbling and sprinting within each test (Shuttle Sprint and Dribble Test: r = 0.54; Slalom Sprint and Dribble Test: r = 0.38). Both dribbling and sprinting improved with age, especially from ages 12 to 14, but the tempo of development was different. From ages 14 to 16, sprinting improved rapidly in contrast to dribbling; this was especially evident on the Slalom Sprint and Dribble Test. In contrast, after age 16 dribbling improved considerably but sprinting hardly improved. Besides age, the factors that contribute to dribbling performance are lean body mass, hours of practice, and playing position. PMID:20446153

Huijgen, Barbara C H; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Post, Wendy; Visscher, Chris

2010-05-01

201

Intraocular pressure changes over 21?years - a longitudinal age-cohort study in northern Sweden.  

PubMed

Purpose:? To follow intraocular pressure (IOP) and the influence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and cataract extraction in an age-cohort in northern Sweden; patients were followed prospectively for 21?years from age 66 to 87?years. Methods:? Three Hundred and thirty-nine individuals, randomly selected from an age-cohort born in 1915 underwent ophthalmological examination including measurement of IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry, screening for PEX and glaucoma. Follow-up examinations were performed three times with 7-year intervals. Medical records were reviewed for dates of cataract surgery and glaucoma treatment. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the impact of sex, eye (right/left), PEX, cataract extraction and time on IOP. Results:? Without cataract surgery, the IOP from age of 66 to 87?years, increased by 0.05?mmHg/year (p?age was detected when excluding eyes that had undergone cataract surgery. PEX was associated with a higher IOP and cataract extraction with a lower. PMID:23902137

Aström, Siv; Stenlund, Hans; Lindén, Christina

2014-08-01

202

Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United States, 1999–2004 and 2012 On ... and about one-third of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, ...

203

Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.  

PubMed

Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses. PMID:18211150

Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

2008-01-01

204

Age related reference ranges for respiration rate and heart rate from 4 to 16 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical vital signs in children (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure) are an integral part of clinical assessment of degree of illness or normality. Despite this, only blood pressure and temperature have a reliable evidence base. The accepted ranges of heart and respiration rate vary widely. Methods: This study examined 1109 children aged 4–16 years in their own schools. Age, sex, height, weight, and resting respiration rate and heart rate were recorded. The data were used to produce age related reference ranges for everyday clinical use. Results: Reference intervals are presented for the range of heart rate and respiration rate of healthy resting children aged 4–16 years. The recorded values are at variance with standard quoted ranges in currently available texts.

Wallis, L; Healy, M; Undy, M; Maconochie, I

2005-01-01

205

The evolution of benign arterionephrosclerosis from age 6 to 70 years.  

PubMed Central

Arterionephrosclerosis is diagnosed at autopsy by assessing the severity and extent of certain structural features in the renal cortical arteries seen in tissue sections. These features are characterized by fibrotic intimal thickening and medial shrinkage, a progressive change from the youthful muscular pattern to the elderly sclerotic pattern. Intimal fibrosis can be quantified by expressing intimal thickness as a percentage of the arterial outer diameter (% OD). The magnitude of arterionephrosclerosis, found by averaging the measures of intimal fibrosis seen in a kidney, can be calculated from age and mean blood pressure, using a standard prediction function. This function is a quantitative statement of a fundamentally important principle: just as blood pressure is a continuous variable that can range from low to high levels, arterionephrosclerosis is also a continuous variable that can take any degree of abnormality of arterial structure from minimal to maximal. Furthermore, a correspondence exists between the two quantities so that each can be calculated from the other. In this study, a correlation of 0.966 was found between the observed and the calculated magnitudes of arterionephrosclerosis over 10-year age groups from 25 to 34 years to 65 to 74 years, using group average data within age groups. For individuals, however, the correlations between observed and calculated magnitudes of arterionephrosclerosis were about 0.6 in a former study of elderly subjects and about 0.1 in the subjects aged 6 to 27 years in this study. The average growth rate of arterionephrosclerosis was found to be about 0.25 %OD per year from ages 15 to 54 years, and about 0.13 %OD per year from ages 55 to 70 years; the growth rate did not increase in the oldest age groups when blood pressure averaged higher than blood pressure in more youthful subjects. These and other findings are consistent with the view that the reason a correlation exists between blood pressure and arterionephrosclerosis could be because the magnitude of arterionephrosclerosis is one of the determinants that sets the level of blood pressure. From this perspective, each individual can be viewed as having other determinants of blood pressure, methodologic or biologic, which add to or subtract from the values set by age and arterionephrosclerosis. When subjects are pooled into groups, so that individual determinants balance out, the group average levels of mean blood pressure could be interpreted as reflecting little other than the magnitude of arterionephrosclerosis at each specific age. Images Figure 3

Tracy, R. E.; Berenson, G.; Wattigney, W.; Barrett, T. J.

1990-01-01

206

Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.  

PubMed

To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5?mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4?oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ?2?hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72?hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value?=?0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (?16?hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ?70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%. PMID:23868556

Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

2013-11-01

207

Colorectal cancer in patients less than 40 years of age in Denmark, 1943–1967  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of all the 951 patients less than 40 years of age with colorectal cancer in Denmark 1943–67 is described.\\u000a The annual incidence in Denmark of colorectal cancer in this age group is 1.4\\/100,000. These patients do not differ from other\\u000a patients with colorectal cancer with regard to sex ratio, tumor localization, extent of tumor growth, histologic type,

Steffen Bülow

1980-01-01

208

Maximal mouth opening capacity: percentiles for healthy children 4--17 years of age.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: A reduced mouth opening capacity may be one of the first clinical signs of pathological changes in the masticatory system. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to create age related percentiles for unassisted maximal mouth opening capacity (MOC) of healthy children. METHODS: All recordings of MOC as measured at the yearly dental examinations of school children in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, between August 2009 and August 2010 were extracted from the database. The program LMSchartMaker Pro Version 2.43, Huiqi Pan and Tim Cole, Medical Research Council, 1997--2010 was used to calculate age and sex related reference centiles. RESULTS: Records from 22[prime]060 dental examinations were found during the study period. In 1286 (5.8%) the maximal interincisal measurement was missing. Another 55 examinations were excluded because of missing data for sex (7), age at examination (11) or because the value was deemed to be pathologically low (37). Thus, a total of 20[prime]719 measurements (10[prime]060 girls, 10[prime]659 boys) were included in the analysis. The median age (range) was 9.9 years (3.3-18.3) for girls and 10.0 years (2.8-18.7) for boys. The mean MOC (range) was 45 mm (25--69) for girls and 45 mm (25--70) for boys. Age related percentiles were created for girls and boys separately, showing the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile from 3 through 18 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In these 20[prime]719 unselected school children MOC increased with age but showed a wide range within children of the same age. PMID:23607797

Müller, Lukas; van Waes, Hubertus; Langerweger, Christoph; Molinari, Luciano; Saurenmann, Rotraud K

2013-04-22

209

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in patients over the age of 40 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension of allogeneic transplants to older patients has been limited by a high risk of transplant-related death and graft-versus-host disease. To evaluate the feasibility in older patients, a retrospective analysis of the procedure was performed for first remission acute leukemia in 192 patients aged over 40 years and compared with a group of 1119 recipients aged from 16 to 40

J-Y Cahn; M Labopin; A Schattenberg; J Reiffers; R Willemze; R Zittoun; A Bacigalupo; G Prentice; E Gluckman; P Hervé; A Gratwohl; N-C Gorin

1997-01-01

210

Maximal mouth opening capacity: percentiles for healthy children 4-17 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background A reduced mouth opening capacity may be one of the first clinical signs of pathological changes in the masticatory system. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to create age related percentiles for unassisted maximal mouth opening capacity (MOC) of healthy children. Methods All recordings of MOC as measured at the yearly dental examinations of school children in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, between August 2009 and August 2010 were extracted from the database. The program LMSchartMaker Pro Version 2.43, Huiqi Pan and Tim Cole, Medical Research Council, 1997–2010 was used to calculate age and sex related reference centiles. Results Records from 22?060 dental examinations were found during the study period. In 1286 (5.8%) the maximal interincisal measurement was missing. Another 55 examinations were excluded because of missing data for sex (7), age at examination (11) or because the value was deemed to be pathologically low (37). Thus, a total of 20?719 measurements (10?060 girls, 10?659 boys) were included in the analysis. The median age (range) was 9.9 years (3.3-18.3) for girls and 10.0 years (2.8-18.7) for boys. The mean MOC (range) was 45 mm (25–69) for girls and 45 mm (25–70) for boys. Age related percentiles were created for girls and boys separately, showing the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile from 3 through 18 years of age. Conclusions In these 20?719 unselected school children MOC increased with age but showed a wide range within children of the same age.

2013-01-01

211

Indoor 16.1-km time-trial performance in cyclists aged 25 – 63 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we assessed age-related changes in indoor 16.1-km cycling time-trial performance in 40 competitive male cyclists aged 25 – 63 years. Participants completed two tests: (1) a maximal ramped Kingcycle™ ergometer test, with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest mean external power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats · min) as the highest value during

James Balmer; Steve Bird; Richard Davison

2008-01-01

212

The Subjective Effects of Cocaine: Relationship to Years of Cocaine Use and Current Age  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about whether the duration of cocaine use or an individual’s age may influence the acute effects of cocaine, patterns of use, and specific treatment needs. Objectives This post hoc analysis determined whether the duration of cocaine use or current age influenced the acute subjective response to cocaine. Data from four smoked cocaine self-administration laboratory studies were combined and analyzed to determine whether the subjective effects of a 25-mg smoked cocaine dose varied as a function of years of cocaine use or current age. Methods Thirty-six nontreatment-seeking healthy cocaine users (ages 32–49) were admitted to studies lasting from 12 to 105 days. Participants rated the subjective effects of each cocaine dose from 0 to 100 by completing a computerized self-report visual analogue scale (VAS). The main outcome measures were the change in VAS ratings between a baseline placebo dose and the first 25-mg dose of smoked cocaine. Results No significant relationship was found between the subjective effects of cocaine and years of cocaine use (mean 20.9, range 5–30) or current age (mean 41.1, range 32–49). Conclusion Among long-term cocaine users between the ages of 32 and 49, the acute subjective effects of cocaine did not vary as a function of years of cocaine use or current age. Scientific Significance These data fail to support the incentive sensitization theory for addiction by Robinson and Berridge, as cocaine “liking” and “wanting” remained the same regardless of age or years of cocaine use.

Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Bedi, Gillinder; Haney, Margaret; Evans, Suzette M.; Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W.

2013-01-01

213

Anthropometric factors at age 20 years and risk of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of anthropometric factors at adolescence and the change since young age on thyroid cancer risk is unclear. Here, we\\u000a conducted a case–control study to investigate the association between anthropometric factors at the time of diagnosis and\\u000a age 20 years and risk of thyroid cancer. A total of 173 patients with thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma, n = 167 and follicular carcinoma, n = 6)

Takeshi Suzuki; Keitaro Matsuo; Yasuhisa Hasegawa; Akio Hiraki; Takakazu Kawase; Hideo Tanaka; Kazuo Tajima

2008-01-01

214

Cataracts among Adults Aged 30 to 49 Years: A 10-Year Study from 1995 to 2004 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the long-term characteristics of cataracts among adults aged 30 to 49 years in Korean over a span of 10 years. Methods Subjects between the ages of 30 to 49 years who underwent cataract surgery at St. Mary's Hospital from 1995 to 2004 (n = 976) were included. Patients with a history of ocular trauma, uveitis, other ocular or systemic diseases, and congenital cataracts were excluded. Additional information including type of lens opacity, urban/rural region, and pre- and postoperative visual acuities were analyzed. Lens opacity grading was conducted using Lens Opacity Classification System III. The Cochran-Armitage proportion trend test was used to analyze vision changes with the passage of time. Results Among the patients who had undergone cataract surgeries, 8.8% (976 / 11,111) met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41.7 ± 5.45 years. Gender breakdown of the patient population included 79.0% male and 21.0% female. In terms of home environment, 60.9% were from an urban region and 39.1% from a rural region. Opacity type included anterior polar (AP), posterior subcapsular (PSC), AP and PSC, cortical, and nuclear in 35.7%, 35.1%, 7.0%, 6.0%, and 5.4% of patients, respectively. At a 2-month postoperative follow-up appointment, 92.7% of patients showed a best-corrected visual acuity of more than 20 / 40. Conclusions Predominance of AP and PSC opacities as well as male patients was observed in this study population.

Cho, Hyun Kyung; Na, Kyung Sun; Jun, Eun Jung

2013-01-01

215

Dehydrogenation/hydrogenation reactions in hydroaromatic systems. [Tetralin, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, 9,10-dihydroanthracene  

SciTech Connect

The basic chemistry of the donor solvent dehydrogenation/hydrogenation process is an important component of liquefaction to understand. Kinetic and mechanistic work on the hydroaromatic donors: tetralin (T), 1,2-dihydronaphthalene (DN) and 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DA) is yielding insight into this chemistry. The chemistry of the dehydrogenation/hydrogenation reactions in the neat donor solvent systems has been found to be heterogeneously controlled. The composition of the product mixtures are sensitive to the initial density of the hydroaromatic reactant. As the reactant density increases, the tetralin product mix changes from 1,2-dihydronaphthalene/naphthalene (N) to methylindane (M)/naphthalene. For the 9,10-dihydroanthracene system anthracene (A) is a major product but the yield of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroanthracene (TA) increases as the initial reactant density is increased. Reaction mechanisms for these hydroaromatic systems are proposed which describe the observed dehydrogenation/hydrogenation processes in terms of reversible heterogeneous site reactions. Based on kinetic studies, a general reaction mechanism has been developed which describe the observed reactant/product sequences. Results of the kinetic and mechanistic investigations of these systems are presented. Conclusions are as follows: the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions of the hydroaromatic systems studied can be modeled using the proposed heterogeneous reaction mechanism; the dihydro-reactants can react along more than one pathway; and the extent of reaction for these different pathways is a function of the hydrogen content of the heterogeneous surface.

Gangwer, T.

1981-01-01

216

U.S. Health spending by age, selected years through 2004.  

PubMed

This paper examines variations in health spending by children, working-age adults, and seniors for selected years between 1987 and 2004. Seniors spent far more per person than children or working-age adults, but the relative gap between the age groups has not changed much since 1987 except for those age eighty-five and older. Since the inception of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, the proportion of children's health spending financed by public sources has increased, while the share paid for out of pocket has decreased. The future age-mix is expected to have a major impact on nursing home spending growth while minimally affecting overall Medicare spending growth. PMID:17986478

Hartman, Micah; Catlin, Aaron; Lassman, David; Cylus, Jonathan; Heffler, Stephen

2008-01-01

217

Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.  

PubMed

Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

2014-02-01

218

Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?  

PubMed Central

On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18

2012-01-01

219

Recursive Partitioning Analysis of Prognostic Factors for Glioblastoma Patients Aged 70 Years or Older  

PubMed Central

Background The most used prognostic scheme for malignant gliomas only included patients between ages 18 to 70 years. The purpose of this study was to develop a prognostic model for patients ?70 years of age with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods Four hundred and thirty-seven patients ?70 years of age with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, pooled from two tertiary academic institutions, were identified for recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). A resulting prognostic model, based on the final pruned RPA tree, was validated using two hundred and sixty-five glioblastoma patients ?70 years of age from a dataset independently compiled by a French consortium. Results RPA produced nine terminal nodes, which were pruned to four prognostic subgroups with markedly different median survivals: I – patients <75.5 years of age who underwent surgical resection (9.3 mos); II – patients ?75.5 years of age who underwent surgical resection (6.4 mos); III – patients with KPS of 70–100 who underwent biopsy only (4.6 mos); and IV – patients with KPS <70 who underwent biopsy only (2.3 mos). Application of this prognostic model to the French cohort also resulted in significantly different (P<0.0001) median survivals for subgroups I (8.5 mos), II (7.7 mos), III (4.3 mos), and IV (3.1 mos). Conclusion This model divides elderly glioblastoma patients into prognostic subgroups that can be easily implemented in both the patient care and the clinical trial settings. This purely clinical prognostic model serves as a backbone for the future incorporation of the increasing number of potential molecular prognostic markers.

Scott, Jacob G.; Bauchet, Luc; Fraum, Tyler J.; Nayak, Lakshmi; Cooper, Anna R.; Chao, Samuel T.; Suh, John H.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Peereboom, David M.; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daude, Helene; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Rigau, Valerie; Taillandier, Luc; Abrey, Lauren E.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Shih, Joanna H.; Iwamoto, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

220

Ultrasound measurements in hips of children above 2 years of age. Normal variations in 232 hips.  

PubMed

In order to find the limits of normal variation of ultrasound measurements in children over 2 years of age, we examined 116 children and adolescents with normal hip joints. The children had been referred for various complaints from their lower extremities. Longitudinal ultrasound scanning from the lateral and anterior aspects was performed by the orthopedic surgeon as an integral part of the clinical examination. The most relevant parameters regarding hip dysplasia are those assessing the coverage of the femoral head: the lateral head distance (LHD, the distance from the lateral tangent of the bony epiphysis to the lateral bony acetabular rim) and the anterior head distance (AHD, measured as LHD, but from the anterior scan). The LHD increased with age; the upper normal limit (mean + 2 SD) increased from 4 mm at age 2-3 years to 7 mm at age 12-16 years. The AHD was larger in adolescents 12-16 years of age than in younger patients. The upper normal limit was 1 mm in the youngest and 2 mm in the oldest children. The mean (SD) differences (right minus left) in LHD and AHD were 0.3 (1.1) mm and 0.2 (1.0) mm, respectively. Radiographs were available in 15 of the patients and confirmed the ultrasound findings regarding femoral head coverage. Our findings should be of value in interpreting ultrasound measurements in older children. PMID:7604703

Tegnander, A; Terjesen, T

1995-06-01

221

Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended. PMID:24264493

Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

2013-11-22

222

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy.

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

223

Relative strength as a determinant of mobility in elders 67–84 years of age. A NuAge study: Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study proposes two relative strength indexes in order to evaluate the risks of lower mobility in healthy\\u000a older adults: 1) handgrip strength on body mass index and 2) quadriceps strength on body weight. Nine hundred and four men\\u000a and women aged between 67–84 years old were tested for body composition, muscle strength and mobility function. Individuals\\u000a in the

S. Choquette; D. R. Bouchard; C. Y. Doyon; M. Sénéchal; M. Brochu; Isabelle J. Dionne

224

Neurodevelopmental status at age five years of neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the neurodevelopmental status at age 5 years among children who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the newborn period as a treatment for severe cardiorespiratory failure. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 103 five-year-old ECMO-treated children born between June 1984 and July 1988, and treated at our institution. Thirty-seven healthy control children were recruited locally.

