Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi
In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage. PMID:21483178
Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...
A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...
Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Tao, Jianguo; Wang, Rong; Miao, Dengshun
To determine whether transplanted amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice, postnatal 2-day-old Bmi-1−/− mice were injected intraperitoneally with the second-passage AMSCs from amniotic membranes of β-galactosidase (β-gal) transgenic mice or wild-type (WT) mice labeled with DiI. Three reinjections were given, once every seven days. Phenotypes of 5-week-old β-gal+ AMSC-transplanted or 6-week-old DiI+ AMSC-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice were compared with vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− and WT mice. Vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice displayed growth retardation and premature aging with decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis; a decreased ratio and dysmaturity of lymphocytic series; premature osteoporosis with reduced osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis; redox imbalance and DNA damage in multiple organs. Transplanted AMSCs carried Bmi-1 migrated into multiple organs, proliferated and differentiated into multiple tissue cells, promoted growth and delayed senescence in Bmi-1−/− transplant recipients. The dysmaturity of lymphocytic series were ameliorated, premature osteoporosis were rescued by promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis, the oxidative stress and DNA damage in multiple organs were inhibited by the AMSC transplantation in Bmi-1−/− mice. These findings indicate that AMSC transplantation ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice and could be a novel therapy to delay aging and prevent aging-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:26370922
Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P < 0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. PMID:21978208
Kang, Huili; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Guiyuan; Huang, Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xidan; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Su-Mei
This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05), which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05). Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women. PMID:26805871
Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook
This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887
Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli
Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an
Yang, Shu-Chu; Lin, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Chia-Yen
Purposive sampling was used to recruit 1,200 preschoolers between the ages of three and seven from 12 preschools throughout Taiwan in order to examine locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Fundamental motor skills were measured using the TGMD-2. Only age had a significant influence on locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills; sex had a small influence on object control skills, and BMI had a very limited influence on all three categories. The difference from previous studies related to BMI may be due to the different items included in the various tests, the number of trials conducted, and ways in which BMI was categorized. PMID:26682607
Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.
Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874
Faeghi, F; Abdkarimi, M H; Asghari JafarAbadi, M
Objective: The aim of this study is to use diffusion-weighted MRI to assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in head, body and tail sections of the pancreas in healthy subjects and the relationships between these values and age, gender and body mass index (BMI) of these cases. Methods: This study was conducted on 82 participants who were referred to the Tabesh Medical Imaging Center, Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran, during 2013. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging of the pancreas was carried out with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s mm−2, and ADC values were assessed for the head, body and tail sections of the pancreas. Results: The ADC values for the head, body and tail sections of the pancreas in female participants were significantly greater than those in male subjects (p < 0.05). ADC values for these parts among subjects with different BMI differed significantly (p < 0.05). Regarding age, there were no statistically meaningful differences among the ADC values for the three parts (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Gender and BMI effect the ADC values of the three sections of the pancreas. Thus, knowledge of the basic values based on gender and BMI can improve diagnostics. Having looked at age factor, it seems that the ADC values were not significantly different. Advances in knowledge: According to the results pancreatic ADC values appear to be influenced by gender and BMI but not by age. PMID:25471056
Cavaliere, Lorraine A.
Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, p<0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level. PMID:21978208
Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard
Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089
Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978
Describes a three-day program aimed at public school educators and community leaders. The goal was to encourage these people to include air age education in their programs. Activities included hands-on projects. (MA)
Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.
Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5
Wallace, Bill C.
The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…
Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.
In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…
Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura
We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0–60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006–07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (ß coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.19, 95% CI: −0.35 - −0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.26, 95% CI: −0.42 - −0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0–60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0–60 months. PMID:23029220
Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M
Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less
McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna
Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…
Dolan, Eimear; Crabtree, Nicola; McGoldrick, Adrian; Ashley, David T; McCaffrey, Noel; Warrington, Giles D
The aim of this study was to compare bone mass between two groups of jockeys (flat: n = 14; national hunt: n = 16); boxers (n = 14) and age, gender and BMI matched controls (n = 14). All subjects underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning for assessment of bone mass, with measurements made of the total body, vertebra L2-4 and femoral neck. Body composition and the relative contribution of fat and lean mass were extrapolated from the results. Data were analysed in accordance with differences in body composition, in particular, height, lean mass, fat mass and age. Both jockey groups were shown to display lower bone mass than either the boxers or control group at a number of sites including total body bone mineral density (BMD) (1.019 ± 0.06 and 1.17 ± 1.05 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 and 1.26 ± 0.06 g cm(-2) for flat, national hunt, boxer and control, respectively), total body bone mineral content (BMC) less head, L2-4 BMD and femoral neck BMD and BMC (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that lean mass and height were the primary predictors of total body BMC, although additional group-specific influences were present which reduced bone mass in the flat jockey group and enhanced it in the boxers (R (2) = 0.814). Reduced bone mass in jockeys may be a consequence of reduced energy availability in response to chronic weight restriction and could have particular implications for these athletes in light of the high risk nature of the sport. In contrast, the high intensity, high impact training associated with boxing may have conveyed an osteogenic stimulus on these athletes. PMID:21773703
Rosenberger, Patricia H.; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally
Objective The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Methods Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemo-graphic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Results Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: “healthy” (14.1%), “overweight” (36.3%), “borderline obese” (27.9%), “obese” (15.7%), and “severely obese” (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p’s<.05). Greater observed BMI increase was associated with higher initial BMI across groups (0.6, 0.8, 1.5, 1.9, 2.7). Gender specific trajectory models found that male Veterans with higher education and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p’s<.05). Conclusions Higher post-deployment BMI was associated with greater BMI gain over time for both male and female veterans. Older age is associated with higher BMI regardless of gender. Education level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. PMID:21771610
Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974
Dubois, Lise; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Girard, Manon; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Pérusse, Daniel; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Rasmussen, Finn; Wright, Margaret J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Martin, Nicholas G.
Objective To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents. Design and Settings Cross-sectional twin study. Data obtained from a total of 23 twin birth-cohorts from four countries: Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Australia. Participants were Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) (same- and opposite-sex) twin pairs with data available for both height and weight at a given age, from birth through 19 years of age. Approximately 24,036 children were included in the analyses. Results Heritability for body weight, height, and BMI was low at birth (between 6.4 and 8.7% for boys, and between 4.8 and 7.9% for girls) but increased over time, accounting for close to half or more of the variance in body weight and BMI after 5 months of age in both sexes. Common environmental influences on all body measures were high at birth (between 74.1–85.9% in all measures for boys, and between 74.2 and 87.3% in all measures for girls) and markedly reduced over time. For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age). Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed. Conclusion Genetics appear to play an increasingly important role in explaining the variation in weight, height, and BMI from early childhood to late adolescence, particularly in boys. Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls. These findings emphasize the need to target family and social environmental interventions in early childhood years, especially for females. As gene-environment correlation and interaction is likely, it is also necessary to identify the genetic variants that may predispose individuals to obesity. PMID:22347368
McGeary, Kerry Anne
Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding which policies will improve nutrition, reduce BMI levels and the prevalence of obesity and overweight nationwide. This preliminary study investigates the impact of a nutrition-education policy relative to price policy as a means to reduce BMI in the United States (US). Model estimations use pooled cross-sectional data at the individual-level from the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), state-level food prices from the American Chamber of Commerce Research Association (ACCRA) and funding for state-specific nutrition-education programs from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) from 1992 to 2006. The total number of observations for the study is 2,249,713 over 15 years. During this period, federal funding for state-specific nutrition-education programs rose from approximately $660 thousand for seven states to nearly $248 million for all fifty-two states. In 2011, federal funding for nutrition-education programs reached $375 million. After controlling for state-fixed effects, year effects and state specific linear and quadratic time trends, we find that nutrition education spending has the intended effect on BMI, obese and overweight in aggregate. However, we find heterogeneity as individuals from certain, but not all, income and education levels respond to nutrition-education funding. The results regarding nutrition-education programs suggest that large scale funding of nutrition-education programs may improve BMI levels and reduce obesity and overweight. However, more study is required to determine if these funds are able make the requisite dietary improvements that may ultimately improve BMI for individuals from low income and education-levels. PMID:23453319
Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)
Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157
Ding, Haiyong; Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang
Students' different perceptions of task values influence their learning experience and achievement in physical education. Framed using the subjective task value construct, this study was conducted to determine the extent to which male and female Chinese middle schoolers with different body sizes differed in their perception of the task values. A…
Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S
Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074
... Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of ... healthy aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based ...
... doctor will determine BMI at routine checkups and plot this measurement on a chart against those of ... what is normal changes with age, doctors must plot children's BMI measurements on standard growth charts rather ...
Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.
Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709
Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall
As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…
The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)
Gray, Walter W.
Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…
Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840
Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki
The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow
Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…
Rönn, Tina; Volkov, Petr; Gillberg, Linn; Kokosar, Milana; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jacobsen, Anna Louisa; Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Jansson, Per-Anders; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Groop, Leif; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Vaag, Allan; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte
Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed the DNA methylation of ∼480 000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with the methylation of 711 sites, annotated to, for example, RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue. PMID:25861810
Biro, Frank M; Huang, Bin; Morrison, John A; Horn, Paul S; Daniels, Steven R
Purpose This study examined longitudinal changes in waist-to-height ratio and components of BMI among black and white females. Methods Girls were recruited at age 9 through the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (NGHS), and followed annually over ten years. Girls were grouped into low (<20th %tile), middle, and high (>80th %tile) BMI on the basis of race-specific BMI percentile rankings at age 9, and low, middle, and high waist-to-height ratio, on the basis of waist-to-height ratio at age 11. BMI was partitioned into fat mass and fat-free mass index (FMI and FFMI). Results Girls accrued fat mass at a greater rate than fat-free mass, and the ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass increased from ages 9 through 18. There was a significant increase in this ratio after age at peak height velocity. Participants with elevated BMI and waist-to-height ratios at age 18 tended to have been elevated at ages 9 and 11, respectively. There were strong correlations between BMI at age 9 with several outcomes at age 18: BMI (0.76) and FMI (0.72), weaker but significant with FFMI (0.37), and ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (0.53). Additionally, there was significant tracking of elevated BMI from ages 9 through 18. Conclusions In girls, higher BMI levels during childhood lead to greater waist-to-height ratios and greater than expected changes in BMI at age 18, with disproportionate increases in fat mass. These changes are especially evident in blacks and after the pubertal growth spurt. PMID:20159501
The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…
Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.
BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727
The prevalence of obesity and overweight is socially patterned, with higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with lower socio-economic status. Contextual factors also affect obesity risk. However, an omitted factor has been incarceration, particularly since it disproportionately affects minorities. This study examines the effects of incarceration on adult male body mass index (BMI) in the United States over the life course, and whether effects vary by race/ethnicity and education. BMI trajectories were analyzed over age using growth curve models of men ages 18-49 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel study. BMI was based on self-reported height/weight (kg/m(2)). Being currently incarcerated increased BMI, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and education: blacks experienced the largest increases, while effects were lowered for men with more education than a high school diploma. Cumulative exposure to prison increased BMI for all groups. These results suggest a differential effect of incarceration on adult male BMI among some racial/ethnic-education minority groups. Particularly given that these groups are most commonly imprisoned, incarceration may help structure obesity disparities and disadvantage across the life course. PMID:24812594
Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, Hasan; Holloway, John W
To determine whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of the leptin receptor genotype (LEPR/LEPROT) links gestational smoking and leptin serum levels and BMI later in life, we focused on female offspring, 18 years of age, from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IOWBC). Leptin binds to the leptin receptor encoded by the LEPR/LEPROT genotype. Using general linear models, we tested a two-stage model. First, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) acting as methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) depending on gestational smoking were related to differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. In stage 2, we tested whether the selected CpG sites, in interaction with other SNPs (modifiable genetic variants, modGV), are associated with serum leptin and BMI (stage 2). Children from the IOWBC were followed from birth to age 18. Information on gestational smoking was gathered upon delivery. SNPs tagging LEPR and LEPROT genes were genotyped. Data on LEPR/LEPROT DNA-M and leptin were obtained from blood samples drawn at age 18; to determine BMI, height and weight were ascertained. Blood samples were provided by 238 girls. Of the 21 CpG sites, interactions between gestational smoking and SNPs were detected for 16 CpGs. Methylation of seven of the 16 CpGs were, in interaction with modGVs, associated with leptin levels at age 18 years. Two CpGs survived a multiple testing penalty and were also associated with BMI. This two-stage model may explain why maternal smoking has a long-term effect on leptin levels and BMI in girls at age 18 years. PMID:23875062
Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K
Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092
Gardner, William E.
This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…
Hofmeister, Alan M.
The author cites the arrival of the information age and considers its implications for special education. He suggests that special educators must build their information management skills. Four specific applications of microcomputers in special education are addressed: tool applications (in which students use microcomputer technology as personal…
Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)
... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI Language: ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...
Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…
Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...
Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.
The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…
von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L
More educated adults tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower risk of overweight and obesity. We contrast two explanations for this education gradient in BMI. One explanation is selection: adolescents with high BMI are less likely to plan for, attend, and complete higher levels of education. An alternative explanation is causation: higher education confers lifelong social, economic, and psychological benefits that help adults to restrain BMI growth. We test the relative importance of selection and causation using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which tracks self-reported BMI from adolescence (age 15) through young adulthood (age 29). Ordinal regression models confirm the selection hypothesis that high-BMI adolescents are less likely to complete higher levels of education. Selection has primarily to do with the fact that high-BMI adolescents tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and tend to have low grades and test scores. Among high-BMI girls there is also some evidence that educational attainment is limited by bullying, poor health, and early pregnancy. About half the selection of high-BMI girls out of higher education remains unexplained. Fixed-effects models control for selection and suggest that the causal effect of education on BMI, though significant, accounts for only one-quarter of the mean BMI differences between more and less educated adults at age 29. Among young adults, it appears that most of the education gradient in BMI is due to selection. PMID:24524908
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.
Ford, Dara W; Hartman, Terryl J; Still, Christopher; Wood, Craig; Mitchell, Diane; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Bailey, Regan; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Coffman, Donna L; Jensen, Gordon L
Objective To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged ≥74 years. Design Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations of DST scores with BMI and diet-related practices after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking and self- v. proxy reporting. Setting Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) in Pennsylvania, USA. Subjects A total of 4009 (1722 males, 2287 females; mean age 81·5 years) participants aged ≥74 years. Results Individuals with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 had a significantly lower DST score (mean 55·8, 95 % CI 52·9, 58·7) than those individuals with BMI = 18·5–24·9 kg/m2 (mean 60·7, 95 % CI 60·1, 61·5; P = 0.001). Older adults with higher, more favourable DST scores were significantly more likely to be food sufficient, report eating breakfast, have no chewing difficulties and report no decline in intake in the previous 6 months. Conclusions The DST may identify potential targets for improving diet quality in older adults including promotion of healthy BMI, breakfast consumption, improving dentition and identifying strategies to decrease concern about food sufficiency. PMID:23816283
Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria
Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12. Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496) were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs. Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs. Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than children
Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram
The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view
Philip, Donald N.
This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…
Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.
As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…
The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…
Wronka, Iwona; Pawlińska-Chmara, Romana
The aim of this study is to consider whether socio-economic factors are related to the type of childcare and whether the type of childcare, in turn, affects adult stature and BMI. The sample includes 783 female students aged 20-24 (birth cohort of 1981-1985) from the south of Poland. Those whose parents have university education, live in a city and have no siblings attend day-care facilities more frequently than others of the same age, while those who grew up at home under their mothers' care, most frequently live in villages, come from large families and their parents have vocational education. Variables which are associated with being taller include material conditions and the type of childcare received. Women who had attended day-care centres are 2.4cm shorter than girls brought up at home by their mothers. Adult BMI values are influenced by educational level of the mother. The results suggest that mothers who work often do so at the cost of time devoted to the family which influences health and the rate of their children's development. PMID:17196892
Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.
Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…
Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C
Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324
Mills, Terence C.
A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…
Carter, Philippa J; Williams, Sheila M
Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children. Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured with bioelectrical impedance; dual energy x ray absorptiometry; physical activity and sleep duration measured with accelerometry; dietary intake (fruit and vegetables, non-core foods), television viewing, and family factors (maternal BMI and education, birth weight, smoking during pregnancy) measured with questionnaire. Results After adjustment for multiple confounders, each additional hour of sleep at ages 3-5 was associated with a reduction in BMI of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.96) and a reduced risk of being overweight (BMI ≥85th centile) of 0.39 (0.24 to 0.63) at age 7. Further adjustment for BMI at age 3 strengthened these relations. These differences in BMI were explained by differences in fat mass index (−0.43, −0.82 to −0.03) more than by differences in fat free mass index (−0.21, −0.41 to −0.00). Conclusions Young children who do not get enough sleep are at increased risk of becoming overweight, even after adjustment for initial weight status and multiple confounding factors. This weight gain is a result of increased fat deposition in both sexes rather than additional accumulation of fat free mass. PMID:21622518
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Digelidis, Nikolaos
This study examined elementary school pupils with different body mass index (BMI) as to attitudes towards exercise, self-perception, lesson satisfaction in physical education and participation in physical activity. Seven hundred and seventy-five pupils participated in this study, aged 11-12 years. The study was conducted through questionnaires. Students were divided according to their BMI: normal, overweight and obese. Two-way analysis of variance was used, with gender and BMI type as independent variables. The results revealed that when compared to students with a normal BMI, the obese and overweight students had lower scores in lesson satisfaction, negative views of their body and reduced levels of physical activity. Also, the results showed that the obese and overweight students adopted more sedentary daily habits, such as many hours of TV watching and PC usage. The results of this study imply the need for necessary school interventions in order to encourage healthier behaviours and habits. PMID:18678585
Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te
This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…
Acid-base balance may influence skeletal health in humans. Animal and plant-based foods provide acid and alkaline precursors respectively, which contribute to net acid-base balance. Algorithms for estimating NEAP from dietary protein and potassium levels have been published, but it is unknown if age...
McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny
The objective was to examine BMI of working-age Canadian adults in relation to occupational prestige, adjusting for other aspects of social class including household income and respondent's education. We analyzed data from 49,252 adults (age 25-64) from Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional self-report survey conducted in 2003. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relation between BMI and occupational prestige, adjusting for other sociodemographic variables. For women, higher ranking occupations showed lower average BMI relative to the lowest ranking occupations, but this effect was largely eliminated when adjusting for education. For men, occupation effects endured in adjusted models and we detected some evidence of a pattern whereby men in occupations characterized by management/supervisory responsibilities were heavier than those in the lowest ranking occupations (i.e., elemental sales and service). Results are interpreted in light of the symbolic value of body size in western culture, which differs for men and women. Men in positions of management/supervision may benefit from the physical dominance conveyed by a larger body size, and thus occupational prestige rankings may help us to understand the gender differences in the patterning of BMI by different indicators of social class. PMID:19039314
Fantin, Romain; Delpierre, Cyrille; Dimeglio, Chloé; Lamy, Sebastien; Barboza Solís, Cristina; Charles, Marie-Aline; Kelly-Irving, Michelle
This study has two objectives. First, to analyse the respective roles of parental BMI and the wider environment on children's BMI across childhood, using a counterfactual analysis. Second, to determine if the correlations between parents and offspring BMI are partly environmental. We used data on 4437 girls and 4337 boys born in 2000-2001 in the UK and included in the Millennium Cohort Study. Children's BMI was measured at ages 3years, 5years, 7years, and 11years. We described the environment using social class and behaviours within the family. At the age of 3, there was no link between the environment and children's BMI. In contrast, there was a clear link between the environment and BMI slopes between 3 and 11years of age. At the age of 11, we calculated that if all children had the most favourable environment, mean BMI would be reduced by 0.91kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.57-1.26) for boys and by 1.65kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.28-2.02) for girls. Associations between parents' and offspring BMI remained unchanged after adjustment for environmental variables. Conversely, the link between the environment and children's BMI is partly reduced after adjustment for parental BMI. This confirms that parental BMI is partly a broad proxy of the environment. We highlighted that if every child's environment was at its most favourable, the mean BMI would be significantly reduced. Thus, the recent rise is likely to be reversible. PMID:27240452
Must, A; Barish, EE; Bandini, LG
Considerable interest and resources are currently being directed to primary and secondary prevention of childhood obesity among school-aged children. Intervention studies in this age group have yielded mixed results, begging the question as to whether the correct targets for intervention have been identified. To evaluate the evidence base, we reviewed prospective observational studies published in English between 1990–2007 that reported weight or fatness changes in relation to diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption emerged as the most consistent dietary factor in association with subsequent increases in weight status or fatness. Other foods and eating patterns showed less consistent associations and when associations were present, magnitudes were generally small. This may reflect the known limitations of standard dietary methodology to assess meal patterns and dietary intake. Findings for physical activity showed more consistent inverse associations with fatness outcomes than for weight status, and as was found for dietary factors, magnitudes of association were modest. Sedentary behavior effects on weight status differ by gender in many studies, with many, but not all, showing greater positive associations among girls. The lack of consistency observed in the studies of sedentary behaviors may reflect the range of variable definitions, measurement challenges, and the changing nature of electronic media. The intrinsic interplay among eating patterns, activity and sedentary behavior adds further complexity to the interpretation of the results of these studies. More sophisticated approaches to the analysis of these complex data in future studies may maximize what is learned. Although the classic obesity risk factors seem to play a role in the development of excess weight and fatness, some more recently identified potential factors, such as sleep, warrant further investigation in prospective studies before they are ready
Stamler, J; Elliott, P; Appel, L; Chan, Q; Buzzard, M; Dennis, B; Dyer, A R; Elmer, P; Greenland, P; Jones, D; Kesteloot, H; Kuller, L; Labarthe, D; Liu, K; Moag-Stahlberg, A; Nichaman, M; Okayama, A; Okuda, N; Robertson, C; Rodriguez, B; Stevens, M; Ueshima, H; Horn, L Van; Zhou, B
Extensive evidence exists that an inverse relation between education and blood pressure prevails in many adult populations, but little research has been carried out on reasons for this finding. A prior goal of the INTERMAP Study was to investigate this phenomenon further, and to assess the role of dietary factors in accounting for it. Of the 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years, from 17 diverse population samples in Japan, People's Republic of China, UK, and USA, a strong significant inverse education-BP relation was manifest particularly for the 2195 USA participants, independent of ethnicity. With participants stratified by years of education, and assessment of 100+ dietary variables from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections/person, graded relationships were found between education and intake of many macro- and micronutrients, electrolytes, fibre, and body mass index (BMI). In multiple linear regression analyses with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of individuals the dependent variables (controlled for ethnicity, other possible nondietary confounders), BMI markedly reduced size of education-BP relations, more so for women than for men. Several nutrients considered singly further decreased size of this association by > or =10%: urinary 24-h Na and K excretion, Keys dietary lipid score, vegetable protein, fibre, vitamins C and B6, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Combinations of these dietary variables and BMI attenuated the education-SBP inverse coefficient by 54-58%, and the education-DBP inverse coefficient by 59-67%, with over half these effects attributable to specific nutrients (independent of BMI). As a result, the inverse education-BP coefficients ceased to be statistically significant. Multiple specific dietary factors together with body mass largely account for the more adverse BP levels of less educated than more educated Americans. Special efforts to improve eating patterns of less educated strata
This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…
Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja
Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed
... BMI), a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women. ... calculate your BMI just by entering your current height and weight. Visit www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm to ...
Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C
The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204
BMI (kg/m2) does not provide information about body fat percentile.Adolescents with BMI <85th percentile for age are considered lean and at low risk for metabolic complications. Adolescent girls with low BMI can have high body fat percentile. We hypothesized that these girls are already insulin resi...
Fu, Frank H.; And Others
This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)
This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…
Bryan, William R.; Linke, Charles M.
Statistics prove that being middle-aged, well educated, white, and male enhances earnings. This paper uses data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with some common statistical techniques to chart the specific impact of age, education, race, and gender on earnings. It is shown that earnings…
Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.
This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…
Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang
In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…
Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.
Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…
Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.
Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)
Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka
The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102
Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…
Rebok, George W.
An understanding of adulthood educational participation should be developed according to a criterion of environmental and situationally dependent factors rather than solely to one of inexorable and cross-situational biophysical decline. Environmental and organismic factors that may relate to chronically low rates of educational participation by…
Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.
Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.
This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…
African-American Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions About BMI Measurements, School-Based BMI Screening Programs, and BMI Report Cards: Results from a Qualitative Investigation and Implications for School-to-Parent Communication.
Ruggieri, Dominique G; Bass, Sarah Bauerle
School-based body mass index (BMI) screenings can help parents make informed decisions about their child's health, but schools have questioned parents' understanding and attitudes about BMI measures and report cards. Although researchers have investigated minority parents' perceptions of their child's weight, no research has explored minority parents' knowledge and perceptions related to BMI measurements, school-based BMI screening programs, and BMI report cards. To address this gap, focus groups were conducted (n = 20) with female Black or African-American parents/guardians from a large urban school district. Participants were asked to share their perceptions before and after receiving education about BMI measurements and screening programs. Pre-education: Many participants had heard of BMI, thought it was similar to body fat, believed screenings were intended to track students' weights and monitor eating habits, and were concerned that screenings could cause their child embarrassment. Post-education: Most participants did not object to screenings, but said they would have without education about why and how BMI measurements are taken. They also voiced concerns about lack of prior notice, confidentiality, and the need for schools to serve healthier food. Some of these findings support those of other qualitative studies of parents' concerns about BMI screenings, but no previous studies have compared parents' perceptions of screening programs pre-/post-education. The results reinforce that schools' efforts to explain what BMI measurements are as well as why and how they are taken can increase parents' confidence in the schools and level of comfort with BMI screening programs and report cards. PMID:27271073
Smith, Gary R.
This teaching guide on aging contains 18 activities for students. A major cognitive objective is for students to examine and evaluate personal and societal attitudes and behavior toward aging in the United States and in other societies. When students make cross-cultural comparisons of these attitudes and behaviors they become aware that their own…
The state of education in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in this brief analysis of the country's growth. Considered are the single-sex institutions, enrollment trends at the university level, faculty shortages, campus expansion, and religious influences. (LBH)
Clarke, Philippa; O’Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Schulenberg, John E
Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social disparities in obesity and overweight differ by age and historical period using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Methods We used panel data from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study (1986–2004) to examine social disparities in trajectories of body mass index (BMI) over adulthood (age 18–45). Self-reported height and weight were collected in this annual US survey of high-school seniors, followed biennially since 1976. Using growth curve models, we analysed BMI trajectories over adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime SEP (measured by parents’ education and respondent's education). Results BMI trajectories exhibit a curvilinear rate of change from age 18 to 45, but there was a strong period effect, such that weight gain was more rapid for more recent cohorts. As a result, successive cohorts become overweight (BMI > 25) at increasingly earlier points in the life course. BMI scores were also consistently higher for women, racial/ethnic minority groups and those from a lower SEP. However, BMI scores for socially advantaged groups in recent cohorts were actually higher than those for their socially disadvantaged counterparts who were born 10 years earlier. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of social status and socio-economic resources for maintaining optimal weight. Yet, even those in advantaged social positions have experienced an increase in BMI in recent years. PMID:18835869
As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.
Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.
This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…
Seffrin, John R.
Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)
Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel
This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…
Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others
The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to present a model of: (1) early childhood outcomes at age 3, where outcomes are defined as the results…
Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.
The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…
Tan, Oon Seng
The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…
Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline
Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…
Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.
This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…
Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…
Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…
Haslam, Ian R.
Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…
Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Bray, George A.; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.; Newton, Robert L.; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H.; Bouchard, Claude
BMI and waist circumference (WC) are used to identify individuals with elevated obesity-related health risks. The current thresholds were derived largely in populations of European origin. This study determined optimal BMI and WC thresholds for the identification of cardiometabolic risk among white and African-American (AA) adults. The sample included 2,096 white women, 1,789 AA women, 1,948 white men, and 643 AA men aged 18–64 years. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was defined as ≥2 risk factors (blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg; glucose ≥100 mg/dl; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <40 mg/dl (men) or <50 mg/dl (women)). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal BMI and WC thresholds in each sex-by-ethnicity group. The optimal BMI thresholds were 30 kg/m2 in white women, 32.9 kg/m2 in AA women, 29.1 kg/m2 white men, and 30.4 kg/ m2 in AA men, whereas optimal WC thresholds were 91.9 cm in white women, 96.8 cm in AA women, 99.4 in white men, and 99.1 cm in AA men. The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. There are no apparent ethnic differences in men; however, in AA women the optimal BMI and WC values are ~3 kg/m2 and 5 cm higher than in white women. PMID:21212770
There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…
Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...
Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Ayalon, Nir; Gordon, Barak; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Shamis, Ari; Vinker, Shlomo; Rudich, Assaf
BACKGROUND The association of body-mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood with obesity-related diseases in young adults has not been completely delineated. METHODS We conducted a prospective study in which we followed 37,674 apparently healthy young men for incident angiography-proven coronary heart disease and diabetes through the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. The height and weight of participants were measured at regular intervals, with the first measurements taken when they were 17 years of age. RESULTS During approximately 650,000 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 17.4 years), we documented 1173 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 327 of coronary heart disease. In multivariate models adjusted for age, family history, blood pressure, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers in blood, elevated adolescent BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; mean range for the first through last deciles, 17.3 to 27.6) was a significant predictor of both diabetes (hazard ratio for the highest vs. the lowest decile, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 3.58) and angiography-proven coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.77 to 10.62). Further adjustment for BMI at adulthood completely ablated the association of adolescent BMI with diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.37) but not the association with coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 6.85; 95% CI, 3.30 to 14.21). After adjustment of the BMI values as continuous variables in multivariate models, only elevated BMI in adulthood was significantly associated with diabetes (β = 1.115, P = 0.003; P = 0.89 for interaction). In contrast, elevated BMI in both adolescence (β = 1.355, P = 0.004) and adulthood (β = 1.207, P = 0.03) were independently associated with angiography-proven coronary heart disease (P = 0.048 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS An elevated BMI in adolescence — one that is well within the range
Davillas, Apostolos; Benzeval, Michaela
Socio-economic inequalities in adiposity are of particular interest themselves but also because they may be associated with inequalities in overall health status. Using cross-sectional representative data from Great Britain (1/2010-3/2012) for 13,138 adults (5652 males and 7486 females) over age 20, we aimed to explore the presence of income-related inequalities in alternative adiposity measures by gender and to identify the underlying factors contributing to these inequalities. For this reason, we employed concentration indexes and regression-based decomposition techniques. To control for non-homogeneity in body composition, we employed a variety of adiposity measures including body fat (absolute and percentage) and central adiposity (waist circumference) in addition to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The body fat measures allowed us to distinguish between the fat- and lean-mass components of BMI. We found that the absence of income-related obesity inequalities for males in the existing literature may be attributed to their focus on BMI-based measures. Pro-rich inequalities were evident for the fat-mass and central adiposity measures for males, while this was not the case for BMI. Irrespective of the adiposity measure applied, pro-rich inequalities were evident for females. The decomposition analysis showed that these inequalities were mainly attributable to subjective financial well-being measures (perceptions of financial strain and material deprivation) and education, with the relative contribution of the former being more evident in females. Our findings have important implications for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in adiposity and indicate that central adiposity and body composition measures should be included health policy agendas. Psycho-social mechanisms, linked to subjective financial well-being, and education -rather than income itself-are more relevant for tackling inequalities. PMID:27580342
Som, Suparna; Ulijaszek, Stanley; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Susmita; Bharati, Premananda
It is well known that height and weight are interrelated, and that both are related to socioeconomic variables. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of socioeconomic variables on the heights and weights of different groups of people, formed according to different levels of heights and weights, and to see whether there are sex differences in the variations in heights and weights. Data for adults aged 15-49 years were taken from the India National Family Health Survey-3 and descriptive studies and multiple linear regression analyses carried out. A clear positive association was found for height and BMI with economic level (except for overweight females in the case of BMI). In the case of BMI, it is age that seems to be the most influential factor. Surprisingly, the observed changes in height and BMI are not as expected for short and tall or underweight and overweight people; these sometimes behave in the opposite directions to that of normal height and weight people. The basic assumption of multivariate normality is not valid due to changing relations at different height and BMI levels. PMID:23534499
This paper examines the relationship of the emotions of teaching to teachers' age and career stages based on experiences of educational change. Drawing on an analysis of interviews with 50 Canadian elementary, middle and high school teachers it analyzes how teachers respond emotionally to educational change at different ages and stages of career,…
Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Sampson, Deborah; Taylor, Andre D.; Caldwell, Dennis; Sun, Yan V.
The study of genetic polymorphisms and body mass index (BMI) among African women in Africa and in the United States contributes to our understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors for hypertension. African American women have the highest prevalence of hypertension and obesity compared to other ethnic groups in the United States. Using a crosssectional research design, we examined the effects of genetic and environmental risks of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and BMI on blood pressure (BP) among three generations of West African Dogon women (N = 199). We genotyped six SNPs located in the candidate genes known to be related to hypertension. We tested the associations between these SNPs and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) with Fisher’s exact tests, chi-square tests for independence, and multivariable linear mixed models. The SNP rs8179526 (SLC4A5) was significantly associated with SBP adjusted for age, age2, and BMI (p = .02). The “C” allele variant of rs8179526 (allele frequency of 0.445) was associated with higher SBP. This SNP did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) with p value of .772. The SNP × BMI interaction effects associated with SBP and DBP were not significant. rs8179526 is located on the SLC4A5 gene on chromosome 2. SLC4A5 encodes a protein that transports sodium and bicarbonate across cell membranes while regulating cellular pH and contains several SNPs linked to elevated BP. Knowledge of the SNP’s effect on hypertension among West African women can help health practitioners educate their patients about genetic risks of developing hypertension. PMID:21859746
Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Mudd, Lanay M; Landgraf, Jeffrey R; Mikucki, Dorota; Haan, Pamela S; Zhang, Jessica; Osuch, Janet R
This study investigates associations between gene expressions of aromatase (CYP19), 17α hydroxylase (CYP17), and estrogen receptors α and β and anthropometric measurements in offspring of the Michigan fish eater cohort. Leg and trunk length, height, weight, and BMI and gene expression in peripheral blood cells were measured in offspring of the Michigan fish eater cohort. The parental generation was followed between 1973 and 1991, and maternal age, height, and weight data were collected. Female offspring were contacted in 2001/2002 and followed up in 2006/2007; offspring information included age, education, reproductive history, smoking, and exercise. Gene expression was standardized against 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (18SrRNA) and RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII) expressions. Mixed models assessed the statistical effect of gene expression on anthropometric outcomes, accounting for multiple offspring from one mother. Anthropometric measurements and gene expression were measured in 139 female offspring. The two length and the height measurements were correlated, as were BMI and weight. CYP19 expression was correlated with the other gene expressions and both estrogen receptor expressions were associated. For every 1 unit of ΔC(t) (18SrRNA - CYP19) or ΔC(t) (RNA PolII - CYP19), BMI was increased by 0.9 (P = 0.03) and 0.87 kg/m(2) (P = 0.04), respectively, and weight by 2.35 kg (P = 0.03) and 2.1 kg (P = 0.03), respectively. For every 1 unit of ΔC(t) (18SrRNA - CYP17), leg length was increased by 0.84 cm (P = 0.04). The results suggest that CYP17 gene expression may influence growth during childhood and adolescence while CYP19 may be associated with the concurrent measures of weight and BMI. PMID:20539301
Roy, Sani M.; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Zemel, Babette S.
Context: No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Subjects: Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. Design: For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). Results: The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2 and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m2, P < .001) peak BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m2, P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P < .001) in African-American vs white children. The odds of obesity at age 4 years increased among children with higher (odds ratio 2.02; P < .001) and later (odds ratio 1.26; P = .02) infancy peak BMI. Conclusions: We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity. PMID:25636051
Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony; Cunningham, Everarda G
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410) for younger (n = 151) and older (n = 259) age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats) only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways. PMID:18412977
Campbell, Sally R.
Designed to serve as a reference and resource, this publication contains ideas and information to help teachers modify content and teaching methods to assist students in coping with the changing marketplace. Part 1 of the guide lists educational objectives for these major content areas: (1) The Consumer and the Economy, (2) Values and Goals, (3)…
Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of
Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D
The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500
Rodger, Daragh; Spencer, Anne; Hussey, Pamela
Bone Health in the Park was created in Ireland and is an online health promotion education resource focussing on bone health, healthy ageing and falls prevention. The programme was designed by an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in collaboration with an Education Technologist and primarily uses storytelling to promote education specifically on bone health and falls risk prevention for health care professionals, clients, families and informal carers. This paper reports on core deliverables from this programme from 2010 to 2015, and provides insight into their development, in addition to details on its clinical effectiveness by using technology enhanced learning to underpin health promotion initiatives. PMID:27332189
Dolton, Peter; Xiao, Mimi
Based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey longitudinal data from 1989 to 2009 and using BMI z-score as the measure of adiposity, we estimate the intergenerational transmission of BMI in China. The OLS estimates suggest that a one standard deviation increase in father's or mother's BMI is associated with an increase of around 20% in child's Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score. These estimates decrease to around 14% when we control for family fixed effects. We examine the heterogeneity of this BMI intergenerational transmission process across family income, parental occupation and poverty status and also find this intergenerational correlation tends to be higher among children of higher BMI levels, though this tendency becomes weaker as children approach adulthood. PMID:26398848
Peppler, Kylie A.
Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)
Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle
This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778
West, Leo H. T.; And Others
Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…
Walker, Susan K.; Nelson, Pat Tanner
For more than 20 years, Cooperative Extension University and county faculty throughout the nation have made available an unusually parent-friendly series of educational newsletters. Monthly issues of the newsletters address information by age groups. Through local and state collaborations that often feature the county Extension office, hospitals,…
Jenny, Hans H.; And Others
Changes in higher education employee benefit plans brought about by the extension of the mandatory retirement age to 70 are the focus of the monograph. Chapter one summarizes the volume and presents some major recommendations that institutions may find helpful in benefit and personnel planning. Chapter two sketches the meaning of the new law (1978…
Fink, Sandra; And Others
This document comprises forms (and directions for their use) used in Oregon in conjunction with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for school-aged children. Forms are identified as either required or optional and are presented in a two-page format, with one page identifying the form, explaining its purposes, and providing…
Textor, Martin R.
The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…
Wedemeyer, Dan J.
This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…
Background The prevention of serious physical complications in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is important. The purpose of this study is to clarify which physical and social factors are related to the necessity for urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients in a long-term starvation state. We hypothesized that the change of longitudinal BMI, body composition and social background would be useful as an index of the necessity for urgent hospitalization. Methods AN patients were classified into; urgent hospitalization, due to disturbance of consciousness or difficulty walking(n = 17); planned admission (n = 96); and outpatient treatment only groups (n = 136). The longitudinal BMI pattern and the clinical features of these groups were examined. In the hospitalization groups, comparison was done of body composition variation and the social background, including the educational level and advice from family members. Results After adjusting for age and duration of illness, the BMI of the urgent hospitalization group was lower than that of the other groups at one year before hospitalization (P < 0.01) and decreased more rapidly (P < 0.01). Urgent hospitalization was associated with the fat free mass (FFM) (P < 0.01). Between the groups, no considerable difference in social factors was found. Conclusions The longitudinal pattern of BMI and FFM may be useful for understanding the severity in AN from the viewpoint of failure of the homeostasis system. PMID:22142436
Yenerall, Joseph D.