Penny Glass; Ann E. Wagner; Patricia H. Papero; Shusila R. Rajasingham; Lucy A. Civitello; Mette S. Kjaer; Cara E. Coffman; Pamela R. Getson; Billie L. Short

1995-01-01

225

Social and biological early life influences on severity of dental caries in children aged 6 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between social and biological conditions experienced in very early life and dental caries in children aged 6 years. Methods: The design was a dental caries cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study started in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993. The cross- sectional study was carried out in 1999. A random sample of 400 6-year-old children

Peres MA; Latorre MRDO; Sheiham A; Peres KGA; Barros FC; Hernandez PG; Marco Aurelio Peres; Dias de Oliveira Latorre

2005-01-01

226

Blood Lead Levels among Children Aged 1 to 5 Years in Wuxi City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine mean blood lead levels and prevalence of elevated blood lead levels among 1- to 5-year-old children in Wuxi City, China. By use of a representative cross-sectional survey that included measurements of capillary blood lead, 1117 children aged 1–5 years were examined from October through December, 1997. The geometric mean blood lead level

Wanzhen Gao; Zhu Li; Rachel B. Kaufmann; Robert L. Jones; Zhengang Wang; Yafen Chen; Xiuqin Zhao; Naifen Wang

2001-01-01

227

Age-related changes in os calcis ultrasonic indices: A 2-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed repeated ultrasound measurements approximately 2 years apart (average 23 months ±3 months) on the os calcis of 113 healthy postmeno-pausal women recruited from two large prospective cohort studies named OFELY and EPIDOS. Group A (from OFELY) consisted of 88 women aged 52–72 (63±5) years, randomly selected from a large insurance company, and group B (from EPIDOS) consisted of

A. M. Schott; D. Hans; P. Garnero; E. Sornay-Rendu; P. D. Delmas; P. J. Meunier

1995-01-01

228

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years)  

Cancer.gov

The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives (100). Preschool children continue to expand their gross and fine motor capabilities and by age 4 years, a child can hop, jump on one foot, ride a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels, and throw a ball overhand.

229

Natural history of neurofibromatosis type 2 with onset before the age of 1 year.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) with onset before the first year of life has been anecdotally reported in the literature. We (a) prospectively (years 1997-2012) followed up three unrelated NF2 children, all harbouring NF2 gene mutations whose onset of disease was before age 1 year, and (b) systematically reviewed published reports on NF2 in the youngest age group (i.e. onset <1 year). The present three children had (1) small (<1 cm), bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) detected (as an incidental finding) at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the age of 4 to 5 months that were asymptomatic for 10 to 14 years, with sudden and rapid (<12 months) progression in two cases at the age of 11 and 15 years, respectively; (2) development of large numbers of skin NF2 plaques mainly in atypical locations (i.e. face, hands, legs and knees), which reverted to normal skin appearance at the time of VSs progression; (3) lens opacities (n = 1) and NF2 retinal changes (n = 2) detected as early as age of 3-4 months; (4) diffuse (asymptomatic) high signal lesions at brain MRI in the periventricular regions (alike cortical dysplasia); and (5) unaffected first-degree relatives who did not harbour NF2 gene abnormalities. This represents the youngest NF2 group with the longest prospective follow-up so far reported. NF2 may present as a congenital form with bilateral VSs presenting as early as the first months of life and with natural history different to that which occurs in classical NF2. PMID:23377185

Ruggieri, Martino; Gabriele, Anna Lia; Polizzi, Agata; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Nicita, Francesco; Pavone, Piero; Platania, Nunzio; Milone, Pietro; Distefano, Angela; Privitera, Giuseppe; Belfiore, Giuseppe; Granata, Francesca; Caltabiano, Rosario; Albanese, Vincenzo; Pavone, Lorenzo; Quattrone, Aldo

2013-05-01

230

The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years  

PubMed Central

Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories.

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2009-01-01

231

Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention. PMID:19748044

Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

2009-10-01

232

Work Satisfaction and Retirement Plans of Orthopaedic Surgeons 50 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Retirement age and practice patterns before retirement are important for making accurate workforce predictions for orthopaedic surgeons. A survey of orthopaedic surgeons 50 years of age and older therefore was conducted by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in cooperation with the Association of American Medical Colleges Center for Workforce Studies. The survey focused on three questions: (1) At what age do orthopaedic surgeons retire? (2) Do they stop working abruptly or do they work part time before retirement? (3) What are the major factors that determine when an orthopaedic surgeon retires? According to the survey, the median retirement age for orthopaedic surgeons was 65 years. Nineteen percent of orthopaedic surgeons worked part time before retirement. Decreasing reimbursement and increasing malpractice costs were consistently cited as factors that strongly influenced retirement plans. Career satisfaction was high and was the strongest factor that kept the respondents in the workforce. The option to work part time would have the most impact on keeping orthopaedic surgeons working past the age of 65 years. Level of Evidence: Level IV Economic and Decision Analyses. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Kramer, Jeffrey; Watkins-Castillo, Sylvia

2008-01-01

233

Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of psychiatric disorders: recall 4 years later.  

PubMed

The blind test-retest reliability of lifetime prevalence and age of onset of psychiatric diagnoses, based on the SADS-L interview and RDC over a three-to-five year period, was examined in 143 probands and their relatives. Reliability of lifetime prevalence of major depression was excellent; reliability of antisocial personality, panic disorder, drug abuse, GAD, depressive personality, and alcoholism was good; reliability of obsessive-compulsive disorder and phobia was acceptable but lower. The reliability of hyperthymia or cyclothymia was not acceptable. Reliability for major depression did not vary substantially by age or sex of the informant, but recall of major depression was significantly higher in the probands than in their relatives. The test-retest reliability for the age of onset of major depression and panic disorder was excellent, and for phobia, GAD and alcoholism, was acceptable. Both probands and relatives recalled the age of onset of their depression fairly accurately. However, there was a reduction in agreement over time. Recall after 3-4 yr was better than 5-6 yr. There was a tendency for older respondents to systematically increase the age of onset of their depression across the two interviews, although the increase was only a few years. Recall of age of onset did not differ significantly by sex of respondent or whether the respondent was a proband or relative. These findings are discussed in light of several available studies of reliability of lifetime prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:3261342

Prusoff, B A; Merikangas, K R; Weissman, M M

1988-01-01

234

Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.  

PubMed

Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

2012-01-01

235

Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.  

PubMed

The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success. PMID:21115182

Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

2011-05-01

236

Identifying Hail Signatures in Satellite Imagery from the 9-10 August 2011 Severe Weather Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Severe thunderstorms can produce large hail that causes property damage, livestock fatalities, and crop failure. However, detailed storm surveys of hail damage conducted by the National Weather Service (NWS) are not required. Current gaps also exist between Storm Prediction Center (SPC) hail damage estimates and crop-insurance payouts. NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to support NWS damage assessments, particularly to crops during the growing season. The two-day severe weather event across western Nebraska and central Kansas during 9-10 August 2011 offers a case study for investigating hail damage signatures by examining changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery. By analyzing hail damage swaths in satellite imagery, potential economic losses due to crop damage can be quantified and further improve the estimation of weather impacts on agriculture without significantly increasing manpower requirements.

Dryden, Rachel L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Cole, Tony A.; Bell, Jordan

2014-01-01

237

Solubilities of p-quinone and 9,10-anthraquinone in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium solubilities of p-quinone (1,4-benzoquinone) and 9,10-anthraquinone at 35 C and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about (85--300) bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with a high-pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The solubility results, along with those reported in the literature for 1,4-naphthoquinone, are correlated with a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. The ability of a supercritical fluid to separate a multicomponent mixture is unique, since it utilizes the salient features of both distillation and liquid extraction. The solubility of a solute in a supercritical fluid is the most important thermophysical property that has to be determined and modeled for an efficient design of any extraction based on supercritical solvents.

Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)] [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1997-05-01

238

Optical Properties of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride/copper phthalocyanine superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic superlattices consisting of five alternating layers of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were prepared by organic molecular-beam deposition in high vacuum on hydrogen-passivated, (111)-oriented silicon. The substrates were kept at room temperature during the deposition. The optical response of the multilayered structure was investigated by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range from 0.73 to 5 eV. While the infrared spectra show that there is no chemical interaction between the two pigments, the ellipsometry evaluation suggests an electronic coupling between the ? orbitals of the PTCDA and the ? orbitals of the CuPc. This means that the modeling of the optical response requires a more sophisticated approach than simply superimposing the responses of the individual layers.

Gordan, O. D.; Hermann, S.; Friedrich, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.

2005-03-01

239

The effects of friction on the electron transfer of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the the bond energy?bond order (BEBO) method to approximate the shape of the barrier to electron transfer and combined it with the Kramers relation and with the Grote-Hynes relation to demonstrate a possible role of friction in electron transfer reactions. Using our own data and that of Abdullah and Kemp we have shown that not only can friction be considered in electron transfer reactions, but that this friction might be the non-markovian frequency-dependent friction derivable from the generalized Langevin equation. From these results we have estimated possible limits of the frequency-dependent friction for the electron transfer from 9,10-dicyanoanthracene to electron acceptors.

Statman, David; Kovner, Marcia; Shea, James C.

1987-07-01

240

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

241

Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r ac t Background Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death. Methods We randomly assigned 3845 patients from Europe, China, Australasia, and Tunisia who

Nigel S. Beckett; Ruth Peters; Astrid E. Fletcher; Jan A. Staessen; Lisheng Liu; Dan Dumitrascu; Vassil Stoyanovsky; Riitta L. Antikainen; Yuri Nikitin; Craig Anderson; Alli Belhani; Françoise Forette; Chakravarthi Rajkumar; Lutgarde Thijs; Winston Banya; Christopher J. Bulpitt

2008-01-01

242

Effects of Antibiotic Consumption on Children 2-8 Years of Age Developing Asthma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Antibiotic exposure in children is a possible contributor to the increasing asthma prevalence in several countries. The present study aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure and the risk of developing childhood asthma at 2-8 years of age. METHODS A case-control study was undertaken among children aged 2-8 years old between March and September 2010 in the Urmia district in the northwest of Iran. The cases were doctor-diagnosed asthmatic children based on Global Initiative for Asthma criteria (n=207), and the controls were children without respiratory symptoms (n=400) selected by frequency matching by age and gender. Clinical data including antibiotic exposure was collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire, which was completed by interviewing parents/guardians. RESULTS Antibiotic consumption during the first year of life increased the odds ratio [OR] of asthma symptoms at 2-8 years of age (crude OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-3.35; p<0.01), and the strength of association was similar after adjusting for a family history of asthma or atopic disorder, preterm delivery, birth order, and delivery method (adjusted OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.88; p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that antibiotic consumption in children was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, and an additional confirmative study is needed.

Khalkhali, Hamid Reza; Oshnouei, Sima; Salarilak, Shaker; Rahimi Rad, Mohammadhossein; Karamyar, Mohammad; Khashabi, Javad

2014-01-01

243

Implications of pathologist concordance for breast cancer assessments in mammography screening from age 40 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pathologists reviewed slides and reports of cancers arising in both the study and control populations of the U.K. trial of annual mammography screening from age 40 years. A total of 875 cases were scored independently as noninvasive, microinvasive, or invasive cancer, with the last also evaluated for histology grade, type, and lymphatic vascular invasion. Of these, 870 (99.2%) were

Thomas J. Anderson; Farzana Sufi; Ian O. Ellis; Susan Moss

2002-01-01

244

Screening women aged less than 50 years with a family history of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family history is an important breast cancer risk factor and is a common reason for referral to specialist breast clinics for consideration of breast screening. The aims of this study were to determine cancer detection rates and prognostic features of breast cancers identified in women aged less than 50 years at increased risk of breast cancer who attend a Family

J Kollias; D. M Sibbering; R. W Blamey; P. A. M Holland; Z Obuszko; A. R. M Wilson; A. J Evans; I. O Ellis; C. W Elston

1998-01-01

245

Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

Liu, Chiung-ju

2010-01-01

246

Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three Years of Age in Nghean, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: To assess the nutritional status and to determine potential risk factors of malnutrition in children under 3 years of age in Nghean, Vietnam. The study carried out in November 2007, a total of 383 child\\/mother pairs were selected by using a 2-stage cluster sampling methodology. A structured questionnaire was administered to mothers in their home settings. Anthropometric measurement

Nguyen Ngoc Hien; Nguyen Ngoc Hoa

2009-01-01

247

The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

2012-01-01

248

Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

2013-01-01

249

Antenatal Risk Factors Associated With Unfavorable Neurologic Status in Newborns and at 2 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the influence of different antenatal factors on neurologic signs in the first days of life and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. The study group consisted of 390 children drawn from a cohort of 828 consecutive live births. The data about potential antenatal risk factors, birth complications, and neonatal

Tiina Stelmach; Eha Kallas; Heti Pisarev; Tiina Talvik

2004-01-01

250

Risk Factors for Serious Suicide Attempts among Youths Aged 13 through 24 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine associations between a series of sociodemographic factors, childhood experiences, and mental disorders and risk of serious suicide attempt in young people aged 13 through 24 years and to explore the joint relationship between these factors and vulnerability to serious suicide attempt.

ANNETTE L. BEAUTRAIS; PETER R. JOYCE; ROGER T. MULDER

1996-01-01

251

Exposure to Movie Smoking Among US Adolescents Aged 10 to 14 Years: A Population Estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Several studies have linked seeing smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, but none have determined how much movie smoking adolescents see. OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to determine exposure to movie smoking in a representative sample of young US adolescents. METHODS. We surveyed 6522 nationally representative US adolescents aged 10 -14 years. We content analyzed 534 contemporary box-office hits for

James D. Sargent; Susanne E. Tanski; Jennifer Gibson

2010-01-01

252

Interactive Whiteboards, Interactivity and Play in the Classroom with Children Aged Three to Seven Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the current use of interactive whiteboards in the teaching and learning of children aged three to seven years in Wales, UK. It considers both teachers' and children's reflections regarding the use of this "novel" technology. Observations in 30 classrooms with interactive whiteboards (IWB) and interviews with teachers and…

Morgan, Alex

2010-01-01

253

Screening Instruments: Review of Instruments for Screening Children Ages Birth to Five Years. Updated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet compiles information on 16 screening instruments for young children. For each instrument, the following information is provided: (1) name; (2) publisher; (3) year published; (4) cost of kit; (5) cost per child/cost of forms; (6) age range; (7) domains tested (including cognitive, expressive language, receptive language, articulation,…

Ikle, Linda, Comp.; Wittmer, Donna, Comp.

254

Vertical jumping and leg power normative data for English school children aged 10–15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although vertical jumping is often incorporated into physical activity tests for both adults and children, normative data for children and adolescents are lacking in the literature. The objectives of this study were to provide normative data of jump height and predicted peak leg power for males and females aged 10.0–15.9 years. Altogether, 1845 children from 12 state primary and secondary

Matthew J. D. Taylor; Daniel Cohen; Christine Voss; Gavin R. H. Sandercock

2010-01-01

255

The relationship of preference for educational structure to age and years of education among practising nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in adult and lifelong education has included an expanding interest in the characteristics of adult learners, including an exploration of their preference for independence in the teaching\\/learning situation. Limited research, however, has focused upon this facet of adult education. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of age and years of education to preference for educational

Jan M. Russell; Steven R. Krantz

1994-01-01

256

Birth defects among surviving children under seven years of age in Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the developed countries. They are also of increasing concern in many developing countries, such as China. However, prevalence and causes of birth defects in China are inadequately understood.^ The purpose of the present study was to estimated prevalence of birth defects in surviving children under seven years of age in

Baoguang Wang

1997-01-01

257

Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

2010-01-01

258

Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

1969-01-01

259

Cost-Outcome Analysis of Booster Seats for Auto Occupants Aged 4 to 7 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this work was to analyze the societal return on invest- ment in booster seats and in laws requiring their use in the United States. Booster seats reduce crash-related injury. Their use is mandatory for vehicle occupants aged 4 to 7 years in most of the United States. This study estimates the injury cost savings attributable to

Ted R. Miller; Eduard Zaloshnja

2009-01-01

260

Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

Henderson, Davetta A.

2011-01-01

261

Developmental changes in cognitive reaction time of children aged 6–12 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a visual Go\\/Nogo paradigm and subtraction methods, we examined detailed developmental changes in the cognitive reaction times of 153 healthy children aged 6–12 years. Three conditions were studied: simple reaction, even rate reaction (50% Go), and high rate reaction (80% Go). The subtraction of simple reaction time from even rate reaction time was considered to reflect discrimination time, while

Yukako Iida; Makoto Miyazaki; Sunao Uchida

2010-01-01

262

Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

Koch, Shirley Lois

263

Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

2007-01-01

264

Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

2013-01-01

265

Iron deficiency anaemia in Jamaican children, aged 1-5 years, with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine, using a combination of measures, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in children under five years-of-age who have sickle cell disease (SCD) and attend the Sickle Cell Clinic (SCU) of the Tropical Medicine Research Institute. Materials and Methods: Children with homozygous sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS) or doubly heterozy- gous

L King; M Reid; TE Forrester

2005-01-01

266

Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

Dorfman, Lorraine T.

2009-01-01

267

Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

2012-01-01

268

Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

2007-01-01

269

Optic Pathway Hypothalamic Gliomas in Children under Three Years of Age: The Role of Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Optic pathway\\/hypothalamic gliomas (OPHGs) tend to occur in young children. Treatment options consist of surgical resection, radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Due to complications induced by surgery and RT, chemotherapy has gained significant recognition for the treatment of OPHG in young children. Chemosensitivity of OPHG in very young children under 3 years of age has not been well documented.

Michele Madeira Silva; Stewart Goldman; Gesina Keating; Mary Anne Marymont; John Kalapurakal; Tadanori Tomita

2000-01-01

270

Prevalence of hypogonadism in males aged at least 45?years: the HIM study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Hypogonadism in Males study estimated the preva- lence of hypogonadism (total testosterone (TT) 0300 ng\\/dl) in men aged ? 45 years visiting primary care practices in the United States. A blood sample was obtained between 8 AM and noon and assayed for TT, free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BAT). Common symptoms of hypogonadism, comorbid conditions, demographics and

T. MULLIGAN; M. F. FRICK; Q. C. ZURAW; A. STEMHAGEN; C. MCWHIRTER

2006-01-01

271

Behavioral Outcomes and Evidence of Psychopathology Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Age 20 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Information on the mental health of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) chil- dren in young adulthood is sparse. We thus sought to examine gender-specific behavioral outcomes and evi- dence of psychopathology in a cohort of VLBW young adults at 20 years of age. Methods. We compared a cohort of 241 survivors among VLBW infants who were born

Maureen Hack; Eric A. Youngstrom; Lydia Cartar; Mark Schluchter; H. Gerry Taylor; Daniel Flannery; Nancy Klein; Elaine Borawski

2010-01-01

272

Length of stay after infant heart surgery is related to cognitive outcome at age 8 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the hypothesis that postoperative length of stay (LOS) after infant heart surgery might be an easily measured surrogate marker for various events that culminate in later adverse cognitive outcome.Methods Among 160 eligible patients with D-transposition of the great arteries undergoing reparative surgery in infancy, 155 (97%) were reevaluated at age 8 years with IQ and achievement testing.

Jane W. Newburger; David Wypij; David C. Bellinger; Adre J. du Plessis; Karl C. K. Kuban; Leonard A. Rappaport; Daniel Almirall; David L. Wessel; Richard A. Jonas; Gil Wernovsky

2003-01-01

273

Size at Birth and Motor Activity During Stress in Children Aged 7 to 9 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Small size at birth is linked with metabolic and cardiovascular disease. There is increasing evidence that it is also linked with physiologic stress responses and abnormal behavior, in particular, symptoms of hyperactivity. Therefore, we investigated associations between size at birth and motor activity during psycho- social stress. METHODS.In 123 children aged 7 to 9 years, we examined the relations of

Wolff Schlotz; Alexander Jones; Naomi M. M. Phillipsc; Keith M. Godfrey; David I. W. Phillips

2010-01-01

274

US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.  

PubMed

This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study. PMID:24799579

Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

2014-05-01

275

Aortic valve replacement in patients age 70 years and older: early and late results.  

PubMed

This retrospective analysis was performed to determine the early and late outcome in patients 70 years and older undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). From October 1994 to May 2001, 49 patients (24 men and 25 women, age 70 to 88 years [mean 74 +/- 4.6 years]) underwent primary AVR with or without concomitant procedures. Twenty-one received mechanical valves and 28 bioprostheses. Age was different between both groups: 72 +/- 2.3 years (mechanical) and 76 +/- 5.1 years (bioprosthetic) (p = 0.0005). Aortic stenosis was present in 25 patients (51%). Follow-up was 100% complete at a mean follow-up of 2.9 years (range 0.3-6.5 years). Overall hospital mortality was 4.1% (2/49). There were no postoperative complications in 24% of patients. Postoperative hospital stay or hospital survival was 27 +/- 13 days. Survival at 3 and 5 years was 89 +/- 5% and 80 +/- 7%, respectively. Three late deaths were due to noncardiac causes and 1 each had a cardiac or valve-related cause (thromboembolism). Other valve-related complications such as anticoagulant-related hemorrhage, perivalvular leak, endocarditis, prosthetic valve failure, and reoperation were not noted in any of the 49 patients. The actuarial survival curve was similar in each group of bioprosthetic versus mechanical and septuagenarians versus octogenarians. Under the selection criteria for AVR currently applied in our hospital, geriatric patients showed a satisfactory early outcome and medium-term survival benefit. PMID:12139498

Kawachi, Yoshito; Arinaga, Kouich; Nakashima, Atsuhiro; Toshima, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Hiroshi; Kosuga, Tomokazu

2002-08-01

276

High-density lipoprotein and mortality before age 90 years in male physicians  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In cross-sectional and some cohort studies with shorter follow-up, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with longer life. We sought to examine the relationship between HDL-C and death prior to age 90 years in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). METHODS and RESULTS Of PHS enrollees who had blood collected at PHS II baseline (approximately 1997) we selected 1351 men old enough to reach age 90 years by March 4, 2009 and with complete data on HDL-C and total cholesterol, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. We used Cox proportional hazards to determine the HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause, CVD-, and non-CVD mortality prior to age 90, adjusting for potential confounders. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.8(3.2) years, 44.1% of men in the lowest baseline HDL-C quartile (<32.8 mg/dL) compared to 32.9% (11.2 % absolute risk reduction) in the highest HDL-C quartile (?54.1 mg/dL) died prior to age 90. In multivariable adjusted analyses, men in the highest HDL-C quartile had a 28% lower risk (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55–0.94) of death prior to age 90 compared to men in the lowest HDL-C quartile. In age-adjusted analyses, increasing baseline HDL-C was associated with a lower risk of CVD death (p for trend 0.004), though this association was attenuated slightly after adjusting for all confounders. No association was found between HDL-C and non-CVD mortality. CONCLUSION In male physicians, higher baseline HDL-C levels were associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality prior to age 90.

Rahilly-Tierney, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djousse, Luc

2012-01-01

277

The National CT Colonography Trial: Assessment of Accuracy in Participants 65 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To conduct post-hoc analysis of National CT Colonography Trial data and compare the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomographic (CT) colonography in participants younger than 65 years with those in participants aged 65 years and older. Materials and Methods: Of 2600 asymptomatic participants recruited at 15 centers for the trial, 497 were 65 years of age or older. Approval of this HIPAA-compliant study was obtained from the institutional review board of each site, and informed consent was obtained from each subject. Radiologists certified in CT colonography reported lesions 5 mm in diameter or larger. Screening detection of large (?10-mm) histologically confirmed colorectal neoplasia was the primary end point; screening detection of smaller (6–9-mm) colorectal neoplasia was a secondary end point. The differences in sensitivity and specificity of CT colonography in the two age cohorts (age < 65 years and age ? 65 years) were estimated with bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Complete data were available for 477 participants 65 years of age or older (among 2531 evaluable participants). Prevalence of adenomas 1 cm or larger for the older participants versus the younger participants was 6.9% (33 of 477) versus 3.7% (76 of 2054) (P < .004). For large neoplasms, mean estimates for CT colonography sensitivity and specificity among the older cohort were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.644, 0.944) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.779, 0.883), respectively. For large neoplasms in the younger group, CT colonography sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.837, 0.967) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.816, 0.899), respectively. Per-polyp sensitivity for large neoplasms for the older and younger populations was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.578, 0.869) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.717, 0.924), respectively. For the older and younger groups, per-participant sensitivity was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.565, 0.854) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.745, 0.882) for detecting adenomas 6 mm in diameter or larger. Conclusion: For most measures of diagnostic performance and in most subsets, the difference between senior-aged participants and those younger than 65 years was not statistically significant. © RSNA, 2012

Johnson, C. Daniel

2012-01-01

278

Serologic Responses to ACYW135 Polysaccharide Meningococcal Vaccine in Saudi Children under 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

An immunization campaign with meningococcal ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccine was conducted in 2003 by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health and included a study to evaluate the immune responses in children under 5 years of age in the Al Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Children who were ?24 months old were given one dose of tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine, while younger children were given two doses with an interval of 2 to 3 months. Blood samples were collected prevaccination and 1 month after the second dose for children younger than 24 months old and 1 month after the single dose for older children. Serogroup-specific antibody responses were determined by serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assays and a tetraplex immunoglobulin G (IgG) bead assay. Significant increases in the proportions of individuals who were ?24 months old with SBA titers of ?8 were observed pre- to postvaccination for all serogroups. Age-dependent increases in the percentage of individuals with SBA titers of ?8 1 month postvaccination were observed for each serogroup. Age-dependent increases in postvaccination IgG levels were observed for serogroup A (menA), serogroup W135 (menW), and serogroup Y (menY) but not for serogroup C (menC). Two doses of tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine in individuals who were ?18 months old were poorly immunogenic for menC, menW, and menY. However, for menA, 42% of the children who were 18 months old were putatively protected with SBA titers of ?8. A high percentage of subjects who were ?2 years of age were putatively protected for menA; a similar level was observed for menY for children who were 4 years of age but not for younger children. However, for menC and menW poor levels of putative protection were still evident at 4 years of age.

Al-Mazrou, Y.; Khalil, M.; Borrow, R.; Balmer, P.; Bramwell, J.; Lal, G.; Andrews, N.; Al-Jeffri, M.

2005-01-01

279

Personality and risk for Alzheimer's disease in adults 72 years of age and older: a 6-year follow-up.  

PubMed

[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 26(2) of Psychology and Aging (see record 2011-05802-001). This article contains an error in the Discussion, under the Implications, Caveats, Future Directions heading. The third paragraph includes the sentences that should have been removed. The corrected paragraph appears in the correction.] We conducted secondary analyses to determine the relationship between longstanding personality traits and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) among 767 participants 72 years of age or older who were followed for more than 6 years. Personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI. We hypothesized that elevated Neuroticism, lower Openness, and lower Conscientiousness would be independently associated with risk of AD. Hypotheses were supported. The finding that AD risk is associated with elevated Neuroticism and lower Conscientiousness can be added to the accumulating literature documenting the pathogenic effects of these two traits. The link between lower Openness and AD risk is consistent with recent findings on cognitive activity and AD risk. Findings have implications for prevention research and for the conceptualization of the etiology of AD. PMID:20973606

Duberstein, Paul R; Chapman, Benjamin P; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Bamonti, Patricia; Robbins, John; Jerant, Anthony F; Franks, Peter

2011-06-01

280

Trunk extensor and flexor strength capacity in healthy young elite athletes aged 11-15 years.  

PubMed

Mueller, J, Mueller, S, Stoll, J, Baur, H, and Mayer, F. Trunk extensor and flexor strength capacity in healthy young elite athletes aged 11-15 years. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1328-1334, 2014-Differences in trunk strength capacity because of gender and sports are well documented in adults. In contrast, data concerning young athletes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess the maximum trunk strength of adolescent athletes and to investigate differences between genders and age groups. A total of 520 young athletes were recruited. Finally, 377 (n = 233/144 M/F; 13 ± 1 years; 1.62 ± 0.11 m height; 51 ± 12 kg mass; training: 4.5 ± 2.6 years; training sessions/week: 4.3 ± 3.0; various sports) young athletes were included in the final data analysis. Furthermore, 5 age groups were differentiated (age groups: 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 years; n = 90, 150, 42, 43, and 52, respectively). Maximum strength of trunk flexors (Flex) and extensors (Ext) was assessed in all subjects during isokinetic concentric measurements (60°·s; 5 repetitions; range of motion: 55°). Maximum strength was characterized by absolute peak torque (Flexabs, Extabs; N·m), peak torque normalized to body weight (Flexnorm, Extnorm; N·m·kg BW), and Flexabs/Extabs ratio (RKquot). Descriptive data analysis (mean ± SD) was completed, followed by analysis of variance (? = 0.05; post hoc test [Tukey-Kramer]). Mean maximum strength for all athletes was 97 ± 34 N·m in Flexabs and 140 ± 50 N·m in Extabs (Flexnorm = 1.9 ± 0.3 N·m·kg BW, Extnorm = 2.8 ± 0.6 N·m·kg BW). Males showed statistically significant higher absolute and normalized values compared with females (p < 0.001). Flexabs and Extabs rose with increasing age almost 2-fold for males and females (Flexabs, Extabs: p < 0.001). Flexnorm and Extnorm increased with age for males (p < 0.001), however, not for females (Flexnorm: p = 0.26; Extnorm: p = 0.20). RKquot (mean ± SD: 0.71 ± 0.16) did not reveal any differences regarding age (p = 0.87) or gender (p = 0.43). In adolescent athletes, maximum trunk strength must be discussed in a gender- and age-specific context. The Flexabs/Extabs ratio revealed extensor dominance, which seems to be independent of age and gender. The values assessed may serve as a basis to evaluate and discuss trunk strength in athletes. PMID:24149756

Mueller, Juliane; Mueller, Steffen; Stoll, Josefine; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

2014-05-01

281

The incidence of Down's syndrome over a 19-year period with special reference to maternal age.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of Down's syndrome in the Liverpool and Bootle areas from 1961 to 1979 was investigated. A total of 319 liveborn cases was ascertained over this period. Using 3-year moving averages, the incidence of the condition fell gradually from 1.62 per 1000 livebirths for 1961 to 1963 to 1.09 per 1000 livebirths for 1977 to 1979. This trend is significant at the 0.1% level. Over the same period the mean maternal age of Down's syndrome births fell gradually from 36.7 years in 1961 to 29.0 years in 1979. This trend is significant at the 1% level. There was a contemporaneous decrease in the proportion of total births to women over 35 years in the study area. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 175 out of the 319 index cases (54.9%). Of these, there were 161 trisomies (92%), 11 translocations (6.3%), and three mosaics (1.7%). Between 1969 and 1979 four terminations of pregnancy for Down's syndrome were performed, all for trisomy. Quinquennial age specific incidences for Down's syndrome were calculated for the years 1960 to 1964, 1965 to 1969, 1970 to 1974, and 1975 to 1979. There have been no statistically significant changes over this time. It is suggested that the fall in incidence of Down's syndrome can be explained by the fall in mean maternal age.

Owens, J R; Harris, F; Walker, S; McAllister, E; West, L

1983-01-01

282

Incidence of intussusception among children 0-5 years of age in Thailand, 2001-2006.  

PubMed

To provide baseline incidence data of intussusception among Thai children under 5 years old, outpatient and inpatient records from 2001 to 2006 from five hospitals were reviewed. 112 cases of intussusception were identified, confirmed by either ultrasonography (65%), radiology procedure (32%) or surgery (3%). Common presenting symptoms were vomiting, mucous bloody stool and fever. 50% of intussusceptions were ileocolic in location and 49% underwent surgery. Male to female ratio was 1.7:1 and 86% of cases were under 1 year of age. No deaths were reported. 89 of 112 cases were resident in the study catchment area, for an annual incidence of 19.70-47.83 and 4.36-11.44 per 100,000 children under 1 and 5 years of age, respectively. This is somewhat lower than other regional studies emphasising need to continue and enhance surveillance prior to starting a universal rotavirus vaccine program. PMID:19931709

Khumjui, Chowalit; Doung-ngern, Pawinee; Sermgew, Tanit; Smitsuwan, Punnarai; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn

2009-11-20

283

[Distal humerus fractures in patients over 75 years of age. Long-term results of osteosynthesis].  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the adequacy of internal fixation of distal humerus fractures in patients over 75 years of age. 49 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 80 (75-93) years. The fractures were classified as 28 C-, 13 B- and 8 A-types according to the AO-system. Primary stable fixation was followed by early assisted mobilisation. The mean average follow-up time was 18 months. Excellent and good functional results were observed in 85%. 66% of all patients have no pain. There were 6 sensible ulnar nerve lesions, one deep wound infection, one pseudarthrosis of the distal humerus and one non union of the olecranon osteotomy. We conclude from our results that open reduction and internal fixation is indicated also for patients over 75 years with distal intraarticular humeral fractures. PMID:8226060

John, H; Rosso, R; Neff, U; Bodoky, A; Regazzoni, P; Harder, F

1993-09-01

284

Number Word Use in Toddlerhood Is Associated with Number Recall Performance at Seven Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20–26 months and started to produce the number words 1–10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age.

Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa

2014-01-01

285

Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles. PMID:24316574

Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

2014-03-01

286

Mortality in inflammatory bowel disease patients under 65 years of age.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. To assess mortality in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients under 65 years of age and to identify the factors related to death in this age group. Methods. We studied 2570 IBD patients who were diagnosed as having disease before 65 years of age and attended a single tertiary referral center area between 1983 and 2012. Follow-up was censored at 65 years. The causes of death were determined from death certificates obtained from the Irish registry office of births, marriages and deaths. Observed all-cause survival was compared with expected survival of persons of the same age and sex in the general population. Expected survival was obtained from national life tables produced by the central statistics office. Survival estimates were calculated for disease type, disease site, gender, the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), immunomodulator use, biologic therapy use, presence of fistulating disease and prior surgery. Results. Fifty-two deaths were reported in the population younger than 65 years, of which 41 were IBD related. We found little difference in survival in the first 25 years of follow-up, but relative survival decreased in both the Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) cohort thereafter, so that 30-year mortality was excessive in both groups. An adjusted multivariate regression analysis of patients with CD identified PSC as the only predictor of premature mortality (p = 0.003). PSC was also identified as the only independent predictor of mortality in UC patients (p = 0.03). Conclusions. The presence of PSC poses the greatest risk for mortality in both UC and CD. PMID:24730394

O'Toole, Aoibhlinn; Walsh, Paul; Keegan, Denise; Byrne, Kathryn; Doherty, Glen; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid; Mulcahy, Hugh

2014-07-01

287

The association between preschool behavioural problems and internalizing difficulties at age 10-12 years.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the association between preschool behavioural problems and emotional symptoms in 10- to 12-year-old children. The study was based on the Aarhus Birth cohort, Denmark, and included 1,336 children. Based on the parent-administered preschool behaviour questionnaire (PBQ), we identified three not mutually exclusive preschool behavioural categories: anxious-fearful (n = 146), hyperactive-distractible (n = 98), and hostile-aggressive (n = 170). Children without any known symptoms were considered well adjusted (n = 1,000). Borderline emotional (n = 105) and emotional difficulties (n = 136) were measured at age 10-12 years with the parent-administered strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. We found that anxious-fearful behaviour and hostile-aggressive preschool behaviour were associated with twice the risk of school-age emotional difficulties. Comorbidity or confounding failed to explain these results. Hyperactive-distractible preschool behaviour was not associated with school-age emotional difficulties. Preschool anxious-fearful behaviour was associated with school-age emotional difficulties, suggesting internalizing symptom stability in some children from early childhood. Preschool hostile-aggressive behaviour was also associated with school-age emotional difficulties, which suggests transformation of one behavioural dimension into another through childhood, and the need to focus on both early internalizing difficulties and hostile-aggressive behaviour as risk factors for later internalizing difficulties. PMID:20811760

Slemming, Kirsten; Sørensen, Merete J; Thomsen, Per H; Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine B; Linnet, Karen M

2010-10-01

288

Characteristics of Atopic Bronchial Asthma in Seniors over 80 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background. Asthma in the elderly is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of asthma in seniors. Materials and Methods. The study involved 105 people of at least 80 years of age (mean age of 84.1 ± 3.9 years) selected from a group of 1860 individuals. Spirometry, the methacholine test, allergy diagnosis, a measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, and administration of the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) were performed. Results. The average morbidity of asthma in the study population of elderly people (at least 80 years of age) was 5.6% (105 people) of the confidence interval (95% CI: 5.1–6.0). In the study group, 34% of the elderly asthmatics had uncontrolled asthma, 47% had partly controlled asthma, and only 24% had fully controlled asthma. Allergy to house dust mites was predominant. The average total score on the AQLQ was 4.12 ± 0.72 (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation) for the seniors, which was significantly lower than the score for the young. Conclusion. The pathogenesis, natural history, and value of the basic diagnostic methods of asthma in the elderly are similar to those observed in younger age groups.

Bozek, Andrzej; Filipowski, Marek; Fischer, Andreas; Jarzab, Jerzy

2013-01-01

289

Estimated Effect of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Examiner-Rated Behavior at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to increased child behavior difficulties in some studies but not others. Objective The primary aim was to estimate the relationship between in utero cocaine exposure and child behavioral functioning at age 7 years with ratings made by blinded examiners during a structured testing session. A second aim was to examine whether caregiver drug use and psychological problems might mediate suspected relationships between prenatal cocaine exposure and aspects of examiner-rated behavior. Methods 407 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 195 non-exposed) participating in the longitudinal Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study (MPCS) were rated with regard to their behavior during a neuropsychological assessment conducted at age 7 years. Raters were trained research psychometricians blinded to drug exposure. Individual behavioral items were summarized and the cocaine-behavior relationship was estimated within the context of latent variable modeling, using Mplus software. Results Two latent variables, Behavioral Regulation and Sociability, were derived via exploratory latent structure analysis with promax rotation. Prenatal cocaine exposure, statistically controlling for child sex, test age, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, was associated with Behavioral Regulation (estimated slope ß = -0.25; 95% CI = -0.48, -0.02; p = 0.04) but not Sociability (estimated slope ß = -0.03; 95% CI = -0.26, 0.20; p = 0.79). Neither postnatal drug use by caregivers nor the severity of their psychological problems at age 5 follow-up predicted levels of child Behavioral Regulation or Sociability at age 7 years (p>0.10). Conclusions Examiner ratings of child behavior at age 7 revealed less optimal behavioral regulation for prenatally cocaine-exposed compared to non-exposed children, in contrast with what had been previously found from parent-report data. This evidence highlights the potential value of trained observers in assessing behavioral outcomes of children exposed in utero to drugs and other toxicants.

Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Mansoor, Elana; Johnson, Arnise L.; McCoy, Clyde B.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

2011-01-01

290

A Screening Instrument for Autism at 18 Months of Age: A 6Year Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesA population of 16,235 children aged 18 months was screened using the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) to identify childhood autism (CA). Two further screening procedures were conducted at age 3 and 5 years. The population was followed up at age 7 years in order to establish the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the instrument.