The University of the Third Age in Finland has evolved from English and French models to include lectures, discussion groups, and research groups. A survey of 165 adult learners found their primary reason for participating was to acquire general education and self-knowledge. Socializing and meeting people were among the lowest ranked motivations.…
Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John
Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)
Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan
ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813
Lawrence, Gabriella M.; Shulman, Shani; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Lumley, Thomas; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Hasselson, Stephanie; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Wander, Pandora L.; Manor, Orly; Siscovick, David S.; Friedlander, Yechiel
Introduction Studies demonstrate associations between changes in obesity-related phenotypes and cardiovascular risk. While maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may be associated with adult offspring adiposity, no study has examined associations with obesity changes. Objectives We examined associations of mppBMI and GWG with longitudinal change in offspring's BMI (ΔBMI), and assessed whether associations are explained by offspring genetics. Design and Methods We used a birth cohort of 1400 adults, with data at birth, age 17 and 32. After genotyping offspring, we created genetic scores, predictive of exposures and outcome, and fit linear regression models with and without scores to examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with ΔBMI. Results A one SD change in mppBMI and GWG was associated with a 0.83 and a 0.75 kg/m2 increase in ΔBMI respectively. The association between mppBMI and offspring ΔBMI was slightly attenuated (12%) with the addition of genetic scores. In the GWG model, a significant substantial 28.2% decrease in the coefficient was observed. Conclusions This study points to an association between maternal excess weight in pregnancy and offspring BMI change from adolescence to adulthood. Genetic factors may account, in part, for the GWG/ΔBMI association. These findings broaden observations that maternal obesity-related phenotypes have long-term consequences for offspring health. PMID:24124160
Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom
Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless
Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée
Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336
Castillo, H; Santos, I S; Matijasevich, A
Background/Objectives: The aims were to investigate the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with breastfeeding (BF) duration and BF pattern at 3 months of age. Subjects/Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 4231 children who were enrolled at birth and were followed-up at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age to gather information on maternal and offspring characteristics including BF patterns and BF duration. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the WHO classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess whether pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were associated with BF and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration. Predicted probabilities of BF patterns at 3 months were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Information on BF was available to 4011 infants. The total BF and EBF median durations were 7.0 months and 1.5 months, respectively. There were no differences in duration of any BF or EBF according to pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG categories. There was an increased predicted probability for weaning before the age of 3 months among infants from obese women, compared with those from mothers with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, with margins adjusted predictions of 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–0.41) and 0.23 (95% CI 0.21–0.25), respectively. Conclusions: Infants from pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers presented higher probability of early weaning compared with infants from normal-weight mothers. Obese/overweight pregnant women need supplementary guidance about BF benefits to infant health during prenatal and postnatal care. PMID:26813940
Collins, A.; Halverson, R.
This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…
Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly
BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945
Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B
Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P < 0·01); however, BMI values for both groups were within a healthy range. Interestingly, 3 % of NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the <120 min/week category. Exercise affected healthy meal conception in NMs only (P < 0·001). Taking dietary supplements influenced healthy meal awareness in OMs only (P < 0·05). University-level nutrition education is strongly associated with healthier eating habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs. PMID:27066257
Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) and preventive screening among adolescents at their last checkup. METHODS: We used population-based data from the 2003–2007 California Health Interview Surveys, telephone interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a checkup in the past 12 months (n = 9220). Respondents were asked whether they received screening for nutrition, physical activity, and emotional distress. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight: (1) normal weight or underweight (<85th percentile); (2) overweight (85th–94th percentile); and (3) obese (>95th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression models tested how screening by topic differed according to BMI status, adjusting for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, and survey year. RESULTS: Screening percentages in the pooled sample (all 3 years) were higher for obese, but not overweight, adolescents for physical activity (odds ratio: 1.4; P < .01) and nutrition (odds ratio: 1.6; screening did not differ P < .01). Stratified analysis by year revealed higher screening for obese (versus normal-weight) adolescents for nutrition and physical activity in 2003 and for all 3 topics in 2005. However, by 2007, screening did not differ according to BMI status. Overall screening between 2003 and 2007 declined for nutrition (75%–59%; P < .01), physical activity (74%–60%; P < .01), and emotional distress (31%–24%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents receive more preventive screening versus their normal-weight peers. Overweight adolescents do not report more screening, but standards of care dictate increased attention for this group. These results are discouraging amid a rise in pediatric obesity and new guidelines that recommend screening by BMI status. PMID:21768313
Background The polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is an important regulator of development. Additionally, aberrant expression of BMI1 has been linked to cancer stem cell phenotype and oncogenesis. In particular, its overexpression has been found in several human malignancies including breast cancer. Despite its established role in stem cell maintenance, cancer and development, at present not much is known about the functional domains of BMI1 oncoprotein. In the present study, we carried out a deletion analysis of BMI1 to identify its negative regulatory domain. Results We report that deletion of the C-terminal domain of BMI1, which is rich in proline-serine (PS) residues and previously described as PEST-like domain, increased the stability of BMI1, and promoted its pro-oncogenic activities in human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Specifically, overexpression of a PS region deleted mutant of BMI1 increased proliferation of HMECs and promoted an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in the HMECs. Furthermore, when compared to the wild type BMI1, exogenous expression of the mutant BMI1 led to a significant downregulation of p16INK4a and an efficient bypass of cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that the PS domain of BMI1 is involved in its stability and that it negatively regulates function of BMI1 oncoprotein. Our results also suggest that the PS domain of BMI1 could be targeted for the treatment of proliferative disorders such as cancer and aging. PMID:20569464
Kim, Ah Ram; Olsen, Jayme L.; England, Samantha J.; Huang, Yu-Shan; Fegan, Katherine H.; Delgadillo, Luis F.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Kingsley, Paul D.; Waugh, Richard E.; Palis, James
Summary Red blood cells (RBCs), responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs) to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy. PMID:26028528
This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366
Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François
The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996–2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. «Lighter and smaller is better» in endurance events but «heavier and taller is better» for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities. PMID:24587266
Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264
Speirs, Katherine E; Fiese, Barbara H
Objectives The literature exploring the relationship between food insecurity and obesity for preschool-aged children is inconclusive and suffers from inconsistent measurement. This paper explores the relationships between concurrent household and child food insecurity and child overweight as well as differences in these relationships by child gender using a sample of 2-5 year old children. Methods Using measured height and weight and responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module collected from a sample of 438 preschool-aged children (mean age 39 months) and their mothers, logistic regression models were fit to estimate the relationship between household and child food insecurity and child BMI. Separate models were fit for girls and boys. Results Twenty-seven percent of children from food insecure households and 25 % of child food insecure children were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85 %). There were no statistically significant associations between either household or child food insecurity and BMI for the full sample. For girls, but not boys, household food insecurity was associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.23, p = 0.01). Conclusions Although food insecurity and overweight were not significantly associated, a noteworthy proportion of food insecure children were overweight or obese. Programs for young children should address food insecurity and obesity simultaneously by ensuring that young children have regular access to nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26662281
Petranović, Matea Zajc; Tomas, Zeljka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Milicić, Jasna; Narancić, Nina Smolej
The adolescence is recognized as one of the critical periods for the development of obesity. Children and adolescents who practice sports regularly have higher muscle mass and lower percentage of body fat than their peers who are physically less active. Since body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of overweight/obesity in spite of the fact that it directly measures excess in weight but not in fat, it often misclassifies athletic populations, both children and adults. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate whether BMI adequately assesses fatness in adolescents, especially physically active ones. The analysis was performed on anthropometric data from two surveys (1997 and 2009/2010) of Zagreb secondary school adolescents, 1315 girls and 1034 boys, aged 15-19 years. The group defined as "physically active" consisted of adolescents who practice organized sports (36.2% girls, 44.6% boys), while the "physically inactive" group was made of their peers who practice sport only as a part of physical education in schools. The standardized values, calculated within each sex by survey, were used for comparison of adolescents with different levels of physical activity. Physically active adolescents of both sexes had lower sum of skinfolds mean Z-valutes (Pgirls<0.05, Pboys<0.001); additionally, boys had higher Z-values for body weight (p<0.05) and triceps/subscaputar ratio (indicating peripheral distribution of body fat) (p<0.05) than their less active peers. In order to evaluate whether BMI was adequate indicator for body composition during adolescence, we estimated the concordance of above-median category defined by BMI and the other body fat indicators. The largest discrepancy was found for sum of skinfolds in both sexes and was more pronounced in physically active adolescents. This finding was further confirmed in more extreme BMI category (85th - 95th percentile) which indicated that adolescents categorized as "at risk of overweight" were predominantly
Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE) analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50) and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12). Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49) and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69), and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83). Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Longitudinal
... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Child & Teen BMI ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...
Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI) over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI) from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002) that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income
Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S
A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI
Bühren, Katharina; von Ribbeck, Linda; Schwarte, Reinhild; Egberts, Karin; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Fleischhaker, Christian; Wewetzer, Christoph; Kennes, Lieven N; Dempfle, Astrid; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
Body mass index (BMI) at admission is an important predictor of outcome in adolescent eating disorders. However, few studies have investigated BMI at admission, its changes in recent years, or modifying factors, such as duration of illness and age at onset in different geographical regions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate changes in BMI at admission over the past decade in one clinic, the differences in BMI between various treatment sites and the influence of duration of illness before admission and age at admission. Our sample consisted of 158 adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) admitted between 2001 and 2009 to a major university hospital and 169 adolescent female patients recruited in a multicenter study between 2007 and 2010. We assessed the differences between departments in different regions of Germany in the multi-site sample. Changes over time in age-adjusted BMI and age at admission as well as modifying factors for age-adjusted BMI at admission, such as age at admission and duration of illness, were assessed in a representative local sample. There were no significant differences between departments in different regions of Germany. Over the course of the local study, there was a small but significant increase in the age-adjusted BMI score and absolute BMI at admission. In addition, there was a positive association between year of admission and age at admission. Older adolescents with AN had a lower age-adjusted BMI score and a longer duration of illness at the time of admission. The BMI at admission, which is one of the most important predictors of outcome in AN, has increased slightly during the past 10 years. Education strategies for parents and professionals should continue to be improved to further shorten the duration of illness before admission, especially for older adolescents. PMID:23392754
Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza
In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166–1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093–1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and
Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza
In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and
This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.
Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status (SES) tends to change over time and across populations. In this study, we examined, separately in men and women, whether the association between BMI and SES changed over successive birth cohorts in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region). Methods We used data from all participants in three surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004 in independent random samples of the population aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles (N = 3'403). We used linear regression to model mean BMI according to age, cohort, SES and smoking status, allowing for a quadratic term for age to account for a curvilinear relation between BMI and age and interactions between SES and age and between SES and cohorts to test whether the relation between SES and BMI changed across subsequent cohorts. All analyses were performed separately in men and women. Results BMI increased with age in all birth cohorts. BMI was lower in men of low SES than high SES but was higher in women of low SES than high SES. In all SES categories, BMI increased over successive cohorts (1.24 kg/m2 in men and 1.51 kg/m2 for a 10-year increase in birth cohorts, p < 0.001). The difference in BMI between men or women of high vs. low SES did not change significantly across successive cohorts (the interaction between SES and year of birth of cohort was statistically not significant). Smoking was associated with lower BMI in men and women (respectively -1.55 kg/m2 and 2.46 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Conclusions Although large differences exist between men and women, social patterning of BMI did not change significantly over successive cohorts in this population of a middle-income country in the African region. PMID:22152035
Santos, Nadine C.; Costa, Patrício S.; Cunha, Pedro; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Amorim, Liliana; Cotter, Jorge; Cerqueira, João J.; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno
It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: “less than 4,” “4, completed primary education,” and “more than 4.” Participants (n = 1051) were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal) relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging. PMID:24605100
Subbiondo, Joseph L.