GILLIAN BAIRD; TONY CHARMAN; SIMON BARON-COHEN; ANTONY COX; JOHN SWETTENHAM; SALLY WHEELWRIGHT; AURIOL DREW

2000-01-01

291

Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Texas Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: For > 50 years, polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) have been used worldwide, mainly as surfactants and emulsifiers, and human exposure to some PFCs is widespread. Objectives: Our goal was to report PFC serum concentrations from a convenience sample of Dallas, Texas, children from birth to < 13 years of age, and to examine age and sex differences in PFC concentrations. Methods: We analyzed 300 serum samples collected in 2009 for eight PFCs by online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in > 92% of participants; the other PFCs measured were detected less frequently. Overall median concentrations of PFOS (4.1 ng/mL) were higher than those for PFOA (2.85 ng/mL), PFNA (1.2 ng/mL), and PFHxS (1.2 ng/mL). For PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, we found no significant differences (p < 0.05) by sex, significantly increasing concentrations for all four chemicals by age, and significantly positive correlations between all four compounds. Conclusions: We found no significant differences in the serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS by sex, but increasing concentrations with age. Our results suggest that these 300 Texas children from birth through 12 years of age continued to be exposed to several PFCs in late 2009, years after changes in production of some PFCs in the United States.

Malik-Bass, Noor; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Colacino, Justin A.; Gent, Tyra L.; Hynan, Linda S.; Harris, T. Robert; Malla, Sunitha; Birnbaum, Linda

2011-01-01

292

Environmental Exposure to Metals and Children's Growth to Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001–2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were ?0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.60, ?0.06) for high (?95th percentile) arsenic exposure and ?0.57 kg (95% CI: ?0.88, ?0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (?5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were ?0.50 cm (95% CI: ?1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and ?1.6 cm (95% CI: ?2.4, ?0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (?0.67 kg, 95% CI: ?0.82, ?0.53) and height (?1.3 cm, 95% CI: ?1.7, ?0.89).

Gardner, Renee M.; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Bottai, Matteo; Hamadani, Jena; Grander, Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Vahter, Marie

2013-01-01

293

Edentulism among Mexican adults aged 35 years and older and associated factors.  

PubMed

We used National Performance Evaluation Survey data to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of edentulism among noninstitutionalized adults aged 35 years and older in Mexico. Statistically, the variables positively associated with edentulism were older age (odds ratio [OR]=1.08) and female gender (OR=1.79). Nonsmoking status (OR=0.70) and having a higher wealth index score (OR=0.72) were negatively associated. This information constitutes the first large-scale evaluation in Mexico for one of the World Health Organization's priority oral health problems. PMID:16809586

Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Maupomé, Gerardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan F

2006-09-01

294

Clinical and radiological outcome of the cemented Contemporary acetabular component in patients < 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide usage of the cemented Contemporary acetabular component (Stryker), no published data are available regarding its use in patients aged < 50 years. We undertook a mid- to long-term follow-up study, including all consecutive patients aged < 50 years who underwent a primary total hip replacement using the Contemporary acetabular component with the Exeter cemented stem between January 1999 and January 2006. There were 152 hips in 126 patients, 61 men and 65 women, mean age at surgery 37.6 years (16 to 49 yrs). One patient was lost to follow-up. Mean clinical follow-up of all implants was 7.6 years (0.9 to 12.0). All clinical questionnaire scores, including Harris hip score, Oxford hip score and several visual analogue scales, were found to have improved. The eight year survivorship of all acetabular components for the endpoints revision for any reason or revision for aseptic loosening was 94.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 89.2 to 97.2) and 96.4% (95% CI 91.6 to 98.5), respectively. Radiological follow-up was complete for 146 implants. The eight year survival for the endpoint radiological loosening was 93.1% (95% CI 86.2 to 96.6). Three surviving implants were considered radiologically loose but were asymptomatic. The presence of acetabular osteolysis (n = 17, 11.8%) and radiolucent lines (n = 20, 13.9%) in the 144 surviving cups indicates a need for continued observation in the second decade of follow-up in order to observe their influence on long-term survival. The clinical and radiological data resulting in a ten-year survival rate > 90% in young patients support the use of the Contemporary acetabular component in this specific patient group. PMID:24293590

Schmitz, M W J L; Timmer, C; Rijnen, W H C; Gardeniers, J W M; Schreurs, B W

2013-12-01

295

Neurological and functional outcomes of subdural hematoma evacuation in patients over 70 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease entity treated by neurosurgical intervention. Although the incidence increases in the elderly population, there is a paucity of studies examining their surgical outcomes. Objectives: To determine the neurological and functional outcomes of patients over 70 years of age undergoing surgical decompression for subdural hematoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 45 patients above 70 years who underwent craniotomy or burr holes for acute, chronic or mixed subdural hematomas. We analyzed both neurological and functional status before and after surgery. Results: Forty-five patients 70 years of age or older were treated in our department during the study period. There was a significant improvement in the neurological status of patients from admission to follow up as assessed using the Markwalder grading scale (1.98 vs. 1.39; P =0.005), yet no improvement in functional outcome was observed as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score. Forty-one patients were admitted from home, however only 20 patients (44%) were discharged home, 16 (36%) discharged to nursing home or rehab, 6 (13%) to hospice and 3 (7%) died in the postoperative period. Neurological function improved in patients who were older, had a worse pre-operative neurological status, were on anticoagulation and had chronic or mixed acute and chronic hematoma. However, no improvement in functional status was observed. Conclusion: Surgical management of SDH in patients over 70 years of age provides significant improvement in neurological status, but does not change functional status.

Mulligan, Patrick; Raore, Bethwel; Liu, Shuling; Olson, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

296

Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years--Baghdad, Iraq, 2008.  

PubMed

In 2008, Iraq's parliament ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which obligates participants to establish tobacco use monitoring, surveillance, and evaluation systems. Lack of data on adolescent tobacco use in Iraq led the Ministry of Health (MOH) to conduct the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Baghdad in 2008. GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13--15 years that is self-administered in classes in selected schools. As in most Middle East countries, tobacco use in Iraq takes the form of cigarettes and shisha. Based on GYTS results, 7.4% of students aged 13--15 years reported having ever smoked cigarettes, 12.9% had ever smoked shisha, 3.2% currently smoked cigarettes, and 6.3% currently smoked shisha. Among never smokers aged 13--15 years, 13.0% reported they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking in the next year. Future declines in adolescent tobacco use in Iraq (and Baghdad) could be enhanced by expanding existing tobacco control programs to include prevention and cessation of the use of cigarettes and shisha, implementing measures that discourage adolescents who have never smoked from initiating tobacco use, expanding legislation to ban exposure to secondhand smoke in all indoor workplaces, and enacting legislation banning pro-tobacco advertising and sponsorship. PMID:19343010

2009-04-01

297

Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Purpose of the study Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. Materials and methods We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Results Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease.

Lopez-Basave, Horacio Noe; Morales-Vasquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Diaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gomez, Angel; Meneses-Garcia, Abelardo A

2013-01-01

298

Impact of prenatal methylmercury exposure on neurobehavioral function at age 14 years  

PubMed Central

A cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1987–1988 in the Faroe Islands, where increased methylmercury exposure occurs from traditional seafood diets that include pilot whale meat. The prenatal exposure level was determined from mercury analyses of cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. At age 14 years, 878 of 1010 living cohort members underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. Eighteen participants with neurological disorders were excluded. Blood and hair samples obtained from the participants were analyzed for mercury. The neuropsychological test battery was designed based on the same criteria as applied at the examination at age 7 years. Multiple regression analysis was carried out and included adjustment for confounders. Indicators of prenatal methylmercury exposure were significantly associated with deficits in finger tapping speed, reaction time on a continued performance task, and cued naming. Postnatal methylmercury exposure had no discernible effect. These findings are similar to those obtained at age 7 years, and the relative contribution of mercury exposure to the predictive power of the multiple regression models was also similar. An analysis of the test score difference between results at 7 and 14 years suggested that mercury-associated deficits had not changed between the two examinations. In structural equation model analyses, the neuropsychological tests were separated into five groups; methylmercury exposure was significantly associated with deficits in motor, attention, and verbal tests. These findings are supported by independent assessment of neurophysiological outcomes. The effects on brain function associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure therefore appear to be multi-focal and permanent.

Debes, Frodi; Budtz-J?rgensen, Esben; Weihe, Pal; White, Roberta F.; Grandjean, Philippe

2006-01-01

299

Good results with cemented total hip arthroplasty in patients between 40 and 50 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Total hip arthroplasties in young patients have lower long-term survival rates than in older patients. We evaluated the use of a unique treatment protocol in patients aged between 40 and 50 years. In all cases we used a cemented THA, and for acetabular deficiencies we also used impacted bone grafts together with a cemented cup. Methods In 140 consecutive patients who were between 40 and 50 years of age at index surgery, 168 cemented total hip prostheses were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 10 (2–19) years. Acetabular deficiencies were reconstructed with wire meshes and impacted bone grafts with a cemented cup (70 hips). During follow-up, 18 patients died (27 hips); in this group 3 hips (3 patients) had been revised. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. In all surviving patients, clinical assessment was performed with hip-score questions and all radiographs were evaluated. Results All clinical questionnaires showed an improved clinical hip score. 29 hips (17%) were revised after a mean of 8 (0.3–18) years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a survival of 88% (95% CI: 82–94) after 10 years with revision of either component for any reason. Survival with endpoint revision for aseptic loosening of either component was 94% (95% CI: 90–99) after 10 years. Interpretation Cemented implants in young patients have satisfying long-term results. Reconstruction of acetabular deficiencies with impacted bone grafts show promising results.

de Kam, Daniel C J; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Veth, Rene P H

2010-01-01

300

Letter in response: breast cancer screening of women aged 70-74 years.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to critically appraise the claim by Nickson et al. [1] that they have evidence supporting the Australian Government's recent decision to extend the national free invitation for biennial mammography program (BreastScreen) to women aged 70-74 years. Since their claim was made on the basis of a significant difference in the incidence of larger primary breast cancers between women in this age group who are already participating in BreastScreen versus those who are not, an analysis of the stage at diagnosis of breast cancer in the USA versus mammographic screening over 30 years, evidence from breast cancer adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy (adjuvant therapy) trials and data from an evaluation of BreastScreen and adjuvant therapy use in Australia were examined. By 1999, most Australian women aged 40-79 years were receiving adjuvant therapy that could cure breast cancer no matter what the size of the primary cancer. Further, the incidence primary breast cancers of all sizes had doubled in the USA during 30 years of mammographic screening, but the incidence of more advanced breast cancers had almost remained constant, indicating that adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, was the main cause of the 28 % reduction in breast cancer mortality that had been observed. In conclusion, the claim by Nickson et al. is not supported by available evidence. Further, BreastScreen should not have been extended to these older women before the UK trial, which is testing the efficacy of mammographic screening of women aged 70-74 years [8], had reported its results. PMID:24756185

Burton, Robert

2014-06-01

301

Infrasound observed in the Czech Republic during convective storms 9 - 10 July 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental array has been built at the observatory Panska Ves, Czech Republic (50°31' N 14°34' E). It is equipped with three differential microbarographs (type ISGM03). The sensors are arranged in an equilateral triangle; the distance between sensors is approximately 200 m. Using this array, we studied infrasound phenomena related with intense convective storms on 9-10 July 2011. In the studied frequency range 0.1-4 Hz, we observed phenomena of short duration related to lightning activity and also signals that persisted tens of seconds. The latter type of infrasound signals is the object of the current study. Azimuth of arrival of the signals corresponded well with position of convective storms towards the observatory and changed as convective storms were travelling across the Czech Republic from the south west to the north east. Apparent velocity often exceeded 340 m/s (considered as the local speed of sound); it means the signals arrived under some elevation angle (up to 40°). The azimuth of arrival showed higher variability at the beginning of the event; we repeatedly observed gradual variations in azimuth up to the change of 90°. The azimuth of arrival was more stable after 02 UT on 10 July 2011.

Sindelarova, Tereza; Skripnikova, Katerina; Chum, Jaroslav; Lastovicka, Jan; Base, Jiri; Mosna, Zbysek

2013-04-01

302

Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.  

PubMed

Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed. PMID:15388817

Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

2004-09-01

303

Paramagnetic complexes of 9,10-anthraquinone on zeolite surfaces and their thermal transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of one-electron transfer sites on the surface of H-ZSM-5, H-Y, H-mordenite, and H-? zeolites was measured by EPR using 9,10-antrhraquinone as a probe. It has been found that the hyperfine structure from four protons typical for one-centered complexes of anthraquinone with one acidic site was observed in the EPR spectra after anthraquinone interaction with a zeolite surface in the temperature range of 373 to 423 K. It has been established that an elevated temperature of 473 K promoted the decomposition of the adsorbed anthraquinone and the disappearance of the hyperfine structure. It has been shown that the thermal instability of anthraquinone adsorbed on zeolites changed in the series H-? > H-Y > H-ZSM-5 ˜ H-mordenite; the coke-forming ability of zeolites with regard to n-decane at 443 K changed in a similar manner. It has been established that the presence of air promoted coke-forming processes upon interaction between n-decane and zeolites.

Fionov, A. V.; Nekhaev, A. I.; Shchapin, I. Yu.; Maksimov, A. L.; Lunin, V. V.

2013-12-01

304

Rationale for annual screening mammography for women ages 40-49 years.  

PubMed

Proof of the benefit for mammographic screening of women ages 40-49 years is now available. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Gothenburg and Malmo, Sweden have shown statistically significant breast cancer mortality reductions of 36% and 45% respectively. A meta-analysis of all five Swedish trials has found a statistically significant mortality reduction of 29% for woman in this age group. Substantially greater reductions in mortality would likely have resulted if women in these trials had been screened annually. Because the benefits are substantial, and the risks from screening are relatively small and acceptable, screening mammography beginning at age 40 is now recommended by the American Cancer Society, as well as the National Cancer Institute. PMID:15687560

Feig, S A; Kopans, D B; Sickles, E A; Jackson, V P; Monsees, B

1998-08-01

305

Synthesis and characterization of some new acid salts of 8H-2,6,8,9,10-Pentaazabicyclo[5,2,1]-deca-2,5,9,10-tetraene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some new acid salts of 8H-2,6,8,9,10-pentaazabicyclo[5,2,1]-deca-2,5,9,10-tetraene were prepared and characterised by spectral data (IR, H-NMR and Mass) and elemental analysis. The purity of these compounds was confirmed by HPLC and was found to be > 95% pure. In addition, the compounds were subjected to impact and friction sensitivity tests and were found very safe.

A. K. Sikder; K. P. C. Rao; J. P. Agrawal

2000-01-01

306

Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Urologic Surgery in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Purpose We report our experience with laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) urological procedures in children less than 5 years of age. Materials and Methods Ten patients (11 procedures) underwent LESS through the umbilicus. Seven patients underwent nephrectomy and three patients underwent pyeloplasty (one simultaneous bilateral). R-port port (Advanced Surgical Concepts, Ireland) was used in nine cases, in one case, the Gelpoint access port (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA) was used. The Olympus Endoeye camera with coaxial light cable was used. The hilum was secured in all cases with Hem-o-Lok clips (Teleflex Medical, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) except in one case in which an Endo GIA stapler (Covidien Surgical, Norwalk, CT, USA) was used. Results All procedures were technically successful. Accessory port (3 mm) was used in 3 patients. Mean age in nephrectomized patients was 3.14±1.7 years, the mean operative room time (ORT) was 97.5±12.54 minutes. In the pyeloplasty group, mean ORT was 192±47.16 minutes and mean age was 2.43±2.3 years. Bilateral pyeloplasty was done in a 4-month-old infant. The ORT in this case was 180 minutes. A follow-up renogram done in the pyeloplasty patients (n=2) showed good drainage. Mean length of stay was 3.6 days (range, 3 to 6 days).The analgesic requirement was 23.86 mg (range, 12.5 to 50 mg) of diclofenac sodium. Conclusions LESS is technically feasible in patients as young as 4 months of age. It has the potential to offer better cosmesis. This needs to be proved in further comparative studies. Development of miniature instruments will further the growth of LESS in this age group.

Ganpule, Arvind; Sheladiya, Chetan; Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra

2013-01-01

307

Causes of Death among Women Aged 10-50 Years in Bangladesh, 1996-1997  

PubMed Central

Limited information is available at the national and district levels on causes of death among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. During 1996–1997, health-service functionaries in facilities providing obstetric and maternal and child-heath services were interviewed on their knowledge of deaths of women aged 10–50 years in the past 12 months. In addition, case reports were abstracted from medical records in facilities with in-patient services. The study covered 4,751 health facilities in Bangladesh. Of 28,998 deaths reported, 13,502 (46.6%) occurred due to medical causes, 8,562 (29.5%) due to pregnancy-related causes, 6,168 (21.3%) due to injuries, and 425 (1.5%) and 259 (0.9%) due to injuries and medical causes during pregnancy respectively. Cardiac problems (11.7%), infectious diseases (11.3%), and system disorders (9.1%) were the major medical causes of deaths. Pregnancy-associated causes included direct maternal deaths (20.1%), abortion (5.1%), and indirect maternal deaths (4.3%). The highest proportion of deaths among women aged 10–19 years was due to injuries (39.3%) with suicides accounting for 21.7%. The largest proportion of direct obstetric deaths occurred among women aged 20–29 years (30.5%). At least one quarter (24.3%) of women (n=28,998) did not receive any treatment prior to death, and 47.8% received treatment either from a registered physician or in a facility. More focus is needed on all causes of deaths among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh.

Yusuf, Hussain R.; Akhter, Halida H.; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rochat, Roger W.

2007-01-01

308

[Late diagnoses of 21-hydroxylase deficiencies in children (after the age of 3 years].  

PubMed

To evaluate the heterogeneity of 21-hydroxylase deficiency with delayed symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings at presentation in 29 patients whose first symptoms occurred after three years of age were analyzed retrospectively. In 12 patients, these data were confronted with the results of molecular CYP21B gene analysis. Age at onset was 7 years on average and was comparable in boys and girls. Premature puberty was the most common presenting symptom [n = 24], whereas hirsutism, clitoral enlargement, and menstruation disorders were less frequent. Six cases were diagnosed as the result of routine studies of family members of index patients. The bone age over statural age ratio was greater than 1 in 19 of the 27 patients. Baseline 17-OH-progesterone levels were elevated in 22 of the 27 patients; magnitude of the elevation varied widely. Levels of 17-OH-progesterone after stimulation with immediate-action tetracosactide were closely correlated with baseline values and established the diagnosis in doubtful cases. Four patients had post-stimulation 17-OH-progesterone levels under 10 ng/ml, suggesting that were heterozygous for the disease. An important finding was that the magnitude of the devation in 17-OH-progesterone was not clearly correlated with clinical findings at presentation (age at onset, growth rate, advance in bone age). Molecular CYP21B gene analysis performed in 12 patients disclosed a homozygous 281 Val Leu mutation in 6 cases. This is the most commonly reported mutation in delayed onset forms. Two patients were heterozygous for the 281 Val Leu mutation and had an allele associated with severe disease, suggesting that the least severely affected chromosome governed clinical presentation of the disease. One boy had an allele associated with neonatal onset on both chromosomes; molecular analysis indicated a risk of antenatal masculinization of female fetuses in this family. This study showed that delayed onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a heterogeneous entity and that molecular analysis is essential to genetic counseling. PMID:8239392

Carel, J C; Marrakchi, Z; Roger, M; Morel, Y; Chaussain, J L

1993-09-01

309

Feeding strategy of juvenile (age-0+ year) Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi in the Patagonian nursery ground.  

PubMed

Age-0+ year juvenile Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi (60-150?mm total length, L(T)) from San Jorge Gulf, north Patagonian shelf region of the Argentine Sea, had an almost exclusively pelagic diet dominated by the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii and the euphausiid Euphausia lucens. This suggested that final settlement and permanent demersal habitat utilization might not, as previously reported, occur at earlier sizes (c. 20?mm L(T)). Their feeding strategy involves specialization at a population level towards both the main pelagic prey, indicating a narrow trophic niche. Novel data are provided which contribute to the growing body of information in relation to the age-0+ year transitional stage in demersal fishes and particularly to M. hubbsi recruitment in the Argentine Sea. PMID:24580669

Temperoni, B; Viñas, M D; Buratti, C C

2013-11-01

310

Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ? 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05). PMID:21467598

Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

2011-02-01

311

MR Volumetry of Hippocampus in Normal Adult Malay of Age 50 Years Old and Above  

PubMed Central

Background: Hippocampal volume is affected by several psychiatric illnesses of old age, as well as by normal aging. It is important to have a normal data in a population to assist in diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine hippocampal volume in normal Malay people aged 50 years old and older. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of the normal Malay population aged 50 to 77 years. We included 43 participants, representing 19 men and 24 women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a GE Signa Horizon LX 1.0 Tesla. Oblique coronal images of temporal lobes were obtained and hippocampal volumetry was done manually and normalised with intracranial volume. Results: Mean right and left hippocampal volumes (HCVs) were 3.43 cm³ (SD 0.32) and 3.26 cm³ (SD 0.34), with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). Total mean HCVs exhibited no significant difference between men and women (P = 0.234). The means of the normalised right and left HCVs were 3.42 cm³ (SD 0.31) and 3.26 cm³ (SD 0.32). Conclusion: The mean right and left hippocampal volumes were significantly different in this study. Men had slightly larger mean HCVs but the difference was not statistically significant. It was found that normalisation further reduces the mean volume difference between the genders.

EMBONG, Muhammad Fadli; YAACOB, Ruwaida; ABDULLAH, Mohd Shafie; ABDUL KARIM, Ahmad Helmy; GHAZALI, Anis Kausar; JALALUDDIN, Win Mar @ Salmah

2013-01-01

312

Rhinitis in children less than 6 years of age: current knowledge and challenges  

PubMed Central

Rhinitis is a disease of the upper airway characterized by runny and/or blocked nose and/or sneezing. Though not viewed as a life threatening condition, it is also recognized to impose significant burden to the quality of life of sufferers and their caretakers and imposes an economic cost to society. Through a PubMed online search of the literature from 2006 to September 2011, this paper aims to review the published literature on rhinitis in young children below the age of 6 years. It is apparent from epidemiology studies that rhinitis in this age group is a relatively common problem. The condition has a heterogenous etiology with classification into allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. Respiratory viral infections may play a role in the pathogenesis of long standing rhinitis, but definitive studies are still lacking. Treatment guidelines for management are lacking for this age group, and is a significant unmet need. Although the consensus is that co-morbidities including otitis media with effusion, adenoidal hypertrophy and asthma, are important considerations of management of these children. Pharmacotherapy is limited for young children especially for those below the age of 2 years. This review underscores the lack of understanding of rhinitis in early childhood and therefore the need for further research in this area.

Hardjojo, Antony; Shek, Lynette PC; van Bever, Hugo PS

2011-01-01

313

Apheresis and transplant of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) from allogeneic donors of age above 60 years.  

PubMed

Over the immediate past 4 years, our program has collected hematopoietic progenitor cells by apheresis from 48 individuals aged 61 and over (range 61-71 years of age). We have retrospectively analyzed the collection and transplant results associated with employing these donors, and have compared them with 175 donors aged 60 or less who were collected during the same time period. We have found no significant difference in venous access (P = 0.208), rate of post-transplant engraftment of neutrophils (P = 0.117) and platelets (P = 0.692), or in rate and grade of acute GVHD (P = 0.806). However, we have found that these older donors have a significantly lower mobilization of CD34 + cells as reflected in lower absolute counts of circulating CD34 + cells pre-apheresis (P = 0.016). This, in turn, results in lower CD34 + cell yields in apheresis products (P < 0.001), trending towards requiring more apheresis procedures (22.9 vs 13.7%, P = 0.095) to collect sufficient CD34 + cells for transplantation. We conclude that it is practical when necessary to employ donors aged 60 and above, as well as safe for both donor and intended recipient. However, concern over reduced CD34 + cell mobilization may be sufficient grounds to seek younger donors when possible. PMID:22562079

Janssen, W E; Rahn, D; Hackett, M; Coyle, D; Tomblyn, M; Smilee, R C; Anasetti, C; Fernandez, H F

2012-12-01

314

A New Dimension to Relative Age Effects: Constant Year Effects in German Youth Handball  

PubMed Central

In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. [1]. The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise.

Schorer, Jorg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.

2013-01-01

315

Growth, psychomotor development and morbidity up to 3 years of age in children born after IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To examine the long-term child outcome after IVF until the age of 3 years in Northern Finland, we conducted a population-based cohort study. METHODS: First, a cohort of 299 IVF children born in 1990-1995 was compared with a cohort of 558 controls representing the general population in terms of a multiple birth rate of 1.2%, randomly chosen from the

S. Koivurova; A.-L. Hartikainen; U. Sovio; M. Gissler; E. Hemminki; M.-R. Jarvelin

2003-01-01

316

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino adults aged 20 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using data collected from 4,541 adults aged 20 years and over covered in the Fifth National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. The metabolic variables ana- lyzed were: total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. In addition, measurements of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)

Celeste C Tanchoco; Arsenia J Cruz RND; Charmaine A Duante; Augusto D Litonjua

317

Occurrence of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at less than 1 year of age: analysis of 96 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed data of 96 infants (under 1 year of age) with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) from the registry of an HLH study conducted during 1986–2002 in Japan. The cases were classified into five groups. The diagnosis of familial HLH (FHL) as group 1 (n =27) was made with positive family history and\\/or recent molecular test for perforin and Munc13–4 mutations.

Shinsaku Imashuku; Ikuyo Ueda; Tomoko Teramura; Kanako Mori; Akira Morimoto; Masahiro Sako; Eiichi Ishii

2005-01-01

318

Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: epileptic and paretic outcome at one year of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The issue concerning neurologic outcome in patients with perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (H.I.E) has inspired many studies which tried to identify adequate prognostic factors. Our work aims to find among neonatal parameters: - factors which help to predict the risk to develop both Cerebral Palsy (CP) and secondary Epilepsy at one year of age in subjects affected by perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic

Federico Allemand; Federica Reale; Marco Sposato; Alessandro Allemand

2009-01-01

319

Size at Birth and Blood Pressure at 3 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between size at birth and blood pressure were examined in a population-based longitudinal study of pregnancy and childbirth in the English county of Avon (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC)) in 1994-1996. A total of 1,860 singleton children aged 3 years (response rate = 74%) were studied. Both height and body mass index were strongly

Peter H. Whincup; Maria Bredow; Fiona Payne; Sue Sadler; Jean Golding

320

Number processing and mental calculation in school children aged 7 to 10 years: a transcultural comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological studies of dyscalculic patients show that arithmetical development is not a unidimensional process. In\\u000a transcultural investigations, cultural, educational and linguistic factors might affect differently the various components\\u000a of mathematical development. Four hundred and sixty schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years from Brasilia, Brazil (n=141), Paris,\\u000a France (n=160) and Zurich, Switzerland (n=159) were asked to perform eleven number processing and

G. Dellatolas; M. von Aster; L. Willadino-Braga; M. Meier; G. Deloche

2000-01-01

321

Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of\\u000a depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6--14\\u000a years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in\\u000a this regard. The purpose of this study was twofold. Using data from the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey,\\u000a it sought: (1) to identify

Lise Bergeron; Jean-Pierre Valla; Nicole Smolla; Geneviève Piché; Claude Berthiaume; Marie St.-Georges

2007-01-01

322

Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.  

PubMed

Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75nmol/L (30ng/ml) and <50nmol/L (20ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0)kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7)nmol/L (21.4 [10.7]ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2)nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2)nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2014-01-01

323

Dental radiography after age 25 years, amalgam fillings and tumours of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of diagnostic dental radiography and amalgam fillings as risk factors for tumours of the central nervous system (CNS). This population-based case—control study included subjects aged 25–74 years, living in the catchment area of the Neurosurgery Department of Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden. A total of 192 cases of glioma, 99

Y. Rodvall; A. Ahlbom; G. Pershagen; M. Nylander; B. Spännare

1998-01-01

324

Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of

M. Haftenberger; G. Viergutz; V. Neumeister; G. Hetzer

2001-01-01

325

Transsphenoidal surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas in patients aged 80 years or older.  

PubMed

To know the clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas in the elderly patients aged 80 years or older who were surgically treated. From 1995 through 2012, 907 patients underwent surgery for the pituitary adenomas at Kagoshima- and Hiroshima University hospitals in Japan. Ten (1.1%) patients were aged 80 years or older. We retrospectively assessed the clinical characteristics including preoperative comorbidities, manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and endocrinologic features of these ten patients. The subjects included eight males and two females. Their ages ranged from 80 to 86 with mean of 83.1 years. Of these, besides one case of growth hormone-producing adenoma, others were clinically nonfunctioning adenoma. Six patients had modest comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney dysfunction, and all patients were classified into grade 2-3 on American Society of Anesthesiologists' Physical Status grading. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in all due to visual disturbance in eight, diabetes mellitus as an intercurrent illness of acromegaly in one, and for the purpose of preventing visual disturbance in one patient who had an adenoma impinging optic chiasm but still had normal visual field. The surgeries provided sufficient decompression of the optic pathways and improved visual disorder in all. In an acromegalic male, his comorbidities considerably improved. No permanent surgical morbidity ensued. More than three axes of anterior pituitary hormones were preoperatively impaired in all, which were rarely recovered. Transsphenoidal surgery is safe and efficient treatment way for patients aged 80 years or older with pituitary adenomas with chiasmatic symptoms when the patients' general condition is well preserved and pituitary hormonal deficiency is adequately replaced. PMID:24233259

Yunoue, Shunji; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Fujio, Shingo; Karki, Prasanna; Usui, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Habu, Mika; Moinuddin, F M; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

2014-04-01

326

Weight gain in childhood and body composition at 18 years of age in Brazilian males  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the association between weight gain at different time periods during childhood and measures of adiposity in late adolescence. Methods A population-based birth cohort carried out in Pelotas, a 320 000-inhabitant city in a relatively developed area in Southern Brazil. All newborns in the city's hospitals were enrolled in 1982. Weight gain from 0–1, 1–2, 2–4 and 4–15 years were expressed as changes in weight-for-age Z-scores relative to the NCHS/WHO reference. In 2000, 79% (2250) of all males were located when enrolling at the national Army. Weight and height were assessed. Body composition indicators (fat mass/height2, lean mass/height2, fat mass/lean mass2.3) were estimated through bioimpedance. Analyses were adjusted for maternal and social factors, as well as for gestational age. Results In the adjusted analyses, birthweight and weight gain in the first year of life were positively associated with attained height at age 18 years. Except for the fat mass/lean mass2.3 ratio, all weight-related outcomes were positively associated with weight gain in different periods of life. Children who gained weight rapidly in more than one time period became fatter at age 18 years, independently of when fast growth took place. Conclusions Height was primarily determined by fetal and infant growth. Weight-related indices, including the fat/lean mass ratio, were more strongly influenced by later growth. No clear critical windows of growth during which absolute tissue masses are programmed could be identified.

Victora, Cesar G; Sibbritt, David; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosangela C; ScD, Tim Cole; Wells, Jonathan

2007-01-01

327

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of New Zealanders aged 15 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Vitamin D plays an important role in bone health. Our purpose was to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and their determinants in a national sample (n=2,946) of New Zealanders aged 15 years and over.Findings  Mean (99% CI) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 47 (45–50) nmol\\/l in women and 52 (49–55) nmol\\/l in men. Mean concentrations in New Zealand European and Others (NZEO,

J. E. P. Rockell; C. M. Skeaff; S. M. Williams; T. J. Green

2006-01-01

328

Recovery O 2 and blood lactic acid: longitudinal analysis in boys aged 11 to 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Nineteen boys were tested annually from age 11 to 15 years. Recovery O2 (or O2 debt in l and ml · kg–1) and blood lactate ([La], mmol · l–1) were measured following supramaximal treadmill tests (20% grade) designed to stress the anaerobic energy systems maximally. The purpose was to describe the rate of development of anaerobic capacity (AnC) from pre-puberty

D. H. Paterson; D. A. Cunningham; L. A. Bumstead

1986-01-01

329

Percentiles for body mass index in U.S. children 5 to 17 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: It has been recommended that body mass index (BMI) (weight in kilograms\\/height in meter2) be used routinely to evaluate obesity in children and adolescents. This report describes the distribution of BMI in children and adolescents in the United States. Methods: Standardized measurements of height and weight from 9 large epidemiologic studies including 66,772 children age 5 to 17 years

Bernard Rosner; Ronald Prineas; Jennifer Loggie; Stephen R. Daniels

1998-01-01

330

Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters--Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population.

El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Tuma, Mazin; El-Hennawy, Hany; AbdulRahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Asim, Mohammad; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat

2013-01-01

331

Aging in humans: a continuous 20-year study of physiologic and dietary parameters.  

PubMed

The old adage, "You are what you eat," is not always reliable, as demonstrated in this mixed-longitudinal study of men that began in 1969. Mean values of percent body fat, total body potassium (TBK), and total serum cholesterol (SCHOL) did not show changes that correlated with any studied nutrient from repeated 4-day diet records. Mean blood pressure increased with increased body weight as age increased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased when polyunsaturated fat intake increased. The men had decreased mean height, TBK and increase in percent body fat as age increased. Food energy intake decreased equally from carbohydrates, protein and fat as age increased. Large standard deviations of mean values of measured parameters document heterogeneity of these subjects. A subset of 144 male cohorts was studied serially for 20 years in time-age, cross-sectional and longitudinal series. As they aged, height and TBK decreased (p < or = 0.05), percent body fat and blood pressure increased (p < or = 0.04) and SCHOL had no significant change. Intake of all nutrients decreased significantly (p < or = 0.03) longitudinally and with time, showing a time effect. PMID:1460180

Flynn, M A; Nolph, G B; Baker, A S; Krause, G

1992-12-01

332

Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children  

PubMed Central

The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

2013-01-01

333

Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Thyroglossal Duct Cysts in Children Under 11 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to review the computed tomography (CT) features of thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs) in children less than 11 years of age. A retrospective chart review was performed at Chonnam National University Hospital for the period of March 2005 to June 2011. CT scans of 16 patients having TDCs were evaluated for the following features: site of the mass, relationship to the midline, walls, margins, internal septa, rim enhancement, internal density, and the presence or absence of the thyroid gland. Of the 16 lesions, 8 (50%) were located in the midline and 12 (75%) were infrahyoid in location. Twelve (75%) of the 16 patients had well-circumscribed walls and peripheral rim enhancement. Internal septa were seen in four of the cysts, and all but one of the cysts demonstrated homogeneous or low-density attenuation. The most common CT findings of TDCs in children less than 11 years of age were a homogeneous or low-density lesion. TDCs in children under the age of 11 years were mostly located in the infrahyoid neck.

Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Se Hee; Yoon, Tae Mi; Joo, Young Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

2012-01-01

334

Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.  

PubMed

The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range. PMID:23785326

Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

2013-01-01

335

Influenza vaccination: the persuasiveness of messages among people aged 65 years and older.  

PubMed

About 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 years and older. Vaccination remains the primary option for preventing influenza infection. This study examined the efficacy of messages designed to increase the uptake of influenza vaccination. Two messages, narrative and didactic, were created based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The study employed a one-factor between-subjects experimental design with participants assigned randomly to three conditions: no message, didactic communication, and narrative communication. Participants were 311 Italian people aged 65 years or older. The results showed that, compared to no message and didactic communication, narrative communication was related to higher risk perception of influenza, to higher perception of the efficacy of the vaccine, and to self-efficacy related to vaccination, controlling for social trust, previous flu shot, and demographic variables. There were no differences among the three conditions with respect to the intention to receive the influenza vaccine. Findings suggest that narrative communication based on EPPM may have a persuasive effect on people aged 65 years or older. PMID:21957983

Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Zani, Bruna

2012-01-01

336

Cognitive Function at 3 Years of Age after Fetal Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Fetal exposure of animals to antiepileptic drugs at doses lower than those required to produce congenital malformations can produce cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, but cognitive effects of fetal exposure of humans to antiepileptic drugs are uncertain. METHODS Between 1999 and 2004, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy who were taking a single antiepileptic agent (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) in a prospective, observational, multicenter study in the United States and the United Kingdom. The primary analysis is a comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 6 years after exposure to different antiepileptic drugs in utero. This report focuses on a planned interim analysis of cognitive outcomes in 309 children at 3 years of age. RESULTS At 3 years of age, children who had been exposed to valproate in utero had significantly lower IQ scores than those who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs. After adjustment for maternal IQ, maternal age, antiepileptic-drug dose, gestational age at birth, and maternal preconception use of folate, the mean IQ was 101 for children exposed to lamotrigine, 99 for those exposed to phenytoin, 98 for those exposed to carbamazepine, and 92 for those exposed to valproate. On average, children exposed to valproate had an IQ score 9 points lower than the score of those exposed to lamotrigine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 14.6; P = 0.009), 7 points lower than the score of those exposed to phenytoin (95% CI, 0.2 to 14.0; P = 0.04), and 6 points lower than the score of those exposed to carbamazepine (95% CI, 0.6 to 12.0; P = 0.04). The association between valproate use and IQ was dose dependent. Children’s IQs were significantly related to maternal IQs among children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or phenytoin but not among those exposed to valproate. CONCLUSIONS In utero exposure to valproate, as compared with other commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is associated with an increased risk of impaired cognitive function at 3 years of age. This finding supports a recommendation that valproate not be used as a first-choice drug in women of childbearing potential.

Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Combs-Cantrell, Deborah T.; Cohen, Morris; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

2009-01-01

337

Do Older Adults Aged 60-75 Years Benefit From Diabetes Behavioral Interventions?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In this secondary analysis, we examined whether older adults with diabetes (aged 60–75 years) could benefit from self-management interventions compared with younger adults. Seventy-one community-dwelling older adults and 151 younger adults were randomized to attend a structured behavioral group, an attention control group, or one-to-one education. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured A1C, self-care (3-day pedometer readings, blood glucose checks, and frequency of self-care), and psychosocial factors (quality of life, diabetes distress, frustration with self-care, depression, self-efficacy, and coping styles) at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months postintervention. RESULTS Both older (age 67 ± 5 years, A1C 8.7 ± 0.8%, duration 20 ± 12 years, 30% type 1 diabetes, 83% white, 41% female) and younger (age 47 ± 9 years, A1C 9.2 ± 1.2%, 18 ± 12 years with diabetes, 59% type 1 diabetes, 82% white, 55% female) adults had improved A1C equally over time. Importantly, older and younger adults in the group conditions improved more and maintained improvements at 12 months (older structured behavioral group change in A1C ?0.72 ± 1.4%, older control group ?0.65 ± 0.9%, younger behavioral group ?0.55 ± 1.2%, younger control group ?0.43 ± 1.7%). Furthermore, frequency of self-care, glucose checks, depressive symptoms, quality of life, distress, frustration with self-care, self-efficacy, and emotional coping improved in older and younger participants at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that, compared with younger adults, older adults receive equal glycemic benefit from participating in self-management interventions. Moreover, older adults showed the greatest glycemic improvement in the two group conditions. Clinicians can safely recommend group diabetes interventions to community-dwelling older adults with poor glycemic control.

Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Fitzgerald, Shane; Sitnikov, Lilya; Ganda, Om P.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Weinger, Katie

2013-01-01

338

Electronic structures of ruthenium and osmium complexes of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.  

PubMed

The reaction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) with [M(II)(H)(CO)(X)(PPh(3))(3)] in boiling toluene leads to the homolytic cleavage of the M(II)-H bond, affording the paramagnetic trans-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 1; M = Os, X = Br, 3) and cis-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 2; M = Os, X = Br, 4) complexes. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of 1, 2·toluene, and 4·CH(2)Cl(2), EPR spectra, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have substantiated that 1-4 are 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical (PQ(•-)) complexes of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) and are defined as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (1), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (2), trans-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO) Br] (3), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br] (4). Two comparatively longer C-O [average lengths: 1, 1.291(3) Å; 2·toluene, 1.281(5) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.300(8) Å] and shorter C-C lengths [1, 1.418(5) Å; 2·toluene, 1.439(6) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.434(9) Å] of the OO chelates are consistent with the presence of a reduced PQ(•-) ligand in 1-4. A minor contribution of the alternate resonance form, trans- or cis-[M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X], of 1-4 has been predicted by the anisotropic X- and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the frozen glasses of the complexes at 25 K and unrestricted DFT calculations on 1, trans-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (5), cis-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (6), and cis-[Os(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Br] (7). However, no thermodynamic equilibria between [M(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] and [M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] tautomers have been detected. 1-4 undergo one-electron oxidation at -0.06, -0.05, 0.03, and -0.03 V versus a ferrocenium/ferrocene, Fc(+)/Fc, couple because of the formation of PQ complexes as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (1(+)), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (2(+)), trans-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (3(+)), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (4(+)). The trans isomers 1 and 3 also undergo one-electron reduction at -1.11 and -0.96 V, forming PQ(2-) complexes trans-[Ru(II)(PQ(2-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](-) (1(-)) and trans-[Os(II)(PQ(2-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](-) (3(-)). Oxidation of 1 by I(2) affords diamagnetic 1(+)I(3)(-) in low yields. Bond parameters of 1(+)I(3)(-) [C-O, 1.256(3) and 1.258(3) Å; C-C, 1.482(3) Å] are consistent with ligand oxidation, yielding a coordinated PQ ligand. Origins of UV-vis/near-IR absorption features of 1-4 and the electrogenerated species have been investigated by spectroelectrochemical measurements and time-dependent DFT calculations on 5, 6, 5(+), and 5(-). PMID:22663598

Biswas, Manas Kumar; Patra, Sarat Chandra; Maity, Amarendra Nath; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Ghosh, Prasanta

2012-06-18

339

Candesartan cilexetil: in children and adolescents aged 1 to <17 years with hypertension.  

PubMed

Candesartan cilexetil is the orally administered prodrug of candesartan, an angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor antagonist. The pharmacokinetics (area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration) of candesartan do not appear to be affected by age, sex, or weight, with a similar exposure observed in children aged 1 to <6 years or >6 years and adults. Therapy with candesartan cilexetil 0.05, 0.20, and 0.40?mg/kg/day for 4 weeks was effective in the treatment of hypertension in children aged 1 to <6 years, inducing significant dose-dependent reductions from baseline in sitting SBP (SSBP) [primary endpoint] and sitting DBP (SDBP) in the double-blind phase of a randomized, parallel-group, multinational, dose-ranging clinical study. The criteria for antihypertensive response (SBP and DBP values that were less than the 95th percentile) were met by 28-66% of patients. The beneficial antihypertensive effects of candesartan cilexetil therapy were sustained for up to 160 weeks. No significant difference from zero in the slope of the placebo-adjusted change in SSBP (primary endpoint) and SDBP was observed across the three candesartan cilexetil treatment groups (candesartan cilexetil 2, 8, or 16?mg/day in patients weighing <50?kg and candesartan cilexetil 4, 16, or 32?mg/day in patients weighing ?50?kg) during the double-blind phase of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multinational, dose-ranging study in children and adolescents aged 6 to <17 years. Nonetheless, candesartan cilexetil demonstrated significantly greater changes from baseline to the end of the double-blind phase than placebo in SSBP and SDBP, with a significantly higher proportion of patients receiving candesartan cilexetil meeting the criteria for antihypertensive response than those receiving placebo. Antihypertensive response rates were sustained for 52 weeks. Candesartan cilexetil therapy for up to 160 weeks was generally well tolerated in clinical studies in children and adolescents aged 1 to <17 years with hypertension. PMID:20860416

Hoy, Sheridan M; Keating, Gillian M

2010-01-01

340

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our ?ndings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707

Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

2013-01-01

341

In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age.

Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cezar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

2012-01-01

342

Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school  

PubMed Central

Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n?=?3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n?=?1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

2014-01-01

343

Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

2000-01-01

344

Genetic and clinical features of patients with cystic fibrosis diagnosed after the age of 16 years.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in childhood, but a number of patients are not diagnosed until adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients diagnosed at an older age had a different genetic constitution, manifestations of disease, and prognosis from those diagnosed at an early age. METHODS--Clinical data and results of lung function tests and DNA analysis of 143 adult patients with cystic fibrosis were entered into a computerised database. Patients diagnosed before their 16th birthday (early diagnosis, ED) were compared with those diagnosed at 16 years of age or older (late diagnosis, LD). RESULTS--Mean age of diagnosis of the ED group was 4.6 years compared with 27.7 years for the LD group. Mean (SD) percentage predicted pulmonary function was better for the LD group than for the ED group: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 72.5 (31.1)% and 52.0 (24.8)%, and forced vital capacity (FVC) 89.8 (25.7)% and 71.9 (23.0)%, respectively. Colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was present in 70% of the ED group and 24% of the LD group. In the ED group 81% had pancreatic insufficiency compared with only 12% of the LD group. None of the LD group was homozygous for delta F508 compared with 58% of the ED group. In the LD group 72% were compound AF508 heterozygotes and 28% had two non-delta F508 mutations. CONCLUSIONS--Among this group of 143 adult patients with cystic fibrosis late diagnosis is caused mainly by delayed expression and mild progression of clinical symptoms. Late diagnosis is associated with milder pulmonary disease, less pancreatic insufficiency, and different cystic fibrosis mutations. Since mortality in cystic fibrosis depends on the progression of pulmonary disease, patients with a late diagnosis have a better prognosis than those diagnosed early.

Gan, K. H.; Geus, W. P.; Bakker, W.; Lamers, C. B.; Heijerman, H. G.

1995-01-01

345

Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

2013-01-01

346

Seroprevalence of Antipolio Antibodies among Children <15 Years of Age in Border Provinces in China  

PubMed Central

Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with countries where WPV is endemic. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalence among children <15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Individuals <15 years old who visited hospitals at the prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), P2, and P3 were assayed according to the World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers of ?8 were considered positive. Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2, and P3, respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3- to 5-year-old subjects had the highest rate of seropositivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age. The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio-free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent type 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China.

Wang, HaiBo; Cui, Hui; Ding, ZhengRong; Ba, Pian; Zhu, ShuangLi; Wen, Ning; Hao, LiXin; Ning, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, De; Xu, WenBo; Zhang, Yong; Fan, ChunXiang; Yu, WenZhou; Liang, XiaoFeng

2013-01-01

347

Primary endoprosthesis in comminuted humeral head fractures in patients over 60 years of age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the early subjective and functional results after primary endoprosthesis replacement for comminuted humeral head fractures in patients over 60 years old. Twenty comminuted humeral head fractures in 20 patients were treated primarily (within 3.5 days (range 0-17 days) with a Neer II modular shoulder prosthesis, and were then followed up for an average of 32. 5 months (range 17-44 months). The average age of the patients was 77 years (range 63-91 years). The average post-operative Constant score was 52 points (range 30-76). This was significantly less than that of the contralateral side where the score was 80 points (range 53-100), P=0.0001. The average active abduction was 90 degrees (contralateral 157 degrees ) and active flexion 99 degrees (contralateral 161 degrees ). Eighteen of the 20 patients experienced relief of pain and would accept the same procedure again. PMID:10486031

Boss, A P; Hintermann, B

1999-01-01

348

Changes in human blood pressure with season, age and solar cycles: a 26 year record.  

PubMed

The record was studied of a 71-year-old, diurnally active (0700-2200 hours) male psychiatrist (G.N.) who self-measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPS and BPD) mostly but not exclusively on Sunday mornings, from 1969 to 1994. A large about-yearly change was revealed which increased with age and was accompanied by a decreasing trend in the yearly rhythm-adjusted mean (MESOR; P < 0.01). According to conventional criteria that specify only upper limits of acceptability, G.N. was hypertensive in summer and normotensive in other seasons. Since changes in both MESOR and circannual amplitude occurred, a systematic surveillance of BP is the chronobiological recommendation. PMID:9008429

Portela, A; Northrup, G; Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Wendt, H; Melby, J C; Haus, E

1996-11-01

349

Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

Miyamoto, David T. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-07-15

350

Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh. PMID:23561052

Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

2014-01-01

351

Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.  

PubMed

Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37-41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

2012-01-01

352

In-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women aged 40 years and over.  

PubMed

The decline of fertility with age and its possible causes are discussed; in particular the effect of ageing of oocytes and the uterus, and the effect of the ageing processes on the results of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer in women aged > or =40 years. The role of prestimulation testing in older women is considered together with the importance of screening and counselling these patients about the likelihood of achieving a live birth. The potential problems that they may face should they become pregnant are reviewed, together with the role of oocyte donation as an alternative treatment for patients with reduced ovarian reserve. Possible ways of improving the chances of achieving a live birth in older women using their own oocytes are reviewed, including the use of more effective stimulation protocols, assisted embryo hatching and co-culture and high order embryo transfer. The outcome of pregnancies in older women and some of the ethical problems relating to their treatment are also discussed. PMID:9111181

Marcus, S F; Brinsden, P R

1996-01-01

353

Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

2012-01-01

354

Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

2009-01-01

355

Z-Score Reference Values for Height in Turkish Children Aged 6 to 18 Years  

PubMed Central

Ob­jec­ti­ve: Standard deviation score or Z-score reference charts are used in some countries in preference to percentile charts and are considered as better tools in assessing children with measurements outside the accepted limits of normality. Growth data for Istanbul children have previously been reported as percentiles; hence, the aim of this study is to present these data in Z-score reference tables. Data on secular trend in height in Turkish children will also be presented. Methods: Height and weight data based on a total of 11 664 height and 11 655 weight measurements in 1100 boys and 1020 girls between 6 and 18 years of age obtained by biannual visits to schools were analyzed. All children came from well-to-do families and were all healthy. All measurements were made by two trained technicians. The LMS method was used in the analyses. The results were expressed as Z-score values for age. Results: Heights of the boys and girls in all age groups were close to the updated USA growth references and showed an upward trend from previous data on Turkish children. Conclusions: Height growth in Turkish school-age children of high socioeconomic level conforms to the updated growth data for USA children and also shows a secular trend. The data also point to the importance of updating local growth data periodically.

Gunoz, Hulya; Bundak, Ruveyde; Furman, Andrzej; Darendeliler, Feyza; Saka, Nurcin; Bas, Firdevs; Neyzi, Olcay

2014-01-01

356

The Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and screen time among children from Kingston, Ontario  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess the proportion of children meeting the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and to describe parental attitudes toward and barriers to reducing screen time. METHODS: Participants included 657 children zero to four years of age from the Kingston, Ontario, area. From May to September 2011, parents completed a questionnaire regarding their child’s screen time and their attitudes toward and barriers to reducing their child’s screen time. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 32% of children younger than two years of age engaged in no screen time and approximately 46% of children two to four years of age engaged in <1 h per day; thereby, meeting the recommendations of the new guidelines. Most parents believed that their child did not engage in excessive screen time. Physicians and other health professionals should inform parents of these new guidelines and provide strategies to help their children meet targets.

Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Janssen, Ian

2013-01-01

357

Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years  

PubMed Central

Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a ‘mini-ice age’ with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times.

Balazik, Matthew T.; Garman, Greg C.; Fine, Michael L.; Hager, Christian H.; McIninch, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

358

Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and Child Behavior at Age 6-7 Years  

PubMed Central

Background: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban air pollutants from fossil fuel burning and other combustion sources. We previously reported that a broad spectrum of combustion-related DNA adducts in cord blood was associated with attention problems at 6–7 years of age in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) longitudinal cohort study. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between behavioral problems and two different measures of prenatal exposure—both specific to PAH—in the same cohort. Methods: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City (NYC) were followed from in utero to 6–7 years. Prenatal PAH exposure was estimated by personal air monitoring of the mothers during pregnancy as well as by the measurement of DNA adducts specific to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative PAH, in maternal and cord blood. At 6–7 years of age, child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 253). Generalized linear models were used to test the association between prenatal PAH exposure and behavioral outcomes. Results: In multivariate analyses, high prenatal PAH exposure, whether characterized by personal air monitoring (greater than the median of 2.27 ng/m3) or maternal and cord adducts (detectable or higher), was positively associated with symptoms of Anxious/Depressed and Attention Problems (p ? 0.05). Conclusion: These results provide additional evidence that environmental levels of PAH encountered in NYC air can adversely affect child behavior.

Tang, Deliang; Wang, Shuang; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Zhang, Bingzhi; Diaz, Diurka; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

2012-01-01

359

Relationship between Anthropometric Parameters with Menarche Age of School Girls (11-14 Years Old) in Shahroud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Though not impeding it, malnutrition during childhood delays the menarche age. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between anthropometric parameters with menarche age of adolescent (11-14- year old) girls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 middle school girls in Shahroud were randomly selected and studied. To demonstrate the participants' nutritional status, BMI was used for age, weight and

Mehri Delvarian-Zadeh; Ahmad Khosravi; Nahid Bolbolhaghighi; Hossein Ebrahimi

2008-01-01

360

Mental outcome following encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis in children with moyamoya disease with the onset earlier than 5 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mental prognosis of children with moyamoya disease, in whom the onset was when they were younger than 5 years of age, has been reported to be very poor. We studied the mental outcome of these patients after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) in relation to the age at the onset of the disease and the age at operation. For patients in whom

Yoshiharu Matsushima; Masaru Aoyagi; Hiroyuki Masaoka; Ryuta Suzuki; Kikuo Ohno

1990-01-01

361

9,10-Phenanthrenedione biodegradation by a soil bacterium and identification of transformation products by LC/ESI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Transformation of 9,10-phenanthrenedione, a cytotoxic derivative of phenanthrene, was shown to occur by a soil bacterium belonging to the genus Sphingobium. Phenanthrene-grown cells of this strain were exposed to 50mgL(-1) 9,10-phenanthrenedione in liquid cultures, extracted, and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Full scan analyses of exposed cells over the range from m/z 50 to m/z 500 were compared to abiotic and biotic controls. Product and precursor ion scan mode analyses indicated that at least three aromatic ring-cleavage transformation products of 9,10-phenanthrenedione were present and structures for these products, corresponding to [M-H](-)=271, [M-H](-)=241, and [M-H](-)=339 were proposed to be 4-(1-hydroxy-3,4-dioxo-2-naphthyl)-2-oxo-but-3-enoic acid, 2,2'-diphenic acid and 2-[(6-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxy-phenyl)-hydroxy-methyl]-5-oxo-hex-3-enedioic acid. The identity of 2,2'-diphenic acid was confirmed by comparison to an authentic standard and when the strain was exposed to 50mgL(-1) 2,2'-diphenic acid in separate assays, a transformation product with a similar mass spectrum as 9,10-phenanthrenedione-derived [M-H](-)=339 was revealed. Based upon these results, pathways for the transformation of 9,10-phenanthrenedione by strain KK22 were proposed. Strain KK22 appeared unable to use 9,10-phenanthrenedione as a growth substrate under these conditions. This is the first report of potential biotransformation pathways of 9,10-phenanthrenedione by a bacterium. PMID:23611246

Kanaly, Robert A; Hamamura, Natsuko

2013-09-01

362

Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.  

PubMed

To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID:24523931

Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

2014-01-01

363

Cervical Screening at Age 50-64 Years and the Risk of Cervical Cancer at Age 65 Years and Older: Population-Based Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is little consensus, and minimal evidence, regarding the age at which to stop cervical screening. We studied the association between screening at age 50–64 y and cervical cancer at age 65–83 y. Methods and Findings Cases were women (n?=?1,341) diagnosed with cervical cancer at age 65–83 y between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012 in England and Wales; age-matched controls (n?=?2,646) were randomly selected from population registers. Screening details from 1988 onwards were extracted from national databases. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) for different screening histories and subsequent cervical cancer. Women with adequate negative screening at age 65 y (288 cases, 1,395 controls) were at lowest risk of cervical cancer (20-y risk: 8 cancers per 10,000 women) compared with those (532 cases, 429 controls) not screened at age 50–64 y (20-y risk: 49 cancers per 10,000 women, with OR?=?0.16, 95% CI 0.13–0.19). ORs depended on the age mix of women because of the weakening association with time since last screen: OR?=?0.11, 95% CI 0.08–0.14 at 2.5 to 7.5 y since last screen; OR?=?0.27, 95% CI 0.20–0.36 at 12.5 to 17.5 y since last screen. Screening at least every 5.5 y between the ages 50 and 64 y was associated with a 75% lower risk of cervical cancer between the ages 65 and 79 y (OR?=?0.25, 95% CI 0.21–0.30), and the attributable risk was such that in the absence of screening, cervical cancer rates in women aged 65+ would have been 2.4 (95% CI 2.1–2.7) times higher. In women aged 80–83 y the association was weaker (OR?=?0.49, 95% CI 0.28–0.83) than in those aged 65–69 y (OR?=?0.12, 95% CI 0.09–0.17). This study was limited by an absence of data on confounding factors; additionally, findings based on cytology may not generalise to human papillomavirus testing. Conclusions Women with adequate negative screening at age 50–64 y had one-sixth of the risk of cervical cancer at age 65–83 y compared with women who were not screened. Stopping screening between ages 60 and 69 y in women with adequate negative screening seems sensible, but further screening may be justifiable as life expectancy increases. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

2014-01-01

364

Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ?70 years.  