This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age, objective…
Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L
Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (
Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.
Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (
Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora
This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…
Lee, Rebecca E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Shostrom, Valerie; Choi, Simon; Mayo, Matthew S.; Okuyemi, Kola; Kaur, Harsohena; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
This study examined sociodemographic, behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight among African-American smokers (N=600, M=44.2 years, 70% female). Sixty-eight percent of the sample were overweight or obese (sample BMI M=28.0, SD=6.7). Three separate, simultaneous multivariable regression models were used to determine which factors were associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight. Poorer health, female gender and high-school education or higher were significantly associated with higher BMIs (p<0.05). Being female (OR=5.8, 95% CI=3.6-9.3) and having a higher BMI (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.5-0.6) was associated with perception of overweight and smoking more cigarettes per day (OR=1.0, 95% CI=1.0-1.1), and perceiving oneself as overweight (OR=14.1, 95% CI=8.2-24.2) was associated with trying to lose weight. Participants somewhat underestimated their BMI in their weight perceptions. Those who perceived themselves as overweight were more likely to be trying to lose weight; therefore, increasing participant awareness of actual BMI status may lead to improved weight-control efforts in African-American smokers. Several expected associations with outcomes were not found, suggesting that BMI and weight constructs are not well-understood in this population. PMID:15719872
King, Tania L; Bentley, Rebecca J; Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, Anne M
Objectives Little is known about how the distribution of destinations in the local neighbourhood is related to body mass index (BMI). Kernel density estimation (KDE) is a spatial analysis technique that accounts for the location of features relative to each other. Using KDE, this study investigated whether individuals living near destinations (shops and service facilities) that are more intensely distributed rather than dispersed, have lower BMIs. Study design and setting A cross-sectional study of 2349 residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Methods Destinations were geocoded, and kernel density estimates of destination intensity were created using kernels of 400, 800 and 1200 m. Using multilevel linear regression, the association between destination intensity (classified in quintiles Q1(least)–Q5(most)) and BMI was estimated in models that adjusted for the following confounders: age, sex, country of birth, education, dominant household occupation, household type, disability/injury and area disadvantage. Separate models included a physical activity variable. Results For kernels of 800 and 1200 m, there was an inverse relationship between BMI and more intensely distributed destinations (compared to areas with least destination intensity). Effects were significant at 1200 m: Q4, β −0.86, 95% CI −1.58 to −0.13, p=0.022; Q5, β −1.03 95% CI −1.65 to −0.41, p=0.001. Inclusion of physical activity in the models attenuated effects, although effects remained marginally significant for Q5 at 1200 m: β −0.77 95% CI −1.52, −0.02, p=0.045. Conclusions This study conducted within urban Melbourne, Australia, found that participants living in areas of greater destination intensity within 1200 m of home had lower BMIs. Effects were partly explained by physical activity. The results suggest that increasing the intensity of destination distribution could reduce BMI levels by encouraging higher levels of physical activity
Siwik, Violet; Kutob, Randa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Cruz, Luis; Senf, Janet; Aickin, Mikel; Going, Scott; Shatte, Andrew
Background Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in family medicine with few clinical treatment options. We implemented and evaluated a group office-visit intervention by family physicians emphasizing nutrition and physical activity within a resiliency psychosocial model, for overweight children and their parents. Methods The intervention lasted for 3 months, with half of the children crossing over to intervention after 6 months on study. Participants included 35 children who met eligibility criteria of being in third through fifth grades and having a body mass index above the 85th percentile. The 3-month twelve-session intervention, “Choices”, included topics on nutrition, physical activity, and resiliency. The sessions were developed for delivery by a family physician, and a nutritionist, who all received training in positive psychology and resilience skills. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-scores for age-and-gender, and weight-for-age-and-gender z-scores, as well as qualitative interviews to understand individual and family processes. Results The intervention resulted in a significant effect on one primary outcome, BMI z-score (-0.138 per 9 months (p =0.017) and a trend toward significance on the other, weight for age z-score (-0.87 per 9 months (p=0.09). The net shift of activity from the low METS to the high METS had an intervention effect of 2.84 METS (p = 0.037). Families reported lasting changes in behaviors and attitudes. Discussion The innovative approach used in this study demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing BMI z-score, changing physical activity levels, and possibly shifting family dynamics. PMID:23471926
Pope, Lizzy; Latimer, Lara; Wansink, Brian
The objective of this study was to examine where nutritional gatekeepers obtain information about new foods, and whether information source is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as whether any association varied according to how often the participant cooked from scratch. A national panel survey of 501 females aged 20-35 assessed how participants obtained information on new recipes, and asked a series of questions about their cooking habits, their weight and height. Linear regressions were run to determine associations between information source, cooking from scratch, and BMI. Obtaining information from cooking shows was positively correlated with BMI (p <0.05), as was obtaining information from social media (p <0.05), whereas obtaining information from other print, online, or in-person sources was not significantly associated with BMI. A significant interaction between watching cooking shows and cooking from scratch indicated that cooking from scratch, as well as watching cooking shows was associated with higher BMI (p <0.05). Obtaining information about new foods from television cooking shows or social media - versus other sources - appears to have a unique relationship with BMI. Furthermore, watching cooking shows may have a differential effect on BMI for those who are merely TV "viewers," versus those who are "doers." Promoting healthy foods on cooking shows may be one way to positively influence the weight status of "doers" as well as "viewers." PMID:25747286
"Age" is an important social category used to define individuals and groups within our society and, often, to structure access to power, prestige and status. However, within educational research, age has been relatively neglected when compared with other social categories such as gender, class and ethnicity. In an attempt to begin to explore the…
This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…
Wircenski, Michelle; Walker, Michelle; Allen, Jeff; West, Lynda
Aging and ageism are diversity issues and should be addressed in diversity training. A balanced understanding of aging can be developed using appropriate techniques at all levels of education. Instructors should vary teaching approaches to accommodate older adult students. (SK)
Hicks, Linda Yvonne
This study investigates caregivers' perceptions of the transition process for children transitioning from Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) to School Age Special Education services (SA). Interest in this topic developed during the researcher's 18 years of experience as an Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education Teacher during which she…
Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.
Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…
Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela
Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority status. In addition, the rate of habituation was stable over the year of observation. These data suggest that slow rates of habituation may be a risk factor for weight gain and the development of obesity. Future research is needed to understand the mechanism for this effect, and assess whether the habituation phenotype interacts with other behavioral phenotypes, such as food reinforcement, to influence increases in zBMI. PMID:21741020
Graf, Christine; Koch, Benjamin; Falkowski, Gisa; Jouck, Stefanie; Christ, Hildegard; Stauenmaier, Kathrin; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Predel, Hans-Georg
Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children’s Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT) project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI) and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS) and control schools (CS) either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05). The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001). For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020). All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p ≤ 0.001), adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified. Key Points School-based prevention improves motor abilities in primary school children. The incidence of obesity is not influenced by school-based intervention. To prevent obesity in early childhood the measures have to be intensified and parents should be included. PMID:24453534
Shinn, Larry D.
Those who work in all sectors of higher education--from community and liberal arts colleges to undergraduate programs in public and research universities--often assert that a "liberal education" is precisely the kind of undergraduate education that is needed for both living and working in the challenging 21st-century world. "Liberal education" or…
Peters, Michael A.
Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…
Weber, David R; Moore, Reneé H; Leonard, Mary B
Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population. Objective: The objective was to develop pediatric reference curves for fat mass index (FMI) and lean body mass index (LBMI) and evaluate the effects of population ancestry and LBM on measures of excess adiposity (BMI, %BF, and FMI). Design: Sex-specific FMI and LBMI reference curves relative to age for children and adolescents aged 8–20 y were generated from cross-sectional body-composition data measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from NHANES. Results: The mean LBMI z score was higher in blacks (males: 0.26; females: 0.45) than in whites (males: −0.07; females: −0.09) and Mexican Americans (males: 0.05; females: −0.09). The positive predictive value of overweight by BMI to identify excess adiposity defined by FMI was lower in blacks (males: 35.9%; females: 30.3%) than in whites (males: 65.4%; females: 52.2%) and Mexican Americans (males: 73.3%; females: 68.3%). Participants classified as having excess adiposity by FMI but normal adiposity by %BF had significantly higher BMI, LBMI, and height z scores than did those classified as having excess adiposity by %BF but normal adiposity by FMI. Conclusions: Relative to FMI, the prevalence of excess adiposity is overestimated by BMI in blacks and underestimated by %BF in individuals with high LBM. The use of FMI and LBMI improves on the use of %BF and BMI by allowing for the independent assessment of FM and LBM. PMID:23697708
Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.
Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001) and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38–4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003). The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see
Cascio, Elizabeth U.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
We estimate the effects of relative age in kindergarten using data from an experiment where children of the same age were randomly assigned to different kindergarten classmates. We exploit the resulting experimental variation in relative age in conjunction with variation in expected kindergarten entry age based on birth date to account for…
Stuart, B; Panico, L
Background and Objectives: By age 5, 20% of British children are classed as overweight or obese, suggesting that early childhood is crucial for lifelong body mass index (BMI) trajectories. In this paper, we identify latent trajectories of early-childhood BMI from ages 3 to 11 years. Given the current context of growing socio-economic inequalities in childhood and adult overweight and obesity, we examine the socio-economic characteristics and mechanisms during pregnancy and infancy which underscore these trajectories. Subject and Methods: We use a nationally representative, prospective cohort study of 9699 children born in 2000–2002, living in the United Kingdom shortly after birth, with complete information on height and weight (measured by an interviewer) at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11. Trajectories of BMI are calculated using latent growth mixture models. Multinomial models characterize these trajectories by their socio-economic profiles and mechanisms during pregnancy and infancy. Results: Four trajectories were identified: two separate trajectories where BMI remains within a normal range (85% of the sample), an overweight trajectory (14.4%), and an obese trajectory (3.1%). No ‘declining BMI' or late-onset groups were found. The obese group is already distinct from the other trajectories by age 3. The overweight group diverges from the normal groups around age 5. Strong socio-economic inequalities emerged; for the obese group, part of this disadvantage is mediated through early mechanisms such as pregnancy smoke and not initiating breastfeeding. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for the idea that childhood BMI trajectories develop early, especially for children who will follow an obese trajectory. Strong socio-economic patterns in these trajectories suggest that the observed trend in growing inequalities may be rooted in early life. Mediating mechanisms for the obese appear to be in the pregnancy and infant period, further research should explore
Leigh, J. Paul; Fries, James F.