PubMed

Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ?70 years (mean, 75±4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0±5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; P<0.001) for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ?4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; P<0.001), and 48% for the high-fit individuals (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69; P<0.001). These findings suggest that exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. PMID:24821944

Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

2014-07-01

365

A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50–74 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

By focusing on four health variables, handgrip strength, near visual acuity, tooth loss and hearing level, this study examined the different patterns of age-related changes in these variables in Chinese aged from 50 to 74 years, as well as explored the relationship among the variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2006 individuals. The data exhibited high quality with a low

Yili Wu; Zengchang Pang; Dongfeng Zhang; Wenjie Jiang; Shaojie Wang; Shuxia Li; Torben A. Kruse; Kaare Christensen; Qihua Tan

366

Spirometric standard of healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function test of various types are utilized clinically and epidemiologically to measures the functional status of the lung and to asses the diseases. Spirometric standard for healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years is conducted in National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH). This is cross sectional study is establish normal value of lung functions for Bangladeshi adult. Total of 995 (628 males & 367 females) healthy adults were selected to obtain lung function values; from a healthy adult those who attended in the hospital as a patients attended and healthy stuff of NIDCH. A computerized spirometer was used to measure lung volume and flows in a standard way. The best of the three reading was taken as the correct value. Anthropometric parameters including age, weight and height were recorded appropriately and body mass index was calculated. The statistical package for the social science (SPSS-10.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The pulmonary function data was separated by sex and classified on the basis of height weight age and body surface area. The mean and standard deviation was calculated for every such variable. The lung function variable shows a linear positive correlation with height, weight and age. Force vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) increase in height. Males show higher values for lung function variables than female. Stepwise regression analysis was done using age, height and weight, BMI as independent variable strong correlation was found between lung function values and independent variables. Height shows the highest correlation. The regression equation for lung function variables was determined for males and females considering height as independent variable. Lung function values of Bangladeshi adult were significantly lower than Nigerian, British and American result but nearly similar to Indian result. Nomogram was constructed in relation to height for males and females. PMID:23416817

Khuda, K M; Sultana, R; Bari, M R; Islam, R; Erfan, M A

2013-01-01

367

[Prolonged endotracheal intubation after open heart surgery under the age of one year].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prolonged endotracheal intubation after open heart surgery in neonates and babies with respect to the cardiac diseases most frequently responsible and the reasons for delayed extubation and the related mortality. Intubation was considered to be prolonged if lasting over 48 hours. This was a retrospective study of all cases of open heart surgery performed before one year of age between 1991 and 1996. Prolonged intubation was noted in 43.1% of cases (266/617). The frequency was much higher than in children over 1 year of age: 8.3% (56/725). Truncus arteriosus (93.5%: 29/31), obstructed total anomalous venous drainage (93.3%: 14/15). Taussig-Bing anomaly (83.3%: 5/6), interruption of the aortic arch (78.9%: 15/19), double outlet right ventricle (61.1%: 11/18) and transposition of the great arteries (50.2%: 107/213) were the commonest responsible malformations. The reasons for delayed extubation, often multiple, were established in 222 cases: cardiogenic shock or circulating failure in 155 cases, pulmonary dysfunction in 142 cases, surgical complications in 65 cases and neurological complications in 14 cases. Twelve patients died: 5 of congestive heart failure, 3 of pulmonary hypertension, 2 of septic shock and 1 of diffuse stenosis of the pulmonary veins. The mortality rate was 4.5% (12/266) in cases of prolonged intubation and 5.2% (32/617) for all infants operated during the first year of life. The authors conclude that a large number of infants undergoing open heart surgery undergo prolonged intubation because of their poor preoperative status and the particularly severe effects of cardiopulmonary bypass at this age. However, the associated mortality was low in this series. PMID:9587444

Sinzobahamvya, N; Malorny, S G; Brecher, A M; Urban, A E

1997-12-01

368

Rhabdomyosarcoma in Infants Less than One Year of Age: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Background Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children, occurs less commonly in infants. Historically, poorer outcomes have been seen for infants diagnosed with RMS than for older children. Methods We analyzed the characteristics, treatment administered, outcomes, and patterns of failure for infants < 1 year of age with non-metastatic RMS who were treated with multimodal therapy on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) protocols IRS-IV, D9602, and D9803. Results Seventy-six infants with non-metastatic RMS were treated on the 3 protocols from 1991 to 2005. Median age was 7.4 months (range 0.1–12 months). Tumor histology included embryonal (57%), alveolar (21%), and undifferentiated sarcoma/other (22%). Parameningeal primary site was less common in this infant cohort (3%) than for all patients treated on IRS-IV (25%). Estimated 5-year failure-free survival and overall survival (95% confidence intervals) are 57% (44%, 67%) and 76% (65%, 85%) for infants compared to 81% (79%, 83%) and 87% (85%, 89%) for ages 1–9 years. Twenty-three of 32 infants with treatment failure had local recurrence/progression with (n=3) or without (n=20) distant failure. The overall local failure rate was 30%. Median time to treatment failure was 13 months. FFS was worse for infants with Group III tumors and for those who received less than protocol recommended radiation therapy. Conclusions Infants with RMS appear to have worse outcomes than older patients, in part due to high rates of local failure. Concerns regarding morbidity in infants and reluctance to perform aggressive local control measures may lead to higher rates of local failure.

Malempati, Suman; Rodeberg, David A.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Anderson, James R.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Arndt, Carola A. S.

2010-01-01

369

Increased Rate of Amygdala Growth in Children Aged 2 to 4 Years With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Context Precocious amygdala enlargement is commonly observed in young children with autism. However, the age at which abnormal amygdala enlargement begins and the relative growth trajectories of the amygdala and total brain remain unclear. Objective To determine whether the rate of amygdala growth is abnormal and disproportionate to total brain growth in very young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Design Longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting Neuroimaging and diagnostic assessments were performed at an academic medical center. Participants were recruited from the community. Participants Baseline scans were acquired in 132 boys (85 with ASD and 47 control subjects with typical development [TD]; mean age, 37 months). Longitudinal magnetic resonance images were acquired in 70 participants (45 with ASD and 25 TD controls) 1 year later. Main Outcome Measure Amygdala volumes and total cerebral volumes (TCVs) were evaluated at both time points, and 1-year growth rates were calculated. Results The amygdala was larger in children with ASD at both time points, but the magnitude of enlargement was greater at time 2. The TCV was also enlarged in the children with ASD by the same magnitude at both time points. When we controlled for TCV, amygdala enlargement remained significant at both time points. The rate of amygdala growth during this 1-year interval was faster in children with ASD than in TD controls. The rate of TCV growth did not differ between groups. Post hoc exploratory analyses revealed 3 patterns of amygdala and TCV growth rates in the ASD group. Conclusions Disproportionate amygdala enlargement is present by 37 months of age in ASD. The amygdala continues to grow at an increased rate, but substantial heterogeneity exists in amygdala and TCV growth patterns. Future studies aimed at clinical characterization of different growth patterns could have implications for choice and outcomes of treatment and behavioral therapy.

Nordahl, Christine Wu; Scholz, Robert; Yang, Xiaowei; Buonocore, Michael H.; Simon, Tony; Rogers, Sally; Amaral, David G.

2013-01-01

370

Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5–13 pathogens, p<0·0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000–295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000–146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000–113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000–76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world.

Lanata, Claudio F.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Olascoaga, Ana C.; Torres, Carla X.; Aryee, Martin J.; Black, Robert E.

2013-01-01

371

Lifestyle and 15Year Survival Free of Heart Attack, Stroke, and Diabetes in Middle-aged British Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To examine the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and body mass index (BMI)) and the like- lihood of 15-year survival free of major cardiovascular end points and diabetes in middle-aged men. Methods: A prospective study of 7142 men aged 40 to 59 years at screening with no history of coronary heart dis- ease, diabetes,

S. Goya Wannamethee; A. Gerald Shaper; Mary Walker; Shah Ebrahim

1998-01-01

372

Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age

Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

2006-01-01

373

Sex education: the effect of a peer programme on pupils (aged 13-14 years) and their peer leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992 and 1993, 66 selected, trained peer leaders (aged 16-17 years) worked with 38 secondary school classes in the Southwest of England. Questionnaires elicited the views of the class teachers (N = 12), peer leaders (N = 54) and pupils (N = 884; 98 per cent). The majority of the pupils (aged 13-14 years), including those with low self-esteem

F. A. Phelps; A. R. Mellanby; N.J. Crichton; J. H. Tripp

1994-01-01

374

Adenoidectomy versus chemoprophylaxis and placebo for recurrent acute otitis media in children aged under 2 years: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of adenoidectomy compared with long term chemoprophylaxis and placebo in the prevention of recurrent acute otitis media in children aged between 10 months and 2 years. Design Randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Setting Oulu University Hospital, a tertiary centre in Finland. Participants 180 children aged 10 months to 2 years with recurrent acute otitis media.

Petri Koivunen; Matti Uhari; Jukka Luotonen; Aila Kristo; Risto Raski; Tytti Pokka; Olli-Pekka Alho

2004-01-01

375

Endometrial cancer in patients under 30 years of age. A report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two unusual cases of a 22- and a 28-year-old woman, respectively, who were found to have endometrial adenocarcinoma, are presented. The patients experienced abnormal vaginal bleeding and the diagnosis was made by dilatation and curettage. They declined treatment with progestagens, therefore, a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed in both cases. We emphasize the need of endometrial evaluation in young females with abnormal bleeding before starting any medical treatment. Specific problems of endometrial cancer at young age include delay in diagnosis, difficulty in pathologic interpretation of the curettings and the motivation of most patients to preserve their fertility. PMID:11134841

Daskalakis, G J; Mavrommatis, K G; Moulopoulos, G K; Diakomanolis, E S; Michalas, S S

2001-01-01

376

Development of motor abilities of trained Indian boys of 9-16 years of age.  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted on 294 north Indian boys of 9-16 years of age. The boys were studying in a sports school and were doing systematic sports training twice a day. The following tests were conducted on the subjects: Standing broad jump, standing shot put (4 kg), 40 m sprint, zig-zag run, forward bend and reach and endurance run. The results indicated that the spurt in height, weight and motor abilities of Indian boys is less pronounced than in boys of Europe and America.

Singh, H; Joon, D S; Kooner, K

1987-01-01

377

Aortic valvotomy for critical aortic stenosis in neonates and infants aged less than one year.  

PubMed Central

Between April 1974 and December 1987, 20 infants (six under one month of age) (mean weight 4.9 kg) underwent surgical valvotomy for critical aortic stenosis. Three of the four patients treated before 1976 died. Since 1979, 16 infants (four neonates) have undergone valvotomy with no deaths. Mortality for the whole group was 15%; in the neonates it was 33%. There were no late deaths. The survivors were followed up for a mean of 3 years 9 months and two required re-operations. The considerable improvement in surgical results in the past decade should be taken into account when newer techniques such as balloon dilatation are evaluated.

Balaji, S; Keeton, B R; Sutherland, G R; Shore, D F; Monro, J L

1989-01-01

378

Hip Fracture Risk in Older White Men Is Associated With Change in Body Weight From Age 50 Years to Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The older men in this study, observed for a to- tal of 13 620 person-years during the 8 years of follow- up, experienced 72 hip fractures, yielding an overall in- cidence rate of 5.3 per 1000 person-years. Extreme weight loss ($10%) beginning at age 50 years was associated in a proportional hazards model with increased risk of hip fracture

Marjolein Visser; Lara S. Davidovic; Stefania Maggi; Guohua Li; Tamara B. Harris

1998-01-01

379

The Prevalence of Seborrheic Keratoses in People Aged 15 to 30 Years: Is the Term Senile Keratosis Redundant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Forty (23.5%) of 170 respondents had at least one SK, with no significant difference between the sexes. There was an increase in prevalence with age from 15.7% in 15- to 19-year-olds to 32.3% in those aged 25 to 30 years. The size of the SKs also increased with age. A to- tal of 77.5% of SKs were found on

David Gill; Abe Dorevitch; Robin Marks

2000-01-01

380

Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

DiNucci, James M.

381

Iron status of Asian children aged 2 years living in England  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin and ferritin values were analysed in blood from 1057 children, aged 2 years, of Asian parents living in England. Children who had thalassaemia trait or a current/recent infection were excluded. Twenty nine per cent of Pakistani, 25% of Bangladeshi, and 20% of Indian children had haemoglobin < 110.0 g/l. The recent national diet and nutrition survey of preschool children found a prevalence of 12% of 2 year olds with haemoglobin < 110.0 g/l. No single factor accounted for more than a small proportion of the variance in haemoglobin and ferritin values, but the most significant factors that had a negative effect on iron status included the amount of cows' milk consumed, the use of a baby bottle, and mother's place of birth being outside of the UK. Taking vitamin or iron supplements was positively associated with iron status in one or more of the three groups. ??

Lawson, M; Thomas, M; Hardiman, A

1998-01-01

382

Dental general anaesthetic receipt among Australians aged 15+ years, 1998-1999 to 2004-2005  

PubMed Central

Background Adults receive dental general anaesthetic (DGA) care when standard dental treatment is not possible. Receipt of DGA care is resource-intensive and not without risk. This study explores DGA receipt among 15+-year-old Australians by a range of risk indicators. Methods DGA data were obtained from Australia's Hospital Morbidity Database from 1998–1999 to 2004–2005. Poisson regression modeling was used to examine DGA rates in relation to age, sex, Indigenous status, location and procedure. Results The overall DGA rate was 472.79 per 100,000 (95% CI 471.50–474.09). Treatment of impacted teeth (63.7%) was the most common reason for DGA receipt, followed by dental caries treatment (12.4%), although marked variations were seen by age-group. After adjusting for other covariates, DGA rates among 15–19-year-olds were 13.20 (95% CI 12.65–13.78) times higher than their 85+-year-old counterparts. Females had 1.46 (95% CI 1.45–1.47) times the rate of their male counterparts, while those living in rural/remote areas had 2.70 (95% CI 2.68–2.72) times the rate of metropolitan-dwellers. DGA rates for non-Indigenous persons were 4.88 (95% CI 4.73–5.03) times those of Indigenous persons. The DGA rate for 1+ extractions was 461.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 460.6–463.2), compared with a rate of 23.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 23.3–23.9) for 1+ restorations. Conclusion Nearly two-thirds of DGAs were for treatment of impacted teeth. Persons aged 15–19 years were disproportionately represented among those receiving DGA care, along with females, rural/remote-dwellers and those identifying as non-Indigenous. More research is required to better understand the public health implications of DGA care among 15+-year-olds, and how the demand for receipt of such care might be reduced.

Jamieson, Lisa M; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

2008-01-01

383

The Association Between Maternal Glucose Concentration and Child BMI at Age 3 Years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the association between child BMI at age 3 years and maternal glucose concentration among women without pre-existing diabetes or a gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data are from the Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition and Postpartum studies and include 263 mother-child pairs. Measured weights and heights at 3 years were used to calculate age- and sex-specific BMI z scores and percentiles. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine associations of continuous BMI z scores with maternal glucose concentration. Modified Poisson regression estimated risk ratios of child overweight/obesity (BMI ?85th percentile). RESULTS The mean (SD) maternal glucose concentration and prepregnancy BMI were 103.8 (23.7) mg/dL and 24.3 (5.9) kg/m2, respectively. At 3 years, the mean (SD) child BMI z score was 0.29 (0.99), 20.9% were overweight/obese and 5.3% were obese. In the adjusted model, when compared with glucose concentration <100 mg/dL, a concentration ?130 mg/dL was associated with significantly higher child BMI z score at 3 years (estimated z score difference of 0.39 [95% CI: 0.03–0.75]). With the use of the same reference category, a concentration ?130 mg/dL was associated with an approximate twofold greater risk of child overweight/obesity (adjusted risk ratio 2.34 [95% CI: 1.25–4.38]). CONCLUSIONS Fetal exposure to high maternal glucose concentration in the absence of pre-existing diabetes or GDM may contribute to the development of overweight/obesity in the offspring, independent of maternal prepregnancy BMI.

Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Chantala, Kim; Herring, Amy H.

2011-01-01

384

Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 37-41 Weeks  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (37–41 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.2–1.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.6–2.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (37–41 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue.

Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

2013-01-01

385

Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ? 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ?29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ?29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

2014-05-16

386

Hospital admissions before the age of 2 years in Western Australia.  

PubMed Central

A linked data file of birth records and hospital admissions was used to investigate inpatient hospital morbidity before 2 years of age for all non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children born in Western Australia in 1986. Of the non-Aboriginal children, 31.8% were admitted to hospital at least once before the age of 2 years, with an overall admission rate of 526/1000 live births; the corresponding figures for Aboriginal children were 68.7% and 2797. The mean number of days in hospital for each non-Aboriginal child admitted was 7.4, and 26.5 for Aboriginal children. Of the total cohort, 21% of non-Aboriginal and 20% of Aboriginal children were admitted only once, and 4% of non-Aboriginal and 36% of Aboriginal children were admitted at least three times; 23% of non-Aboriginal and 24% of Aboriginal children were admitted for only one major disease category, and 1% of non-Aboriginal and 16% of Aboriginal children were in at least four categories. The highest admission rates and highest percentages of the cohort admitted were for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and social admissions. These results illustrate the importance for both descriptive and analytical research of relating admissions to hospital for the total population to the individual child, and of using clinically relevant disease classifications.

Read, A W; Gibbins, J; Stanley, F J; Morich, P

1994-01-01

387

Alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) reference values in infants up to 2 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish reference values and factors associated with serum AFP elevation in infants. Five hundred twenty-four samples collected from infants up to the age of 2 years at the University Hospital Düsseldorf (Germany) were analyzed. At birth mean serum AFP levels were 41,687 ng/ml in 256 term babies and 158,125 ng/ml in 90 premature babies born before the 37th gestational week, excluding samples from children with factors known to be associated with AFP elevation. In the first 4 weeks of life, AFP levels decreased by 50% in 5.1 days in term babies. Between day 180 and 720 of life, AFP levels up to 87 ng/ml were within the 95.5% interval (assumed logarithmic normal distribution) with a mean of 8 ng/ml without a further decline. By the age of 2 years the infants of this study had not reached adult serum AFP levels (0-6 ng/ml). PMID:9592840

Blohm, M E; Vesterling-Hörner, D; Calaminus, G; Göbel, U

1998-01-01

388

Relationship between cranial base structure and maxillofacial components in children aged 3-5 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the inter-relationships between cranial base angle, the morphological variations of maxillofacial components, and growth of the anterior cranial base length. One hundred and twenty-two Japanese children aged 3-5 years with normal occlusion in the primary dentition were included in this investigation. To analyse the relationship between cranial base structure and maxillofacial components, the subjects were divided into three groups according to facial type (prognathic, orthognathic, or retrognathic) assessed by the magnitude of their NSAr angle (as cranial base angle). These categorized cephalometric profiles suggested that the antero-posterior location of the maxillofacial components corresponded to the NSAr angle. Factor analysis of cephalometric variables showed that the variation of maxillofacial components from the S-N line was strongly related to the cranial base angle. This normal range of morphological variation was distinguished from that of growth by the factor loadings. From these results, theoretical models of cephalometric profiles with normal occlusion were computed by linear regression analysis. Using the models, a standard profile related to an arbitrary cranial base angle was obtained for children with normal occlusion, aged 3-5 years. PMID:12001554

Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Yo; Noda, Tadashi

2002-04-01

389

Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen–associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

Celakovska, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerova, K; Vaneckova, J

2014-01-01

390

Peripheral arterial disease in HIV patients older than 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Our objective was to analyze the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in HIV patients at risk and to compare them with the general population. All HIV patients older than 50 years who attended our unit from October 2005-July 2006 and all persons attending for an annual medical checkup at an employees' insurance association during the same period were invited to participate in the study. Of the latter (n = 407), a person of the same sex and age (+/-5 years) was included for each HIV patient. PAD was assessed by the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in all subjects, and all completed the Edinburgh questionnaire. Ninety-nine HIV patients and 99 persons from the general population of the same age and sex were included in the study. The HIV patients had a greater prevalence of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and PAD, which was symptomatic in five of them and in one subject from the general population. Patients with HIV infection older than 50 had a high prevalence of PAD, and as it was asymptomatic in half the cases, an ABI may be performed in this population to actively look for PAD. Control of cardiovascular risk factors and the use of such drugs as platelet antiaggregation agents should therefore be optimized in this population. PMID:18620492

Palacios, Rosario; Alonso, Inmaculada; Hidalgo, Ana; Aguilar, Isabel; Sánchez, Miguel A; Valdivielso, Pedro; González-Santos, Pedro; Santos, Jesús

2008-08-01

391

Early lead exposure and neonatal jaundice: relation to neurobehavioral performance at 15 years of age.  