Examined data from 1,864 Bank of America retirees to investigate correlations among healthy habits, age, gender, and education. Health habits were strongly and positively associated with each other and negatively associated with unhealthy habits. Age and gender differences were found. Education was significantly associated only with fiber in diet…
Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…
Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.
With the aging workforce and the increase of older adults, educational needs of the workforce in aging services are broadening. The pilot study used a survey to examine the types of educational opportunities and needs of professionals providing services to older adults in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Respondents (25.9%) reported learning…
A movement known as the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) provides educational, cultural and social services for mature-age people in Australia and internationally. This paper focuses on the educational courses run by U3As and discusses two basic questions: What are the expectations of learners who enrol in these classes? and How can tutors…
Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.
Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…
Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue
By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…
Thompson, Barbara, Ed.; Payne, Barbara, Ed.
This training model is a guide for developing statewide training for a continuing education certificate in gerontology in religion and aging. It is designed for use by gerontology educators, state office of aging executives, and leaders of religious judicatories. Section I begins with a description of the training model and covers where and how to…
Schmitt, Madeline H; Gilbert, John H V; Brandt, Barbara F; Weinstein, Ronald S
Interprofessional education for collaborative practice is an important innovation globally and in US health professions education. The recent spotlight on interprofessional education in the United States was launched by a series of reports in the US Institute of Medicine's Quality Chasm series. They raised concerns over medical errors and health care quality as significant sources of morbidity and mortality in the United States and proposed health professions' education for patient-centered, team-based care as one means to address these concerns. Starting in 2007, binational, biennial conferences on interprofessional education have been held to synergize interprofessional education developments in the United States and Canada. In 2011, Collaborating Across Borders III, in Tucson, Arizona, drew 750 participants from 11 countries. The conference focused on interprofessional competency frameworks; strategies for preparing students for interprofessional practice; tailoring of learning environments for interprofessional education; and developing policy, infrastructure, culture, and faculty leadership for interprofessional education. PMID:23415053
Dodd, Mark C
This paper explores the relationship between intertemporal discounting and body weight, using stated preference measures of intertemporal discounting, and the body mass index (BMI) to represent relative body weight. The empirical analysis uses Australian data obtained in 2008 through the South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. A quantile regression analysis is used to allow the marginal effects of the explanatory variables on BMI to vary across the conditional BMI distribution. It is shown that an indicator of intertemporal discounting elicited from a hypothetical monetary trade-off has a significant positive relationship with BMI. This relationship appears to be stronger in the upper quantiles, but there is insufficient statistical evidence for this difference. Evidence is presented that intertemporal discounting is a risk factor for increased BMI with a magnitude of effect comparable to more commonly recognized risk factors such as income and education. However there is no significant relationship found between BMI and an alternative indicator of intertemporal discounting elicited from trade-offs in health status. PMID:23787352
Culbertson, Jack A.
Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…
Giroux, Henry A.
In the current educational reform movement, schools have become the new scapegoat for the American economy's increasing failure to compete in the world market. The Bush Administration needs to articulate a vision linking public education to democratic imperatives, rather than the marketplace's narrow demands. Education for empowerment should be a…
Stokas, Ariana Gonzalez
Recently, due in part to the research of Angela Duckworth, the cultivation of dispositions in education, grit in particular, has gained the attention of educational policymakers and the educational research community. While much of the research has focused on how to detect grit, there has been little discussion regarding how grit came to be valued…
Rungtusanatham, Manus; Ellram, Lisa M.; Siferd, Sue P.; Salik, Steven
Many diverse forces are motivating institutions of higher education, particularly business schools, to develop and deliver education via the Internet. As higher education institutions explore this opportunity, the question of how courses and degree programs should be designed for effective online delivery via the Internet is a nontrivial concern…
Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others
As part of its response to the current emphasis on educational reform and accountability, the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. In doing so, it has taken an inclusive…
Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Chen, Ping-Hsin; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Wartenberg, Daniel
Objectives Reasons obese women are less likely to obtain mammograms and Pap smears are poorly understood. This study evaluated associations between body mass index (BMI) and receipt of and adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Methods Data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey (8289 women aged 40-74 years) were analyzed in 2006 using logistic regression. Women with prior hysterectomy were excluded from Pap smear analyses (n=5521). Outcome measures were being up-to-date with screening, receipt of physician recommendations, and women's adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, health care access, health behaviors, and comorbidity, severely obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) were less likely to have mammography within 2 years (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.37, 0.68) and Pap smear within 3 years (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27,0.70). Obese women were as likely as normal weight women to receive physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Severely obese women were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for mammography (OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.76). Women in all obese categories (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for Pap smear (OR's ranged 0.17-0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Obese women are less likely to adhere to physician recommendations for breast and cervical cancer screening. Interventions focusing solely on increasing physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smears will probably be insufficient for obese women. Additional strategies are needed to make cancer screening more acceptable for this high-risk group. PMID:17533069
Gasier, Heath G.; Hughes, Linda M.; Young, Colin R.; Richardson, Annely M.
Background Little is known of the diagnostic accuracy of BMI in classifying obesity in active duty military personnel and those that previously served. Thus, the primary objectives were to determine the relationship between lean and fat mass, and body fat percentage (BF%) with BMI, and assess the agreement between BMI and BF% in defining obesity. Methods Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 462 males (20–91 years old) who currently or previously served in the U.S. Navy. A BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m2 and a BF% ≥ 25% were used for obesity classification. Results The mean BMI (± SD) and BF% were 28.8 ± 4.1 and 28.9 ± 6.6%, respectively, with BF% increasing with age. Lean mass, fat mass, and BF% were significantly correlated with BMI for all age groups. The exact agreement of obesity defined by BMI and BF% was fair (61%), however, 38% were misclassified by a BMI cut-off of 30 when obesity was defined by BF%. Conclusions From this data we determined that there is a good correlation between body composition and BMI, and fair agreement between BMI and BF% in classifying obesity in a group of current and former U.S. Navy service members. However, as observed in the general population, a significant proportion of individuals with excess fat are misclassified by BMI cutoffs. PMID:26197480
Foster, Gary D.; El ghormli, Laure; Baranowski, Tom; Goldberg, Linn; Jago, Russell; Linder, Barbara; Steckler, Allan; Treviño, Roberto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate shifts across BMI categories and associated changes in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2.5 years in an ethnically diverse middle school sample. METHODS: As part of HEALTHY, a multisite school-based study designed to mitigate risk for type 2 diabetes, 3993 children participated in health screenings at the start of sixth and end of eighth grades. Assessments included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and glucose, insulin, and lipids. Students were classified as underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese, or severely obese. Mixed models controlling for school intervention status and covariates were used to evaluate shifts in BMI category over time and the relation between these shifts and changes in risk factors. RESULTS: At baseline, students averaged 11.3 (±0.6) years; 47.6% were boys, 59.6% were Hispanic, and 49.8% were overweight or obese. Shifts in BMI category over time were common. For example, 35.7% of youth who were overweight moved to the healthy weight range, but 13% in the healthy weight range became overweight. BMI shifts were not associated with school intervention condition, household education, or youth gender, race/ethnicity, pubertal status, or changes in height. Increases in BMI category were associated with worsening of cardiometabolic risk factors, and decreases were associated with improvements. Boys who increased BMI category were more vulnerable to negative risk factor changes than girls. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial shifts across BMI categories during middle school that are associated with clinically meaningful changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Programs to promote decreases in BMI and prevent increases are clearly warranted. PMID:22430457
Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel
"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" for data enrollment trends by age. Changes in enrollment patterns may reflect changes in attendance requirements, the perceived value or cost…
This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of…
Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Wu, Ping; Must, Aviva
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal depression and child BMI from Kindergarten (K) to 5th grade. METHODS Analysis of four waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten (ECLS-K) spanning K to 5th grade. Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) were measured by a brief version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, adjusting for key covariates and potential confounders. The analytic sample was restricted to children of normal birth weight. RESULTS The relationship between MDS and child BMI varies by child gender and age. Among girls, severe MDS at K was related to lower BMI at 3rd grade (but not later at 5th grade) and to an increase in BMI from K to 3rd and K to 5th grades. Among boys, severe MDS at K was related to higher boys’ BMI at 5th grade. When severe MDS occurred at 3rd grade, it was related to higher BMI at 5th grade among girls whereas no statistically significant relationship was found for boys. Low levels of physical activity in comparison to peers at 5th grade and more screen time on weekends at 3rd grade are likely mediators of the relationship between MDS and child BMI among girls, whilst among boys the relationship appears to be mediated by unhealthy eating habits. CONCLUSIONS Our findings, indicating developmental and gender differences in the relationship between maternal depression and child BMI, if confirmed, suggest that interventions addressing maternal depression may have concomitant impact on childhood obesity. PMID:22434752
Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus
This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…
Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie
This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…
Lalor, Janice Marie
This paper discusses a study undertaken to analyze pre-and posttest scores of junior high and high school students involved in an aging education unit. Objectives were to determine whether a unit on aging helped students relate to aging as part of the life cycle and to assess the success of different modes of instruction (i.e. independent study,…
Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.
The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…
Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Holton, M. Kim
Objective: This study sought to assess the body mass index (BMI)-alcohol relationship among a US national sample of college students. Design: Secondary data analysis using the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (NCHA). Setting: A total of 44 US higher education institutions. Methods: Participants included a national sample of college…
Objective A cumulative risk approach was used to examine the moderating effect of familial risk factors on relations between actigraphy-based sleep quantity (minutes) and quality (efficiency) and sex- and age-standardized body mass index (zBMI). Methods The sample included 124 boys and 104 girls with a mean age of 10.41 years (SD = 0.67). Children wore actigraphs for 1 week, and their height and weight were assessed in the lab. Results After controlling for potential confounds, multiple regression analyses indicated that sleep minutes predicted children’s zBMI and that both sleep minutes and efficiency interacted with family risk in the prediction of zBMI. The association between poor sleep and zBMI was especially evident for children exposed to higher levels of family risk. Conclusions Findings suggest that not all children who exhibit poor sleep are at equal risk for higher zBMI and that familial and contextual conditions need to be considered in this link. PMID:23699749
In this paper, I first examine the three justifications most often provided for differentiating, discounting, or even disclaiming the present generation's moral responsibility to future generations. I then discuss ideological critiques of, and educational solutions to, the complicity of formal educational institutions in propagating these…
McCain, Ted; Jukes, Ian
This book is designed to help educators cope with changes created by technology and embrace a new mindset necessary to access the burgeoning technological advances, in order to keep schools and students relevant in the 21st century. The book looks through several "windows" on the future, and asks educators to consider their own paradigms and the…
Stocchetti, Matteo, Ed.
This book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital "revolution" in education, recent…
Rosenblum, Sandra; Goldberg, Joan Carol
The task of adult educators is to provide students with information as well as opportunities to explore alternatives to the arms race. As a starting point to raising nuclear issues in the classroom and incorporating them into the curriculum, the adult educator can administer a survey or questionnaire to students about nuclear weapons and the…
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age…
In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…
In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…
Lencyk, John A.
The traditional sellers' market in higher education has become a buyers' market, with both the nature of the student body and the services offered being changed. Marketing, as a comprehensive tool for planning and delivery of educational services, offers an integrated method for meeting the disparate demands growing from the shift to a longer…
Banks, James A.
Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...
Niebergall, Shelby; Oas, Brenda
This guide is designed primarily for use by personnel involved in North Dakota public school programs for preschool-age handicapped children (ages 3-5). It is also intended to provide parents and personnel in health, human services, and other child service agencies with an understanding of the scope and purpose of educational services for young…
RUTKOWSKI, ROBERT; RESZEC, JOANNA; HERMANOWICZ, ADAM; CHRZANOWSKI, ROBERT; LYSON, TOMASZ; MARIAK, ZENON; CHYCZEWSKI, LECH
Meningioma is one of the most common primary brain tumor, especially in postmenopausal women. The most important risk factors include radiation, primary head injury or genetic alterations, however it is currently unclear why postmenopausal women are predominantly affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate leptin receptor (LEPR) expression and body mass index (BMI) in patients with meningiomas of differential grades. Specimens of 158 meningiomas were classified as either G1 (low-grade meningiomas, n=114) or G2/G3 (high-grade meningiomas, n=44). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess LEPR expression. The mean BMIs of the female and male patient groups were 28.43±5.29 and 23.93±4.66, respectively. Mean BMI was significantly higher in the female group, by ~4.50 kg/m2. Patient age significantly correlated with LEPR expression, with the highly positive (++) and positive (+) groups having mean ages of 62.3±12.07 and 52.3±13.04, respectively. A strong positive correlation (r=0.73) was observed between leptin receptor expression and BMI, with the LEPR (++) group having a mean BMI of 30.11±4.49, compared to 22.12±2.48 for the LEPR (+) group. Furthermore, in the low-grade meningioma group, mean BMI was higher in female patients than male patients (28.13±5.54 and 25.38±4.57, respectively; P=0.01). Additionally, there was strong positive correlation between BMI and leptin receptor expression in the low-grade meningioma group (r=0.69). For the high-grade meningioma group, mean BMI was 29.49±4.26 and 21.76±3.98 in female and male patients, respectively, and LEPR expression strongly correlated with BMI in this group (r=0.80). The present study demonstrates a correlation between patient BMI, age, and LEPR expression status in low- and high-grade meningiomas. Our results indicate that in addition to endogenous hormones, such as estrogen or progesterone, or fatty tissue-associated proinflammatory cytokines, LEPR expression status may be a risk factor for
Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K.; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C.; Wek, Ronald C.; Ellis, Steven R.; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan
While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in down-regulation of transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including diamond blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494
Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C; Wek, Ronald C; Ellis, Steven R; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan
While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in decreased transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494
de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves
BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development. PMID:26146484
Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of…
Cram, Ronald H.
Images of aging that appear in popular child/teen curricular materials used in church-related contexts were examined to determine how older adults are portrayed in words and pictures in these materials and what images of aging emerge. Materials from the following sources, randomly selected from those that had been checked out of the Ecumenical…
Introduction One of systemic changes connected to body ageing is the change of body content and the possibility of formation and/or intensification of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension symptoms. Material and methods The research was conducted on 68 women aged 65-85 with body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 to 44.5 kg/m2 who have been educated for four months. The energy and nutritive value of 204 daily food rations (DFRs) was evaluated twice: first days of October and – after the diet correction and implementation of the basic rules – from the end of January. The measurements, anthropometric and body content (in 35 women under research) with the bio-impedance method was checked twice – before and after completing the education. Results After completing the education, there was a statistically significant increase in consumption of grain products, fermented milk products, potatoes, fruit and vegetables, as well as seeds of legumes. Consumption of meat and cold meats, sugar and sweets significantly decreased. In the course of education, an individual-specific decrease in body mass of the participants was noticed, which found its reflection in positive changes of the anthropometric indicators value. A significant decrease in fat content in bodies of women under research was also noticed, which was accompanied by a slight increase in fat-free body mass and water. Conclusions The four-month pro-health education of women influenced changes in improper nutrition habits resulting in, besides the improvement of organism functions and well-being of women under research, body mass loss and changes in content of the body. PMID:26848293
Wirtz, Amanda L; Madanat, Hala N
The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. PMID:23896036
Objective: To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged $74 years. Design: Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regres...
Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás
Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…
Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A.; Foley, John T.
The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year…
Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel
"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about language minority school-age children. Between 1979 and 2007, the number of school-age children (children ages 5-17) who spoke a…
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.
Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…
Beverly, Cheryl L.; Thomas, Suzanne B.
Reviews the developmental and psychosocial characteristics of the increasing number of school-aged persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Educational ramifications of these characteristics and strategies for providing safe teaching and learning environments are presented. (DB)
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Blood, Emily A.; Milliren, Carly E.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Richmond, Tracy K.; Gooding, Holly C.; Austin, S. Bryn
Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I–IV (1995–2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11–34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities. PMID:24872890
Tovar, Alison; Emond, Jennifer A.; Hennessy, Erin; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane
Objective This study aimed to explore whether a common variant in the FTO gene moderates the relationship between parental restriction and child BMI. Methods This study reports on baseline data from 178 parent-child (ages 9–10 years) dyads. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and reported on socio-demographic characteristics. Each child’s height, weight and FTO rs9939609 genotype was assessed. Ordinary least squares regression was used to fit the child’s BMI-percentile on parental restriction and the child’s FTO genotype, adjusted for covariates. A likelihood ratio test was used to compare a model with and without a multiplicative interaction term between restriction and genotype. Results Most participants (93.3%) were white, non-Hispanic. Twenty-three percent of children were overweight/obese and FTO genotype was associated with weight status. Mean parental restriction was statistically higher among overweight/obese vs. normal weight children: 3.3 (SD 0.8) vs. 2.8 (SD 1.0); t-test p-value = 0.002. Parental restriction was positively associated with child BMI-percentile and BMI-z only among children with two copies of the high-risk FTO allele (p for interaction = 0.02), where each one-point increase in parental restriction was associated with a 14.7 increase in the child’s BMI-percentile or a 0.56-point increase in the child’s BMI z-score. Conclusion For only the children with two high-risk alleles, parental restriction was positively associated with child BMI-percentile. PMID:27196523
Perez, Shireese Redmond
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
O'Brien, Sandra J.
An unnecessary bias toward separate programing for younger and older adults precludes intergenerational learning and reinforces age stereotypes. Recent gerontological research supports common learning themes for young and old: self-sufficiency, adaptation, and class and gender concerns. (SK)
Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.
Objective It has been shown that girls from families in which mothers and fathers had high dietary intake and low physical activity (i.e., obesigenic families) were at increased risk of obesity from ages 5 to 7 years. This follow-up study uses additional data collected when girls were 9 and 11 years old to examine whether girls from obesigenic families continued to show greater increases in BMI over time and reported unhealthy dietary and activity patterns. Research Methods and Procedures Families from the original cohort were reexamined when girls were 9 and 11 years of age. Parents' and girls' BMI, dietary intake, and physical activity and girls' percentage body fat and television viewing were assessed. Results In comparison with girls from non-obesigenic families, girls from obesigenic families showed greater increases in BMI and BMI z score from ages 5 to 7 years that were maintained across ages 7 to 11 years. Furthermore, girls from obesigenic families had higher percentage body fat at ages 9 and 11 years. These results were independent of parents' BMI. Additional findings showed that girls from obesigenic families had diets higher in percentage fat and had higher levels of television viewing than girls from non-obesigenic families. Discussion The environment that parents create, by way of their own dietary and physical activity behaviors, may have a lasting negative effect on children's weight trajectories and their emerging obesity risk behaviors, such as their dietary patterns. These findings further highlight the importance of the family in establishing children's obesity risk and the necessity of targeting parents of young children in obesity prevention efforts. PMID:16339130
Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza
Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678
Wright, Kynna N.
Purpose This community-based participatory research study examined the association between overweight status and activity among Hispanic urban, school-age children. Design and Methods In a sample of 140 children, activities were assessed using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey’s questions about physical activity and team sports. Results Thirty-nine percent were overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 85%). Normal-weight children had higher levels of physical activity and team sports. Females had lower levels of physical activity and team sports. Significant associations included BMI and sports team participation, and BMI and Hispanic ethnicity. Practice Implications Nurses should be aware that Hispanic urban children are at risk for lower activity. PMID:21438999
Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang
Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…
Wicklund, Kristine; And Others
Analysis of computerized linked birth and death record information found that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant mortality, while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accident (suffocation, death by fire). (Author/GC)
Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.
Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…
Stoten, David William
In the "age of austerity", educational institutions in many countries are under pressure from a variety of sources to work more closely, reduce costs and raise educational performance. There are a number of possible outcomes that follow on from developing closer institutional ties: sharing of professional expertise through best practice networks,…
DenBesten, Nicholas P.
This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).
An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…
McDonnall, Michele Capella
A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…