PubMed

A cohort of children who attended first grade in 1983 was identified in a Danish community with low-level lead pollution. Two groups with high and low postnatal lead exposure were generated on the basis of the dentin-lead concentration in shed deciduous incisors. At age 8 years, examination of 162 children matched according to gender and socioeconomic status had shown lead-related deficits in verbal intelligence and visuomotor coordination. Re-examination was now carried out in 141 children at age 15 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Bender Visual Motor Gestalt, Trail Making, and Visual Gestalts. In general, no lead-related effects could be detected in the group. However, in children with a history of neonatal jaundice, increased lead exposure was associated with mild neurobehavioral deficits, as indicated by lower verbal IQ scores and decreased visuomotor coordination. This finding suggested that moderate neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may have precipitated an increased sensitivity to subsequent exposure to lead. PMID:8336678

Damm, D; Grandjean, P; Lyngbye, T; Trillingsgaard, A; Hansen, O N

1993-01-01

392

Oxygen saturation in healthy children aged 5 to 16 years residing in Huayllay, Peru at 4340?m.  

PubMed

Hypoxemia is a major life-threatening complication of childhood pneumonia. The threshold points for hypoxemia vary with altitude. However, few published data describe that normal range of variation. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of normal mean Sao(2) levels and an approximate cutoff point to define hypoxemia for clinical purposes above 4300 meters above sea level (masl). Children aged 5 to 16 yr were examined during primary care visits at the Huayllay Health Center. Huayllay is a rural community located at 4340?m in the province of Pasco in the Peruvian Andes. We collected basic sociodemographic data and evaluated three outcomes: arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) with a pulse oximeter, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Comparisons of main outcomes among age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, and 15-16 yr) and sex were performed using linear regression models. The correlation of Sao(2) with heart rate and respiration rate was established by Pearson's correlation test. We evaluated 583 children, of whom 386 were included in the study. The average age was 10.3 yr; 55.7% were female. The average Sao(2), heart rate, and respiratory rate were 85.7% (95% CI: 85.2-86.2), 80.4/min (95% CI: 79.0-81.9), and 19.9/min (95% CI: 19.6-20.2), respectively. Sao(2) increased with age (p?age group. At 4300?m, the reference values for hypoxemia may be 14.2% lower than at sea level. This difference must be considered when diagnosing hypoxemia or deciding oxygen supplementation at high altitude. Other studies are needed to determine whether this reference value is appropriate for clinical use. PMID:21452970

Schult, Sandra; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos

2011-01-01

393

Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium intakes in Japanese children aged 3 to 5 years.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate in preschool children the intakes of Ca, Mg that possibly affect health and tooth formation and the intakes of K and Na that may affect lifestyle-related diseases. Information on dietary intake was collected from 90 preschool children (15 boys and 15 girls each in the 3-, 4- and 5-year old groups) on 3 separate days in the school fiscal year 1999 (April 1999 to March 2000) by the duplicate-diet technique. The Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using wet-ashed samples. The medians of mean daily intakes of Ca, Mg, K and Na in 3- to 5-year-old children were 432 mg, 110 mg, 1.18 g and 1.60 g, respectively, and no significant differences with regard to gender were observed. Seasonal varia-tion of intake was seen for each mineral. Calcium intake in most preschool children did not meet adequate intake (AI), probably due to low intakes of milk and dairy products in Japan. Magnesium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR) in 13.3% of the subjects, while the K intake met the AI. Sodium intake in a quarter of preschool children exceeded the tentative dietary goal. We concluded that in Japanese children aged 3-5 years; Ca intake is low, Na intake is high, and K intake is adequate, but some children could be at risk for Mg deficiency. PMID:18818164

Shibata, Tomiko; Murakami, Taeko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Narita, Naoki; Goshima, Miho; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru

2008-01-01

394

Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with atrophy in Alzheimer's and aging over 2 years.  

PubMed

We sought to describe change in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness over 2 years in those with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and nondemented aging and assess the relationship of CR fitness with cognitive decline, brain atrophy, and dementia progression. Individuals with early-stage AD (n = 37) and without dementia (n = 53) attended clinical evaluations, cognitive and exercise tests, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 2 years later. CR fitness was lower in those with AD over the study period. Lower baseline CR fitness was associated with progression of dementia severity in AD. Declining CR fitness over 2 years was associated with brain atrophy in AD, especially in the parahippocampus. In nondemented participants, there was a trend for lower baseline fitness to be related to cognitive decline. Both lower baseline CR fitness and declining CR fitness over 2 years were associated with regional brain atrophy. We conclude that CR fitness is chronically reduced in those with AD. Further, in those with AD, CR fitness is associated with progression of dementia severity and brain atrophy in AD, suggesting a link between progression of dementia severity and cardiorespiratory health. PMID:21531480

Vidoni, Eric D; Honea, Robyn A; Billinger, Sandra A; Swerdlow, Russell H; Burns, Jeffrey M

2012-08-01

395

Breast carcinoma in young females below the age of 40 years: A histopathological perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer among young women is a rare pathology, but is known to have a more aggressive behavior and poorer outcome. Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of breast carcinoma below 40 years in comparison to that over 40 years in Manipur, India. Settings and Design: This retrospective study from the period of January 2005-December 2010 was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur. Materials and Methods: All cases of mastectomy specimens of carcinoma breast from the period of January 2005-December 2010 were included in the study. Clinical and histopathological data of all cases were reviewed and correlated. Results: A total of 507 mastectomy specimens were received, among which, 160 cases (31.56%) were below 40 years; whereas 347 cases (68.44%) were above 40 years of age. Stage III was the commonest stage (47% versus 18%) in the younger group; while in the older group, Stage II was the commonest (64% versus 34%). Conclusion: This study shows that young females with breast cancer have higher stage of tumor.

Thangjam, Shitalmala; Laishram, Rajesh Singh; Debnath, Kaushik

2014-01-01

396

National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.  

PubMed

At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ?1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ?1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ?1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

2013-08-30

397

The development of rapid online control in children aged 6-12 years: reaching performance.  

PubMed

Rapid online control during reaching has an important bearing on movement accuracy and flexibility. It is surprising then that few studies have investigated the development of rapid online control in children. In this study, we were particularly interested in age-related changes in the nature of motor control in response to visual perturbation. We compared the performance of younger (6-7 years of age), mid-aged (8-9), and older (10-12) children, as well as healthy young adults using a double-step reaching task. Participants were required to make target-directed reaching movements in near space, while also responding to visual perturbations that occurred at movement onset for a small percentage of trials. Results showed that both the older and mid-aged children corrected their reaching in response to the unexpected shifts in target location significantly faster than younger children, manifest by reduced time to correction. In turn, the responses of adults were faster than older children in terms of movement time and on kinematic measures such as time to correction and time to peak velocity. These results indicate that the capacity to utilize forward estimates of limb position in the service of online control of early perturbations to ballistic (or rapid) reaching develops in a non-linear fashion, progressing rapidly between early and middle childhood, showing a degree of stability over mid and later childhood, but then evidence for continued refinement between childhood and young adulthood. The pattern of change after childhood and into early adolescence requires further investigation, particularly during the rapid phase of physical growth that accompanies puberty. PMID:23932022

Wilson, Peter H; Hyde, Christian

2013-10-01

398

Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged <=20 Years in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ?20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ?20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We present the first empirical estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium prevalence at high spatial resolution throughout West Africa. Our prediction maps allow prioritizing of interventions in a spatially explicit manner, and will be useful for monitoring and evaluation of schistosomiasis control programs.

Schur, Nadine; Hurlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traore, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuente, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jurg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2011-01-01

399

Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day’s school lunch reported by 6–8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child’s intake of the previous day’s lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children’s recalls and teachers’ records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Findings Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6–8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson’s correlations r=0.92, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement between child-reported and weighed intakes but confirmed systematic differences between teacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Conclusions Children 6–8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake. Parents were not able to report on their children’s school lunches consumed on the previous day.

2013-01-01

400

Age-related changes in Os calcis ultrasonic indices: a 2-year prospective study.  

PubMed

We performed repeated ultrasound measurements approximately 2 years apart (average 23 months +/- 3 months) on the os calcis of 113 healthy postmenopausal women recruited from two large prospective cohort studies named OFELY and EPIDOS. Group A (from OFELY) consisted of 88 women aged 52-72 (63 +/- 5) years, randomly selected from a large insurance company, and group B (from EPIDOS) consisted of 25 women aged 75-88 (80 +/- 4) years, randomly selected from the voting lists. We obtained broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measurements, as well as the Stiffness index, with a Lunar Achilles ultrasound machine. We performed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of femoral neck bone mineral density (neck BMD) with a Hologic QDR 2000 for group A and with a Lunar DPX Plus for group B. The decrease that we observed over 2 years was on average +/- 1 SD: -1.01 +/- 4.6 dB/MHz (p = 0.02) for BUA (which is approximately equal to the long-term precision error in vitro), -11.3 +/- 9.2 m/s (p = 0.0001) for SOS (approximately 5 times the precision error), -3.8 +/- 4.2% YA (p = 0.0001) for Stiffness (2.5 times the precision error) and -0.01 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (p = 0.0001) for neck BMD (approximately equal to the precision error). In terms of percentage change this represents: -1.0% +/- 4.3% for BUA, -0.8% +/- 0.6% for SOS and -1.85% +/- 4.4% for neck BMD. At the individual level, most SOS and Stiffness values were consistent with a decrease, whereas BUA and neck BMD values were spread out above and below the zero line of no change. The decreases in SOS and Stiffness were significantly larger in the early postmenopause (< or = 20 years since menopause [YSM]) than in the late postmenopause (> 20 YSM). We observed a similar trend for BUA and BMD but this did not reach statistical significance. We found a weak but significant correlation between changes in ultrasound variables and changes in neck BMD. However, the 2-year changes observed in SOS were not significantly correlated with changes in BUA. This study suggests that the heel ultrasound measurements of SOS and Stiffness are valuable indices of postmenopausal bone loss, and could be used for follow-up in therapeutic trials. PMID:8695972

Schott, A M; Hans, D; Garnero, P; Sornay-Rendu, E; Delmas, P D; Meunier, P J

1995-01-01

401

Follow-up study of functional and morphological malocclusion trait changes from 3 to 12 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological and functional malocclusion trait changes in 3- to 12-year-old children and to determine whether such functional traits at the 3, 4, and 5 years of age correlated with malocclusion severity score at 12 years of age. Two hundred and sixty-seven children (132 boys, 135 girls) were randomly selected for a

Maja Ovsenik; Franc Marjan; Majda Korpar; Ivan Verdenik

402

The pharmacological effects of novel 5-fluoro-N-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracen-8-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide derivatives on plasma lipid profile of Triton-WR-1339-induced Wistar rats.  

PubMed

A novel series of 5-fluoro-N-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracen-8-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamides (3c-3g) were synthesized. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic effect of these novel compounds on hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg). The tested animals were divided into normal control (NCG), hyperlipidemic control (HCG), compounds 3c-, 3d-, 3e-, 3f-, 3g- and bezafibrate (BF)-treated groups. At a dose of 15 mg/kg, compounds 3c-3g and BF (100 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced elevated plasma triglycerides levels after 12 and 24 h compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. However, only compounds 3e and 3g obviously showed a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in plasma total cholesterol levels after 12 and 24 h. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in all treated groups. The current study demonstrates that 5-fluoro-N-(9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracen-8-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamides (3c-3g) have a definite antihyperlipidemic potential and these beneficial activities may contribute to their cardioprotective and antiatherosclerotic role. PMID:22651797

Shattat, Ghassan; Al-Qirim, Tariq; Sheikha, Ghassan Abu; Al-Hiari, Yusuf; Sweidan, Kamal; Al-Qirim, Rania; Hikmat, Suhair; Hamadneh, Lama; Al-Kouz, Sameer

2013-08-01

403

A Randomized Trial of Atropine versus Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 10 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the visual acuity outcome at 10 years of age for children less than 7 years of age when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomized to patching or atropine eye drops for 6 months. Two years after enrollment, a subgroup of 188 children entered long-term follow-up. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator; 89% of children were treated. Main outcome measure Visual acuity at age 10 years with the electronic ETDRS test. Results The mean amblyopic eye acuity, measured in 169 patients, at age 10 years was 0.17 logMAR (approximately 20/32) and 46% of amblyopic eyes were 20/25 or better. Age < 5 years at the time of entry into the randomized trial was associated with a better visual acuity outcome (P<0.001). Mean amblyopic and sound eye visual acuities at age 10 years were similar in the original treatment groups (P= 0.56 and 0.80, respectively). Conclusion At age 10 years the improvement of the amblyopic eye is maintained, although residual amblyopia is common following treatment initiated at 3 to <7 years of age. The outcome is similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. Application to Clinical Practice Patching and atropine eye drops produce comparable improvement in visual acuity that is maintained through age 10 years. Trial Registry Name Amblyopia Treatment Study: Occlusion Versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Registration Number NCT00000170 URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000170

2008-01-01

404

Age-related differences in peak handgrip strength between wrestlers and nonathletes during the developmental years.  

PubMed

This study examined the development of peak handgrip strength from childhood to adulthood in wrestlers (n = 122) and nonathlete controls (n = 122). The effect of hand preference on handgrip strength and the relationship of anthropometrical characteristics with handgrip strength in wrestlers and controls were also evaluated. Participants were assigned into age groups: children, young adolescents, late adolescents, and adults. Body height and mass, hand dimensions (length, span, and width), and absolute handgrip (in kilograms) were measured. Handgrip strength was similar in wrestlers and controls in the younger age groups (i.e., in children and young adolescents), whereas late adolescent and adult wrestlers exhibited significantly greater peak handgrip strength (p < 0.05) than their control peers. Nonathletes older than 15 years demonstrated an approximately 10% greater peak handgrip strength (p < 0.05) with their preferred hand compared with the nonpreferred hand. In contrast, late adolescent and adult wrestlers exhibited similar handgrip strength with both hands. Peak handgrip strength exhibited a significant linear correlation with all the anthropometric measures examined; however, a higher percentage in the variation in peak handgrip strength was explained by body height and hand length than the other anthropometric variables in both groups. In conclusion, wrestlers exhibit a sport-specific pattern of handgrip strength changes during the developmental years. Body height and hand length exhibited the strongest correlations with handgrip strength during the developmental years in wrestlers and in controls. The training adaptations of wrestling resulted in symmetrical handgrip strength development in both hands at late adolescence and adulthood. These data serve to provide a descriptive profile of handgrip strength in wrestlers, to assist both coaches and health professionals for talent selection and/or development of training programs for performance enhancement and rehabilitation. PMID:22525478

Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Dipla, Konstantina; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Tsiakaras, Nikos; Sotiriadis, Sotiris

2013-03-01

405

Relationship between body size and habitat complexity preference in age-0 and -1 year winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus.  

PubMed

The interaction between body size, habitat complexity and interstice width on habitat preference of age-0 and -1 year Pseudopleuronectes americanus was examined using continuous remote video observation. The habitat choices of juvenile P. americanus were recorded over a 6 h period in tanks with four treatments: bare sand, sand with low complexity cobble, sand with intermediate complexity cobble and sand with high complexity cobble. Both age-0 and -1 year fish preferred cobble to bare sand. Within cobble treatments, age-0 year fish preferred intermediate complexity cobble, with a 1.59 ratio of interstitial space to body width. The largest age-1 year fish (123-130 mm standard length, L(S) ) preferred low complexity cobble. While a significant preference was not detected, medium age-1 year fish (83-88 mm L(S) ) tended to select low complexity cobble, whereas small age-1 year fish (73-82 mm L(S) ) tended to select low and intermediate cobble, with an interstitial space to body width ratio of 1.05. For medium and large age-1 year fish, there was an increased selection of low complexity cobble, corresponding to larger interstitial space to body size ratios. This study indicates that juvenile P. americanus prefer complex habitat to unstructured habitat and that this preference is mediated by a relationship between fish body size and the size of structure interstices. These results contribute to the growing body of knowledge of complex habitat selection and drivers of habitat choice in flatfishes. PMID:22747815

Pappal, A L; Rountree, R A; MacDonald, D G

2012-07-01

406

[Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon).  

PubMed

The strategies recently implemented in Gabon have been effective in improving immunization coverage. These include, in particular, the integration of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in primary health care centers, the integration of immunization outside of EPI, immunization by peripheral health centers according to pre-set advanced strategies, and awareness and catch-up campaigns. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted from 1 October 2007 through 30 January 2008, throughout public- and private-sector health care centers in the town of Libreville. In the public sector, where health care is free, the study took place at the largest health facility in the country, the Hospital Center of Libreville (HCL), at Estuary Mélen Hospital (on the outskirts of Libreville), at Nkembo Hospital, which houses the EPI offices, and the 5 Maternal and Child Health centers (MCH) where vaccine monitoring is done. Monitoring in the private sector covered only the three largest clinics, where vaccine monitoring is done, all of which agreed to participate. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or guardian accompanying the child, a semi-structured interview according to a standardised questionnaire was conducted to collect socioeconomic and demographic data, including age, sex, recruitment site, place of residence, number of siblings, parental origin, ethnicity of head of household, type of family (couple or single parent), mother's age, level of education, employment and socio-economic status, as determined by the head of household's monthly income (in three categories: 1) low income, at or below the minimum wage, set at 80 000 FCFA (120 euros); 2) average income, from more than 80 000 FCFA to 300 000 FCFA (458 euros); and 3) high income over 300 000 FCFA. After the interview, the child's vaccination booklet was carefully examined to identify the types of antigen, number of doses administered, age at vaccination, and the regularity of the monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) Results: The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the public sector, 74.5%. The measles vaccination rate in the private sector was 82.5% compared w

Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

2010-10-01

407

In-Hospital and 12-Month Outcomes After Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment in Patients Aged <40 Years of Age (from the Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes).  

PubMed

We aimed to compare the characteristics and in-hospital and 12-month outcomes in patients aged >40 and <40 years with acute coronary syndrome. The analysis involved 789 patients aged <40 years and 63,057 patients aged ?40 years enrolled in the ongoing Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes from October 2003 to December 2009. Patients aged <40 years with acute coronary syndrome differed from older patients in their clinical characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcome. The older patients more frequently had pulmonary edema (2.9% vs 0.4%, p <0.0001) and cardiogenic shock (4.7% vs 2.8%, p = 0.011) on admission. For the younger patients, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention were performed more often (71.5% vs 60.5%, p <0.0001 and 51.5% vs 47.7%, p = 0.04, respectively). The younger patients had a lower mortality rate than the older patients during hospitalization (1.5% vs 5.2%, p <0.0001) and during 12-month follow-up period (4.1% vs 13.4%, p <0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age <40 years was one of the strongest factors associated with lower mortality during the 12 months after discharge (hazard ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.62, p <0.0001). In conclusion, younger patients had more favorable in-hospital and 1-year outcomes than older patients, and the age <40 years was revealed to be one of the strongest factors associated with lower mortality during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:24878122

Trzeciak, Przemys?aw; Gierlotka, Marek; G?sior, Mariusz; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Hawranek, Micha?; Lekston, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian; Polo?ski, Lech

2014-07-15

408

Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi